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Filip Gabriel

VADEMECUM Romn-Englez
pentru cadeTII
ELECROMECANICI

ROMANIAN-english guide
book for electromechanic
cadets
Ediie electronic aniversar
Trgu Mure, 2011
ISBN 978-973-0-11905-3



FILIP V. GABRIEL


Vademecum romn-englez
pentru cadeii electromecanici

Romanian-English Guide Book
for Electromechanic Cadets




















Ediie electronic
2011
Tinere!

i ofer aceast carte spre studiu pe PC, eBook reader sau tablet, n mod gratuit, pentru
c acum nu eti n msur s plteti. Folosete-i toate resursele pentru a-i mbunti
cunotinele i a-i construi o carier i un viitor.

Poi s pstrezi acest fiier ct vrei i poi s-l distribui liber oricui consideri c poate
s-i fie de folos att timp ct fiierul ramne ntreg i fr nici o omisiune sau adugare.

Dac, dup ce te angajezi, constai c aceast carte i-a folosit i a avut un impact pozitiv
n dezvoltarea ta profesional poi s faci o donaie benevol, ct consideri c merit.
Detalii pentru aceasta poti gasi la adresa:

http://www.englezatehnica.ro/electromecanica-navala


Mult Succes!

Gabriel Filip




REFERENT TIINIFIC:
Prof. univ. dr. ing. ANASTASE PRUIU
(Academia Naval Mircea cel Btrn, Constana)



Tehnoredactare computerizat: Filip V. Gabriel
Desene i grafic: Filip V. Gabriel



ISBN 978-973-0-11905-3














Filip V. Gabriel 2011
Toate drepturile rezervate, inclusiv dreptul de a
publica pe suport de informaie electronic.






Prefa


Cartea este destinat studenilor pentru formarea i mbogirea vocabularului cu
termenii n limba englez specifici activitii de exploatare i ntreinere a instalaiilor
navale. Lucrarea permite studenilor i dobndirea cunotinelor n ceea ce privete
instrumentarul tehnic, specific activitii lor de la bordul navei.
n lucrare textul este prezentat sub form de coloane paralele astfel nct fiecare
paragraf n limba romn i are corespondentul n limba englez spre a facilita
recunoaterea i nsuirea termenilor necunoscui i a sensului paragrafului, fr a mai
fi necesar consultarea dicionarului de specialitate. n prezentarea desenelor s-a optat,
pe ct posibil, pentru reprezentrile axonometrice i schemele explodate pentru o mai
uoar recunoatere a prilor componente ale diferitelor maini i instalaii ale navei.
n ceea ce privete structura, cartea este divizat n 32 capitole care pot fi grupate
n opt pri.
n prima parte, care privete nava comercial n general, sunt prezentai termeni
referitori la diferitele tipuri de nave i caracterizarea structural-constructiv a corpului
navei.
A doua parte trateaz termeni cu privire la unelte, instrumente de msur i
control necesare cadetului n activitatea curent.
Partea a treia trateaz termeni referitori la componentele instalaiilor i a
nelegerii reprezentrii n schemele de la bord, a tipurilor i formelor constructive a
valvulelor, pompelor i filtrelor.
Partea a patra este dedicat instalaiilor de for ale navei i trateaz amnunit
motorul cu ardere intern.
Partea a cincea cuprinde termeni referitori la cldrile navale, instalaiile de
producere a aburului i turbinele cu abur.
Partea a asea se refer la combustibili, proprieti i caracteristici, precum i
instalaiile de separare a combustibililor.
Partea a aptea este destinat descrierii construciei i funcionrii unor instalaii
auxiliare de bord.
n partea a opta sunt prezentai ali termeni folosii la bordul navei, care nu au
fost inclui n capitolele precedente.
Dei lucrarea se prezint cu un bogat coninut tehnic, ea nu nlocuiete
instruciunile de utilizare a instalaiilor de la bordul navei, exemplele alese sunt cazuri
particulare i sunt menite formrii unui limbaj tehnic cursiv.
Aceast ediie celebreaz 10 ani de la absolvirea Academiei Naval Mircea cel
Btrn, Constana.
Mulumesc domnului profesor universitar dr. ing. Anastase Pruiu pentru
documentaia tehnic i cunotinele puse la dispoziie, pentru ncurajarea i suportul
acordat.


Autorul

5



Tabla de materii Table of contents

Prefa ................................................................. Preface............................................................. 4
Clasificarea navelor ............................................. Ships Classification ......................................... 7
Schema general a unui cargobot ......................... General View of a Multi-deck Vessel............... 9
Sistemul osaturii i nveliul corpului ................... The Hull Framing System and Plating ............ 11
Unelte .................................................................. Tools ............................................................. 15
Msurtori ........................................................... Measurement ................................................. 20
Msurtori pe motor i n compartimentul maini . Measurements on Engine and in Engine Room . 35
Simboluri ............................................................. Symbols ......................................................... 37
Valvule ................................................................ Valves ........................................................... 45
Materiale.............................................................. Materials........................................................ 54
Pompe .................................................................. Pumps ............................................................ 60
Filtre .................................................................... Filters ............................................................ 75
Instalaii de for .................................................. Power Plants .................................................. 82
Motorul principal ................................................. Main Engine .................................................. 88
Cmaa cilindrilor i chiulasa ............................... The Cylinder Liner and Cover........................ 91
Pistonul i tija pistonului ...................................... The Piston and the Piston Rod ....................... 96
Biela i lagrele de pat (principale) ...................... The Connecting Rod and Main Bearings ........ 99
Arborele cotit ....................................................... The Crankshaft ............................................ 102
Supapele .............................................................. The Valves .................................................. 105
Pompa de injectie ................................................. Fuel Pump ................................................... 112
Injectorul ............................................................. Fuel Valve ................................................... 116
Uzuri i defeciuni ................................................ Wearing and Breakdowns ............................ 119
Cldri ................................................................. Boilers ......................................................... 127
Turbine cu abur .................................................... Steam Turbines ............................................ 148
Combustibili ........................................................ Combustibles ............................................... 159
Instalaia de separare ............................................ Separation System ....................................... 169
Generatorul de ap tehnic NIREX ...................... NIREX Fresh Water Generator .................... 188
Generatorul de ap tehnic Atlas .......................... Atlas Fresh Water Generator ........................ 193
Instalaia de tratare biologic a apelor uzate ......... Biological Sewage Treatment Plant.............. 196
Crma i maina crmei ....................................... The Rudder and the Steering Gear ............... 200
Tancuri la bordul navei ........................................ Tanks on Board of Ship ............................... 207
Alte echipamente ................................................. Other Equipment ......................................... 209
Ali termeni .......................................................... Other Terms................................................. 211
Bibliografie selectiv ........................................... Selective References .................................... 218
6

7
Capitolul 1
Clasificarea navelor

1. Nave pentru transport marf
a) Nave pentru transport mrfuri solide :
- Cargou;
- Vrachier;
- Nav port container;
- Nav frigorific;
- Ro-Ro;
- Feribot;
- Mineralier;
- Carbonier;
- Cerealier;
- lep;
- Barj.
b) Nave pentru transport mrfuri lichide:
- Petrolier;
- Nav pentru transport gaze naturale;
- Nav pentru transport substane
chimice;
c) Nave pentru transportul mrfurilor
lichide i solide:
- OBO

2. Nave auxiliare:
- Remorcher;
- mpingtor;
- Nav de salvare;
- Sprgtor de ghea;
- Nave pentru stins incendii;
- Pilotin.

3. Nave tehnice:
- Macara plutitoare;
- Drag;
- Deroeoz;
- Doc plutitor;
- Far plutitor.

4. Nave cu destinaie special:
- Trauler;
- Nav pentru cercetri maritime;
- Nav pentru ranfluarea epavelor;
Unit 1
Ships Classification

1.Cargo ships:
a) Dry cargo ships:
- Multi-deck vessel;
- Bulk carrier;
- Container ship;
- Refrigerating cargo boat;
- Roll on-roll off vessel;
- Ferry boat;
- Ore carrier;
- Collier self trimmer;
- Grain carrier;
- River barge;
- Flat bottom craft.
b) Liquid cargo ships:
- Oil tanker;
- LNG carrier;
- Chemical carrier;

c) Dry and liquid cargo ships:

- OBO (Ore bulk-oil carrier)

2. Auxiliary ships:
- Tug;
- Push tug;
- Rescue ship;
- Ice-breaker;
- Fire-fighting vessel;
- Pilot boat.

3. Technical vessels:
- Floating crane;
- Dredge;
- Rock breaker;
- Floating doc;
- Light vessel.

4. Special vessels:
- Trawler;
- Oceanographic vessel;
- Heavingoff ship;
8
- Nav colectoare.

5. Nave pentru transport persoane:
- Nav de cltori;
- Nav de croazier;
- Feribot;
- Collecting vessel.

5. Passenger ships:
- Passenger liner;
- Cruise ship;
- Ferry.

9
Capitolul 2
Schema general a unui cargobot
Unit 2
General View of a Multi-deck Vessel

1. Etambou;
2. Pic prov, pic pup;
3. Scar de salvare;
4. Cal, magazie;
5. Tancuri de balast n dublul fund;
6. Perete etan;
7. Compartimentul mainilor;
8. Buncr de crbuni;
9. Scar de serviciu;
10. Coferdam;
11. Sabord;
12. Chil;
13. Perete etan de coliziune;
14. Etrava;
15. Puul lanului de ancor;
16. Magazie;
17. Ancor;
18. Vinci de ancor;
19. Castel prova, teug;
20. Big;
21. Catarg dublu pentru bigi;
22. Prima punte, puntea principal;
23. Puntea a doua;
24. Timonerie;
25. Camera hrilor;
26. Cabina comandantului;
27. Ruf;
28. Barc de salvare;
1. Stern frame, stern post;
2. Peak;
3. Escape ladder;
4. Hold;
5. Double bottom ballast tank;
6. Watertight bulkhead;
7. Engine room;
8. Coal bunker;
9. Accommodation ladder;
10. Cofferdam;
11. Scupper, wash port;
12. Keel;
13. Collision bulkhead ;
14. Stem;
15. Chain locker;
16. Bowlocker;
17. Anchor;
18. Windlass;
19. Forecastle;
20. Derrick;
21. Derrick mast;
22. Main deck;
23. Lower deck;
24. Wheelhouse;
25. Chart room;
26. Captains quarters;
27. Deck house;
28. Life boat;
29. Castel central; 29. Upper works;
10
30. Spirai;
31. Dunet;
32. Cambuz;
33. Barc de salvare;
34. Bocaporte, capac de magazie;
35. Co de fum;
30. Air shaft;
31. Afterdeck;
32. Sternlocher;
33. Life boat;
34. Hatch;
35. Funnel;


Cargourile sunt cele mai rspndite
tipuri de nave maritime de transport.
Acestea pot opera ca nave de linie (de
curs lung sau de curs scurt) sau ca
nav tramp (de curse neregulate). Unele
sunt amenajate i pentru transportul unui
numr limitat de pasageri.
Cargourile au deplasamente foarte
diferite care variaz de la cteva sute la
peste 30000 tdw. Cele mai utilizate sunt
ns cele ntre 4500-8000 tdw. Creterea
exagerat a tonajului este evitat pentru a
nu se prelungii perioadele de staionare n
porturi.
Cargourile cu mai multe puni pot fi
de tipul shelterdeck (cu puni adpostite).
Puntea de protecie este o platform situat
imediat deasupra punii superioare,
acoperind o structur fr deschideri n
borduri.
Pentru ncrcarea i descrcarea
mrfurilor, cargourile de mrfuri generale
sunt dotate cu bigi sau macarale (granice).

Pentru mrirea randamentului
operaiilor la dan i deci scderea timpilor
de staionare n porturi marfa este nscuit,
pachetizat, paletizat sau containerizat.
De obicei acest tip de nav este
dotat cu un motor diesel n doi sau patru
timpi. De asemenea se mai utilizeaz i
turbinele n cazul navelor port-container
rapide de linie.
The multi-deck vessels are the most
used type of merchant ships. They can
operate as liners (deep-sea liners or short
sea liners) or tramps (without regular
routes). Some are also designed to carry a
limited number of passengers.

The multi-deck vessels have a very
large scale of displacements between a few
hundred and 30000 tdw. However the most
used are those between 4500 and 8000 tdw.
A very extensive increase of vessel tonnage
is avoided not to extend the berthing time.

A multi-deck vessel can be of
shelterdeck (coating deck) type. The
shelter deck is a platform placed first above
the main deck covering a structure without
openings in boards.

For loading and unloading cargoes,
the general goods multi-deck vessels are
endowed with derricks or barge deck
cranes.
To increase berthing performance
and consequently to decrease berthing
times the cargo is bagged, unitized,
palletized or containerized.
Usually these type of ship is
powered by a diesel two stroke or four
stroke engine. Steam turbines are also used
at high speed container liners.

11
Capitolul 3
Sistemul osaturii i nveliul corpului
Unit 3
The Hull Framing System and Plating



1. Etambou;
2. Chil;
3. Carling central;
4. Etrava;
1. Stem;
2. Keel;
3. Middle line keelson;
4. Stern frame;

Corpul navei este un complex care
este format n principal dintr-un cadru de
oel nvelit cu tabl. Cadrul de oel poate fi
construit n patru moduri:
sistemul transversal;
sistemul longitudinal;
sistemul combinat;
sistemul mixt;
n mod obinuit se folosete un
sistem mixt de osatur cunoscut sub
denumirea de sistem longitudinal
transversal, unde construcia navei este n
sistem longitudinal exceptnd dublul fund
n compartimentul mainilor, picul pupa,
partea din pupa a covertei, construcii i
rufuri care au un sistem de osatur
transversal .
Corpul navei este n mare parte
sudat. Tipul principal de mbinare a
elementelor etravei, a etamboului i a
cavaleilor arborelui portelice este sudarea
cap la cap. Pentru celelalte mbinri ale
osaturii i nveliului se mai folosete i
nituirea.
mbinrile asamblrilor sunt de
asemenea sudate ct mai mult cu putin. n
general sudura este folosit la toi pereii
despritori transversali sau longitudinali
incluznd legtura cu longitudinalele
bordajului, care i strpung, i captul
coastelor. Toate capetele i custurile
bordajului nu au mbinri nituite datorit
regulilor societii de clasificare. Oricum,
chila de ruliu este nituit pe cornierul care
este sudat pe bordajul metalic al cocii.
Exist dou tipuri de etrave: etrav
din tabl de oel sudat ntrit cu brachei
transversali sau etrav turnat, care are o
execuie simpl cu raze de turnare ct mai
The hull is a complex which
consists mainly of a steel frame covered
with plating. The steel frame could be
constructed in four ways :
transverse framing system;
longitudinal framing system;
combination system of framing;
mixed framing system;
Usually the used system is the
mixed framing system named
longitudinal-transverse framing system,
where the construction of the vessel is of
longitudinal framing system except for the
double bottom in machinery space, aft peak
tank, after end of the upper deck, erections
and houses which are transverse framing
system.
The hull is of extensively welded
construction. Butt welding is considered
the main type of connection of separate
parts of stem, sternframe and shaft
brackets. Riveting is also used for the other
joints of the hull framing and plating.

The connections of fittings are also
welded as widely as possible. In general
welding is used on all traverse and
longitudinal bulkheads including the
connection of shell longitudinals
throughout, and end framing. All butts and
seams of shell and deck plating do not have
riveted seams as per classification societys
rules. However, the bilge keel is riveted to
the angle bar which is welded to the shell
plating.
There are two types of stems:
fabricated welded stem constructed of steel
plates strengthened by horizontal brackets,
or cast stem, which is simple in design with
Fig. 3.1

12
mari posibil i este prevzut cu nervuri
transversale de ntrire.
Ambele tipuri de etrave se leag de
chila masiv sau de chila plat i, dac este
posibil, cu carlinga central. La etravele
turnate, pentru mbinarea cu carlinga
central, se va prevedea la talpa etravei o
nervur special.
Construcia etamboului este
similar intr-un fel cu construcia etravei:
din table sudate sau turnat. Particularitile
sunt date de prezena elicei, axului elicei,
crmei i axului crmei.

Forma etamboului este aleas cu
grij astfel nct curentul de ap s nu
influeneze curgerea n jurul elicei.
Etamboul elicei i etamboul crmei pot fi
construite ntr-un corp comun. Deschiderea
cadrului dintre etamboul crmei i
etamboul elicei este ct mai mic posibil.
all fillets having large cast radii and is
reinforced by horizontal webs.
Both types of stems are efficiently
connected to the bar or plate keels and,
whenever possible, to the bottom centre
grider. A special web is provided in cast
stems for attachment to the centre grider at
the stem foot.
The stern post construction is, in a
way, similar to the stem construction:
fabricated stern post or cast stern post.
Particularities come from the presence of
the propeller, the propulsion shaft, the
rudder and the rudder spindle.
The form of the stern frame is
carefully decided in a way that the flow of
water does not disturb the flow around the
propeller. The stern post and the rudder
post could be made as one piece. The span
of the frame lower portion between the
propeller post and the rudder post is as
small as practically possible.



Fig. 3.2

13




1. Varang;
2. Suport central (n cazul navelor cu
dublu fund) sau carling central ( n
cazul navelor cu simplu fund);
3. Suport lateral (n cazul navelor cu
dublu fund) sau carling lateral ( n
cazul navelor cu simplu fund);
4. Nervur de rigidizare a varangei;
5. Tabl marginal;
6. Guseu de gurn;
7. Coast de cal;
8. Traversa punii intermediare;
9. Coast de interpunte;
10. Traversa punii principale;
11. Guseu de legtur ntre coast i
traversa punii (braol);
12. Curent de punte;
13. Guseu de legtur ntre travers i
curentul de punte;
14. Parapet;
15. Guseul parapetului;
16. Copastie;
17. Pontil de cal;
18. Pontil de interpunere;
19. Chila;
20. nveliul fundului;
21. nveliul (puntea) dublului fund;
22. nveliul gurnei (gurna);
23. nveliul bordajului;
24. Centura punii intermediare;
25. Tabla lcrimar a punii intermediare;
26. nveliul punii intermediare;
27. Guseu de legtur ntre coasta de
interpunte i puntea intermediar;
28. Centura punii principale;
29. Tabla lcrimar a punii principale;
30. nveliul punii principale;
31. Cptueala punii principale;
32. Cornier lcrimar;
33. Guseu de legtur ntre pontil i punte.
1. Floor;
2. Central grider (at hulls with inner
bottom) or centre/main keelson (at
hulls with single bottom);
3. Side grider (at hulls with inner bottom)
or side/sister keelson (at hulls with
single bottom);
4. Floor stiffener;
5. Margin plate;
6. Bilge bracket/knee;
7. Hold frame;
8. Middle-deck beam;
9. Between/tween frame;
10. Main deck beam/grider;
11. Deck beam frame bracket;

12. Deck longitudinal;
13. Beam knee;

14. Bulwark;
15. Bulwark knee;
16. Bulwark rail;
17. Hold pillar/stanchion;
18. Middle-deck pillar;
19. Keel (centre-line-skeg);
20. Bottom plating;
21. Double bottom plating;
22. Bilge planking/plating;
23. Planking;
24. Sheer strake of middle deck;
25. Middle deck stringer plate;
26. Middle deck plating;
27. Between frame middle deck bracket;

28. Sheer strake of main deck;
29. Main deck stringer plate;
30. Main deck plating;
31. Main deck planking;
32. Waterway bar;
33. Deck pillar bracket;

14

Elementul principal al sistemului de
osatur este carlinga (in cazul navelor cu
simplu fund) sau suportul (n cazul navelor
cu dublu fund). Acesta este elementul de
osatur longitudinal, inclus n structura
bloc-seciei de fund, situat n planul
diametral navei (carling central / suport
central) sau la o anumit distan de acest
plan (carling lateral / suport lateral). De
carling se sudeaz varangele. Acestea sunt
elemente de osatur transversal incluse n
structura bloc-seciei de fund i avnd
capetele limitate de cele dou bordaje (n
cazul navelor cu simplu fund) sau de
tablele marginale (n cazul navelor cu
dublu fund).
Elementul de osatur transversal,
inclus n structura bloc-seciilor de punte i
avnd capetele prinse de cele dou bordaje,
respectiv de doi perei longitudinali sau de
un perete longitudinal i de un bordaj ( n
cazul existenei pereilor longitudinali), se
numete traversa punii. Acesta este
elementul transversal principal de structur
a punii.
ntre varang sau guseul de gurn i
traversa sau nveliul punii (principale,
intermediare, respectiv a suprastructurii),
lng nveliul bordajului se gsete
coasta. Aceasta este elementul de structur
transversal care asigur forma i rigiditatea
bloc-seciei de bordaj n plan vertical-
transversal.
Aceste elemente sunt rigidizate
longitudinal prin intermediul longitu-
dinalelor de fund (sudate pe nveliul
fundului), prin longitudinale de bordaj
(sudate pe nveliul bordajului) i cureni
de punte (sudai de nveliul punii).
n cazul cnd coastele din
interpuni i suprastructuri sunt ntrerupte
la punte capetele lor inferioare se vor
prinde cu gusee.
In cazul navelor mari se pot
ntlni ca elemente de susinere a punii i
pontilii de cal cu rol de rigidizare
vertical.

The main element of the hull
framing system is the keelson (for hulls
with single bottom) or the grider (for hulls
with inner bottom). This is the element of
the longitudinal framing system, included
in the structure of the bottom section,
placed in the centre-line plane (centre/main
keelson / centre-grider) or at a certain
distance from it (side/sister keelson / side
grider). On the keelson are welded the
floors. These are elements of the
transverse framing system included in the
structure of the bottom section, having their
butts limited by the ships sheathing (for
hulls with single bottom) or by the margin
plates (for hulls with inner bottom).
The element of the transverse
framing system included in the structure of
the deck sections, having its butts attached
to the ships sheathing or between two
side-wing bulkheads or a side-wing
bulkhead and one side of casing (if there
are side-wing bulkheads), is named deck
beam. This is the main element of the
deck transverse framing system.
The frame is found between the
bottom floor or bilge bracket and deck
beam, next to the side plating. This is the
element of the transverse framing system
which provide shape and strengthening of
the side section on the framing body plan.


These elements are longitudinally
strengthened by means of bottom fore-and-
aft lines (welded on the bottom plating),
side fore-and-aft lines (welded on the side
plating) and deck stringers (welded on the
deck plating)
Where the tween deck and
superstructure frames are cut at decks, their
lower ends are attached by brackets.

On the ships larger in size there
might be deck holding elements and hold
pillars/stanchions with vertical
strengthening role.

15
Capitolul 4
Unelte
Unit 4
Tools
Measuring Apparatus
Dispozitive de msurat
Dial gauge with
magnet holder

Micrometer
(outside)

Comparator cu
suport magnetic
Micrometru (de
exterior)
Vernier caliper

Hand tachometer

ubler Tahometru de mn
Clinometer

Marking scriber

Aparat pentru
msurat nclinarea
Ac de trasat
Surface gauge

Surface plate

Trasator paralel Mas de trasat
Straight edge

Square

Rigl Echer (vinclu)
Feeler gauge

Steel scale

Lere de grosime
Rigl gradat de
oel
Steel tape measure
for sounding

Cloth tape measure

Rulet din oel
pentru sond
Rulet din material
textil
Spring balance

Compasses

Cntar cu arc
Compas pentru
trasat
Inside caliper

Outside caliper

Compas de interior Compas de exterior

16
Thermometer with
holder

Thermometer with
alcohol or mercury

Termometru cu
suport (teac)
Termometru cu
alcool sau mercur
Working Tools
Unelte
Portable electric
grider

Portable electric
drill with chuck

Polizor electric
portabil
Main electric de
gurit portabil cu
mandrin
Straight shank drill

Tap & round die
with case

Burghiu cu coad
cilindric
Trus de tarozi i
filiere
Spanner
(single ended)

Spanner
(double ended)

Cheie fix
(cu un singur capt)
Cheie fix
(cu dou capete)
Box spanner

Monkey wrench

Cheie tubular Cheie reglabil
Pipe wrench

Screw driver

Cheie pentru
tubulaturi
urubelni
Screw driver
(cross head type)

Pliers

urubelni cap
cruce
Patent
File
(for white metal)

File (flat, round and
half-round)

abr (pentru
material antifriciune)
Pil (plat, rotund
i semirotund)
File (flat, round,
half-round and
triangular)

File handle

Pil (plat, rotund i
semi., triunghiular)
Mner de pil
17
File brush

Hand hammer

Perie pentru pile Ciocan de mn
Lead hammer

Wooden hammer

Ciocan de plumb Ciocan de lemn
Sledge hammer

Chipping hammer

Baros
Maragon
(ciocan-dalt)
Scrapers

Paint scraper

Rzuitoare
Rzuitor
pentru vopsea
Center punch

Cutting punch

Punctator Preducea
Chisels

Chisel
(oil grove cut)

Dli
Dalt (pentru tiat
canalul de ulei
Scissors for packing

Scissors for metal
(flat and round)

Foarfeci pentru
garnituri
Foarfeci pt. metal
(dreapt i rotund)
Hacksaw frame and
hacksaw

Packing tools (hook,
screw and stick)

Fierstru pentru
metale (bomfaier) i
pnz
Instrumente pentru
garnituri (crlig,
tirbuon i spatul)
Packing knife

Parallel vice

Cuit pentru
garnituri
Menghin paralel
Leg vice

Bench vice

Menghin de mn Menghin de banc

18
Torch lamp
(kerosene)

Flash light

Lamp de benzin Lantern de buzunar
Wire rope sling

Screwjack with
ratchet

Legtur din parm
metalic
Cric cu urub i
clichet
Shackle

Chain block

Cheie de tachelaj Palanc cu lan
Crow bar

Wedge

Rang cu gheare Pan (ic)
Valve handle
spanner

Forge with heart

Cheie pentru
manevrat valvule
Forj cu vatr
Anvil with
wooden bed

Smith tongs
(flat and round)

Nicoval cu
postament de lemn
Cleti de fierar
(plat i rotund)
Smith hammer

Eyebolt

Ciocan de fierar Ochet
Miscellaneous Articles
Articole diverse
Oil measure

Oil hopper with
filter screen

Msur pentru ulei
Plnie pentru ulei cu
ecran filtrant
Oil feeder

Oil feeder
(syringe)

Ungtor
Ungtor
(siring)

19
Grease pump with
microhose

Oil pan with strainer

Tecalemit cu furtun
Tav pentru ulei cu
filtru
Water bucket

Wire brush

Ghiordel Perie de srm
Painting brush

Paint can

Pensule pentru
vopsit
Bidon de vopsea
Listening rod

Rubber air hose
with nozzle

Tij de ascultat
Furtun pt. aer din
cauciuc cu ajutaj
Flexible metal
hose

Canvas cover

Furtun metalic
flexibil
Prelat textil
Scaffolding plate

Aluminium foot
stool

Plac de schelrie
Bncu cu picioare
de aluminiu
Shoe mat

Desk (for engine
room)

Pre de ters pe
picioare
Birou pentru
compartimentul
mainilor
Blackboard and
eraser

Waste box

Tabl de scris i
burete
Cutie pentru
reziduuri
Wet stone
with bed

Oil stone with bed

Gresie de ap
cu suport
Gresie de ulei cu
suport

20
Capitolul 5
Msurtori
Unit 5
Measurement


n toate ramurile tehnicii msurarea
joac un rol vital deoarece proiectarea,
fabricarea i utilizarea oricrui produs nu
poate fi considerat fr a se face referire la
acest concept.
Msurarea este un proces de
comparare. Pentru a msura mrimea,
cantitatea, volumul, unghiul, greutatea etc.
se compar mrimea acestei proprieti cu
mrimea unui dispozitiv de msur.
Pentru c msurtorile sunt aa
importante, exist o larg gam de
instrumente destinate s indice foarte precis
lungimea, presiunea, timpul i aa mai
departe.

SI - uniti i cantiti
n conformitate cu SI (Systme
International dUnits care n francez
nseamn Sistemul Internaional de Uniti)
unitile de msur pot fi mprite n dou
clase:
- uniti fundamentale;
- uniti derivate;

Unitile fundamentale ale SI sunt:

In all branches of engineering,
measurement plays a vital role since the
design, manufacture and use of any product
cannot be considered without reference to
this concept.
The measurement is a comparing
process. To measure size, quantity, volume,
degree, weight etc you compare the size of
that feature with the size of a measuring
device.
Since measurement is so important,
it follows that there is a wide range of
devices and instruments which are
designed to indicate very precisely length,
pressure, time and so on.

SI - Units and Quantities
According to SI (Systme
International dUnits which in French
means International System of Units) units
can be divided in two classes :

- the base units;
- the derived units;

The base units of SI are:

Cantitatea Unitatea Notare Quantity Unit Abbreviation
Lungime metru m Length meter m
Masa kilogram kg Mass kilogram kg
Timp secunda s Time second s
Intensitatea curentului
electric
amper A Electric current ampere A
Temperatura
grad
kelvin
K Temperature kelvin K
Intensitatea luminoas candela cd Luminous intensity candela cd
Cantitate de substana mol mol Amount of substance mole mol

Aceste uniti sunt definite prin formule
fizice ca aceasta, folosit pentru a defini metrul:

Lungimea parcurs de raza laser in
1/299792458 secunde. Raza fiind obinut prin
folosirea unui laser stabilizat iod heliu-neon.

Aceste uniti se pot combina spre a da
unitile de msur derivate, precum
urmtoarele:

These units are defined with physical
formulas such as this one used to define the
meter:
The length of path travelled by laser
light in 1/299792458 seconds. The light being
realized through the use of iodine stabilized
helium-neon laser.
These units can be combined to give the
derived units, like the following:


21
Cantitate Notaie Unitate
Notaie
unitate
Quantity Symbol Unit
Unit
symbol
For F newton N Force F newton N
Presiune p pascal Pa Pressure P pascal Pa
Lucru
mecanic
L joule J Work W joule J
Energie E joule J Energy E joule J
Putere W watt W Power P watt
Vitez v - m/s Velocity v - m/s

Acceleraie a - m/s
2
Acceleration a - m/s
2
Frecven f hertz Hz Frequency f hertz Hz

Chiar dac SI este n general folosit,
SUA i Marea Britanie folosesc nc un sistem
de msur care este diferit de cel folosit n restul
lumii.
Tabelul de conversie dintre sistemul
US obinuit i SI echivalent este dat mai jos.

Although the SI is generally used, the
USA and Great Britain still retain a
measurement system that is different from the
one used by the rest of the world.
The US customary to SI equivalent
conversion table is done below:

Cantitate US SI Quantity US SI
Lungime picior 0.3048 m Length ft (foot)

0.3048 m
ol 25.40 mm in (inch) 25.40 mm
mil 1.609 km mi (mile) 1.609 km
yard 91.44 cm yd (yard) 91.44 cm
Arie ol ptrat 645.2 mm
2
Area in
2
(square
inch)
645.2 mm
2
picior ptrat 0.0929 m
2
ft
2
(square
foot)
0.0929 m
2
acru 4046.856
m
2
acre 4046.856
m
2
mil ptrat 2590 km
2
mi
2
(square
mile)
2590 km
2
Mas dram 64.80 mg Mass grain 64.80 mg
uncie 28.35 g oz 28.35 g
livr 0.45359243
kg
lb (libra,
pound in
weight)
0.45359243
kg
ton lung 1016.047
kg
long ton 1016.047
kg
ton scurt 907.18 kg short ton 907.18 kg
Volum galon 0.0037854
m
3
SUA
0.0045461
m
3
MB
Volume gal (gallon) 0.0037854
m
3
USA
0.0045461
m
3
GB
acru ori
picior
1233.485
m
3
acre ft
(acre-foot)
1233.485
m
3
ol cubic 16.387064

cm
3

in
3
(cubic-inch)
16.387064

cm
3

picior cubic 0.02831684
6 m
3
ft
3
(cubic-
foot)
0.02831684
6 m
3
yard cubic 0.7646 m
3
yd
3
(cubic-
yard)
0.7646 m
3
22
Cantitate US SI Quantity US SI
Vitez picior pe
secund
0,3048 m/s Velocity ft/s 0.3048 m/s
ol pe
secund
0,0254 m/s in/s 0.0254 m/s
galon pe
picior ptrat
ntr-un
minut
0,0407
m/min
gal/ft
2
per
min
0.0407
m/min
galon pe
picior ptrat
ntr-o zi
58,678 m/zi gal/ft
2
per
day
58.678
m/day
Putere picior ori
livr pe
secund
1,356 W Power ft lb/s 1.356 W
cal putere
(englezesc)
745,7 W hp 745.7 W
Presiune livr pe
picior ptrat
47,88 Pa Pressure lb/ft
2
47.88 Pa
livr pe ol
ptrat
6,895 k Pa lb/in
2
6.895 k Pa
picior (ap) 2,988 k Pa ft (of water) 2.988 k Pa
For livr 4,448 N Force lb 4.448 N
Energie picior ori
livr
1,356 J Energy ft lb 1.356 J
Debit picior cubic
pe secund
0,0283 m
3
/s Flow ft
3
/s 0.0283 m
3
/s
galon pe
minut
0,003785
m
3
/min
gal/min 0.003785
m
3
/min
Concentraie pri livr
per milion
la galon
0,1200 mg/l Concentration lb/million
gal
0.1200 mg/l

n practic este imposibil s se
lucreze la mrimea exact i s se msoare
la o mrime exact. De aceea trebuie
prevzut o eroare dimensional. Pentru a
controla aceast eroare, proiectantul
prevede un domeniu de dimensiuni ntre
care componentul va funciona satisfctor.
Termenii asociai cu limite i ajustaje pot fi
rezumai astfel:
Mrimea nominal, care este
dimensiunea dup care se identific pentru
convenien fiecare mrime.
Mrimea de baz, care este
mrimea funcional de baz de la care se
consider limitele prin folosirea
permisiunii i toleranelor necesare.
Mrimea medie, care este mrimea
care se situeaz la mijlocul distanei ntre
limitele superioar i inferioar i care nu
trebuie confundat nici cu mrimea
In practice it is impossible to work
and measure to an exact size. Therefore
allowance has to be made for dimensional
deviation. To control this deviation, the
designer specifies a range of dimensions
within which the component will work
satisfactorily. The terms associated with
limits and fits can be summarized as
follows:
Nominal size, which is the
dimension by which a feature is identified
for convenience.
Basic size, which is the exact
functional size from which the limits are
derived by application of necessary
allowance and tolerances.
Mean size, which is the size that
lies halfway between the upper and lower
limits of size and must not be mistaken
either for the nominal size or the basic size.
23
nominal nici cu mrimea de baz.
Mrimea de baz, care este
mrimea msurat corect la 20C.
Limite, care sunt valorile maxim i
minim ntre care se poate situa mrimea
proprietii componetului.
Tolerana, care este diferena
aritmetic ntre limitele mrimii.
Eroarea, care este diferena ntre
mrimea de baz i limite.
Jocul minim (permisiunea), care
este jocul dintre un ax i o gaur n
condiiile dilatrii maxime a metalului.

Actual size, which is the size
correctly measured at 20C.
Limits, which are the high and low
values of size between which the size of a
component feature may lie.
Tolerance, which is the arithmetic
difference between the limits of size.
Deviation, which is the difference
between the basic size and the limits.
Minimum clearance (allowance),
which is the clearance between a shaft and
hole under maximum metal dilatation
conditions.

1. urub pentru reglaj fin
2. Piulia manonului
3. Manon gradat
4. Tij gradat
5. Piuli de blocare
6. Potcoav
7. Tij tampon
8. Feele tampoanelor
9. Tampon capt
1. Ratchet
2. Thimble adjusting nut
3. Thimble
4. Barrel
5. Locknut
6. Steel frame
7. Spindle
8. Spindle and anvil faces
9. Anvil end


1. Clam pentru reglaj fin
2. urub pentru reglaj fin
3. Scara vernierului
4. Falc mobil
5. Fee pentru msurat interior
1. Fine adjustment clamp
2. Fine adjustment screw
3. Vernier scale
4. Sliding jaw
5. Inside measuring faces
Fig.5.1

Fig.5.2
24
6. Fee pentru msurat exterior
7. Falc fix
8. in
9. Scar
6. Outside measuring faces
7. Fixed jaw
8. Beam
9. Scale
Msurarea obiectelor
Msurarea lungimii
Measuring objects
Measurement of length
c
d
Fig.7.1
25
Prin msurarea lungimii se nelege
msurarea distanei n linie dreapt ntre
dou puncte, linii sau fee.
Principalele instrumente pentru
msurarea lungimii sunt urmtoarele:
- Riglele, riglele gradate, liniile;
- Compasuri de interior (exterior)
[fig.5.3,b(a)];
- ublere [fig.5.2];
- Micrometre [fig.5.1];

Msurarea formei
Datorit aciunii solicitrilor
mecanice i coroziunii n timp,
componentele i pierd forma iniial. De
aceea este necesar s se proiecteze unelte
pentru a verifica forma, unelte precum:
- Muchii (pentru paralelism i
planeitate);
- abloane (pentru form);
- Calibre pentru raz [fig.5.4,a];
- Calibre de interstiii (spion)[fig.5.4,b];

- Calibre pentru filete (pentru msurarea
pasului)[fig.5.4,c];
- Comparatoare (pentru ovalitate,
circularitate, paralelism etc.)[fig.5.3,d];

- Echer (pentru unghiuri drepte) [fig.5.3,c];
- Raportor (pentru alte unghiuri dect
cele drepte);
To measure length means to
measure the shortest distance in a straight
line between two points, lines or faces.
The main tools for length
measuring are the follow:
- Rules;
- Inside (outside) calipers [fig.5.3,b(a)];

- Vernier calipers [fig.5.2];
- Micrometer calipers [fig.5.1];

Shape measurement
Due to the action of stress and time
corrosion the components lose their initial
shape. Therefore it is necessary to design
tools for checking the shape, like the
following:
- Edges (for parallelism and flatness);

- Templates (for shape);
- Radius gauges (for radius) [fig.5.4,a];
- Feeler gauges (for allowance)
[fig.5.4,b];
- Screw pitch gauges (for checking the
pitch) [fig.5.4,c];
- D.T.I. Dial Test Indicators (for
ovalty, circularity, parallelism etc.)
[fig.5.3,d];
- Try square (for right angles) [fig.5.3,c];
- Bevel angle (for angles other than right
angles);
1. Opritor ram geam;
2. Cadran rotativ i geam;
3. Numrtor de rotaii;
4. Pies de centrare;
5. Tij;
6. Cap de schimb;
1. Bezel clamp;
2. Ratable bezel and dial;
3. Revolution counter;
4. Spigot;
5. Plunger;
6. Removable anvil;
Msurarea proceselor
Msurarea proprietilor
- Manometru;
- Termometru;
Measuring processes
Measuring properties
- Pressure gauge (manometer);
Fig.7.2

26
- Debitmetru (indicator de debit);

Clasificarea termometrelor:
Cu indicaie local:
- Termometre staionare cu ecran:
- Ecran ptrat
- Ecran tubular
- Termometre temporare:
- Termometre cu teac
- Termometre cu lichid in tub de sticl
Cu indicaie la distan:
- Termometre electrice:
- Termometre cu termocuplu
- Termometre cu rezisten
- Termometre cu tub Bourdon:
- Termometre cu mercur n tub de oel
- Termometre cu presiune de vapori
- Temperature gauge (thermometer);
- Flow gauge, (flow indicator);

Thermometers classification:
Local indicating type:
- Stationary thermometers with frame
- Square frame type
- Tubular frame type
- Temporary thermometers
- Marine pocket thermometers
- Liquid-in-glass thermometers
Remote indicating type:
- Electric type thermometers
- Thermoelectric thermometers
- Resistance thermometers
- Bourdon tube type thermometers
- Mercury-in-steel thermometers
- Vapour pressure thermometers

Termometre staionare cu ecran ptrat Square frame type stationary thermometers

Termometre staionare cu ecran tubular Tubular frame type stationary
thermometers

Fig.5.3.

27

Fig.5.4

Indicatoare de nivel:
Indicator de nivel din oel forjat de tip cu reflexie
cu robinete pentru cldri navale (fig. 5.5):

Level gauges:
Forged steel reflex type water gauge with
cocks for maritime boilers (fig. 5.5):


1. Corpul robinetului superior
2. Corpul robinetului inferior
3. Corpul robinetului de golire
1. Upper cock body
2. Lower cock body
3. Drain cock body
Fig.5.5
28
4. tu superior
5. tu inferior
6. Flan
7. Cepul robinetului
8. Manta
9. Piuli nfundat
10. Prghie de manevr
11. Opritor
12. Indicator
13. Piuli hexagonal
14. plint (cui despicat)
15. Presetup
16. Piuli presetupei (olandez)
17. Bil de oel
18. urub de rezemare pentru bil
19. Dop
20. Prezon
21. Piuli hexagonal
22. Racord pentru eav de cupru
23. Piuli olandez
24. Racord pentru eav de oel
25. Buc de etanare
26. Etanare
27. Garnitur
28. Garnitur
29. Garnitur
30. Garnitur
31. Garnitur
32. tift de fixare
33. Tabl indicatoare
34. Suportul tablei indicatoare
35. Piuli hexagonal
36. Nit
37. Corpul indicatorului
38. Sticla indicatorului
4. Upper gauge holder
5. Lower gauge holder
6. Flange
7. Cock plug
8. Bonnet
9. Cover nut
10. Lever handle
11. Stopper
12. Indicator
13. Hexagon nut
14. Splint pin
15. Packing gland
16. Gland nut
17. Steel ball
18. Steel ball seating plug
19. Plug
20. Stud
21. Hexagon nut
22. Nipple for copper pipe
23. Union nut
24. Nipple for steel pipe
25. Sleeve packing
26. Packing
27. Gasket
28. Gasket
29. Gasket
30. Gasket
31. Gasket
32. Set pin
33. Indicator plate
34. Support for indicator plate
35. Hexagon nut
36. Rivet
37. Water gauge body
38. Gauge glass

Indicator de nivel din oel forjat de tip
transparent cu valvule pentru cldri navale
(fig. 5.6):

1. Corpul valvulei superioare
2. Corpul valvulei inferioare
3. Corpul valvulei de golire
4. Manon
5. Jug
6. Tija valvulei
6A. Tija valvulei
7. Ventilul valvulei
Forged steel transparent type water gauge
with valves for marine boilers (fig. 5.6):


1. Upper valve body
2. Lower valve body
3. Drain valve body
4. Bonnet
5. Yoke
6. Valve stem
6A. Valve stem
7. Valve disc
29

Fig.5.6
8. Piulia ventilului
9. aib de blocare a ventilului
10. aiba tijei valvulei
11. Presetup
12. urub articulat
13. Piuli hexagonal
14. tift
15. Buc filetat
15A.Buc filetat
16. urub de blocare
17. Prghie de manevr
18. Piuli hexagonal
19. Susintorul mantalei
20. Prezon
21. Piuli hexagonal
22. Flan
23. Inel de aezare a etanrii
8. Disc nut
9. Disc lock washer
10. Valve stem washer
11. Packing gland
12. Hinge bolt
13. Hexagon nut
14. Pin
15. Screwed bush
15A.Screwed bush
16. Lock screw
17. Lever handle
18. Hexagon nut
19. Bonnet keep
20. Stud
21. Hexagon nut
22. Flange
23. Packing seat ring
30
24. Tabl indicatoare
25. Indicator
26. Plcu etichet
27. plint (cui despicat)
28. Roat de manevr
29. Bil de oel
30. Scaunul superior al bilei de oel
31. Scaunul inferior al bilei de oel
32. Flan
33. urub cu filet infinit
34. Piuli hexagonal
35. Flan
36. Flan
37. urub n cruce cu cap rotund

38. Racord
39. Piuli olandez
40. Pies de suport
41. urubul de reglaj al piesei suport
42. Compensator de dilataie
43. Garnitur
44. Garnitur bobinat n spiral
45. Etanare
46. tift de fixare
47. Presetup
48. aib plat (lustruit rotund )
49. aib elastic
50. Corpul indicatorului
51. Sticla indicatorului
24. Indicator plate
25. Indicator
26. Name plate
27. Split pin
28. Handwheel
29. Steel ball
30. Upper steel ball seat
31. Lower steel ball seat
32. Flange
33. Continuous-thread stud
34. Hexagon nut
35. Flange
36. Flange
37. Cross recessed round head machine
screw
38. Nipple
39. Union nut
40. Supporting piece
41. Supporting piece set screw
42. Expansion pipe
43. Gasket
44. Spiral-wound gasket
45. Packing
46. Set pin
47. Packing gland
48. Flat washer (polished and round)
49. Spring washer
50. Water gauge body
51. Gauge glass.

Indicator de nivel naval de 5 kgf/cm
2
cu
valvule (fig. 5.7)
1. Corp (tu) superior de tip A
2. Racord
3. Presetup
4. Piulia presetupei (olandez)
5. Piuli olandez
6. Garnitur
7. Garnitur
8. Garnitur
9. Cep
10. mbinare
11. Corp (tu) superior de tip B
12. Corp (tu) superior de tip C
13. Corp (tu) inferior
14. Tij
15. Presetup
16. Piulia presetupei (olandez)
17. Inel
18. Mner
19. Piuli hexagonal
20. aib arcuit
Marine 5 kgf/cm
2
level gauge with valve
(fig. 5.7)
1. Type A upper body
2. Nipple
3. Packing gland
4. Gland nut
5. Union nut
6. Gasket
7. Gasket
8. Gasket
9. Plug
10. Joint
11. Type B upper body
12. Type C upper body
13. Lower body
14. Stem
15. Packing gland
16. Gland nut
17. Ring
18. Handle
19. Hexagon nut
20. Spring washer
31

Fig.5.7
21. plint (cui despicat)
22. Etanare
23. Armtur superioar de tip D
25. Sit metalic esut
21. Splint pin
22. Packing
23. Type D upper fitting
24. Wire gauze

Indicator de nivel naval cu plutitor (fig. 5.8):

1. Ghidajul plutitorului
2. Pies de fixare a firului
Marine float level gauge (fig. 5.8):

1. Float guide
2. Wire fitting piece for float
32

Fig.5.8
3. Racord
4. Plutitor
5. Lagr cu rostogolire
6. Suportul scripetelui
7. Ax
8. Greutate
9. Fir metalic mpletit
10. Ghidajul greutii
11. Placa de scal
12. Indicator
13. Scripete
14. aib plat
15. Etanare de cauciuc
16. Buca firului
17. Flan
18. Pies de etanare
19. Pies de fixare a greutii
3. Nipple
4. Float
5. Ball bearing
6. Bearing for sheave
7. Pin
8. Weight
9. Wire rope
10. Weight guide
11. Scale plate
12. Indicator
13. Sheave
14. Plain washer
15. Seal rubber
16. Wire sleeve
17. Flange
18. Seal piece
19. Wire fitting piece for weight
33
20. Capacul ghidajului plutitorului
21. aib plat
22. plint (cui despicat)
23. Garnitur
24. urub cu capul n cruce
25. urub cu capul n cruce
26. urub hexagonal
27. Piuli hexagonal
28. Piuli hexagonal
29. Suportul ghidajului greutii
30. Agtoare pentru ridicat
31. Suport pentru lagre
32. Postament pentru ghidajul plutitorului
33. Legtura firului
34. Adaos pentru cepul de aerisire
35. Cep
36. Garnitur
20. Float guide cover
21. Plain washer
22. Split pin
23. Gasket
24. Cross pan head machine screw
25. Cross pan head machine screw
26. Hexagon bolt
27. Hexagon nut
28. Hexagon nut
29. Weight guide support
30. Lifting lug
31. Seat for bearing
32. Base for float guide
33. Bind wire
34. Boss for air vent plug
35. Plug
36. Gasket

Msurri electrice

Nava este un sistem care se
autosusine. ntreaga energie electric
necesar este produs, distribuit i folosit
la bordul navei. De aceea msurtorile
electrice joac un rol important n
activitatea zilnic, n prevenirea avarilor i
(cel mai ru) a black-out-ului.
Black-out-ul este situaia cnd nava
rmne fr nici o surs de energie.
Aceast situaie este critic deoarece toate
sistemele pot cdea, nava este scpat de
sub control i se poate scufunda.
La bordul navei sunt utilizate dou
tipuri de aparate de msur electrice:
- Indicatoare de tablou care
sunt montate pe tablourile de
comand sau de distribuie.
Acestea pot msura o singur
mrime i ,de obicei, pe o
singur scal.
- ampermetru de tablou;
- voltmetru de tablou;
- wattmetru de tablou;
- varmetru de tablou;
- frecvenmetru;
Multimetre. Aceste tipuri de
aparate de msur sunt foarte
utile pentru orice reparator care
lucreaz la echipament electric,
datorit multiplelor scale de
msurare i manipulrii simple.
Multimetrele portabile pot
msura de obicei:
- tensiuni CC i CA;
Electrical measurement

A ship is a self-sustaining system.
The entire electrical energy needed is
produced, distributed and used on the
board. Therefore the electrical
measurements play a very important role in
the daily activity, in preventing damages
and (in the worst case) blackout.
Black-out is the situation when the
ship remains without any electrical power
supply. It is a critical situation because all
systems can breakdown, the ship is out of
control and it may sink.
On the board of the ship two types
of electrical gauges are used:
- Panel gauges (indicators)
which are placed on the control
boards or switchboards. They
can measure a single feature
and usually a single range.

- panel ammeter;
- panel voltmeter;
- panel wattmeter;
- panel reactive energy meter;
- panel frequency meter;
Portable multimeters. These
types of gauges are very useful
tools for each serviceman
working at electric equipment,
due to their many measuring
ranges and simple operation.
The portable multimeters can
usually measure :
- DC and AC voltages;
34
- cureni CC i CA;
- rezistene;
adesea aceste pot msura i:
- capaciti;
- frecvene;
Un multimetru obinuit este artat
mai jos:
- DC and AC currents;
- resistances;
and often these can measure:
- capacities;
- frequencies;
A common type of portable
multimeter is shown below:
Fig. 5.9
unde sunt indicate cteva componente
importante ale aparatului:
1 Comutatorul scrilor;
2, 3, 4, 5 Borne;
6 Corectorul de zero;

7 Scara rezistenelor;
8, 9 Scrile tensiunilor i curenilor
CC i CA;
10 Corectorul de zero al
ohmmetrului;
11 Comutator CC/CA;
12, 13 Sigurane 3,15A/250V;
14 Baterie tip B 6 F 22 (9 V);
15 Baterie tip R6 AA (1,5 V);
16 Siguran 10A/500 V;
where several important components of the
meter are indicated:
1 Range Switch;
2, 3, 4, 5 Jacks;
6 Mechanical Zero Adjustment
Control
7 Resistance Scale;
8, 9 DC/AC Voltage and Current
Scales;
10 Ohmmeter Zero Adjustment
Control;
11 DC/AC Switch;
12, 13 Fuses 3,15A/250V;
14 Type 6 F 22 Battery (9 V);
15 Type R6 AA Battery Cell (1,5 V);
16 Fuse 10A/500 V

35
Capitolul 6
Msurtori pe motor i n
compartimentul maini
Unit 6
Measurements on Engine and in
Engine Room:

Msurtori pe motor: Uniti

1. P
i,
P
max
i P
comp
[bar]
2. Indicaia tijei pompei de injecie i
reglajul p
max
[mm]
3. Temperatura gazelor de evacuare [C]
4. Temperatura gazelor de evacuare
nainte i dup turbosuflant(e) [C]
5. Presiunea dup turbin [mmHg]
6. Presiunea gazelor n colectorul de
evacuare [mmHg sau bar]
7. Temperaturile de intrare n
turbosuflant i de ieire la filtru de
admisie [C]
8. Cderea de presiune pe filtrul de
admisie [mmHg sau bar]
9. Cderea de presiune pe rcitorul de aer
[mmHg]
10. Temperatura apei la intrarea i ieirea
n/din rcitorul de aer [C]
11. Presiunea de baleiaj (p
bal
) [mmHg sau
bar]
12. Temperatura aerului de baleiaj [C]
13. Temperatura aerului de baleiaj nainte
de rcitorul de aer [C]
14. Temperatura aerului de baleiaj dup
rcitorul de aer [C]
Measurements on engine: Units

1. P
i
, P
max
and P
comp
[bar]
2. Fuel pump index and p
max
adjustment
index [mm]
3. Exhaust temperature [C]
4. Exhaust temperature before and after
turbocharger(s) [C]
5. Turbine back pressure [mmHg]
6. Exhaust gas receiver pressure [mmHg
or bar]
7. Turbocharger inlet and outlet
temperature at inlet filter [C]

8. Pressure drop across inlet filter
[mmHg]
9. Pressure drop across air cooler
[mmHg]
10. Air cooler water inlet and outlet
temperature [C]
11. Scavenge air pressure (p
scav
) [mmHg
or bar]
12. Scavenge air temperature [C]
13. Scavenge air temperature before air
cooler [C]
14. Scavenge air temperature after air
cooler [C]
36
15. Temperatura apei de rcire la ieirea
din motorul principal [C]

Msurtori n compartimentul maini:
Uniti
Turaia turbosuflantei i motorului
[rot/min]
Presiunea uleiului nainte i dup filtru
[bar]
Temperatura uleiului la intrarea n motor
[C]
Temperatura apei (tehnic) de rcire la
intrarea n motorul principal [C]
Presiunea barometric [milibar]

Pentru s se fac aceste msurtori?

Evaluarea la intervale regulate a
funcionrii motorului permite detectarea
multor probleme i rezolvarea acestora
nainte ca acestea s devin critice. De
exemplu:
Presiunea indicat (Pi) i turaia
motorului [rot/min] pot fi folosite pentru a
calcula ncrcarea curent i pentru a afla
dac regimul elicei este greu.
Presiunea indicat (Pi), presiunea
maxim (Pmax), presiunea de compresie
(Pcomp) i mrimea temperaturii gazelor
de evacuare pot fi folosite pentru a stabili
starea fiecrui cilindru.
Indexul pompei de injecie, mpreun
cu ncrcarea curent a motorului pot fi
folosite pentru a stabili starea pistoanelor
plonjoare sau a corpului pompei de injecie.
Presiunea dup turbin i cderea de
presiune pe rcitorul(le) de aer i filtrul(lor)
de admisie al turbosuflantei indic dac
msurtorile trebuie luate n considerare pe
cile de aer sau gaze.
Presiunea de baleiaj (Pbal), presiunea
de compresie (Pcomp), turaia
turbosuflantei rot/min i temperatura
nainte i dup turbin permit stabilirea
strii turbosuflantei.
Oricum, este important ca toate
msurtorile s se ia in considerare pentru
o evaluare corect a performanelor
motorului.
15. Fresh cooling water outlet temperature
from main engine [C]

Measurements in engine room: Units

Turbocharger and engine revolutions [rpm]

Fuel oil pressure before and after filter
[bar] ]
Fuel oil temperature before engine [C]

Main engine fresh cooling water inlet
temperature, [C]
Barometric pressure [milibar]

Why do these measurements?

Regular performance evaluations
enable many problems to be detected and
solved before they become critical. For
example:

The indicated pressure (P
i
) and the
engine speed (rpm) can be used to calculate
the actual load and to find out if the
propeller is heavy.
The indicated pressure (P
i
), the
maximum pressure (P
max
) the compression
pressure (P
comp
) and the exhaust
temperature level can be used to judge the
individual cylinder condition.
The fuel pump index together with the
actual engine load, can be used to judge the
condition of the fuel pump plungers/barrels
and suction valves.
The turbine back pressure and the
pressure drop across the air cooler(s) and
turbocharger intake filter(s) reveal if
measures should be taken regarding the
air/gas ways.
Scavenge air pressure (P
scav
), the
compression pressure (P
comp
), the
turbocharger rpm and the temperature
before and after the turbine enable the
condition of the turbocharger to be judged.
However, it is important to take all
measurements into consideration if a
reliable evaluation of the engine
performance is to be made.

3
37
Capitolul 7
Simboluri
Unit 7
Symbols



Pipes and Pipe Joints
evi i mbinri de evi
Not connecting
crossing pipes

Connected crossing
pipes

evi care se
intersecteaz i nu
sunt conectate
evi care se
intersecteaz i sunt
conectate
Tee pipe

Flexible joint,
Flexible pipe joint

mbinare cu teu
mbinare mobil,
mbinare cu tub
flexibil
Flanged joint

Sleeve joint

mbinare flanat mbinare prin mufe
Reducer

Screwed joint

Manon de reducie
(seciune)
mbinare filetat
Welded joint

Sleeve type
expansion joint

mbinare sudat
Compensator de
dilataie cu muf
Bellows type
expansion pipe joint

Expansion pipe joint

Compensator de
dilatare cu burduf
Lir de dilatare din
eav
Penetrating,
watertight bulkhead
and deck crossing

Penetrating, non-
watertight bulkhead
and deck crossing

Trecere prin perei
despritori etani i
puni etane
Trecere prin perei
neetani i puni
neetane
Blank flange

Spectacle flange

Flan oarb Flan de col

38
38

Control and Regulation Parts
Componente pentru reglare i control
To bilge

Hand-operated

Spre santin Acionare manual
Remote control

Spring

Comand de la
distan
Arc
Weight

Float

Contragreutate Plutitor
Diaphragm

Diaphragm with
positioner

Membran
Membran cu
pozitioner
Piston

Electric motor
driven

Piston
Acionare cu motor
electric
Air motor driven

Solenoid driven

Acionare cu motor
pneumatic
Acionare electric
prin bobin
Valves and Cocks
Valvule i robinete
Globe stop valve

Angle stop valve

Valvul dreapt de
nchidere
Valvul de col de
nchidere
Three way valve
(crossover valve)

Globe lift check
valve

Valvul cu trei cai
Clapet dreapt de
reinere cu micare
vertical
Angle lift check
valve

Screw down globe
stop check valve

Clapet de col de
reinere cu micare
vertical
Robinet drept cu
ventil de reinere

39

Screw down stop
angle valve

Swing check valve

Robinet de col cu
ventil de reinere
Ventil de reinere cu
clapet
Pressure reducing
valve

Angle safety valve

Valvul reductoare
de presiune
Supap de siguran
de col
Self closing globe
valve

Self closing angle
valve

Supap dreapt de
siguran cu
nchidere automat
Supap de col de
siguran cu
nchidere automat
Regulating valve

Butterfly valve

Valvul regulatoare Van-fluture
Gate valve

Breather valve

Van cu sertar Supap de respiraie
Hose globe valve

Hose angle valve

Valvul dreapt
pentru furtun
Valvul de col
pentru furtun
Needle globe valve

Needle angle valve

Van dreapt inelar
(robinet cu ac)
Van de col inelar
(robinet cu ac)
Relief globe valve

Relief angle valve

Supap dreapt de
descrcare (de
golire)
Supap de col de
descrcare (de
golire)
Foot valve

Cock

Robinet de fund Robinet
Three-way cock L-
port

Three-way cock T-
port

Robinet cu trei ci
cu canal L
Robinet cu trei ci
cu canal T


40
Manifold valve

Manifold check
valve

Caset de valvule
Caset cu valvule de
reinere
Remote operated
valve

Emergency shut off
valve

Valvul acionat de
la distan
Van de nchidere
de avarie
Locked cock

Air motor valve

Robinet zvort
Valvul acionat cu
motor pneumatic
Electric motor valve

Solenoid valve

Valvul acionat cu
motor electric
Valvul
electromagnetic
Piston valve

Diaphragm operated
valve

Valvul acionat
prin piston
Valvul acionat
prin diafragm
Connecting ends of valves
mbinrile capetelor valvulelor
mbinare cu flan

Flanged end
mbinare cu uruburi

Screwed end
mbinare sudat

Welding end
Pipe fittings
Accesorii pentru tubulaturi
Rose box

Mud box

Camer cu
pulverizare
Camer de
decantare
4
41
Simplex strainer

Duplex strainer

Filtru simplu Filtru dublu
Separator

Drain trap

Separator Oal de scurgere
Y type strainer

Hopper

Filtru tip Y Plnie
Air vent pipe

Scupper

Tubulatur de
aerisire
Scurgere de pe
punte
Sounding head with
cap

Sounding head with
self closing valve

Cap de sondare cu
capac
Cap de sondare cu
valvul cu nchidere
automat
Orifice

Hose coupling

Duz Cuplaj de furtune
Hand pump

Ejector

Pomp manual Ejector
Sea chest

Drain silencer

Cheson
Amortizor de
zgomot al scurgerii
Hull distance piece

Bilge hat

Distanier de bordaj Capac de santin
Sight glass

Fusible plug

Vizor Dop fuzibil

42
Thermometer
pocket

Boss

Suport pentru
termometru
Proeminen
Boss and plug

Rose plate

Proeminen cu dop Plac pulverizatoare
Change piece
(change over piece)

Goose neck type air
pipe head
(without wire net)

Pies de comutare
Cap tubulatur de
aerisire gt de lebd
(fr plas de srm)
Bonnet type air pipe
head
(without wire net)

Goose neck type air
pipe head
(with wire net)

Cap tubulatur de
aerisire (fr plas
de srm)
Cap tubulatur de
aerisire gt de lebd
(cu plas de srm)
Bonnet type air pipe
head
(with wire net)

Oil tray

Cap tubulatur de
aerisire (cu plas de
srm)
Tav pentru uleiuri
Bellmouth



Evazare
Control and Instrumentation
Control i aparate de msur i control
Hydraulic oil line

Control air line

Tubulatur de ulei
hidraulic
Tubulatur de aer de
comand
Capillary tube

Electric wiring

Tub capilar Linie electric
Local indicator

Remote indicator

Indicator local Indicator la distan

43
Thermometer

Pressure gauge

Termometru Manometru
Compound gauge

Vacuum gauge

Manovacuummetru Vacuummetru
Differential pressure
gauge

Change over switch
box

Manometru
diferenial
Cutie de comutare
Pressure switch

Temperature switch

Presostat Termostat
Float switch

Limit switch

Traductor de nivel Limitator
Transmitter

Salinity cell

Transmitor
Celul detectare
salinitate
Seal pot

Loop seal

Recipient de
etanare
Bucl de atenuare
Glass level gauge

Float glass oil level
gauge

Sticl de nivel
Indicator de nivel cu
sticl plutitoare
pentru ulei
Float type level
gauge

Inner float type
level gauge

Indicator de nivel cu
plutitor
Indicator interior de
nivel cu flotor
Outer float type
level gauge



Indicator exterior de
nivel cu flotor


44
Senzor de densitate de alarmare DSA Density switch for alarm (oil mist )
Senzor de densitate de ncetinire DS-SLD Density switch for slow-down
Dispozitive electrice E Electric devices
Valvul electromagnetic EV Solenoid valve
Comutator electric de alarmare ESA Electrical switch for alarm
Senzor de debit de alarmare FSA Flow switch for alarm
Senzor de debit de ncetinire FS-SLD Flow switch for slow-alarm
Senzor de nivel de alarmare LSA Level switch for alarm
Indicator de diferen presiune PDI Pressure difference indicator
Senzor de diferen presiune de
alarmare
PDSA Pressure difference for alarm
Transmitor de diferen de
presiune
PDT Pressure difference transmitter
Indicator de presiune PI Pressure indicator
Presostat PS Pressure switch
Presostat pentru ntrerupere PS-SHD Pressure switch for shut-down
Presostat pentru ncetinire PS-SLD Pressure switch for slow-down
Presostat pentru alarmare PSA Pressure switch for alarm
Presostat pentru control PSC Pressure switch for controlling
Senzor de presiune (analogic) PE Pressure sensor (analogue)
Senzor de presiune pentru
(analogic) pentru alarmare
PEA
Pressure sensor for alarm
(analogue)
Senzor de presiune pentru (analogic)
pentru indicare la distan
PEI
Pressure sensor for remote
indication (analogue)
Senzor de presiune pentru
(analogic) pentru ncetinire
PE-SLD
Pressure sensor for slow-down
(analogue)
Turometru (analogic) SE Speed sensor (analogue)
Senzor de turaie pentru alarmare SSA Speed switch for alarm
Senzor de turaie pentru oprire SS-SHD Speed switch for shut-down
Termometru TI Temperature indicator
Termostat pentru alarmare TSA Temperature switch for alarm
Termostat de control TSC Temperature switch for control
Termostat pentru oprire TS-SHD Temperature switch for shut-down
Termostat pentru ncetinire TS-SLD Temperature switch for slow-down
Senzor de temperatur (analogic) TE Temperature sensor (analogue)
Senzor de temperatur pentru
alarm (analogic)
TEA
Temperature sensor for alarm
(analogue)
Senzor de temperatur pentru
indicare la distan (analogic)
TEI
Temperature sensor for remote
indication (analogue)
Senzor de temperatur pentru
ncetinire (analogic)
TE-SLD
Temperature sensor for slow down
(analogue)
Senzor de viscozitate (analogic) VE Viscosity sensor (analogue)
Viscozimetru VI Viscosity indicator
Senzor de poziie ZE Position sensor
Comutator de poziie ZS Position switch
Detector de vibraii pentru
alarmare (analogic)
WEA
Vibration signal for alarm
(analogue)
Indicator de vibraii WI Vibration indicator
Detector de vibraii pentru
ncetinire
WS-SLD Vibration switch for slow down

45
Capitolul 8
Valvule
Unit 8
Valves


Definiie:
O valv este un dispozitiv pentru
controlul debitului. Valvele sunt utilizate
pentru a regla debitul fluidelor (lichide sau
gaze) n sistemele cu tubulaturi ale
instalaiilor de exploatare. Adesea, n
instalaii, debitul are un caracter pulsatoriu
sau intermitent, iar valvele i mecanismele
asociate dau o caracteristic de reglare.
Parametrii:
- Diametrul nominal;
- Numrul desenului;
- Materialul corpului;
- Regimul de lucru:
- Presiunea nominal;
- Presiunea de prob:
- la rezisten;
- la etaneitate;

Definition:
A valve is a flow-control device.
Valves are used to regulate the flow of
fluids (liquids and gases) in piping systems
and machinery. In machinery, the flow
phenomenon is frequently of a pulsating or
intermittent nature and the valve with its
associated gear provide a timing feature.

Parameters:
- Nominal diameter;
- Number of drawing;
- Body material;
- Operating range:
- Nominal pressure;
- Testing pressure:
- in resistance;
- in tightness;


Tipuri de armturi
n practic se ntlnesc mai multe
tipuri de valve fiecare proiectat s
efectueze o operaie specific.

Types of valves
There are many different types of
valves in operation each designed to
perform a specific function.




Fig 8.1
46

Valvul naval de drenaj tanc de
combustibil cu nchidere automat (fig. 8.1)

1A. Corp (tip U)
1B. Corp (tip F)
2. Disc
3. Scaunul supapei
4. Ventil
5. Capac
6. Tij
7. Buc de etanare
8. Presetup
9. Arc
10. Suportul arcului
11. Mner
12. Piuli hexagonal
13. Piuli hexagonal
14. uruburi cruce cu cap plat

15. Etanare
16. Garnitur
17. Garnitur
18. Piuli olandez
19. Racord
20. Garnitur



Valvul dreapt filetat naval pentru aer
comprimat (fig. 8.2)

1. Corp
2. Ghidaj filetat
6. Tij
7. Roat de manevr
8. Scaun
9. Piuli olandez
10. Presgarnitur
11. Piuli hexagonal
12. plint (cui spintecat)
13. urub cruce cu cap tronconic

14. Plcu de blocare a ghidajului filetat
16. Etanare
17. Garnitur
18. Racord pentru eav de cupru
19. Racord pentru eav de oel
20. Piuli olandez (de cuplare)
21. Plcu etichet

Marine Fuel Oil Tank Self-Closing Drain
Valve (fig. 8.1)

1A. Body (Type U)
1B. Body (Type F)
2. Disc
3. Valve seat
4. Plug
5. Bonnet
6. Stem
7. Packing bush
8. Packing gland
9. Spring
10. Spring support
11. Handle
12. Hexagon nut
13. Hexagon nut
14. Cross-recessed flat head machine
screws
15. Packing
16. Gasket
17. Gasket
18. Union nut
19. Nipple
20. Gasket



Marine Forged Steel Screwed Globe Valve
for Compressed Air (fig. 8.3)

1. Body
2. Bonnet
6. Stem
7. Handwheel
8. Seat ring
9. Gland nut
10. Gland
11. Hexagon nut
12. Split pin
13. Cross-recessed pan head machine
screw
14. Bonnet lock plate
16. Packing
17. Gasket
18. Nipple for copper pipe
19. Nipple for steel pipe
20. Union nut
21. Name plate

47

Valvul de col naval din font (fig. 8.3) Marine Cast Iron Angle Valve (fig. 8.3)




Fig 8.3


Fig 8.2

48

1. Corp
2. Ghidaj filetat
3. Roat de manevr
4. Ventil
5. Scaun
6. Piuli disc
7. Buc filetat de ghidare
8. Scaunul garniturii
9. Presgarnitur
10. Tij
11. Prezon
12. Prezon
13. Piuli hexagonal
14. Piuli hexagonal
15. Piuli hexagonal
16. tift de blocare
17. plint (cui spintecat)
18. aib disc de blocare
19. Etanare
20. Garnitur
21. Plcu etichet
22. aib pentru tij

Clapet de reinere ghidat (cu micare
vertical), naval, din font (fig. 8.4)
1. Body
2. Bonnet
3. Handwheel
4. Disc
5. Valve seat
6. Disc nut
7. Screwed bonnet bush
8. Seat ring
9. Packing gland
10. Stem
11. Stud
12. Stud
13. Hexagon nut
14. Hexagon nut
15. Hexagon nut
16. Lock pin
17. Split pin
18. Disc lock washer
19. Packing
20. Gasket
21. Name plate
22. Washer for stem

Marine Cast Iron Lift Check Angle Valve
(fig 8.4)


1. Corp supap
2. Flan
3. Ventil
4. Scaun ventil
5. Buc
6. Prezon
7. Piuli hexagonal
8. urub de fixare
9. Garnitur
1. Body
2. Bonnet
3. Disc
4. Valve seat
5. Bush
6. Stud
7. Hexagon nut
8. Set screw
9. Gasket

Fig 8.4

49



Valvul naval din bronz pentru furtun (fig. 8.5)

1. Corp
2. Ghidaj filetat
3. Roat de manevr
4. Piuli disc
5. Presgarnitur
6. Piuli olandez
7. Tij
8. urub n cruce cu cap tronconic

9. Roat de manevr
10. Piuli hexagonal
11. plint (cui spintecat)
12. Plcu de ghidare a ghidajului filetat
13. aib plat de blocare
14. Etanare
15. Plcu etichet
16. mbinarea mufei
17. Capac
18. Inel de cuplare
19. Inel de fixare
20. urub de fixare
21. Lan
22. Garnitur
23. Garnitur
Marine Bronze Hose Valve (fig. 8.5)

1. Body
2. Bonnet
3. Disc
4. Disc nut
5. Packing gland
6. Gland nut
7. Stem
8. Cross recessed pan head machine
screw
9. Handwheel
10. Hexagon nut
11. Split pin
12. Bonnet lock plate
13. Disc lock washer
14. Packing
15. Name plate
16. Base connection
17. Cap
18. Coupling ring
19. Set ring
20. Set screw
21. Chain
22. Gasket
23. Gasket




Fig 8.5

50

Robinet naval cu sertar pan din font (fig. 8.6)

1. Corp
2. Capac
3. Sertar disc pan
4. Roat de manevr
5. Scaunul corpului
6. Scaunul sertarului
7. Pies filetat
8. Presetup
9. Indicator
10. Tbli indicatoare
11. Tij
12. urub cu cap hexagonal
13. Prezon
14. urub articulat
15. tift conic cu filet
16. Piuli hexagonal
Marine Cast Iron Gate Valve (fig. 8.6)

1. Body
2. Bonnet
3. Disc
4. Handwheel
5. Valve seat of body
6. Valve seat of disc
7. Screwed piece
8. Packing gland
9. Indicator
10. Indicator plate
11. Stem
12. Hexagon head bolt
13. Stud
14. Swing bolt
15. Taper pin with thread
16. Hexagon nut

Fig 8.6

51
17. urub cruce cu cap tronconic

18. plint (cui spintecat)
19. Etanare
20. Garnitur
21. Garnitur
22. Plcu etichet
23. Jug
24. Angrenaj conic (roat)
25. Angrenaj conic (pinion)
26. Buc de ghidare
27. Buc de ghidare
28. Buc de ghidare
29. Axul roii de manevr
30. Tija indicatorului
31. urub cu cap hexagonal
32. Piuli hexagonal
33. tift
34. aib
35. aib
36. aib Grower
37. Pan
38. Pan
39. urub de blocare cu cap ptrat
40. urub de blocare
41. urub de blocare
42. plint (cui spintecat)
43. plint (cui spintecat)
44. Rulment de presiune (axial)
45. Niplu pentru ungere
46. Capacul jugului

17. Cross recessed pan head machine
screw
18. Split pin
19. Packing
20. Gasket
21. Gasket
22. Name plate
23. Yoke
24. Bevel gear (wheel)
25. Bevel gear (pinion)
26. Guide bush
27. Guide bush
28. Guide bush
29. Handwheel shaft
30. Indicator rod
31. Hexagon head bolt
32. Hexagon nut
33. Pin
34. Washer
35. Washer
36. Spring washer
37. Key
38. Key
39. Square head set screw
40. Set screw
41. Set screw
42. Splint pin
43. Splint pin
44. Thrust ball bearing
45. Grease nipple
46. Cap for yoke.




Valvul de trecere
Se utilizeaz ca armtur de reglare
i nchidere pentru: ap tehnic, ap de
mare, produse petroliere.

Valvul de trecere cu reinere
Se utilizeaz ca armtur de reinere
i nchidere pentru: ap dulce, ap de mare,
produse petroliere.

Valvul de col
Se utilizeaz ca armturi de reglare
i nchidere pentru: ap dulce, ap de mare,
produse petroliere.

Valvul de col cu reinere
Se utilizeaz ca armtur de reinere
i nchidere pentru: ap dulce, ap de mare,
produse petroliere.

Straight-way valve
It is used as adjusting and closing
fitting for: fresh water, seawater, oil
products.

Non return straight-way valve
It is used as non-return and closing
fitting for: fresh water, seawater, oil
products.

Angle valve
It is used as adjusting and closing
fitting for: fresh water, seawater, oil
products.

Non return angle valve
It is used as non-return and closing
fitting for: fresh water, seawater, oil
products.
52

Valvul cu sertar
Se utilizeaz ca armtur de
nchidere pentru: ap dulce, ap de mare,
produse petroliere.
Valvul cu sertar lungime variabil
Este o armtur de nchidere
destinat instalaiilor navale.
Valvul de col contragreutate
Este utilizat ca valvul de zon n
instalaiile de stins incendiu cu CO
2
a
compartimentelor aprate contra
incendiilor la bordul navelor.
Valvul dreapt cu contragreutate
Este o armtur industrial de
nchidere-deschidere complet, utilizat ca
valvul de zon n instalaiile de stins
incendiu cu CO
2
a compartimentelor
aprate contra incendiilor la bordul
navelor.
Robinet butelie
Este destinat instalaiei de stins
incendiu cu CO
2
n compartimentele
aprate contra incendiilor la bordul
navelor.
Clapet cu reinere CO
2

Este destinat instalaiei de stins
incendiu cu CO
2
n compartimentele
navelor.
Valvul dreapt nchidere rapid
Se utilizeaz ca armtur de
nchidere pentru: ap, aer comprimat,
produse petroliere.
Valvul de col nchidere rapid
Se utilizeaz ca armtur de
nchidere pentru: ap, aer comprimat,
produse petroliere.
Valvul de bordaj dreapt
Se utilizeaz ca armtur de reglare
i nchidere pentru: ap dulce, ap de mare,
produse petroliere.
Valvul de bordaj de col
Se utilizeaz ca armtur de reglare
i nchidere pentru: ap, spum
aeromecanic, produse petroliere.
Valvul de siguran de col
Se utilizeaz ca armtur de reglare
i nchidere pentru: ap, spum
aeromecanic, produse petroliere.
Valvul de siguran pentru aburi
Se utilizeaz ca armtur de reglare
i nchidere pentru abur.
Robinet serviciu nchidere automat
Se utilizeaz ca armtur de reglare
i nchidere pentru instalaiile de ungere i
combustibil.


Slide valve
It is used as closing fitting for: fresh
water, seawater, oil products.

Adjustable length slide valve
It is a closing fitting for naval
systems.
Angle counter weight valve
It is used as a zone valve for CO
2

fire fighting systems of the fire-protected
rooms on board of a ship.

Straight counter weight valve
It is an industrial fitting for
complete closing-opening, used as a zone
valve for the CO
2
fire fighting systems of
the fire-protected rooms on board of a ship.


Bottle cock
It is used in the CO
2
fire fighting
systems in the fire-protected rooms on
board of a ship.

CO
2
non-return flap
It is used in the CO
2
fire fighting
system in the ship rooms.

Quick straight check valve
It is used as closing fitting for:
water, compressed air, oil products.

Quick angle check valve
It is used as closing fitting for
water, compressed air, oil products.

Side straight valve
It is used as adjusting and closing
fitting for: water, seawater, oil products.

Side angle valve
It is used as adjusting and closing
fitting for: water, mechanic foam, oil
products.
Angle safety valve
It is used as closing fitting for:
water, mechanic foam, oil products.

Steam safety valve
It is used as adjusting and closing
fitting for steam.
Automatic check service cock
It is used as closing fitting for the
lubricating (lube.) and fuel oil systems.


53
Valvul nchidere automat
Se utilizeaz ca armtur de
nchidere pentru instalaiile de ungere i
combustibil.
Valvul nchidere automat de col
Se utilizeaz ca armtur de
nchidere pentru instalaiile de ungere i
combustibil.
Hidrant drept
Este utilizat n cadrul instalaiilor de
stins incendiul cu ap.
Hidrant de col
Este utilizat n cadrul instalaiilor de
stins incendiul cu ap.
Valvul purjare inferioar
Se monteaz la cldrile de abur din
instalaiile navale, pentru extracia de fund.
Valvul dubl de siguran
Se monteaz n cadrul instalaiilor
navale de caldarine
Robinet cu cep drept
Se utilizeaz ca armtur de
nchidere pentru: ap, produse petroliere.
Robinet serviciu autonchidere
Se utilizeaz pe tancuri pentru
controlul sau pentru purjare n cadrul
instalaiilor de ungere sau combustibil.
Robinet cu trei ci
Se utilizeaz pentru acionarea
pneumatic a capacelor spirai.
Robinet de siguran
Se monteaz n cadrul instalaiilor
navale sau pe recipieni sub presiune cu
scopul de a regla presiunea din interior
cnd aceasta crete peste valoarea
prescris.
Clapet reinere bordaj
Are rolul de evacuare a apei
reziduale i a impuritilor din tubulatura
instalaiei de scurgeri generale.
Clapet cu flotor
Se monteaz pe conductele de
scurgere a produselor petroliere, avnd
rolul de a reine lichidul n tancuri n cazul
deversrii lichidului sau spargerii,
eliminnd pericolul de inundare a navei.

Valv fluture
Se utilizeaz pentru controlul
debitului la reglarea puterii de ieire cu o
eficien mrit i cu o pierdere minim de
ap i pentru siguran n condiiile
vehiculrii unor mari cantiti de ap.
Automatic check valve
It is used as closing fitting for the
lubricating (lube.) and fuel oil systems.

Angle automatic check valve
It is used as closing fitting for the
lubricating and fuel oil systems.

Straight hydrant
It is used within water fire fighting
systems.
Angle hydrant
It is used within water fire fighting
systems.
Lower pourging valve
It is mounted on the steam boilers
in the ship systems for bottom pourging.
Double safety valve
It is mounted within the ship boilers
systems.
Straight stop cock
It is used as closing fitting for:
water, oil products.
Self closing service cock
It is mounted on tanks for control or
discharge within the lube or fuel oil
systems.
Three way cock
It is used for air driving at skylight
covers.
Safety cock
It is mounted within the naval
systems or on tanks under pressure to
adjust the internal pressure when this
pressure exceeds the established value.

Side non-return flap
It is intended for residual water or
impurities from general scupper discharge.

Float flap
It is mounted on the oil product
leakage piping, having the function to
retain the liquid in the tank in case of
overflowing discharge or breaking,
eliminating the possibility of ship
overflowing.
Butterfly valve
It is used to control water flow in
order to regulate power output with
sustained efficiency and minimum waste of
water and to ensure safety under inertial
flow conditions of large masses of water.

54
Capitolul 9
Materiale
Unit 9
Materials


Un material este n general folosit
pentru c ofer rezistena necesar,
aparen i alte proprieti la un cost
minim.
Lemnul a fost primul material
folosit de ctre om pentru construirea
ambarcaiunilor. n zilele noastre ns
lemnul mai este utilizat numai la
construcia ambarcaiunilor mici (brci de
salvare, brci de pescuit sau agrement), a
unor nave nepropulsate (bacuri, lepuri)
sau pentru confecionarea punilor. Lemnul
mai este utilizat la confecionarea
materialelor pentru vitalitatea navei i a
mobilei i amenajrilor interioare.
Metalele sunt cele mai utilizate
materiale n construciile navale.
Principalele avantaje ale metalelor sunt
rezistena i tenacitatea lor.
Nu toate metalele sunt rezistente.
Cuprul i aluminiul, de exemplu, sunt
ambele foarte slabe.
Metalele pot fi produse s
ndeplineasc orice cerin sau specificaie
tehnic.
Alierea este o metod important
pentru obinerea oricror proprieti
speciale sunt cerute: rezisten, tenacitate,
rezisten la uzur, proprieti magnetice i
rezisten electric sau rezisten la
coroziune.
Proprietile metalelor pot fi mai
departe mbuntite prin folosirea
tratamentelor termice. Tratament termic
este denumirea unui numr de procedee
diferite prin care proprietile metalelor i
aliajelor sunt schimbate. De obicei const
din nclzirea metalului sau aliajului la o
anumit temperatur, sub punctul su de
topire, meninerea lui la aceast
temperatur pentru o anumit perioad de
timp i apoi rcirea lui cu o anumit vitez
pentru a obine orice proprieti speciale
sunt cerute.

A material is generally used
because it offers the required strength,
appearance, and other properties at
minimum cost.
Wood was the first material used by
man for ship building. But nowadays,
wood is only used to build small ships
(lifeboats, fishing boats or recreation
boats), some dumb boats (float bridges,
scows) or decks. Wood is also used for ship
safety equipment and ships furniture.




Metals are the most commonly used
materials in ship constructions. The main
advantages of metals are their strength and
toughness.
Not all metals are strong. Copper
and aluminium, for example, are both fairly
weak.
Metals can be produced to meet
every kind of engineering specification and
requirement.
Alloying is an important method of
obtaining whatever special properties are
required: strength, toughness, resistance to
wear, magnetic properties and high
electrical resistance or corrosion resistance.

The properties of a metal can be
further improved by use of heat treatment.
Heat treatment is the term given to a
number of different procedures in which
the properties of metals and alloys are
changed. It usually consists of heating the
metal or alloy to a selected temperature
below its melting point, maintaining it at
that temperature for a certain time and then
cooling it at a certain rate to obtain
whatever special properties are required.



55

Principalele tratamente termice
sunt:
Clirea, care este folosit spre a
face metalele mai rigide. Acest tratament
este caracteristic oelului, dar poate fi
aplicat fontelor cenuii i anumitor metale
i aliaje neferoase. Clirea const n
nclzirea i meninerea temperaturii
metalului la o temperatur superioar i
urmat de o rcire rapid n ap sau alte
soluii.
Revenirea, care face metalele i
aliajele mai maleabile i mai puin casante.
Acest tratament const dintr-o nclzire la o
temperatur inferioar urmat de o rcire
lent i se aplic metalelor clite.
Recoacerea, care se efectueaz
pentru a face un metal moale astfel nct s
poat fi prelucrat mai uor. Acest tratament
const dintr-o nclzire la o temperatur
nalt , o meninere i o rcire lent.
Nitrurarea, este un tratament
termic pentru durificarea prii exterioare a
materialului, n timp ce la interior acesta
rmne tenace. Aceasta este un tratament
final, nu se mai aplic nici o alt prelucrare
termic sau mecanic dup aceasta.

Cele mai utilizate metale i aliaje
metalice la bordul navei sunt:
Oelul: majoritatea prilor com-
ponente ale sistemului de osatur i
nveliul corpului sunt construite din
oel de laminare denumit oel laminat;
Oelul forjat: care este folosit pentru
tijele pistoanelor n partea de abur i
manipulare combustibil; pentru cuplaje;
Oel forjat Siemens Martin: care se
folosete pentru bielele i arborii cotii
ai compresoarelor;
Oel inoxidabil: care este folosit pentru
supape la pompele de alimentare cu
ap; axul pompei de vacuum. Acest oel
poate fi aliat cu crom la duzele
turbinelor (13%Cr), lamele turbinelor
(12%Cr) i supapa de laminare;
Oel nitrurat: care se folosete pentru
uruburile i angrenajele pompelor cu
urub i celor cu roi dinate;
Oel de nalt calitate: care este folosit
n general la arborii cotii;
The main heat treatment procedures
are:
Hardening, which is used to make
metals harder. This treatment is
characteristic for steel but it can be applied
to gray cast irons and some non-ferrous
metals or alloys too. Hardening consists of
heating and maintaining the metal
temperature at a high value, followed by a
fast cooling in water or other solutions.

Tempering, which makes the
metals or alloys softer and less brittle. This
treatment consists of heating the metal at
an inferior temperature, followed by a slow
cooling; it is applied to hardened metals.
Annealing, which is carried out to
make a metal soft so that it can be
machined more easily. This treatment
consists of a heating at a high temperature,
a maintaining and a slow cooling.
Nitriding, is a surface treatment
made for hardening the outside of the
material while keeping the inside tough.
This is a final treatment; no further heat
treatments or mechanical processing should
be applied.

The most frequently used metals
and metal alloys on the board of ship are:
Steel: major parts of the hull framing
system and plating are made from a
laminated steel called rolled iron;

Forged steel: which is used for piston
rods on the steam side and fuel oil
handling; for couplings;
Siemens Martin forged steel: which is
used for the compressors connecting
rod and crank shaft;
Stainless steel: which is used for valves
on the feed water pumps; vacuum pump
shaft. This steel can be alloyed with
Chrome for steam turbine nozzles
(13%Cr), blades (12%Cr) and governor
valve;
Nitrided steel: which is used for
screws and gears in screw and gear
wheels pumps;
High-quality steel: which is generally
used for crankshafts;

56

Fonta: care este folosit pentru
carcasele turbinelor; carcasele
lagrelor; cilindrii, segmeni i
supapelor pompelor pe partea de abur
i manevrare combustibil; carcasele
pompelor cu urub i cu roi dinate, a
pompelor centrifuge (pentru pompa de
circulaie a cldrii i pentru circularea
apei tehnice);
Fonta Mehanite: care este utilizat
pentru blocul cilindrilor;
Fonta perlitic: care este utilizat
pentru cmile cilindrilor;
Cuprul: care este utilizat pentru evile
rcitoarelor de aer;
Bronzul: care este folosit la anumite
valve;
Bronzul rou: care este un aliaj Cu 87-
80% i Sn 13-15% i este utilizat pentru
cuzinei; cmile cilindrilor la pompele
pentru circulat ap de mare, pompele de
alimentare cu ap i celor de stripping;
Aluminiul: este foarte mult folosit n
construciile navale. Acesta se folosete
pentru: motoare, tubulaturi etc. S-au
realizat chiar nave n ntregime din
aluminiu.
Bronzul cu aluminiu: care este folosit
la cuzineii axului i la rotorul pompelor
centrifugale de circulaie ap de mare;
pentru rotorul pompelor de vacuum;
Bronzul cu magneziu: care este folosit
pentru supapele i tijele pistoanelor la
pompele de ap de mare i de
alimentare cu ap;
Bronzul cu fosfor: care este folosit
pentru rotorul pompei de ap tehnic;
Alama cu aluminiu: care este folosit
la tuburile schimbtoarelor de cldur;
Metalul antifriciune (alb): folosit
pentru cptuirea suprafeelor de
reazem.

Cast iron: which is used for turbine
casings; bearing boxes; pump cylinders;
pump pistons, piston rings and valves
on the steam side and fuel oil handling;
casings on the screw and gear pumps,
centrifugal pumps (for boiler water
circulation and fresh water handling);


Mehanite cast iron: which is used for
the cylinder block;
Pearlitic cast iron: which is used for
cylinder liners;
Copper: which is used for air coolers
pipes;
Bronze: which is used for some valves;

Gunmetal: which is an Cu 87-80% and
Sn 13-15% alloy and is used for bushes;
cylinder liners and pistons on the sea
water handling, feed water and stripper
pumps;
Aluminium: is used a lot in ship
constructions. It is used for engines,
pipes etc. There have even been ships
constructed entirely by aluminium.

Aluminium bronze: which is used for
shaft sleeves and impeller at sea water
handling centrifugal pumps; vacuum
pumps runner;
Manganese bronze: which is used for
valves and piston rods at sea water
handling, stripper pumps and feed water
pumps;
Phosphor bronze: which is used for the
fresh water handling pump impeller;
Aluminium brass: which is used for
heat exchanger tubes;
White metal: used for lining bearing
surfaces.


57

Materialele plastice sunt mai
uoare, mai rezistente la coroziune dar,
acestea nu sunt n mod obinuit att de
rezistente ca metalele. O problem cu
aceste materiale este c acestea ard uor i
pot cauza incendii. O alt problem cu
materialele plastice este ce se ntmpl cu
acestea dup utilizare.
Cele mai utilizate materiale plastice
la bordul navei sunt:
Bachelita: care este folosit pentru
segmenii pistoanelor la pompele de
circulaie ap de mare; De asemenea
bachelita se utilizeaz la aproape toate
carcasele aparatajului electric:
contactoare, relee termice, contro-lere,
comutatore, ntreruptoare auto-mate etc.
Polietilena: care se folosete ca
material electroizolant, pentru
ambalaje, diverse pri componente etc.
Polietilena este foarte rezistent la
aciunea agenilor chimici, dar se
topete uor.
Teflonul (politetrafluor-etilena): care se
folosete izolatori electrici, piese
solicitate mecanic. Teflonul este
neinflamabil.
Policlorura de vinil (P.V.C.): care se
folosete la realizarea izolaiilor pentru
cabluri, evi flexibile pentru instalaii
etc. PVCul se carbonizeaz, dar nu
propag flacra.
Polistirenul: se folosete pentru
impregnarea esturilor etc. Polistirenul
expandat se folosete la izolrile
termice la camerele frigorifice etc.
Polimetacrilatul de metil: care se
folosete la obinerea de lacuri i
adezivi, plexiglas etc.

Alte materiale folosite la bordul
navei sunt:
Fibra de sticl: pentru corpuri mici de
nav, tancuri pentru produse chimice,
rufuri, suprastructuri, brci de salvare,
Plastics are lighter and more
corrosion-resistant, but they are not usually
as strong as metals. A problem with
plastics is that they burn easily and could
be fire starters. Another problem with
plastics is what to do with them after use.


The most commonly used plastics
on board of a ship are:
Bakelite: which is used for piston rings
at sea water handling, stripper and fuel
oil handling pumps. Bakelite is also
used for almost all casings of the
electrical equipment: relay switches,
thermocouple relays, controllers,
switches, automatic switches etc.
Polyethylene: which is used as
insulating material, for packages,
various other parts etc. Polyethylene
has great chemical endurance but it
melts easily.

Teflon: (polytetrafluor-ethylene):
which is used for insulating, stressed
parts. Teflon is uninflammable.

Polyvinylchloride: (PVC) which is
used for cable insulation, flexible pipes
for installations etc. PVC chars but the
flame does not spread.

Polystyrene: which is used to
impregnate textures etc. Expanded
polystyrene is used for thermal
insulation of refrigerating chambers etc.
Methyl-polymethacrilyte: which is used
to obtain varnishes and adhesives,
plexiglas etc.

Other materials used on board of
ship are:
Glass fibre: for small hulls, chemical
tanks, deck houses, superstructures,
lifeboats, life raft casings etc.
58
carcasele plutelor de salvare etc.
Sticla: pentru luminatoare, ferestrele
cabinelor, sticle de nivel etc.
Cauciucul: pentru furtunuri, garnituri,
plute de salvare, izolaii etc.
Klingerit (clingherit): pentru garnituri
etc.
Betonul poate fi folosit n cons-
truciile navale avnd o inim de oel
pentru rigidizare.
Cimentul, care este utilizat n tancurile
de ap tehnic i tancurile dublului
fund.
Azbest: pentru izolri ignifuge;

Materiale pentru fabricarea parmelor :
- Cnep: care este folosit la
ambarcaiunile cu vele pentru c este
flexibil i nu se contract nici nu se
umfl dup contactul cu apa. Parmele
de cnep pot fi gudronate sau
negudronate.
- Inul: care este mai rezistent dect
cnepa;
- Manila (manel): care este folosit
pentru numeroase operaiuni legate de
manipularea mrfii i de legare la cheu
pentru c este rezistent i flexibil.
- Sisal: care este folosit pentru legare la
cheu i matelotaj. Este mai puin
rezistent dect manila, dar este mai
ieftin.
- Cocosul: sub form de fibre de cocos,
este folosit pentru funii de legare la
cheu i remorcare. Plutete foarte bine
i este foarte elastic, dar putrezete
uor cnd este umed.
- Bumbacul: care este rezistent, flexibil
arat frumos, dar este foarte scump.
- Nylon-ul: care este folosit la parmele
din fibre sintetice este rezistent la
traciune, elastic i foarte rezistent la
aciunea apei, dar se ntrete i devine
puin flexibil la temperaturi sczute.
- Terilen-ul: care este folosit pe iahturi;
are cel mai nalt punct de topire.

Glass: for skylights, cabin windows,
level gauges etc.
Rubber: for manifolds, gaskets life
rafts, insulating etc.
Klinkerite: for gaskets etc.

Concrete may be used in ship
construction with a core of steel for
strength.
Cement , which is used in freshwater
tanks and double bottom tanks.

Asbestos (asbest): for fireproof
isolations;
Materials for ropes:
- Hemp: which is used on sailing boats
because it is strong and flexible and
does not shrink or swell in contact with
water. Hemp ropes can be tarred or
untarred.

- Flax: which is stronger then hemp;

- Manila : which is used for a number of
operations connected with cargo-
handling and mooring because it is
strong and flexible;
- Sisal (henequen): which is used for
mooring and lashing. It is less strong
than manila, but it is cheaper.

- Coir (grass): which in shape of
coconut fibres, is used for mooring and
towing lines. It is very buoyant and
very elastic but it rots easily when wet.

- Cotton: which is strong, flexible and
has a nice aspect but is very expensive.
- Nylon: which is used for synthetic
fiber ropes; it is strong, elastic and
very resistant to the action of water but
becomes harder and less flexible at
low temperatures.
- Terylene: which is used on yachts; it
has the higher melting point.
59

- Polipropilena: care este folosit pentru
saule de loch i fungi, are cel mai
sczut punct de topire.
Cli: care se folosesc pentru izolarea
fitingurilor n sistemele de tubulaturi;

Lacuri, grunduri, vopsele, vopsele
antivegetative (cu plumb), smoal etc.
- grunduri, care sunt aplicate unei
suprafee curate pentru a-i asigura
protecie mpotriva ruginii i care
constituie suportul pentru stratul
urmtor;
- vopsele pentru straturile intermediare
care sunt folosite peste grunduri
nainte de stratul superior.
- vopsele pentru stratul superior, care
asigur o suprafa foarte rezistent i
dau culoarea cerut;
- vopsele termorezistente care sunt
folosite la radiatoare i evi nclzite
ct i pentru coul de fum al navei;
- vopsele antivegetative care conin
ageni toxici care sunt otrvitori pentru
fauna marin. Aceti ageni toxici
protejeaz corpul navei mpotriva
depunerilor biologice (corali, scoici
etc.);
- vopsele antiderapante, care sunt
utilizate pe punile exterioare, scrile
dintre puni etc.
- lacurile, care asigur o acoperire de
protecie transparent lemnriei;
- asfaltul (bitumul) care este folosit n
santine, tancurile de asiet i punile
metalice nainte de a fi cptuite cu
lemn.
Vaselin;
Uleiuri de ungere;
Uleiuri de rcire;
Pcur, motorin;
Crmid refractar: pentru izolarea
termic a camerelor de ardere a
cldrilor.
- Polypropylene: which is used for log
lines and halyards, has the lower
melting point
Oakum (hemp combing): which are
used to isolate the fittings on piping
systems;
Varnishes, grounds, paintings, lead
paintings, tar etc.
- metal primers, which are applied to a
bare surface to give protection against
rust and they act as a base for the next
coat;

- undercoat paints, which are used over
the primer before the top coat;

- top coat paints, which provide a hard-
wearing surface and give the required
color;
- heat-resistant paints, which are used
for radiators and hot pipes, and for the
ships funnel;
- anti-fouling paints, which contains
toxicants that are poisonous for marine
life. These toxicants protect the ships
hull against biological deposits (corals,
bivalves etc.);

- non-slip paints, which are used on
weather decks, companion-ways etc.

- varnishes, which give a clear
protective coat to woodwork;
- bitumen, which is used in bilges, peak
tanks and metal decks before they are
sheathed with wood.

Vaseline (petroleum jelly);
Lubricating oils;
Cooling oils;
Heavy fuel oil , Diesel oil;
Refractory brick: for isolating the
boiler combustion chamber.

60
Capitolul 10
Pompe
Unit 10
Pumps

Clasificarea pompelor:
Pumps Classification:

Pumps

Continuous flow
pumps
(hydrodynamic pumps)
Axial-flow pumps

Centrifugal pumps

Mixed-flow pumps

Single-stage pumps

Single suction
pumps
Double suction
pumps
Multi-stage pumps

Displacement pumps

Reciprocating type
Rotary type

Piston pumps

Single acting

Double acting

Ram pumps

Radial pistons

Axial pistons

Gear wheel pumps

Liquid-ring pumps

Screw pumps

Membrane pumps

Rotary plunger
pumps

Rotating slide vanes
pumps

Pompe

Pompe
hidrodinamice

Pompe axiale

Pompe centrifuge

Pompe axial
radiale
Pompe monoetajate

Cu intrare simpl

Cu intrare dubl

Pompe multietajate

Pompe volumice

Pompe alternative
Pompe
rotative

Pompe cu
piston

Cu simpl aciune

Cu dubl aciune

Pompe cu piston
plonjor

Dispuse radial

Dispuse axial

Pompe cu roi dinate

Pompe cu inel
de lichid
Pompe cu urub

Pompe cu membrane

Pompe
rotative cu
pistonae

Pompe cu palete
glisante

61

Aceast varietate de tipuri este
necesar pentru a satisface nevoile
instalaiilor auxiliare care sunt numeroase
i ndeplinesc multe funciuni (satisfac
nevoile motoarelor principale i cldrilor,
pentru manevrarea mrfii sau a altor lichide
n diverse instalaii cum ar fi instalaia de
santin i balast).
Pentru a corespunde cerinelor
societii de clasificare, proiectarea unei
pompe navale trebuie s ndeplineasc
urmtoarele condiii:
Construcia pompei trebuie s exclud
posibilitatea ptrunderii lichidului
pompat la lagre. Fac excepie pompele
la care lichidul pompat este folosit i
pentru ungerea lagrelor.

Presetupele pompelor amplasate la
partea de aspiraie se recomand a fi
prevzute cu un sistem de etanare
hidraulic.
Dac construcia pompei nu exclude
posibilitatea creterii presiunii peste
valoarea de calcul, pe corpul pompei
sau pe tubulatura de refulare trebuie s
fie prevzut, nainte de prima valvul
de nchidere, o supap de siguran.
La pompele destinate pentru pomparea
lichidelor inflamabile, supapele de
siguran trebuie s aib evacuarea n
spaiul de aspiraie al pompei.
Trebuie prevzute msuri constructive
care s exclud posibilitatea producerii
ocurilor hidraulice; folosirea n acest
scop a supapelor by-pass (de ocolire) nu
este recomandabil.
Turaia critic a rotorului pompei nu
trebuie s fie mai mic de 1,3 ori turaia
de calcul.
Pompele prevzute cu dispozitive de
autoaspiraie trebuie s funcioneze n
condiii de aspiraie uscat i de
regul, vor fi prevzute cu o instalaie
care s nu permit funcionarea
dispozitivului de autoaspiraie cu ap
murdar.
La pompele cu autoamorsare trebuie
prevzut un loc pentru cuplarea unui
manovacuummetru.
This variety of types is necessary in
order to suit the needs of auxiliary
machinery systems, which are in a large
number and have many functions (to
supply the needs of main engines and
boilers , to handle cargo and other liquids
in different systems like bilge and ballast
systems).
To comply with the Classification
requirements, a naval pump design must
fulfil the following conditions:

Provision is to be made to prevent the
penetration of pumped fluid into the
bearings. However, this does not apply
to the pumps where the pumped fluid is
also used for lubrication of the
bearings.
The pump glands set on the suction side
are recommended to be fitted with
hydraulic sealing system.

If the design of the pump does not
preclude the possibility of pressure
raising above the rated value, a safety
valve is to be fitted on the pump casing
or on the delivery piping, before the
first stop valve.
In the pumps intended for transferring
inflammable liquids, the by-pass from
safety valves is to be affected to the
suction side of the pump.
Provision is to be made to prevent
hydraulic impacts; the use of by-pass
valves for this purpose is not
recommended.

The critical speed of the pump rotor is
not to be less than 1.3 of the rated
r.p.m.
The pumps provided with self-priming
devices shall ensure operation under
dry-suction conditions, and as a rule,
are to be fitted with arrangements
preventing the self-priming device from
operating with contaminated water.

The self-priming pumps shall have a
spot for connecting a vacuum-pressure
gauge.

62

La pompele care vehiculeaz fluide
combustibile fierbini, etanarea
arborelui trebuie s fie astfel nct
pierderile aprute s nu provoace
formarea de vapori i gaze ntr-o
cantitate care s poat forma un
amestec inflamabil de aer i gaz.
Trebuie avut grij s se exclud
posibilitatea apariiei unei nclziri
excesive i aprinderea piesei rotative de
etanare din cauza energiei de frecare.
Atunci cnd se folosesc n construcia
pompei materiale cu o conductivitate
electric mic (mase plastice, cauciuc
etc.) trebuie s se ia msuri pentru
ndeprtarea sarcinilor electrice prin
includerea n aceste materiale a unor
adausuri constructive sau s se utilizeze
dispozitive de descrcare a sarcinilor
electrice i ndeprtarea lor de pe corp.
For pumps with hot combustible fluids,
the shaft sealing shall be so that the
leakage does not build-up vapours and
gases in an amount that could lead to an
inflammable mixture of air and gas.


Provision is to be made for precluding
the possibility of overheating and
ignition of the sealing rotating part due
to the friction energy.
When materials with a low
electroconductibility (such as plastics,
rubber, etc.) are used for the pumps
provision is to be made for removing
the electric charges by introducing
some conductive additions in these
materials or by using devices for
discharging the electric charges and
removing them from the body.
Fig. 10.1
1. Rotor blindat (nchis)
2. Camera spiral
3. Ax de antrenare
4. Flan de aspiraie
5. Flan de refulare
1. Shrouded impeller
2. Volute casing
3. Driving shift
4. Suction flange
5. Discharge flange


63

Cel mai utilizat tip de pomp la
bordul navei este pompa centrifug. (fig.
10.1)
La pompa centrifug un important
factor n funcionarea ei este acela c
presiunea crete n rotor datorit forei
centrifuge. O astfel de pomp const dintr-
un rotor care se rotete ntr-o carcas.
Fluidul intr n rotor n poriunea central,
numit ochiul, curge nspre exterior i este
aruncat n jur pe toat circumferina n
carcas. n timpul curgerii prin rotorul ce se
rotete fluidul primete energie de la pale,
avnd ca efect o cretere att a presiunii ct
i a vitezei absolute. Deoarece o mare parte
din energia fluidului care prsete rotorul
este cinetic este necesar s se reduc viteza
absolut i s se transforme o mare poriune
din nlimea cinetic n presiune dinamic.
Aceasta este realizat n carcasa spiralat ce
nconjoar rotorul sau prin curgerea prin
difuzor.
Pompele centrifuge sunt mprite
n pompe cu intrare simpl i pompe cu
intrare dubl. Ultimul tip are avantajul
simetriei, care n caz ideal ar trebui s
elimine mpingerea axial. De asemenea
acestea prezint avantajul unei suprafee
mari de aspiraie cu viteze sczute de
intrare care nu ar fi posibile n pompele cu
intrare simpl cu acelai diametru al
rotorului.
De asemenea pompele centrifuge se
pot mpri n pompe monoetajate i pompe
multietajate. Pompele multietajate sunt n
principiu construite din dou sau mai multe
rotoare identice care sunt dispuse n serie,
de regul pe un ax vertical. Debitul este
acelai ca la una singur, dar presiunea
total dezvoltat de unitate este produsul
presiunii unui etaj cu numrul de etaje.

Rotoarele pot fi de tip nchis
(blindat) sau deschis (neblindat). La
rotoarele deschise carcasa formeaz un
perete de mrginire pentru trecerea prin
rotor care necesit ca palele s aib un joc
mic cu carcasa. Dimpotriv rotoarele
blindate au trecerea prin rotor complet
mrginit. Rotoarele deschise sunt folosite
acolo unde materialul pompat este posibil
s nfunde trecerea prin rotorul blindat.

The most frequently used type of
pump aboard of a ship is the centrifugal
pump. (fig. 10.1)
In the centrifugal pump, case an
important factor in its operation is that
pressure increases within its rotor due to
centrifugal action. Such a pump consists of
an impeller rotating within a case. Fluid
enters the central section of the impeller,
called the eye, flows outwardly, and is
discharged around the entire circumference
into the casing. During its flow through the
rotating impeller, the fluid receives energy
from the vanes, resulting in an increase in
both pressure and absolute velocity. Since a
large part of the energy of the fluid leaving
the impeller is kinetic, it is necessary to
reduce the absolute velocity and transform
the large portion of velocity head into
pressure head. This is accomplished in the
volute casing surrounding the impeller or in
the flow through the diffuser.
Centrifugal pumps are divided into
single-suction pumps and double suction
pumps. The latter have the advantage of
symmetry, which should ideally eliminate
end thrust. They also provide a larger inlet
area with lower intake velocities than
would be possible with a single-suction
pump of the same diameter of the impeller.


Centrifugal pumps can also be
divided in single-stage pumps or multistage
pumps. The multistage pumps are mainly
constructed from two or more identical
impellers which are arranged in series,
usually on a vertical shaft. The quantity of
flow is the same as for a single one but the
total head developed by the unit is the
product of the head of one stage multiplied
by the number of stages.
Impellers can be either of shrouded
type, or unshrouded (or open). With the
unshrouded impeller, the casing forms one
boundary wall for the rotor passage, which
requires the vanes to have small clearance
with the casing. By contrast, the shrouded
impeller has rotor passages which are
completely enclosed. Open impellers are
used where the material being pumped is
likely to clog the passages of a shrouded
impeller.
64
1. Carcas
2. Roat dinat conductoare
3. Roat dinat
4. Dinte prsind camera de aspiraie
5. Dinte intrnd n camera de aspiraie
6. Dinte intrnd n camera de refulare
7. Dinte prsind camera de aspiraie
8. Aspiraia pompei
9. Refularea pompei

Pompele cu roi dinate au o mare
rspndire datorit robusteii i fabricaiei
relativ simple. Cu toate acestea folosirea
lor este limitat de presiunea maxim
posibil ( 200 daN/cm
2
). Pe scurt acestea
constau din dou roi dinare care
angreneaz. Aceste roi dinate se rotesc
ntr-o carcas. Una din roi primete
micarea de la motorul de acionare.
Camerele cu volum variabil se formeaz
ntre zona de angrenare, dinii 4, 5
respectiv 6,7, carcasa i capacele pompei.
Fiecare dinte care prsete camera de
aspiraie las un vacuum pentru lichid spre
a ptrunde nuntru. Lichidul intr in
spaiile dintre dini i este transportat
mprejur pn la camera de refulare. Un
fenomen asemntor se produce n camera
de refulare, cu deosebirea c dintele intr n
camer i foreaz lichidul n afar n
colectorul de refulare.

1. Casing
2. Driving gear-wheel
3. Gear-wheel
4. Tooth leaving the suction chamber
5. Tooth entering suction chamber
6. Tooth entering delivery chamber
7. Tooth leaving the delivery chamber
8. Suction side
9. Delivery side

The gear-wheel pumps are widely
used because of their robustness and their
quite simple construction. Even so, their
use is limited by their maximal pressure
(cca. 200 daN/cm
2
). In brief they consist of
two interlocking gear wheels. These gear-
wheels are rotating in a casing. One of
them receives the movement from the
driving motor. The variable volume
chambers are formed between the
interlocking area, teeth 4,5 respectively
6,7, the casing and pump covers. Each
tooth which exits the suction chamber
leaves a vacuum for liquid to flow into.
The liquid enters the spaces between teeth
and is carried round to the delivery
chamber. A phenomenon like that happens
in the delivery chamber with the exception
that the tooth enters the chamber and forces
the liquid out into the delivery tube.


Fig. 10.2
65

Pompa produce un flux pulsator.
Fluxul este cu att mai uniform cu ct este
folosit un numr mai mare de dini.
Debitul este egal cu suma
volumelor dintre dinii roii dinate.

The pump produces a pulsating
flow. The larger the number of teeth is
used, the more uniform the flow is.
The quantity of flow equals the sum
of space volumes between gear wheel
teeth.


1. Carcas
2. urub condus
3. urub conductor
4. urub condus
5. Aspiraia pompei
6. Refularea pompei


Pentru a mbunti uniformitatea
debitului se folosesc pompe cu urub. (fig.
10.3) Acestea sunt mai silenioase n
funcionare, au o durat de utilizare mai
lung, greutate i dimensiuni mai reduse, o
construcie compact i un debit uniform.
Pe scurt aceasta const din dou sau
trei uruburi care angreneaz i care se
rotesc ntr-o carcas.
Acest tip de pomp se folosete de
obicei pentru combustibil greu sau alte
fluide cu viscozitate mare.
1. Casing
2. Screw
3. Driving screw
4. Screw
5. Suction side
6. Delivery side


To improve the flow uniformity
screw pumps are used. (fig. 10.3) They are
more silent in operation, they have a longer
life time, smaller weight and dimensions, a
compact design and a continuous flow.

In brief it consists of two or three
interlocking screws which are rotating in a
casing.
This type of pumps is usually used
for heavy oil or other fluids with high
viscosity.

Fig. 10.3
66

Fig. 10.4 Fig.10.5

Pomp cu aciune simpl (fig. 10.4)
1. Cilindru
2. Piston
3. Biel
4. Arbore cotit
5. Supapa de refulare
6. Supapa de aspiraie
7. Aspiraia pompei
8. Refularea pompei

Pomp cu aciune dubl (fig. 10.5)
1. Cilindru
2. Piston
3. Tija pistonului
4. Prima camer hidraulic
5. A doua camer hidraulic
6. Valva de refulare a camerei a doua
7. Valva de aspiraie a camerei a doua
8. Valva de refulare a primei camere
9. Valva de aspiraie a primei camere

Cele mai utilizate dintre pompele
alternative sunt pompele cu piston. Aceste
pompe constau n principal dintr-un piston
care se mic ntr-un cilindru i un
mecanism de distribuie cu valvule unisens.
La pompele mari putem ntlni cma de
cilindru i segmeni pentru a etana
pistonul i mbunti frecarea. Pistonul
este acionat de un arbore cotit prin
intermediul unei biele. Uzual arborele cotit
este acionat de un motor electric.

Single-acting pump (fig. 10.4)
1. Cylinder
2. Piston
3. Connecting rod
4. Crank shaft
5. Discharge valve
6. Suction valve
7. Suction side
8. Delivery side

Double-acting pump (fig. 10.5)
1. Cylinder
2. Piston
3. Piston rod
4. First water chamber
5. Second water chamber
6. Second chamber discharge valve
7. Second chamber suction valve
8. First chamber discharge valve
9. Second chamber suction valve

The most frequently used of the
reciprocating pumps are the piston pumps.
These pumps consist mainly of a piston
moving in a cylinder, and a distribution
gear with non-return valves. At the big
pumps we can find a cylinder liner and
piston rings to seal the piston and improve
friction. The piston is driven by a crank
shaft by means of a connecting rod. The
crank shaft is usually driven by an electric
motor.

67

n acest tip de pompe volumul
camerei pompei este mrit prin coborrea
pistonului. Aceasta creeaz un vacuum n
care lichidul este tras din conducta de
aspiraie prin valva de aspiraie. Pistonul
este apoi ridicat, micornd volumul
camerei pompei i fornd n afar prin
supapa de refulare n conducta de refulare.

Pistonul poate fi de tip cu lame de
contact cnd este prevzut cu una sau mai
multe valvule unisens permind lichidului
s treac ntr-un singur sens. n acest caz
supapele ataate n exterior dispar.
Dac mrimea pistonului este egal
cu cea a tijei pistonului pompa este o
pomp cu piston plonjor (plunjer). Pompa
cu piston plonjor funcioneaz n acelai
mod ca pompa cu piston.
In this kind of pumps the volume of
the pump chamber is increased by lowering
the piston. This creates a vacuum into
which the liquid is drawn from the suction
pipe through the suction valve. The piston
is then raised, decreasing the volume of the
pump chamber and forcing the liquid out
through the delivery valve into the delivery
pipe.
The piston can be of bucket type
when it is provided with one or more non-
return valves permitting the fluid to pass in
one direction only. In this case the
externally attached valves disappear.
If the size of the piston equals the
size of the piston rod the pump is a ram
pump. The ram pump works in the same
manner as the piston pump.

Dac lichidul este aspirat numai la
deplasarea pistonului intr-un sens, pompa
se numete cu aciune simpl, dac ns
lichidul este aspirat n ambele sensuri avem
o pomp cu aciune dubl. n acest caz
avem dou camere de lichid, una de-o parte
a pistonului i una de cealalt parte, fiecare
fiind prevzute cu o valvul unisens de
aspiraie i o valvul unisens de refulare. n
consecin lichidul poate fi aspirat i refulat
pe fiecare curs.
If the liquid is only sucked on the
piston one-way the pump is a single-acting
pump, but if the liquid is sucked in both
ways we have a double-acting pump. In
this case there are two water chambers, one
on one side of the piston and one on the
other side, each of them being fitted with a
non-return suction valve and a non return
delivery valve. Consequently the liquid
can be drawn and discharged on each
stroke.


Fig. 10.6
68

1. Carcas
2. Disc nclinat
3. Butuc
4. Plac de distribuie
5. Pistona axial
6. Garnitur
7. Ax de antrenare
8. Lagr de rostogolire
9. Articulaie sferic
10. Fereastr de aspiraie
11. Fereastr de refulare

Pompele rotative cu pistonae (fig.
10.6) sunt frecvent utilizate n sistemele
hidraulice atunci cnd sunt cerute presiuni
i debite mari.
Aceste pompe constau din cteva
pistonae plonjoare dispuse axial sau
radial. Cnd pistoanele sunt dispuse axial
acestea intr ntr-un butoia rotitor care
alunec pe o plac de distribuie care este
fixat pe carcasa care nconjoar butoiaul.
Pistoanele sunt articulate cu un disc
nclinat prin articulaii sferice.
Butucul este rotit de un motor
electric. Placa de distribuie are dou
deschizturi astfel nct jumtate din
pistonae sunt n contact cu o deschiztur
n timp celelalte sunt n contact cu cealalt
deschiztur. O deschiztur duce la
conducta de aspiraie, iar cealalt la
conducta de refulare.
nclinaia discului d o micare
alternativ pistonaelor. Fiecare pistona
comunic cu o deschiztur pentru o
jumtate de rotaie i cu cealalt
deschiztur n cealalt jumtate. Aceasta
nseamn c jumtate din pistonae sunt n
cursa de aspiraie, iar cealalt jumtate n
cursa de refulare.
1. Casing
2. Inclined disk
3. Cylinder block
4. Distributing plate
5. Axial plunjer
6. Gasket
7. Driving shaft
8. Roller bearing
9. Spherical joint
10. Suction opening
11. Discharge opening

Rotary plunger pumps (fig. 10.6)
are widely used in hydraulic systems when
high values of pressure and flow are
required.
This pumps consist of several ram
pistons disposed radially or axially. When
the pistons are disposed axially, they enter
a rotating cylinder block which slides on a
distribution plate fixed on the casing
surrounding the cylinder. The pistons are
articulated with an inclined disk with
spherical joints.
The cylinder is turned by an electric
motor. The distribution plate has two
openings so that half of the pistons are
always in contact with one of them, while
the others are in contact with the other
opening. One opening leads to the suction
pipe and the other to the delivery pipe.

The inclination of the disk gives a
reciprocating movement to the pistons.
Each piston communicates with an opening
for half of a rotation and with the other
opening on the other half. This means that
half of pistons are on the suction stroke and
the other half on the discharge stroke.

Name of pump Suction from Discharge to
Denumirea pompei Aspir din Refuleaz n
Pumps for propulsive use
Pompe pentru instalaia de propulsie
Fresh water cooling
pump
Cooling service outlet.
Connection to be provided to
fresh water expansion tank.
Main engine cylinders & cylinders
covers.
Turbo-charger casings for main
engine.
Main generator engine.
Turbocharger casings for generator
69
Name of pump Suction from Discharge to
Denumirea pompei Aspir din Refuleaz n
engine.
Boiler water circulating pump
cooling.
Main air compressor through fresh
water cooler and heat
exchanger of distilling plant.
Pompa de ap tehnic
de rcire
Ieirea de ap tehnic.
Legtura prevzut spre tancul
de expansiune ap tehnic
Cilindrii i chiulasele motorului
principal.
Carcasele turbo-suflantelor
motorului principal.
Motorul generatorului principal.
Rcirea pompei de circulaie a
caldarinei.
Compresorul principal de aer prin
rcitorul cu ap tehnic i
schimbtorul de cldur al
generatorului de ap tehnic.
Sea water cooling pump Sea, high and low suction. Overboard via air coolers for main
engine and condensers of
distilling plant.
L.O. coolers.
Fresh water cooler.
L.O. cooler for turbocharger.
Fuel valve cooling diesel oil
cooler.
L.O. coolers for main generator
engines.
Plummer block.
Stern tube.
Pompa de ap de mare
de rcire
Casete de bordaj superioare i
inferioare
Peste bord prin rcitoarele de aer
ala motorului principal i
condensatorul generatorului
de ap tehnic.
Rcitoarele de ulei.
Rcitorul de ap tehnic.
Rcitorul de combustibil al
turbosuflantei.
Rcitoarele de ulei ale motoarelor
generatoarelor principale.
Lagrul palier al arborelui port
elice.
Tubul etambou.
Common reserve
cooling & auxiliary
condenser Circulating
pump
( Stand-by service of
fresh water cooling
pump and sea water
cooling pump)
Sea.
Emergency bilge
Auxiliary condenser, drain cooler
L.O. Cooler for cargo oil
pump & clean ballast pump
turbines.
Air ejector after cooler.
Overboard.
70
Name of pump Suction from Discharge to
Denumirea pompei Aspir din Refuleaz n
Pomp rezerv
combinat de rcire i
a condensatorului
auxiliar
(Pomp de rezerv
pentru pompa de
rcire cu ap tehnic
i cu ap de mare)
Mare.
Santin n caz de urgen
Condensatorul auxiliar, rcitorul
de ulei de scurgere. Rcitorul
pentru turbinele pompelor de
marf i de balast curat
Rcitorul de aer dup rcitor.
Peste bord.
Port service cooling
pump unit.
(Sea water handling)
Sea Overboard via fresh water cooler,
L.O. coolers for main
generator engines.
Air coolers for main generator
engine.
Pompa de rcire in port
(pentru ap de mare)
Mare Peste bord prin rcitorul de ap
tehnic, rcitoarele de ulei ale
motoarelor generatoarelor
principale.
Rcitoarele de aer pentru motorul
generatorului principal,

Port service cooling
pump unit.
(Fresh water handling)
Cooling service outlet for
generator engines.
Connection to be provided to
fresh water expansion tank.
Main generator engine cylinder
and cylinder cover.
Turbo-charger casings for
generator engine.
Main air compressor, via fresh
water cooler.
Pompa de rcire in port
(pentru ap tehnic)
Ieirea de serviciu de rcire
pentru motoarele
generatoarelor.
Legtura prevzut spre tancul
de expansiune ap tehnic.
Cilindrii i chiulasa motorului
generatorului principal.
Carcasele turbosuflantelor
motoarelor generatoarelor.
Compresorul principal de aer, prin
rcitorul de ap tehnic.
Lubricating oil pump L.O. sump (drain) tank (in
double bottom).
Main engine oil pan (emergency
use).
Main engine L.O. systems via L.O.
coolers.

Pompa de ulei Tancul de drenaj ( in dublul
fund)
Sistemul de ungere al motorului
principal prin rcitoarele de
aer.
Lubricating oil pump
for engine cam shaft
L.O. tank for cam shaft Main engine cam shaft.
Pompa de ulei pentru
axul cu came
Tancul de ulei pentru axul cu
came
Axul cu came al motorului
principal.
Lubricating oil pump
for turbo-charger
L.O. sump tank for turbo-
chargers.
L.O. gravity tank for turbo-
chargers via L.O. cooler for
turbo-chargers.
Pompa de ulei al
turbosuflantei
Tancul de drenaj al
turbosuflantei
Tancul gravitaional de ulei al
turbosuflantei prin rcitorul de
ulei al turbosuflantei.
Fuel oil supply pump Diesel oil service tank via fuel
valve cooling diesel oil
cooler.
Fuel valve cooling oil system.
Main engine fuel pumps.
71
Name of pump Suction from Discharge to
Denumirea pompei Aspir din Refuleaz n
Pompa de alimentare
combustibil
Tancul de serviciu motorin prin
rcitorul cu motorin al
injectoarelor.
Sistemul de rcire al injectoarelor.
Fuel oil supply pump
(attached to generator
engine)
Diesel oil service tank via fuel
valve cooling diesel oil
cooler
Each fuel pump and fuel valve
cooling systems of generator
engines,
Pompa de alimentare cu
combustibil
(ataat motorului
generatorului)
Tancul de serviciu motorin prin
rcitorul cu motorin al
injectoarelor.
Fiecare sistem de rcire al pompei
de injecie i injector al
motorului generatorului.
Pumps for Steam Generating Plant
Pompe pentru instalaia de generare abur
Feed water pump Hot well tank Donkey boiler via feed water
heater.
Pompa de alimentare cu
ap
Baa cald Caldarina auxiliar prin
nclzitorul de ap de
alimentare.
Auxiliary feed water
pump
Hot well tank Donkey boiler
Pompa auxiliar de
alimentare cu ap
Baa cald Caldarina auxiliar
Boiler water circulating
pump
Donkey boiler (2ndary drum) Exhaust gar boiler thence to
donkey boiler (2ndary drum)
Pompa de circulaie ap
a cldrii
Caldarina auxiliar (tamburul al
II-lea)
Caldarina recuperatoare sau n alte
cazuri la caldarina auxiliar
(tamburul al II-lea).
Fuel oil burning pump
for donkey boiler
Diesel oil settling tank Fuel oil burner of donkey boiler
Pompa de alimentare
arztoare pentru
cldarea auxiliar
Tancul de decantare motorin Arztorul caldarinei auxiliare
Condensate pump Auxiliary condenser Hot well tank
Pompa de condensat Condensatorul auxiliar Baa cald
Pumps for Ships Service
Pompele de serviciu ale navei
Fuel oil transfer pump Fuel oil tanks Fuel oil tanks.
Diesel oil settling tank
Pompa de transfer
combustibil
Tancurile de combustibil Tancurile de combustibil.
Tancul de decantare motorin.
Fuel oil service &
transfer pump
Fuel oil tanks
Fuel drain tank
Diesel oil settling tank
Diesel oil service tank
Pompa de serviciu i
transfer combustibil
Tancurile de combustibil.
Tancul de drenaj combustibil.
Tancul de decantare motorin.
Tancul de serviciu motorin.
Lubricating oil service
pump
L.O. sump tank.
L.O. sump tank for generator
engine.
L.O. drain tank.
L.O. stuffing box drain.
L.O. settling tank for main engine.
L.O. settling tank for stuffing box.
Pompa de serviciu ulei Tancul de scurgere ulei.
Tancul de scurgere ulei al
motorului generatorului.
Tancul de decantare ulei al
motorului principal.
Tancul de decantare al presetupei.
72
Name of pump Suction from Discharge to
Denumirea pompei Aspir din Refuleaz n
Tancul de drenaj ulei.
Scurgerea de ulei a presetupei.
Bilge & ballast pump Sea.
Main bilge.
After peak tank.
Independent bilge
Drain cooler.
Overboard.
After peak tank.
Swimming pool.
Pompa de santin i
balast
Mare.
Santina principal.
Picul pupa.
Santinele independente.
Rcitorul de scurgeri.
Peste bord.
Picul pupa.
Piscin.
General service & bilge
pump
Sea.
Main bilge.
After peak tank.
Auxiliary condenser.
Overboard.
After peak tank.
Pompa servicii generale
i santin
Mare.
Santina principal.
Picul pupa.
Condensatorul auxiliar.
Peste bord.
Picul pupa.
Bilge pump Bilge.
Sludge tank.
Overboard directly and/or via oil
water separator.
Sludge tank.
Pompa de santin Santin
Tancul de reziduuri
Peste bord direct i/sau prin
separatorul de hidrocarburi
din ap.
Tancul de reziduuri.
Fire pump Sea. Fire main
Pompa de incendiu Mare. Magistrala de incendiu.
Fresh water pump Fresh water tanks. Hydropneumatic water service
system, one for potable, one
for wash and one for common
reserve for both systems.
Pompa de ap tehnic Tancurile de ap tehnic. Sistemul hidro-pneumatic de
serviciu, una pentru ap
potabil, una pentru splat i
una comun de rezerv pentru
ambele sisteme.
Hot water circulating
pump
Hot water heater. Hot wash water system for deck
service
(continuous running).
Pompa de circulaie ap
cald
nclzitorul de ap cald. Sistemul de ap cald pentru splat
puntea
(cu funcionare permanent).
Sanitary pump Sea. Sanitary service
(continuous running).
Refrigerating cooling for
provision.
Pompa sanitar Mare. Instalaia sanitar
(cu funcionare continu)
Instalaia de rcire a cambuzei.
Refrigerating cooling
pump for air
conditioning
Sea Refrigerating cooling for air
conditioning
Pompa instalaiei de
rcire pentru aer
condiionat.
Mare Instalaia de rcire pentru aer
condiionat.
73
Name of pump Suction from Discharge to
Denumirea pompei Aspir din Refuleaz n
Pumps for Lubricating oil & Fuel oil Purifying Plant
Pompe pentru instalaiile de separare ulei i combustibil
Pump attached to L.O.
purifier
(Suction side)
L.O. settling tank for main
engine.
L.O. settling tank for stuffing
box drain.
L.O. sump tank.
L.O. sump tank for generator
engine.
L.O. purifier via L.O. heater for
purifier
Pomp ataat
separatorului de ulei
(pe ramura de aspiraie)
Tancul de decantare al
motorului principal.
Tancul de decantare ulei al
scurgerilor presetupei.
Tancul de drenaj ulei.
Tancul de drenaj ulei al
motorului generatorului.
Separatorul (purificator) de ulei
prin nclzitoarele de ulei.
Pump attached to L.O.
purifier
(Discharge side)
L.O. purifier. L.O. sump tank.
Generator engines oil pans.
Pomp ataat
separatorului de ulei
(pe ramura de refulare)
Separatorul de ulei. Tancul de drenaj ulei.
Tvile de ulei ale motoarelor
generatoarelor.
Pump attached to F.O.
purifier
(Suction side)
Diesel oil settling tank.
Diesel oil service tank bottom.
F.O. drain tank.
F.O. purifiers
Pomp ataat
separatorului de
combustibil
(pe ramura de aspiraie)
Tancul de decantare motorin.
Fundul tancului de serviciu
motorin.
Separatoarele de combustibil
Pump attached to F.O.
purifier
(Discharge side)
F.O. purifiers Diesel oil service tank
Pompa ataat
separatorului de
combustibil
(pe ramura de refulare)
Separatoarele de combustibil Tancul de serviciu motorin.
Pumps for Distilling Plant
Pompe pentru instalaia de generare ap tehnic
Ejector pump Sea Feed to fresh water generator.
Water ejectors
Pompa ejectoarelor Mare Alimentarea generatorului de ap
tehnic
Condensate pump Distilling condenser of fresh
water generator
Distilled water tank.
Wash water tank
Pompa de condensat Condensatorul generatorului de
ap tehnic.
Tancul de ap tehnic.
Tancul de ap pentru splat.
74
Name of pump Suction from Discharge to
Denumirea pompei Aspir din Refuleaz n
Pumps in Main & Auxiliary Pump Room (tankers only)
Pompe n camera principal i secundar a pompelor (numai la petroliere)
Main cargo oil pump Cargo oil tanks.
Sea.
Overboard.
Cargo oil tanks
Pompa principal de
marf
Tancurile de marf.
Mare
Peste bord.
Tancurile de marf.
Cargo oil stripping
pumps
Cargo oil tanks.
Main pump room bilge.
Sea.
Main cargo oil pump casing.
Over board.
Cargo oil tanks.
Buffer tank for tank cleaning.
Pompele de stripping
marf
Tancurile de marf.
Santina camerei de pompare
principal.
Carcasa pompei principale de
marf.
Peste bord.
Tancurile de marf.
Tancul de nmagazinare pentru
curarea tancurilor.
F.O. transfer pump
(in auxiliary pump
room)
Fuel oil tanks Fuel oil tanks
Pompa de transfer
combustibil
(n camera auxiliar de
pompare)
Tancurile de combustibil. Tancurile de combustibil.
Bilge pump
(In auxiliary pump
room)
Sea.
Auxiliary pump room bilge
suction.
Fuel oil tank
Overboard.
Fire main.
Fuel oil tank
Pompa de santin
(n camera auxiliar de
pompare)
Mare.
Sorbul santinei camerei auxiliar
de pompare.
Peste bord.
Magistrala de incendiu.
Tancurile de combustibil.
Clean ballast pump Sea.
Ballast tanks.
Cargo oil tanks
Ballast tanks.
Overboard.
Cargo oil tanks
Pompa de balast curat Mare.
Tancurile de balast.
Tancurile de marf.
Tancurile de balast.
Peste bord.
Tancurile de marf.
Tank cleaning pump Sea.
Buffer tank via oily water
separator
Tank cleaning via salt water heater
& drain cooler.
Pompa de curare
tancuri
Mare.
Tancul de nmagazinare prin
separatorul de hidrocarburi
din ap.
Curarea tancurilor prin
nclzitorul de ap srat i
rcitorul de scurgeri.


75
Capitolul 11
Filtre
Unit 11
Filters





1. Corpul filtrului
2. Capac
3. Inel de strngere al capacului
4. Supap de siguran
5. Cep de ventilare pentru poziia
vertical
6. Garnitur
7. Intrare pentru poziia vertical
8. Scurgere pentru poziia orizontal
9. Cep de ventilare pentru poziia
orizontal
10. Supap antiscurgere cu reinere
11. Elemente filtrante
12. Scurgere pentru poziia vertical
13. Intrare pentru poziia orizontal
14. Ieire

Particulele metalice rezultate prin
eroziune, precum i cele chimice rezultate
prin oxidarea lichidului, pot ajunge pe
suprafeele active ale diverselor elemente
ale motorului determinnd griparea
pistoanelor sau lagrelor, uzuri abrazive,
discontinuiti ale peliculelor de ungere,
obliterarea supapelor sau distribuitoarelor.
De aceea cel mai rezonabil mod de a
menine i conserva un motor sau un sistem
hidraulic de nalt performan este pur i
simplu de a pstra sistemul curat.
Pentru a asigura puritatea
lichidului, n circuitul hidraulic sunt
introduse filtre. Multe tipuri diferite de
filtre sunt fabricate pentru a se potrivi cu
diferitele tipuri de sisteme hidraulice.
Filtrele sunt elemente de siguran prin
aceea c elimin contaminanii i prin
aceasta protejeaz sistemul. Mrimea
1. Shell
2. Cover
3. Cover clamping ring
4. Relief valve
5. Vent plug for vertical position

6. Gasket
7. Inlet for vertical position
8. Drain for horizontal position
9. Vent plug for horizontal position

10. Antidrain check valve
11. Filter elements
12. Drain for vertical position
13. Inlet for horizontal position
14. Outlet

Metal particles outcome from
erosion and the chemical ones, resulted
from the oxidation of liquid, could reach to
the active surfaces of different parts of the
engine causing stuck pistons or bearings,
abrasion, discontinuous lubricating oil
films, obstruction of valves and
distributors. Therefore the most sensible
way to maintain and preserve an engine or
a high-performance hydraulic system is
simply to keep the system clean.

In order to ensure the liquid
pureness in filters are introduced in the
hydraulic circuits. Many different types of
filters are manufactured to accommodate
the various types of hydraulic systems.
Filters are lifelines because they remove
contaminants and thus protect the system.
The size permitted for the filter pores
Fig. 11.1

76
admis pentru porii filtrului depinde de
jocul minim ntre perechile de frecare.
Productorii instaleaz iniial
filtrele, sitele i rsufltoarele. Ei
furnizeaz de asemenea manuale de
utilizare cu instruciuni precise pentru a
asigura o funcionare fr incidente a
componentelor sistemului. Cu toate
acestea, particule strine ptrund n sistem
de obicei datorit neglijenei sau ntreinerii
necores-punztoare sau prin uzura normal
a componentelor din sistem.
Exist trei clase de filtre: mecanice,
cu absorbant inactiv i cu absorbant activ.
Filtrele mecanice constau din ecrane sau
discuri strns ntreptrunse. n general
elimin numai particulele chiar grosiere
insolubile. Filtrele cu absorbani inactivi se
compun din materiale ca bumbac, sfila,
postav, psl, hrtie impregnat sau metal
poros. Acestea vor elimina particulele mici
de tot i chiar unele tipuri nltur chiar i
apa i contaminanii solubili n ap care se
gsesc n sistem. Materialele pentru filtrele
cu absorbani activi ca de exemplu
crbunele, nltur particulele prin
absorbie ct i prin filtrare. Acestea nu
sunt folosite ca material filtrant pentru
sistemele de ungere sau de injecie a
combustibilului. Acestea sunt, oricum,
folosite ca material filtrant pentru sistemele
de evacuare.
Exist cinci tipuri de filtre folosite
la bordul navei: filtre mecanice, filtre cu
suprafa, filtre de profunzime, filtre cu
discuri ambutisate i filtre centrifugale.
Filtrele mecanice cum ar fi plasele
de srm sau sitele previn intrarea n sistem
a particulelor strine de dimensiuni mari.
Acestea sunt clasificate n funcie de
numrul sitei care este n legtur cu
valoarea nominal micrometric.
Elementele filtrante ale filtrelor cu
suprafa sunt confecionate din hrtie
special tratat. Hrtia este ndoit n
convoluii (ncreituri) i dispunere
cilindric. Este ntrit la interior i exterior
i este echipat cu un dispozitiv de etanare
la partea superioar i inferioar. Cteodat
se folosesc elemente din hrtie multistrat.
Construcia filtrelor de profunzime
este mult diferit de cea a filtrelor cu
suprafa. Acestea sunt construite dintr-o
pies din material poros, estur de cupru
depends on the minimal clearance between
frictional pairs.
The manufactures originally install
the filters, strainers and breathers. They
also provide service manuals with precise
instructions in order to ensure troublefree
operation for the system components.
Nevertheless, foreign matter enters the
system usually through careless or
inadequate maintenance, or through normal
wear of the components within the system.

There are three classes of filters :
mechanical, inactive absorbent, and active
absorbent. The mechanical filter consists of
closely woven metal screens or metal discs.
It generally removes only fairly coarse
insoluble particles. Inactive absorbent
filters are composed of materials such as
cotton, yarn, cloth, thick felt, impregnated
cellulose paper, or porous metal. They will
remove quite small particles and some
types even remove water and water-soluble
contaminants found in the system. Active
absorbent filter materials such as charcoal
remove particles by absorption as well by
filtering. They are not used as filter
material for the lubrication or fuel-injection
systems. They are however used as filter
material for the exhaust systems.


There are five types of filter in use
on board of ship: mechanical filters,
surface type, deep type, edge type and
centrifugal filters.
Mechanical filters such as inlet
screens and strainers prevent large foreign
particles from entering the system. They
are classified according to a sieve number
which relates to micrometer rating.

The surface-type filter element is
composed of a specially treated cellulose
paper. The paper is formed in vertical
convolutions (wrinkles) and in a cylindrical
pattern. It is reinforced on the inside and
outside and is equipped with a seal on the
top and bottom. Sometimes multifolded
paper elements are used.
The construction of the deep-type
filter is rather different from that of
surface filter. They are constructed of a
piece of porous woven cooper material or
77
sau un cilindru de bronz format s se
potriveasc cu carcasa. Acestea pot fi
fabricate din bile foarte mici din oel
inoxidabil prinse mpreun ntr-o pies
rigid. Acest tip de filtru este mai eficient
i are o perioad de utilizare mai lung.
Filtrele din tabl ambutisat sunt
utilizate ca filtre primare pentru sistemele
de ungere i combustibil de alimentare; n
aceste sisteme multe discuri de cupru,
bronz, hrtie sau oel sunt fixate de un tub
central. Tubul central acioneaz ca o linie
hidraulic i direcioneaz uleiul spre
orificiul de ieire. Unele din aceste filtre au
n plus facilitatea unui curtor automat
sau acionat manual pentru curarea prii
exterioare a discului. Aceasta, desigur,
ajut la prelungirea duratei de utilizare a
filtrului.
Filtrele centrifugale sunt utilizate la
unele mecanisme cu micare de rotaie.
Prin rotirea lichidului suspensiile solide cu
densitate mai mare sunt proiectate pe
pereii filtrului, unde formeaz o pelicul
dens, cu aspect bituminos, prin
amestecarea cu aditivii din lichid.
n ceea ce privete construcia unui
filtru (fig.11.1), elementul filtrant este
ncapsulat ntr-o carcas. Inelele O sau
garniturile separ lichidul filtrat de cel
nefiltrat. Lichidul intr n apropierea prii
superioare a carcasei sau, n cazul filtrelor
nurubate, acesta intr pe la placa fix i
curge spre zona de ieire a elementului
filtrant. Presiunea din sistem foreaz
lichidul prin elementul de filtrare n zona
central. Lichidul filtrat trece prin orificiul
central i mai departe prin cel de ieire.
Unele construcii de filtre ncorporeaz o
supap antiscurgere cu reinere pentru a
preveni scurgerea lichidului din vas cnd
motoarele s-au oprit. Aceasta asigur
presiunea uleiului sau combustibilului,
imediat dup repornire. Unele filtre de ulei
cu curgere continu au fie o valv de
ocolire ncorporat fie o valv de ocolire
care e montat separat. Scopul acestei
valvule de ocolire este de a conduce uleiul
pe o cale ocolitoare, asigurnd lubrifiant n
sistem chiar i n cazul cnd elementul
filtrant devine ncrcat.

bronze cylinder elements formed to fit the
housing. They can also be made of minute
stainless steel balls joined as one inflexible
piece. This type of filter is more efficient
and has a longer service life.

The edge-types filters are used as
primary filters for lubricating and fuel-
injection systems where many cooper,
bronze, paper, or steel disks are positioned
over the center tube. The tube acts as a
hidraulic line and directs oil to the outlet
port. Some edge-type filters have an extra
automatic or a hand-operated scraper for
cleaning the outside of the disk. This, of
course, helps to extend the life of the filter.



Centrifugal filters are used at some
mechanisms with rotary motion. By
rotating the liquid, the solid suspensions
with high density are projected to the filters
walls where they form a dense film, with a
bituminous appearance, by joining the
additives from the liquid.
Regardless of the design of a filter
(fig. 11.1), the filter element is sealed in a
housing. O rings or gaskets separate the
filtered from the unfiltered liquid. Liquid
enters near the top of the filter housing or,
with screw-on type oil or fuel filter, it
enters via the adapter plate and flows into
the outer area of the filter element. The
system pressure forces the liquid through
the filter element into the center area.
Filtered liquid then passes through the
center and on to the outlet port. Some filter
designs incorporate an antidrain check
valve to prevent fluid from draining from
the filter bow when the engine is stopped.
This ensures instant oil or fuel pressure
when restarting. Some oil filters have
either a built-in bypass valve or a bypass
valve which is mounted separately. The
purpose of the bypass valve is to bypass oil
ensuring the lubricant to the system in the
event that the filter element becomes
plugged.




78

Pentru curirea filtrelor de ulei sau
combustibil, trebuie fcute urmtoarele
operaii:
pentru nceput nlturai capacul
apoi scoatei elementul filtrant
apoi splai elementul cu tricloretilen,
tricloretan sau alt solvent crend un
curent de fluid n sens invers sensului
de circulaie al combustibilului sau
uleiului; dac elementul filtrant este din
hrtie sau fibre textile se va nlocui

dup aceea filtrul trebuie suflat cu aer
comprimat n sens invers circulaiei
uleiului sau combustibilului, pentru
nlturarea particulelor solide.
apoi verificai suprafeele de etanare i
curai-le
apoi verificai garnitura sau inelele
O, iar dac sunt uzate nlocuii-le
apoi introducei elementul filtrant
potrivii garnitura
punei capacul i strngei uruburile
n final verificai etanarea.

Construcia filtrelor:
For cleaning the lubricating or fuel
oil filters the following operations should
be made:
first remove the filter cover
then extract the filtering element
then wash the element with
threechlorethylene, threechlorethane or
other solvent by creating a liquid flow
in reverse to natural flow direction of
lubricating or fuel oil; if the filtering
element is made of paper or textiles it
will be removed
after that the filter should be blown
with compressed air in reverse sense to
natural flow direction of lubricating or
fuel oil, for removing the solid particles
then check the sealing surfaces and
clean-them
after that check the gasket or O-rings
and if damaged remove them
then insert the filtering element;
fit the gasket
put on the cover and screw the bolts
in the end check the insulation.

Filter construction :


Filtru de ap naval de dimensiuni reduse
(fig. 11.2):
1. Corp
2. Capac
3. Jugul capacului
4. urubul jugului
5. Cep
6. Plac filtrant
7. Inel de etanare cu seciune circular
8. Garnitur
9. urubul jugului
Marine Small Size Water Strainer
(fig. 11.2):
1. Body
2. Cover
3. Yoke of cover
4. Bolt of yoke
5. Plug
6. Strainer plate
7. O ring
8. Gasket
9. Bolt of yoke

Fig. 11.2

79


Filtru de ulei naval dublu, de dimensiuni
reduse (fig. 11.3)

1. Corp
2. Capac
3. Presgarnitur, buc de presare a
garniturii
4. Cep de robinet
5. Mner
6. Cilindru filtrant
7. Sit metalic
8. Mnerul i suportul cilindrului filtrant
9. Jugul capacului
10. urub al jugului
11. urub de blocare supap de aerisire
12. Bil
Marine Small Size Duplex Oil Strainer
(fig. 11.3)

1. Body
2. Cover
3. Packing gland

4. Cock plug
5. Handle
6. Strainer cylinder
7. Gauze wire
8. Handle and strainer cylinder holder
9. Yoke of cover
10. Yoke bolt
11. Air valve keep bolt
12. Ball
Fig. 11.3

80
13. urub fr cap
14. Opritor
15. urub cu cap hexagonal
16. Prezon i piuli
17. Cep filetat
18. Inel de etanare cu seciune circular
19. Inel de etanare cu seciune circular
20. Garnitur
21. urub al jugului
13. Machine screw
14. Stopper
15. Hexagon head bolt
16. Bolt and nut
17. Screw plug
18. O ring
19. O ring
20. Gasket
21. Yoke bolt








Fig. 11.4

81

Filtru naval simplu cu plci de oel
(fig. 11.4)

1. Corp
2. Plac de fund
3. Reazemul plcii despritoare
4. Flana superioar
5. Tubulatura de intrare i ieire
6. Flane de intrare i ieire
7. Pies pentru montarea urubului
articulat
8. Picior
9. Ghidul cilindrului filtrant
10. Orificiu de golire
11. Capac
12. Nervur
13. Ansamblu pentru ridicarea capacului
14. Ram
15. Orificiu de aerisire
16. urub articulat
17. tift
18. Piuli hexagonal
19. aib
20. aib
21. plint, cui spintecat
22. Cep
23. Cep
24. Garnitur
25. Garnitur
26. tift de fixare
27. Inel de etanare cu seciune circular
28. Mnerul i suportul cilindrului filtrant
29. Suportul cilindrului filtrant
30. urub de strngere a cilindrului filtrant
31. Piuli hexagonal
32. Magnet
33. Suportul magnetului
34. Suportul cilindrului filtrant
35. Plac despritoare
36. Placa superioar a cilindrului filtrant
interior
37. Placa de fund a filtrului
38. Cilindru filtrant exterior
39. Cilindru filtrant interior
40. Sita metalic exterioar
41. Sita metalic interioar
48. urub cu ochi
Marine Steel Plate Simplex Oil Strainer
(fig. 11.4)

1. Body
2. Bottom plate
3. Partition plate seat
4. Upper flange
5. Inlet & outlet pipes
6. Inlet & outlet flanges
7. Swing bolt mounting piece

8. Pedestal
9. Strainer cylinder guide
10. Drain hole
11. Cover
12. Rib
13. Cover lifting mount
14. Frame planking
15. Air vent hole
16. Swing bolt
17. Pin
18. Hexagon nut
19. Washer
20. Washer
21. Split pin
22. Plug
23. Plug
24. Gasket
25. Gasket
26. Set bolt
27. O ring
28. Strainer cylinder handle and holder
29. Strainer cylinder holder
30. Strainer cylinder tightening bolt
31. Hexagon nut
32. Magnet
33. Magnet holding piece
34. Strainer cylinder holder
35. Partition plate
36. Internal strainer cylinder top plate

37. Strainer bottom plate
38. External strainer cylinder
39. Internal strainer cylinder
40. External wire gauze
41. Internal wire gauze
48. Eye bolt


82
Capitolul 12
Instalaii de for
Unit 12
Power Plants

Maini cu abur cu piston
Maina alternativ (cu piston) cu
abur a fost primul tip de main folosit la
bordul navelor. Acest motor este o main
termic care convertete energia potenial
a aburului n lucru mecanic.
Mainile alternative cu abur sunt
folosite din anul 1736 cnd Jonathan Hulls
a testat prima nav propulsat cu abur i
din 1755 cnd James Watt a inventat
maina cu dubl expansiune.
Chiar dac sunt aa vechi mainile
alternative cu abur sunt nc folosite i n
zilele noastre n ciuda randamentelor lor
sczute la petroliere datorit siguranei n
funcionare mai ales n atmosfera
inflamabil de la bordul acestor nave.
Motoarele alternative cu abur sunt
folosite pentru acionarea pompelor de
marf, pompelor de strip i a unor instalaii
de punte cum ar fi vinciuri i cabestane.
Mainile alternative cu abur pot fi
cu dubl aciune i cu simpl aciune.
ntr-o main alternativ cu abur cu
dubl aciune lucrul mecanic este produs de
un piston care se mic alternativ ntr-un
cilindru.
Aburul venit de la cldare este
introdus ntr-un sertar de distribuie cu
dou poziii. Sertarul i schimb poziia
alunecnd de la dreapta la stnga i de la
stnga la dreapta schimbnd sensul
aburului. Astfel aburul ptrunde n cilindru
ntr-o parte a pistonului determinndu-l s
se deplaseze n direcia opus. Dup o
perioad n care pistonul atinge captul
cilindrului sertarul i schimb poziia
dirijnd aburul n partea opus pistonului i
deschide orificiul pentru evacuarea
aburului din partea aceasta a pistonului
determinndu-l s-i inverseze micarea.
Aburul folosit merge mai departe ntr-un
condensator sau n atmosfer.
ntr-o main alternativ cu abur cu
simpl aciune lucrul mecanic este efectuat
de asemenea de ctre un piston ce alunec
ntr-un cilindru, dar acest piston produce
lucru mecanic doar ntr-o singur parte
(ntr-un singur curs).
Reciprocating steam engine
The reciprocating steam engine was
the first type of engine used on board of
ships. This engine is a heat engine that
converts the potential energy of the steam
into work.
Reciprocating steam engines have
been used since 1736 when Jonathan Hulls
tested the first steam-powered ship and
since 1755 when James Watt invented the
compound engine.
Even if they are so old, the
reciprocating steam engines are still used
nowadays, despite their low efficiency, in
oil tankers, because of their safe operation
specially in flammable conditions on board
of these ships.
The reciprocating steam engines
are used for driving the cargo pumps,
striping pumps and some deck machinery
such as windlasses and capstans.
Reciprocating steam engines can be
of double acting or single acting type.
In a double acting reciprocating
steam engine the work is performed by a
piston sliding alternately in a cylinder.

The steam coming from the boiler
is introduced into a two position slide
valve. The slide valve changes its position
by sliding from right to left and from left to
right, changing the steam direction. So the
steam enters the cylinder on one side of the
piston, causing it to move in the opposite
direction. After a period in which the
piston reaches the cylinder end, the slide
valve changes its position, driving the
steam on the opposite side of the piston,
and opens the discharge opening for the
used steam on this side of the piston
causing, it to reverse its movement. The
used steam goes further into a condenser or
into the atmosphere.
In a single acting reciprocating
steam engine the work is also performed by
a piston sliding alternately in a cylinder but
this piston produces work on only one side
(one stroke only).

83

Aceast micare alternativ este
transformat n micare de rotaie prin
intermediul unui mecanism biel-manivel.

Turbina cu abur

ntr-o turbin cu abur energia
aburului produs ntr-o cldare este
transformat n lucru mecanic prin
intermediul unor palete n micare de
rotaie fixate pe un arbore.
Principiul de funcionare al turbinei
cu abur este cunoscut nc din anul 1629
cnd Giovanni de la Branca a propus prima
turbin n miniatur de forma pe care o
tim. n zilele noastre turbinele cu abur
sunt folosite pentru propulsie n navele port
container rapide, submarine i sprgtoare
de ghea nucleare, n petroliere pentru a
aciona pompe mari de marf.
Pentru a obine lucru mecanic ntr-o
turbin cu abur, mai nti energia
acumulat n abur prin nclzire este
transformat n energie cinetic prin
destinderea aburului ntr-o serie de ajutaje
sau palete. Aceast energie este apoi
convertit n energie stereomecanic prin
intermediul paletelor ce execut o micare
de rotaie n jurul unui arbore.
Exist unele avantaje n folosirea
turbinelor cu abur, cum ar fi:
Turbinele cu abur sunt potrivite acolo
unde sunt cerute puteri mari, care nu
pot fi satisfcute de mainile alternative
datorit forelor lor ineriale.
Turbinele cu abur sunt complet
echilibrate pentru c nu au pri n
micare alternativ.
Datorit faptului c toate prile lor
aflate micare sunt complet acoperite
funcionarea lor este se face in deplin
siguran.
Sunt foarte economice la puteri mari.

Pot suporta sarcini mari.
Au mas mic i dimensiuni reduse pe
unitatea de putere.
Au centrul de mas mai cobort dect
cel al motoarelor alternative cu un efect
favorabil n stabilitatea navei.
Eliminarea complet a uleiului din
aburul evacuat.
This reciprocating motion is
changed into a rotary motion by means of a
connecting rod and crankshaft mechanism.

Steam turbine

In a steam turbine, the energy of the
steam produced in a boiler is converted into
work by means of some rotating blades
attached to a shaft.

The working principle of the steam
turbine has been known since 1629 when
Giovannni de la Branca proposed the first
small turbine in the shape that we know.
Nowadays, the steam turbine is used for
propulsion in fast container ships, nuclear
submarines and ice-breakers, and for
driving large cargo oil pumps in tankers.

To obtain work in a steam turbine,
the energy accumulated in the steam by
heating is first converted into kinetic
energy by steam expansion in a number of
nozzles or blades. This kinetic energy is
further converted into stereomechanical
energy by means of the blades rotating on a
shaft.

There are some advantages in using
the steam turbines such as:
Steam turbines are suitable for great
power demands, which cannot be
satisfied by reciprocating engines due
to their inertial forces.
Steam turbines are completely balanced
because they do not have reciprocally
moving parts.
Since all their moving parts are
completely covered, their operation is
thoroughly safe.

They are very economical at great
outputs.
They can bear great overloads.
They are small in size and weight
according to their output rate.
Their center of mass is lower than that
of the reciprocating engines, with a
good result in the ships stability.
The complete removal of oil from the
discharge steam.
84

Exist de asemenea i cteva
dezavantaje n folosirea turbinelor:
Sunt ireversibile.
Au consum specific de abur ridicat la
sarcini reduse.
Necesit un reductor.
Consumul specific de combustibil este
mai mare la folosirea turbinelor dect la
folosirea motoarelor cu combustie
intern.
Turbina cu abur este strict legat de
existena unei cldri.


Motorul cu aprindere prin scnteie

Motorul Otto a fost dezvoltat n
1865 de ctre Nicolas A. Otto i E. Langen.
Acest motor a utilizat principiul de
funcionare propus de Beau de Rochas n
1862 i a funcionat cu combustibil gazos.
Abia n 1883 au realizat un motor
funcionnd cu petrol, motor care poate fi
considerat predecesorul motorului actual cu
aprindere prin scnteie.
Acest motor cu ardere intern, ca i
altele, folosete un amestec de combustibil
drept mediu de lucru, de unde rezult c
energia termic din procesul de ardere este
disponibil n maina de producere a
lucrului mecanic, de exemplu ansamblul
piston-cilindru.
Din punct de vedere termodinamic
motorul cu combustie intern nu
demonstreaz strict un proces ciclic
complet pentru c amestecul de aer-
combustibil este ars i produsele de ardere
sunt evacuate n mediul nconjurtor.
Datorit particularitilor caracte-
ristice motoarelor cu ardere intern acestea
pot fi construite ca o instalaie de for
potrivit pentru aplicaii nestaionare i
funcionnd la temperaturi mari i de aceea
cu randamente relativ mari.

Ciclul Otto const dintr-un timp de
admisie la o presiune constant n fond, n
timpul crei perioade amestecul aer-
combustibil ptrunde n cilindru. Pe durata
celui de-al doilea timp, toate supapele sunt
nchise, iar amestecul aer-combustibil este
comprimat. Amestecul este atunci aprins
There are also some disadvantages
in using steam turbines:
They are irreversible.
They have high specific steam
consumption at low loading.
Their use requests a gearing.
The specific fuel consumption in using
steam turbines is greater than when
using internal combustion engines.

The steam turbine is strictly related to
the boiler.


Spark Ignition Engine

Otto engine was developed in 1865
by Nicolas A. Otto and E. Langen. This
engine used the working principle proposed
by Beau de Rochas in 1862 and worked on
gas fuel. Only in 1883 did they create an
engine working on petrol, being considered
the predecessor of the present-day spark
ignition engine.

This internal combustion engine
employs, like others, a fuel mixture as a
working medium, with the result that the
thermal energy from the combustion
process is available within the work-
producing machine, for example a piston-
and-cylinder assembly.
The internal combustion engine
does not, thermodynamically speaking,
strictly demonstrate a complete cyclical
process, since the fuel-air mixture is burned
and the products of combustion are rejected
to the environment.
Because of the characteristic
features of the internal combustion engine,
it may be built as a small compact power
plant suitable for nonstationary
applications and operated at high
temperatures and therefore at relatively
high efficiency.
The Otto engine cycle consists of
an intake stroke at essentially constant
pressure; during this period the fuel-air
mixture flows into the cylinder. During the
second stroke, all valves are closed and the
fuel-air mixture is compressed. The
mixture is then ignited by use of a sparking
85
prin intermediul unei bujii, iar arderea este
aa rapid raportat la viteza de deplasare a
pistonului nct volumul rmne aproape
constant. Atunci urmeaz timpul de
producere a lucrului mecanic, n care
produsele de ardere cu nalt temperatur i
presiune se destind cnd supapa de
evacuare este deschis la sfritul
destinderii, presiunea este rapid redus la o
valoare aproape de presiunea de evacuare.
Acesta este cu aproximaie un proces de
volum constant. La urm, n timpul
evacurii, pistonul mpinge n afar gazele
de ardere rmase n cilindru la o presiune
aproape constant.
Efectul creterii raportului de
compresie este creterea randamentului
motorului (creterea cantitii de lucru
mecanic produs pe unitatea de cantitate de
combustibil).


Motorul cu aprindere prin compresie

Acest motor a fost proiectat n 1893
de ctre Rudolf Diesel. Motorul lui Diesel
a fost un motor n patru timpi, motorul n
doi timpi fiind dezvoltat de ctre Clerk
Dugard n 1879.
Motorul Diesel difer de motorul
Otto n primul rnd prin aceea c
temperatura la sfritul procesului de
compresie este de aa manier nct arderea
este iniiat spontan. Aceast temperatur
nalt este obinut prin continuarea cursei
de comprimare pn la o presiune mai
nalt sau la un raport de comprimare mai
mare. Combustibilul nu este injectat pn
la sfritul procesului de comprimare i
este atunci adugat cu o vitez aa mic
raportat la viteza pistonului nct are loc
procesul de ardere, ideal, la presiune
constant.
n general, motorul Otto are un
randament mai bun dect motorul Diesel la
acelai raport de comprimare. Oricum
dificultile aprinderii timpurii limiteaz
raportul de comprimare la motoarele Otto
astfel nct la motoarele Diesel pot fi
utilizate rapoarte mai mari de comprimare
i de aceea pot fi obinute randamente mai
mari.
Motoarele cu combustie intern ca
de exemplu motoarele Otto sau Diesel sunt
plug, and the combustion is so rapid with
respect to the rate of the piston movement
that the volume remains nearly constant.
Then follows the work-producing stroke, in
which the high-temperature, high-pressure
products of combustion expand. When the
exhaust valve is opened at the end of the
expansion stroke, the pressure is rapidly
reduced to a value just above the exhaust
pressure. This is, approximately, a constant
volume process. Finally, during the exhaust
stroke, the piston pushes out the
combustion gases remaining in the cylinder
at about constant pressure.

The effect of increasing the
compression ratio is a growth in the
efficiency of the engine ( the increase of
work produced per unit of quantity of fuel).



Compression Ignition Engine

This engine was designed in 1893
by Rudolf Diesel. Diesels engine was a
four stroke engine, the two stroke engine
being developed by Clerk Dugard in 1879.

The Diesel engine differs from the
Otto engine primarily in that the
temperature at the end of the compression
process is such that combustion is initiated
spontaneously. This higher temperature is
obtained by continuing the compression
stroke to a higher pressure, or higher
compression ratio. Fuel is not injected until
the end of the compression process, and
then it is added in such a slow rate in
comparison with the rate of the piston
travel that the combustion process occurs,
ideally, at constant pressure.

In general , the Otto engine has a
higher efficiency than the Diesel engine for
a given compression ratio. However,
preignition difficulties limit the
compression ratio in the Otto engine, so
that higher ratios can be used in the Diesel
engine, and for that reason, higher
efficiencies can be obtained.

Internal combustion engines such as
Otto engines or Diesel engines are widely
86
larg rspndite n propulsia naval datorit
urmtoarelor avantaje:
O mai bun transformare a energiei
chimice n energie mecanic avnd ca
efect un randament mai bun.
Durate mici de pornire.
Folosirea acestora asigur mari
autonomii.
Nu necesit cldri.
Utilizarea acestora are ca efect valori
mici ale valorilor temperaturii n
compartimentul maini i de aceea
condiii mai bune de lucru pentru
personalul de deservire.

Dezavantajele lor sunt:
Au o construcie mai complex.

Constituie o surs de zgomot puternic
i sunt generatoare de vibraii.
Nu pot fi utilizate la turaii sczute.



Turbina cu gaz

Primul patent de turbin cu gaz
aparine lui John Barber din 1791.
Observarea motoarelor Otto i
Diesel a artat c utilizarea direct a
energiei gazelor cu presiune i temperatur
nalte, fr transfer exterior de cldur,
posed anumite avantaje n producerea
puterii:
Este de o construcie foarte simpl ( un
compresor, o camer de ardere i o
turbin).
Dimensiunile reduse i greutatea mic
raportat la puterea de ieire.

Principalele dezavantaje sunt:
Sunt mai puin economice dect
motoarele cu combustie intern i chiar
dect turbinele cu abur.
Dimensiunile mari ale schimbtoarelor
de cldur n cazul recuperrii de
cldur.
Pericolul de incendiu.


used in ships propulsion due to the
following advantages:
A better change of the chemical energy
into mechanical energy resulting in a
better efficiency.
Small starting timing.
Their use ensures great sail ranges.

They do not need boilers.
Their use results in smaller temperature
values in the engine room and
consequently in better work conditions
for personnel.


Their disadvantages are:
They have a more complex
construction.
They are a source of great noise and
they are vibration generators.
They cannot be used at low revolutions
per minute.


Combustion-Gas-Turbine

The first patent of a combustion-gas
turbine belongs to John Barber in 1791.
Consideration of the Otto and
Diesel engines has shown that direct
utilization of the energy of high
temperature and high-pressure gases,
without external transfer of heat, possesses
some advantages in power production:
It is of a very simple construction (a
compressor, a burning chamber and a
turbine).
Their very small size and weight
according to their output rate.

The main disadvantages are:
It is less economical than internal
combustion engines any even than
steam turbines.
The great size of the heat exchangers in
case of heat recovery.

The fire danger.




87

De aceea turbina cu gaz este
utilizat acolo unde se dispune de spaiu
mic i cererea de putere este mare, locuri
cum ar fi: avioane, nave militare sau nave
port container rapide.
Pe de alt parte, turbina este mai
eficient n utilizarea acestei energii dect
pistoanele n micare alternativ, n primul
rnd din cauza frecrii care nsoete
inversarea continu a direciei pistonului i
frecrii n funcionarea supapelor.
Turbina cu gaz este rezultatul
ncercrilor de a combina ntr-o singur
unitate avantajele combustiei interne i
turbinei.
Turbina cu gaz folosete gazele cu
nalt temperatur din spaiile de ardere
pentru a aciona o turbin cu expansiune.
Pentru a obine randamente ridicate
aerul trebuie comprimat (supraalimentat) la
o presiune de cteva atmosfere nainte de
ardere, exact ca n motorul cu ardere
intern cu piston prin antrenarea unui
compresor centrifugal, turbina i
compresorul funcionnd pe acelai arbore,
cu o parte din lucrul mecanic de la turbin
folosit pentru acionarea compresorului.
O astfel de unitate este o instalaie
de for, precum un motor Otto sau Diesel.
Therefore, the combustion-gas-
turbine is used where there are small spaces
and a great demand for power, in places
like: aircrafts, naval vessels or fast
container ships.
On the other hand, the turbine is
more efficient in utilizing this energy than
the reciprocating piston, primarily because
of the friction accompanying the continual
reversal of piston direction and friction in
the valve operations.
The combustion gas turbine is the
result of the attempts to combine the
advantages of internal combustion and the
turbine in one unit.
The gas turbine utilizes high-
temperature gases from the combustion
spaces to operate an expansion turbine.
To obtain high efficiency, the air
must be compressed (supercharged) to a
pressure of several atmospheres before
combustion, just as in the internal
combustion piston engine, by employing a
centrifugal compressor, the turbine and the
compressor operating on the same shaft,
with a part of the work from the turbine
used to drive the compressor.
This kind of unit is a complete
power plant, just like an Otto or Diesel
engine.

88
Capitolul 13
Motorul principal
Unit 13
Main Engine



Motor Diesel reversibil n patru timpi cu
turbosuflant Pri componente

Seciune transversal:
1. Postament
2. Blocul cilindrilor
3. Chiulasa
4. Arborele cotit
5. Biela
6. Piston
7. Cmaa cilindrului
8. Injector
9. Axul cu came
10. Mecanismul de acionare a valvelor
11. Tubulatur de admisie aer
12. Tubulatur gaze evacuate
13. Rcitor cu ap prin tuburi
14. Filtru dublu de combustibil

Seciune longitudinal:
1. Supapa de admisie i cea de evacuare
2. Suportul culbutorului
3. Tija mpingtoare
4. Tachet
5. Cam de comand
6. Pomp de injecie monobloc
7. Pomp de alimentare cu combustibil
8. Regulator de turaie
9. Consol de manevr a motorului
10. Tahometru
11. Suportul turbosuflantei cu gaze
evacuate
12. Termostat agent de rcire
13. Dispozitiv pentru verificarea vizual a
apei de rcire
14. Filtru dublu de ulei
15. Pomp cu angrenaje pentru uleiul de
ungere
16. Pompa cu pistona plonjor pentru apa
de rcire
17. Pompa centrifug pentru apa de rcire
18. Distribuitor de lansare
The reversible four stroke Diesel engines
whit turbocharger - Parts

Cross section:
1. Bedplate
2. Cylinder block
3. Cylinder head (cylinder cover)
4. Crankshaft
5. Connecting rod
6. Piston
7. Cylinder liner
8. Injection valve (fuel valve)
9. Camshaft
10. Enclosed valve drive
11. Charging air piping
12. Waste gas piping
13. Tubular water cooler
14. Fuel double filter

Longitudinal section:
1. Inlet and exhaust valve
2. Rocking lever jack
3. Tappet bar (push rod)
4. Valve tappet
5. Control cam
6. Block-type injection pump (fuel pump)
7. Fuel supply pump
8. Speed governor
9. Engine operating stand
10. Speedometer
11. Waste gas turbo-charger attachment

12. Coolant thermostat
13. Cooling water visual inspection device

14. Lubricating oil double filter
15. Lubricating oil gear pump

16. Cooling water plunger pump

17. Cooling water centrifugal pump
18. Starting control star


89


90

91
Capitolul 14
Cmaa cilindrilor i chiulasa
Unit 14
The Cylinder Liner and Cover
Piese componente:
1. Prezon;
2. Piuli;
3. Piuli;
4. Prezon;
5. Tubulatur;
6. Garnitur de cauciuc;
7. Tubulatur;
8. Piuli;
Spare parts:
1. Stud;
2. Nut;
3. Nut;
4. Stud;
5. Pipe;
6. Rubber seal;
7. Pipe;
8. Nut;
Fig. 14.1

92
9. Prezon;
10. Piuli;
11. Prezon;
12. Capac;
13. Prezon;
14. Consola valvulei de lansare;
15. urub;
16. Garnitur de etanare;
17. Cep filetat;
18. aib arcuitoare;
19. urub;
20. Prezon lung, mediu sau scurt n funcie
de tipul motorului;
21. Piuli;
22. Prezon pentru corpul supapei de
evacuare;
23. Prezon;
24. Suport pentru valvula de siguran;
25. Piulia;
26. Distanier;
27. Prezon;
28. Nut;
29. aib arcuitoare;
30. Flan;
31. Inel de cauciuc;
32. Suport pentru injector;
33. Prezon;
34. Piuli;
35. Tubulatur;
36. Prezon;
37. Prezon;
38. Piuli;
39. Inel de cauciuc;
40. Prezon lung, mediu sau scurt n funcie
de tipul motorului;
41. Chiulasa;
42. Inel (aib) de etanare;
43. Cmaa cilindrului;
44. Tubulatur;
45. Prezon;
46. Piuli;
47. Prezon;
48. Piuli;
49. Capac;
50. Prezon;
51. Blocul cilindrilor (blocul motor);
52. Garnitur (etanare);
53. Inel de cauciuc;
54. Ghidul arcului;
55. Arc;
56. Bil;
57. tift (bol);
58. Carcas;
59. Inel de cauciuc;
60. Inel 2/2;
61. Prezon;
62. Camera de aer;
63. Capac;
64. Capac;
65. Prezon;
66. Plac;
67. Piuli;
9. Stud;
10. Nut;
11. Stud;
12. Cover;
13. Stud;
14. Liner for starting valve;
15. Screw;
16. Gasket;
17. Screw plug;
18. Lock washer;
19. Screw;
20. Stud long, middle or short depending
on engine type;
21. Nut;
22. Stud for exhaust valve housing;

23. Stud;
24. Liner safety valve;
25. Nut;
26. Distance piece;
27. Stud;
28. Nut,
29. Lock washer;
30. Flange;
31. Rubber ring;
32. Liner F.O. valve;
33. Stud;
34. Nut;
35. Pipe;
36. Stud;
37. Stud;
38. Nut;
39. Rubber ring;
40. Stud long, middle or short depending
on engine type;
41. Cylinder cover;
42. Sealing ring;
43. Cylinder liner;
44. Pipe;
45. Stud;
46. Nut;
47. Stud;
48. Nut;
49. Cover;
50. Stud;
51. Cylinder frame;
52. Packing;
53. Rubber ring;
54. Spring guide;
55. Spring;
56. Ball;
57. Pin;
58. Housing;
59. Rubber ring;
60. Ring2/2;
61. Stud;
62. Air box;
63. Cover;
64. Cover;
65. Stud;
66. Plate;
67. Nut;
93
Cilindrul este suspendat ntr-un
cadru din font Meehanite de mare
rezisten. Cadrul formeaz o manta de
rcire n jurul prii superioare a cmii
cilindrului, pe care o cuprinde complet.
Etanarea ntre cadru i cmaa cilindrului
e asigurat prin intermediul unei mbinri
strnse n partea superioar i prin
intermediul unei presetupe la partea
inferioar.
uruburi distaniere ptrund prin
camera de admisie i cadrele A n scopul
de a transmite presiunea de combustie
postamentului.
Cmaa cilindrilor este
confecionat dintr-un aliaj de font
perlitic Ti-V avnd mare stabilitate i
rezisten chiar i la temperatur ridicat.
Cmaa este alezat fin n partea
interioar. In partea exterioar este
rotunjit pe toat lungimea. Cmaa este
prevzut cu ferestre de baleiaj pe toat
circumferina. Cmaa cilindrului este
fixat n partea superioar printr-un inel
ntre chiulas i blocul cilindrilor, pentru
dilatarea liber este prevzut un joc.
Etanarea dintre cmaa cilindrului
i camera de admisie (baleiaj) este realizat
prin inele de etanare din cauciuc.
Fiecare cma de cilindru are
cteva orificii, prin care este introdus uleiul
de la lubrificatoarele DSS (dependente de
schimbarea sarcinii).
Uleiul este pompat n cilindru (prin
ventile de reinere) cnd segmenii
pistonului trec de orificiile de ungere, n
timpul cursei ascendente.
Lubrificatoarele sunt de obicei
alimentate cu ulei de la un rezervor
gravitaional i sunt echipate cu un flotor
ncorporat care ine nivelul uleiului
constant. De asemenea ele sunt echipate cu
dispozitive de alarm pentru nivel sczut
de ulei i debit sczut de ulei.
Chiulasa este turnat dintr-o bucat.
Ea constituie suprafaa superioar a
camerei de ardere. Ea poate deservi unul,
doi, trei, patru sau ase cilindrii.
Chiulasa, proiectat din oel special
Cr-Mo asigur o mare rezisten la
temperatura ridicat. Chiulasele mai pot fi
confecionate prin turnare dintr-un aliaj de
fier coninnd carbon, siliciu i cupru.
Acest aliaj d elasticitate i bun
The cylinder is suspended in a
frame made of Meehanite cast iron of great
strength. The frame forms a cooling jacket
round the upper part of the cylinder liner,
which encloses it completely. Tightness
between the frame and the cylinder liner is
ensured by means of a solid joint at the top
and a stuffing box at the bottom.


Stay bolts lead through the cooling
jacket, the scavenging air box, and the A
frames with the purpose of transmitting the
combustion pressure to the bedplate.
The cylinder liner is made of a
pearlitic cast iron Ti-V alloy possessing
great strength and resistance even at high
temperature.
The liner is bored smoothly on the
inner side. On the outer side it is rounded
on its whole length. The cylinder liner is
provided with scavenge ports on its entire
circumference. The cylinder liner is
secured at the top by a collar between the
cover and the frame for cylinders, and
allowance is made for free expansion.
Tightness between the cylinder
liner and scavenge box is obtained by
means of rubber tightening rings.
Each cylinder liner has a number of
lubricating quills, through which oil is
introduced from the LCD (Load Change
Dependent) cylinder lubricators.
The oil is pumped into the cylinder
(via non-return valves) when the piston
rings pass the lubricating orifices, during
the upward stroke.
The lubricators are usually supplied
with oil from a head tank, and are equipped
with a built-in float, which keeps the oil
level constant. They are also equipped with
alarm devices for low oil level and low oil
flow.

The cylinder cover is cast as one
piece. It is the upper sealing surface of the
combustion chamber. It may serve one,
two, three, four or six cylinders.
The cylinder cover, designed of
special Cr-Mo steel, ensures great strength
at high temperature. Cylinder covers also
can be made of a special iron alloy casting
containing carbon, silicon, and copper.
This alloy mixture provides elasticity and
94
conductivitate termic i are un grad mic
de dilatare termic.
Chiulasa trebuie s fie suficient de
rezistent astfel nct s nu se fisureze ntre
tiranii chiulasei, ntre supapele de admisie
i evacuare (la motoarele n patru timpi)
sau ntre supape i injectoare (buce sau
guri).
n chiulas sunt presate ghidajele
supapelor care ghideaz tija supapei n
timpul nchiderii i deschiderii supapei.

Supapele trebuie dispuse astfel
nct jetul de combustibil poate atinge toat
suprafaa de ardere, dar trebuie s fie
ndeajuns de deprtate nct agentul de
rcire s poat circula liber printre ele prin
aceasta prevenind crparea chiulasei ntre
scaunele supapelor.
Valva de evacuare este situat n
centru, respectiv cele de lansare i de
siguran i injectoarele n jurul ei. Aceast
poziie central a valvei de evacuare este
fcut spre a da o bun descrcare a
gazelor de evacuare combinat cu accesul
uor la celelalte valve.
Chiulasa este suportul lagrului
consol al culbutorului supapei de
evacuare.
Mrimea chiulasei nu este
determinat de numrul de cilindri, ct mai
degrab de factori precum costul total al
motorului, proiectarea blocului cilindrilor,
numrul lagrelor principale, solicitarea
termic preconizat i dificultile
anticipate n rcire i etanare (a chiulasei).

Fie c este folosit cte o chiulas
individual pentru fiecare cilindru fie c
chiulasa acoper doi, trei, patru sau ase
cilindrii, aceasta trebuie totui s aib
rezistena i rigiditatea adecvat. Ea trebuie
s se comporte ca o suprafa de etanare
ntre cmaa cilindrului, faa superioar a
blocului cilindrilor, canalelor pentru ulei i
de rcire fr a deforma buca sau
supapele.
Canalele interne de rcire trebuie s
fie dispuse pentru a asigura curgerea
agentului de rcire cu o vitez mare n jurul
valvelor i tuburilor injectoare. Aceasta
trebuie s elimine cldura (bulele de abur)
i s previn acumulrile sau depunerile de
piatr. Canalele trebuie s nu fie nfundate.
good thermal conductivity, and has a low
thermal expansion rate.
The cylinder cover must be
sufficiently strong so that it does not crack
between the cylinder-head bolts (studs),
between the intake and exhaust valve (at
the four stroke engines), or between the
valves and injector (sleeve or bore).
The valve guides, who guide the
valve stem during the opening and closing
of the valve, are pressed into the cylinder
cover.
The valves must be located so that
the fuel spray can reach the total
combustion area, but they must be far
enough apart so that the coolant can
circulate freely between them, thereby
preventing the cylinder cover from
cracking between the valve seats.
The exhaust valve is situated in the
center and the starting and safety valves,
and fuel valves round it. This central
position of the exhaust valve is designed to
give a good discharge of the exhaust gases
combined with easy access to the other
valves.
The cover is the support of the
bearing bracket for the exhaust lever.

The size of the cylinder cover is not
determined by the number of cylinder but
rather by such factors as the overall cost of
the engine, the cylinder block design, the
number of main bearings, the expected
thermal stress, and the anticipated cooling
and sealing difficulties (of the cylinder
head).
Whether an individual cylinder
head is used for each cylinder or the
cylinder cover covers two, three, four or
six cylinders, it must nevertheless have
adequate strength and stiffness. It must act
as a sealing surface between the cylinder
sleeve, cylinder-block top deck, and oil and
cooling passages, without distorting the
sleeve or valves.

The internal cooling passages must
be located to ensure that the coolant flow
has a high velocity at and around the valves
and injector tubes. It must remove heat
(steam bubbles) and prevent the
accumulation of deposit or scale. The
passages should have no dead ends. The
95
Deschiderile exterioare trebuie s previn
tulburena i s permit circulaia
nestingherit de la blocul cilindrilor la
chiulas.
Chiulasa i mantaua de rcire sunt
mbinate prin intermediul unor prezoane
solide.
La demontarea chiulasei trebuie
aplicate urmtoarele reguli:
S nu se demonteze niciodat chiulasa
cnd e cald pentru c se va torsiona
(deforma);
Trebuie avut grij la demontarea
prezoanelor sau piulielor chiulasei;
Dac chiulasa este foarte grea folosii
un palanc pentru a o ridica de pe blocul
cilindrilor;
Dac chiulasa este mic, nurubai
mnerele de ridicare n chiulas pentru
a o ridica de pe bloc.
Dac chiulasa este foarte strns nu
introducei o dalt sau o urubelni
intre blocul cilindrilor i chiulas pentru
a o ndeprta, pentru c aceasta va
vtma ambele suprafee. Lovii uor
chiulasa cu un ciocan de bronz sau de
plumb sau folosii un bloc de lemn
pentru a o slbi.
Cnd se demonteaz chiulasa avei
grij s nu o deteriorai sau s
deteriorai suprafaa sau filetele
blocului cilindrilor.
Dac sunt folosite prezoane avei grij
s nu le ndoii.
Dup demontare, punei chiulasa ntr-
un dispozitiv de fixare sau dac cumva
e ptrat, o putei pune pe un banc de
lucru.
Examinai cu atenie camera de ardere
odat ce este descoperit. Cercetarea
atent poate adesea dezvlui cauzele
consumului mrit, supraalimentrii cu
combustibil, infiltraiilor de ap sau
supranclzirii. De asemenea pot fi
vzute defeciuni ale pistoanelor,
cmilor cilindrilor sau blocului
cilindrilor.
external openings must prevent turbulence
and permit unrestricted circulation from the
cylinder block to the cylinder cover.

The cover and the cooling jacket
are joined together by means of heavy
studs.
The following rules should be
applied when removing cylinder cover:
Never remove the cylinder cover when
it is hot because it will become
distorted (warped);
Care should be taken when removing
the cylinder-cover bolts or nuts;
If the cylinder cover is very heavy, use
a hoist to lift it from the cylinder block;

If the cylinder cover is small, screw the
lift handles into the cylinder cover to
lift it from the block.
If the cylinder cover is excessively
tight, do not drive a chisel or
screwdriver between the cylinder block
and cover to remove it, as this will
damage both surfaces. Lightly tap the
cylinder head with a bronze or lead
hammer or use a block of wood to
break it loose.
When removing the cylinder cover,
take care not to damage it or the
cylinder block surface or threads.

If studs are used, take care not to bend
them.
After removal, place the cylinder cover
in a holding fixture, or if happens to be
square, you may place it on a
workbench.
Carefully inspect the combustion
chamber once it is exposed. Close
scrutiny can often reveal the cause of
high consumption, overfueling, water
leakage, or overheating. Damage to
pistons, cylinder sleeves, and cylinder
block can also be seen.




96
Capitolul 15
Pistonul i tija pistonului
Unit 15
The Piston and the Piston Rod




Fig. 15.1

97

1. Segment (de piston);
2. Segment (de piston);
3. Segment (de piston);
4. Segment (de piston);
5. Segment (de piston);
6. Segment de ungere;
7. Canal pentru segment;
8. Piston parte superioar;
9. Piston parte inferioar;
10. urub;
11. Bol;
12. aib de siguran (de blocare);
13. Prezon;
14. Piuli;
15. Bulon/bol cu cui spintecat (de
siguran)
16. Tija pistonului;
17. Bol;
18. Cap de cruce;
19. urub;
20. aib de siguran (de blocare);
21. aib de siguran (de blocare);
22. Bol de ghidare;
23. Patina (capului de cruce);
24. Piulia tijei pistonului;
25. aib de siguran (de blocare);
26. aib de siguran (de blocare);
27. urub;
28. Presetupa tijei pistonului;
29. Intrarea uleiului de rcire al pistonului;
30. Ieirea uleiului de rcire al pistonului;
1. Piston ring;
2. Piston ring;
3. Piston ring;
4. Piston ring;
5. Piston ring;
6. Oil distributing ring;
7. Piston ring grove;
8. Piston upper part;
9. Piston lower part;
10. Screw;
11. Pin;
12. Lock washer;
13. Stud;
14. Nut;
15. Cotter pin;

16. Piston rod;
17. Pin;
18. Crosshead;
19. Screw;
20. Lock washer;
21. Lock washer;
22. Guide pin;
23. Guide shoe;
24. Piston rod nut;
25. Lock washer;
26. Lock washer;
27. Screw;
28. Piston rod stuffing box;
29. Piston cooling-oil inlet;
30. Piston cooling-oil outlet;



Pistoanele sunt divizate n dou
pri de o construcie extrem de rezistent.
Partea superioar, capul pistonului, este
executat din oel special Cr-Mo n timp ce
partea inferioar este executat din font
perlitic potrivit special funcionrii cu
cmaa cilindrului.
Fiecare piston este echipat cu un
numr potrivit de segmeni.
Funcia segmenilor pistonului este
de a asigura o etanare impermeabil la
gaze a jocului dintre piston i cma
cilindrului.
Etanarea este realizat de ctre
presiunea gazelor deasupra i n spatele
segmentului pistonului care l preseaz n
jos, pe partea inferioar a canalului
segmentului i n afar n peretele
cilindrului.
Pistons are divided into two
sections of an extremely strong design. The
upper part, the piston head, is made of
special Cr-Mo steel while the lower part is
made of a pearlitic cast iron particularly
suitable for working together with the
cylinder liner.
Each piston is provided with a
suitable number of piston rings.
The function of the piston ring is to
give gas-tight sealing of the clearance
between the piston and cylinder liner.

This seal is brought about by the
gas pressure above and behind the piston
ring, which forces it downwards, against
the bottom of the ring groove, and
outwards the cylinder wall.

98
De aceea pentru a asigura o
etanare optim este important ca
segmenii pistonului, canalele i pereii
cilindrului s aib forma potrivit i
segmenii s se poat mica liber n canale
(pentru c pistonul va face de asemenea
mici micri orizontale n timpul cursei).
Pentru c segmenii pistonului
lucreaz la o temperatur ceva mai mare
dect cmaa, este important ca ei s aib o
fant care s fie suficient pentru a permite
dilatarea termic suplimentar.
Segmenii pistonului sunt de forme
diferite n funcie de poziia pe piston i
rolul pe care n au.
Segmenii de piston pot fi de
urmtoarele tipuri:
segmeni de piston (obinuii)
segmeni de compresie
segmeni de ungere
segmeni de radere

Pistoanele pot fi rcite cu ulei pe
calea cap de cruce tija pistonului.
Tija pistonului este construit din
oel forjat pentru a asigura o mare
rezisten. In partea superioar este
prevzut cu o flan puternic (pentru
mbinarea cu pistonul) iar la partea
inferioar unde este mbinat cu capul de
cruce este prevzut cu filet pentru piuli.
Tija pistonului este alezat n centru
pentru a permite uleiului de rcire s
ajung la piston i napoi.
Capul de cruce este forjat din oel
dur cu fuse de mari dimensiuni. Acesta este
de asemenea alezat pentru a permite
uleiului s ajung de la tubulatura de rcire
la tija pistonului.
Patina capului de cruce este
executat din font placat cu metal
antifriciune.
In order to ensure optimum sealing,
it is therefore important that the piston
rings, the grooves, and the cylinder walls,
are of proper shape, and the rings can move
freely in the grooves (since the piston will
also make small horizontal movements
during the stroke).
As piston rings work at a somewhat
higher temperature then the liner, it is
important that they have a gap which is
sufficient to permit the extra thermal
expansion.
The piston rings are of different
shape according to the position on the
piston and the role that they play.
The piston rings can be of
following types:
(ordinary) piston rings
compression rings
lubricating rings
scraper rings

The pistons can be oil-cooled via
crosshead piston rod.
The piston rod is designed of forged
steel to ensure a high strengthening. At the
top it is provided with a heavy flange (for
the joint with the piston) and at the bottom,
where it is connected with the crosshead, it
is provided with a thread for the nut.

The piston rod is bored up on its
center to allow the cooling-oil to get to the
piston and back.
The crosshead is forged from hard
steel with journals of ample dimensions. It
is also bored to allow the cooling-oil to get
from the cooling pipe to the piston rod.

The crosshead shoe is made of cast
steel lined with white metal on the bearing
surface.

99
Capitolul 16
Biela i lagrele de pat (principale)
Unit 16
The Connecting Rod and the Main
Bearings



Biela
1. Piuli
2. aib plat
3. Cep filetat
4. Lagr parte superioar
5. Lain
6. Cap de cruce
7. Lagr parte inferioar
8. Biel
9. Bol
10. tift de ghidare
11. Lagr parte superioar
12. Lain
13. Lagr parte inferioar
14. Bol
15. Capac
16. aib de blocare

Lagrele principale (paliere):
17. Tubulatur
18. Tubulatur
19. Piuli
20. aib plat
21. urub
22. Capac
23. Lain
24. urub
25. Cuzinet superior
26. Cuzinet inferior



Biela transmite forele de la capul
de cruce (sau de la piston la motoarele fr
cap de cruce) la arborele cotit.

Biela este executat din oel forjat
i lungimea sa este de dou ori cursa
pistonului.
Lagrele bielei sunt separate de
corpul bielei i mbinate de acesta prin
uruburi ajustate.


The connecting rod:
1. Nut
2. Ring
3. Screw plug
4. Bearing upper part
5. Shim
6. Crosshead
7. Bearing lower part
8. Connecting rod
9. Bolt
10. Guide pin
11. Bearing upper part
12. Shim
13. Bearing lower part
14. Bolt
15. Cover
16. Lock washer

The main bearings:
17. Pipe
18. Pipe
19. Nut
20. Ring
21. Screw
22. Cover
23. Shim
24. Bold
25. Shell upper
26. Shell lower



The connecting rod transmits the
forces from the crosshead (from the pistons
at engines without crosshead) to the
crankshaft.
The connecting rod is made of
forged steel and its length is twice that of
the stroke.
The bearings of the connecting rod
are separate to the shaft and joined to the
later by fitted bolts.


100

Fig. 16.1

101

Tija nu este n furc (dar ar putea fi
la motoarele n V) i captul superior
(piciorul bielei) este prevzut cu flana pe
care sunt montate n uruburi lagrele
capului de cruce, n timp ce captul inferior
(capul bielei), pe care se monteaz lagrele
arborelui, este forjat n form de T.
Lagrele sunt prevzute cu laine pentru
reajustare. Lainele permit ajustarea jocului
vertical; jocul orizontal nu poate fi ajustat.
Lagrele capului de cruce i arborelui cotit
sunt confecionate din oel turnat (dur) i
metalizate cu aliaj antifriciune.
uruburile de biel din forjat oel
sunt gurite i tratate termic. uruburile de
la piciorul i capul bielei pot fi
interschimbate. uruburile au suprafee de
susinere a comparatorului de care este
fixat comparatorul cnd uruburile sunt
strnse. Scula permite strngerea sau
slbirea uruburilor de ctre un singur
inginer. uruburile de biel trebuie scoase
alternativ i uniform evitnd deformarea
lagrelor. Piuliele sunt prevzute cu blocaj
Penn.
Biela este gurit pentru ungerea
lagrelor capului de cruce. Jocurile i
ungerea trebuie verificate la intervale
regulate i ajustate dac este necesar.

Lagrele de pat (paliere) au cuzinei
din oel acoperii cu metal antifriciune.
Cuzineii inferiori sunt astfel dispui nct
s poat fi demontai fr ridicarea
arborelui cotit. Capacele lagrelor
principale sunt confecionate din font
rezistent i au dimensiuni mari.
Prezoanele lagrului principal sunt
suficient de lungi pentru a avea elasticitatea
necesar. Prezoanele sunt subiate la tij,
iar poriunea filetat nurubat n
postament este de lungime mare. Piuliele
sunt prevzute cu blocaj Penn. Jocul
vertical al lagrului este ajustat prin
intermediul lamelelor de reglare.
Lagrele principale sunt unse din
instalaia de ulei de joas presiune.

The shaft is not forked (but it might
be at V type engines) and its top end is
carried out with a flange onto which the
crosshead bearings are bolted, whereas the
bottom end, to which the crank shells are
bolted, is forged in T-shape. The
bearings are provided with shims for re-
adjustment. The shims allow adjustment of
the vertical play; the horizontal play can
not be adjusted. Crosshead bearings and
crank bearings are made of cast steel and
lined with white metal.

The forged steel connecting rod
bolts are bored up and heat-treated. The top
and bottom connecting rod bolts can be
interchanged. The bolts have
counterholding surfaces on which the tool
is fitted when the bolts are tightened. The
tool permits tightening and loosening the
bolts by only one engineer. The connecting
rod bolts must be taken up alternately and
uniformly avoiding deformation of the
bearings. The nuts are provided with Penn
securing.
The connecting rod is bored up for
lubrication of crosshead bearings. The
bearing clearances and lubrication should
be checked at regular intervals and adjusted
if necessary.
The main bearings have shells of
steel lined with white metal. The bottom
shells are so arranged that they can be
removed without lifting the crankshaft. The
main bearing covers are made of sound,
strong cast iron of ample dimensions.

The main bearing studs are of
sufficient length to give the required
elasticity. The studs are turned down on the
shank and the thread screwed into bedplate
is of ample length. The nuts are provided
with Penn securing. The vertical bearing
clearance of the crankshaft is adjusted by
means of shims.
The main bearings are lubricated
from the low-pressure oil system.



102
Capitolul 17
Arborele cotit
Unit 17
The Crankshaft





1. Flan
2. Roat dinat pentru conducerea axului
cu came
3. Fusuri maneton
4. Fusuri palier
5. Braele arborelui cotit
6. Contragreutate
7. urub
8. Intrare ulei n arborele cotit
9. Canale pentru ulei

Arborele cotit este organul
motorului care finalizeaz transformarea
lucrului mecanic produs n cilindrii
motorului prin micarea de translaie a
pistoanelor n micare de rotaie proprie s
furnizeze un moment motor util.
Arborele cotit transmite puterea
generat n cilindrii axului elicei prin
intermediul arborelui de mpingere i
arborilor intermediari.
Arborele cotit este montat ntr-un
postament rigid care este turnat dintr-o
singur bucat i este proiectat pentru
uruburi de ancorare lungi i elastice.
Forma general a arborelui cotit
depinde de: tipul motorului, numrul i
dispunerea pistoanelor, ordinea aprinderii,
echilibrarea motorului i materialul folosit.
1. Flange
2. Gear wheel for camshaft drive

3. Crankpin journals
4. Crankshaft journals
5. Cranktrows
6. Counter weight
7. Bolt
8. Lubrication oil intake
9. Lubrication oil passages

The crankshaft is the engine part
that completes the conversion of the work
produced in the cylinders, by reciprocating
movement of the pistons, in rotary motion
suitable to provide active moment rotation.

The crankshaft transmits the power
generated in the cylinders to the propeller
shaft by means of the trust shaft and the
intermediate shafts.
The crankshaft is positioned in a
rigid bedplate, which is cast in one piece
and designed for long, elastic, holding
down bolts.
The general shape of the crankshaft
depends on: the type of the engine, the
number and the disposal of pistons, the
ignition sequence, the engine balancing and
the used material.
Fig. 17.1
103


F
i
g
.

1
7
.
2


104
Arborele cotit este de obicei
construit din mai multe buci cnd fusurile
i flanele de capt sunt fretate n coturi
individuale.
Unghiurile dintre coturi sunt astfel
alese nct s se obin condiii optime n
ceea ce privete echilibrarea mecanic,
vibraiile torsionale i supraalimentarea.

Cnd arborele cotit este din mai
multe buci fusele sunt din oel forjat
Simens Martin n timp ce braele sunt din
oel turnat, iar contragreutile din font.

Arborele cotit este prelucrat fin la
fusuri i flane. Lagrul de mpingere este
mbinat cu arborele cotit prin flan i
suport volantul.
Dac manonul lagrului de
mpingere este mic este posibil s se
forjeze arborele motorului incluznd
manonul lagrului ntr-o singur bucat.
Aceasta va reduce greutatea i lungimea
motorului n comparaie cu motoarele
avnd arborele dintr-o bucat sau din mai
multe buci.
La montarea arborelui cotit, acesta
trebuie ajustat n direcie axial astfel nct
mijlocul cotului de lng lagrul de
mpingere s fie deplasat cu 1 pn la 1,5
mm nspre volant raportat la axa central a
cilindrului corespunztor.
Pentru a stabili gradul de deplasare
a axei fusurilor paliere raportat la axa
teoretic a arborelui cotit datorit uzurii
lagrelor, deflexiunea braelor (coturilor)
trebuie msurat la anumite intervale.
Aceast verificare este fcut cu ajutorul
instrumentului de verificare a arborelui
cotit care este furnizat mpreun cu
motorul.
Msurtorile sunt trecute ntr-un
raport. Punctele de msurare trebuie
marcate pe arborele cotit i de asemenea
trecute n raport.


The crankshaft is as a rule semibuilt
when crank journals and end flanges
shrank in the individual cranks.

The angles between cranks are
chosen so that optimum conditions are
obtained with regard to mechanical
balance, torsional vibrations and
supercharging.
When the crankshaft is semi built
up the crankshaft journals are of Simens
Martin forged steel, whereas the crank
throws are of cast steel and the counter
weights of cast iron.
The crankshaft is smooth-turned on
journals and flanges. The thrust bearing
shaft is flanged to the crankshaft and
carries the flywheel.
If the thrust collar of the thrust
bearing is small, it is possible to forge the
engine crankshaft, including the thrust
collar as one piece. This will reduce the
weight and length of the engine compared
with an engine having a fully-built or semi-
built crankshaft.

When the crankshaft is fitted, it
should be adjusted in the axial direction so
that the middle of the crank next to thrust
bearing is displaced by 1 to 1.5 mm
towards the flywheel in relation to the
center line of the corresponding cylinder.
In order to ascertain the degree of
displacement of the axis of the crank
journals in relation to the theoretical
crankshaft axis due to bearing wear, the
cranktrows deflection has to be checked at
intervals. This check is carried out with the
aid of the crankshaft leveling instrument,
which is supplied together with the engine.

The measurements are entered into
a report. The measuring points should be
marked on the crankshaft and entered into
the report also.




105
Capitolul 18
Supapele
Unit 18
The Valves












Fig. 18.1
106
1. Arborele cu came
2. Cam
3. Tachet
4. Capt sferic
5. Tij mpingtoare
6. urub de reglaj
7. Culbutor
8. Axul culbutorului
9. Captul supapei
10. Tija supapei
11. Arcul supapei
12. Ghidul supapei
13. Talerul supapei
14. Scaunul supapei
15. Contrapiuli



Prin dispozitivul de comand a
supapelor nelegem supapele (de obicei de
tipul cu tij, taler i scaun conic) i
mecanismul de acionare a supapelor care
ntr-un motor cu ardere intern introduce
aer sau amestec aer-combustibil n cilindrii
i evacueaz produsele arderii la colectorul
de evacuare.

Principalele caracteristici ale supapelor
sunt:
- ele etaneaz cilindrul n timpul
curselor de comprimare i activ
(detent).
- sunt ct mai mari posibil, pentru a
facilita admisia aerului, sau mai mici, n
motoarele rapide, din cauza forelor de
inerie.
- sunt rcite prin transferarea cldurii
mantalei motorului, la cele mai multe
prin tija supapei
- sunt acionate de came i cu nchidere
prin resort.
- curgerea prin motor trebuie s fie
stnjenit ct mai puin posibil.
- trebuie s satisfac cererea de etanare
la temperaturi i presiuni nalte de
funcionare.



1. Camshaft
2. Cam
3. Follower
4. Ball end
5. Push rod
6. Adjusting screw
7. Rocker arm
8. Rocker arm spindle
9. Valve tip
10. Valve stem
11. Valve spring
12. Valve-stem guide
13. Valve head
14. Valve seat
15. Lock-nut



By valve driving gear, we mean the
valves (usually of poppet type and taper-
seat) and the valve-operating mechanism
by which an internal combustion engine
takes air or a fuel -air mixture into the
cylinders and discharges the combustion
products to the exhaust.


The main characteristics of valves are:

- they close off the cylinder during the
compression and power strokes.

- they are as big as possible to facilitate
the air admission, or smaller in high-
speed engines due to the inertial forces.

- they are cooled by transferring heat to
the engine jacket, mostly through the
valve stem
- they are cam-operated and spring-
loaded
- the flow through the engine has to be
restricted as little as possible
- they have to meet the demand for
tightness with high operating
temperatures and pressures.





107














Fig. 18.2

108



Mecanismul supapei (fig. 18.2)

Valve gear (fig. 18.2)

1. Arborele cu came
2. Cama supapei de evacuare
3. Tachet cu rol
4. Rol
5. Rulment cu ace
6. Capac
7. Inel raclor
8. Capac
9. Tij mpingtoare
10. Inel de cauciuc
11. Ram
12. Inel de psl
13. Buc
14. Culbutor
15. Consol
1. Camshaft
2. Exhaust cam
3. Roller guide
4. Roller
5. Needle bearing
6. Cover
7. Scraper ring
8. Cover
9. Push rod
10. Rubber ring
11. Bow
12. Felt ring
13. Bush
14. Rocker arm
15. Bracket


Supapa de evacuare (fig. 18.3) Exhaust valve (fig. 18.3)

1. Carcasa supapei
2. Tija supapei
3. Racord pentru apa de rcire
4. Ecran
5. Talerul supapei
6. Racord pentru apa de rcire
7. Ghidul supapei partea inferioar
8. Ghidul supapei partea superioar
9. Tij de transmisie
10. aib de blocare cu dini interiori
11. Arc interior
12. Arc exterior
13. Inel de cheie
14. Discul arcului
15. Inel conic n dou pri
1. Valve housing
2. Valve spindle
3. Connection for cooling water
4. Shield
5. Valve head
6. Connection for cooling water
7. Spindle guide lower
8. Spindle guide upper
9. Pull rod
10. Internal teeth lock washer
11. Spring internal
12. Spring external
13. Split ring
14. Spring retainer
15. Conical ring in two parts



Supapele la motoarele n doi timpi

La motoarele n doi timpi avem:
supape de evacuare, supape de lansare
(dac motorul este lansat cu aer), injectoare
i supape de siguran. Supapa de admisie
este nlocuit prin ferestrele de baleiaj
practicate n cmaa cilindrului.
La motoarele n doi timpi mari
supapele sunt dispuse pe chiulas astfel
nct fiecare supap s poat fi demontat
independent de celelalte supape.
Valves in two-stroke engines

At two-stroke engines we have
exhaust valves, starting valves (if the
engine is started with compressed air), fuel
valves and safety valves. The intake valve
is replaced by scavenging ports made in the
cylinder liner.
In large two-stroke engines the
valves are arranged on the cylinder covers
so that each valve can be removed
independently of the other valves.
109

Supapa de lansare este acionat cu
aer i larg dimensionat pentru a asigura
pornirea rapid. Aceste supape sunt de
tipul cu nchidere prin resort. Carcasa este
din font i supapa este prevzut cu un
piston de ghidare din bronz rou cu labirint
de etanare. Supapele de lansare sunt
acionate pneumatic prin sertare, cte unul
pentru fiecare cilindru. Sertarele sunt
acionate prin came, una reglat pentru
nainte i una pentru napoi (dac
motorul este reversibil). Aceste came sunt
din oel clit i fixate demontabil pe axul
cu came.
The starting valve is air-operated
and amply dimensioned to ensure a quick
start. These valves are of spring-loaded
type. The housing is of cast steel, and the
valve is provided with a guide piston of
gunmetal with labyrinth packing. The
starting valves are operated pneumatically
through slides, one for each cylinder. The
slides are actuated by cams, one set for
Ahead and one set for Astern (if the
engine is of reversing type). These cams
are made of hardened steel and fitted
displaceably on camshaft.


Fig. 18.3

110
Injectoarele sunt prevzute cu
tubulatur de admisie i retur pentru rcirea
de ctre motorin.
Supapele de siguran sunt de tipul
cu nchidere prin resort.
Supapa de evacuare (fig.18.3), care
este cea mai mare, este supus efectelor
tempera-turilor nalte i trebuie proiectate
cu atenie i fabricat din aliaje metalice.
Materialele valvelor trebuie s aib o
excelent rezisten la coroziune i oxidare
pentru a rezista arderii la nalt
temperatur. Acestea trebuie s aib
suficient rezisten la oboseala la
temperaturi nalte, rezisten la fluaj,
pentru a rezista la rupere i o duritate
potrivit pentru a rezista uzurii i
abraziunii. Supapa de evacuare este
construit cu tij din oel rezistent la
cldur Ni-W.
Carcasa supapei, care este rcit cu
ap este fcut din font, cu granulaie
mic i fixat de chiulas prin prezoane
rezistente.
Tijele supapelor de rcire sunt
prevzute cu dispozitive de protecie iar pe
suprafeele de etanare ale talerelor
supapele sunt metalizate cu un strat din
material rezistent la coroziune i
temperatur - stelit.
Micarea supapelor de evacuare,
care sunt acionate de camele de evacuare
fixate pe arborele cu came, care este
transmis prin intermediu tijelor
mpingtoare cu role din oel clit i
culbutoare de oel. Axul cu came este
alctuit din axe de lungimi potrivite
asamblate prin flane rezistente. Lagrele
sunt metalizate cu material antifriciune.
Axul cu came este condus de
arborele cotit printr-un dispozitiv cu lan
prevzut cu ntinztor.

Supapele la motoarele mici n
patru timpi (fig. 18.1)

La motoarele cu patru timpi avem:
supap de admisie, supap de evacuare,
supape de lansare (dac motorul este lansat
cu aer-comprimat) i injectoare.
La motoarele n patru timpi
supapele sunt de tipul cu tij i taler cu
deschidere nuntru, cu talerul supapei
lefuit s se potriveasc ntr-un scaun conic
The fuel valves are provided with
inlet pipe and return pipe for cooling by
diesel oil.
The safety valves are of spring
loaded-type.
The exhaust valve (fig. 18.3), which
is the larger in side, is subject to effects of
the extreme temperature and must
accordingly be most carefully designed and
constructed of alloy metals. Valve
materials must have excellent corrosion
and oxidation resistance properties to resist
burning at high temperature. They must
have sufficient high-temperature fatigue
strength and creep resistance to resist
failure, and suitable hot hardness to resist
wear and abrasion. The exhaust valve is
made with spindle of heat-resistant Ni-W
steel.

The valve housing, which is water-
cooled, is made of close-grained cast iron
and is secured to the cover by means of
heavy studs.
The exhaust valve spindles are
provided with protective guards and
welded with a layer of corrosion and heat-
resistant material of stellite on the sealing
faces of the valve heads.

The movement of the exhaust
valves, which are operated by exhaust
cams fitted on the camshaft, is transmitted
through the push rods with hardened steel
rollers and rocking levers of steel. The
camshaft consists of shafting with suitable
length, assembled by means of heavy
flanges. The bearings are lined with white
metal.
The camshaft is driven from the
crankshaft through a chain drive provided
with tightener.

Valves in small four-stroke engines
(fig.18.1)

At four-stroke engines we have
intake valves, exhaust valves, starting
valves (if the engine is started with
compressed air) and fuel valves.
In four- stroke engines, the valves
are of the inward-opening poppet type,
with the valve head ground to fit a conical
seat in the cylinder block or cylinder cover.
111
din blocul cilindrilor sau chiulas.
Supapele sunt confecionate de
obicei din aliaj inoxidabil (C0.85 Si2.75
Mn0.7 Cr17 Ni1.5 V0.3), ce limiteaz
depunerile care i va pstra forma rigid la
temperaturi nalte. Supapele de evacuare
sunt cteodat gurite i umplute parial
(60%) cu sodiu metalic, NaNO
3
sau KNO
3

pentru a permite o rcire mai eficient.
Talerul supapei este inut nchis de
ctre un arc elicoidal comprimat prin
intermediul unei tije ce se mic n ghidajul
supapei. Supapa este larg deschis prin
ridicarea ei de pe scaunul su cu o distan
egal cu aproximativ 25% din diametrul
supapei.
Supapele sunt de obicei deschise
prin intermediul camelor n form cu
ramp care reduce ocul ncepnd ridicarea
cu aproximativ 0.61 m pe secund chiar i
atunci cnd jocul supapei variaz din timp
n timp.
Jocul supapei este prevzut pentru a
asigura nchiderea strns a supapei chiar i
atunci cnd tija supapei se lungete, din
cauza expansiunii termice, dispozitivul de
comand al supapelor fiind reglat s aib
un joc cnd tachetul este n partea cea mai
joas a camei.
Pe fiecare cam este un dispozitiv
de urmrire sau tachet, care poate fi o
suprafa dreapt sau uor convex, sau o
rol. Tachetul gliseaz n ghidajul
taghetului i are o uoar micare de rotaie
pentru o ufur mai uniform.
Supapa este deschis de ctre fora
aplicat la captul tijei supapei printr-o
legtur mecanic (tij mpingtoare i
culbutor) activat de tachet.

Tija mpingtoare este o bar
uoar cu sau un tob cu capetele rotunjite
care transmite micarea de la tachet la
culbutor. Culbutorul este o prghie
oscilant articulat n apropierea centrului
su astfel nct pe msur ce tija
mpingtoare ridic un capt, cellalt capt
apas tija supapei, deschiznd supapa.


Valves are usually made of a
stainless, non-scaling alloy (C0.85 Si2.75
Mn0.7 Cr17 Ni1.5 V0.3) ,that will keep its
strengthened shape at high temperature.
Exhaust valves are sometimes hollow and
partially (60%) filled with metallic sodium,
NaNO
3
or KNO
3
to permit more effective
cooling.
The valve head is held closed in its
seat by a compressed helical spring by
means of a cylindrical stem running in the
valve guide. The valve is opened wide by
lifting it from its seat a distance equal to
approximately 25% of the valve diameter.

The valves are usually opened by
means of cams shaped with a ramp to
reduce the shock by starting the lift at
about 0.61 meter per second, even though
the tappet clearance varies from time to
time.
The tappet clearance is provided to
ensure tight closing of the valve even when
the valve stem lengthens from thermal
expansion, the valve gear being adjusted to
provide some clearance when the follower
is on the low part of the cam.

Riding each cam is a follower
(tappet) or valve-lifter, which may be a flat
or slightly convex surface, or a roller. The
follower slides in a tappet guide and it has
a slight rotation motion for a more uniform
wear.
The valve is opened by force
applied to the end of the valve stem
through a mechanical linkage (push rod
and rocker arm) activated by the cam
follower.
The push rod is a light rod or tube
with ball ends, which carries the motion of
the cam follower to the rocker arm. The
rocker arm is a lever pivoted near its center
so that, as the push rod raises one end, the
other end depresses the valve stem,
opening the valve.





112
Capitolul 19
Pompa de injecie
Unit 19
Fuel Pump



Fig. 19.1

113

Pompa de injecie (fig. 19.1):
1. Corpul pompei
2. Pistona
3. Buca elementului
4. Bloc de ghidare
5. urub de ghidare
6. Articulaie
7. Conectare tubulatur
8. Capac
9. Bra regulator
10. Distanier
11. Aprtoare combustibil
12. tift de fixare
13. Scurgere
14. Plac de baz
15. Disc de oel
16. Flan
17. Carcasa amortizorului de ocuri
18. Pistonul amortizorului de ocuri
19. Arc
20. Garnitur
21. Flan
22. Supap de refulare

Dispozitivul de acionare a pompei de
injecie (fig. 19.2):
23. Manon
24. Garnitur
25. Inel de etanare
26. Capac
27. Arc interior
28. Arc exterior
29. Clam
30. Rol
31. Rulment cu role
32. Ax
33. aib
34. Rondel elastic de siguran
35. Arc
36. tift
37. Butuc
38. Cam
39. Pan
40. Bra n form de furc
41. Cep pentru umplere ulei
42. Rol
43. Rulment cu ace
44. Ghidajul rolei
45. Batiu
46. Consol


Fuel pump (fig. 19.1):
1. Housing
2. Plunger
3. Bush
4. Guide block
5. Guiding screw
6. Pivot
7. Pipe connection
8. Cover
9. Regulating arm
10. Distance piece
11. Oil guard
12. Dowel pin
13. Drain
14. Footplate
15. Steel disc
16. Flange
17. Shock absorber housing
18. Shock absorber piston
19. Spring
20. Gasket
21. Flange
22. Pressure valve

Fuel pump driving gear (fig. 19.2):

23. Collar
24. Gasket
25. Seal ring
26. Cover
27. Inner spring
28. Outer spring
29. Clip
30. Roller
31. Roller bearing
32. Shaft
33. Washer
34. Circlip
35. Spring
36. Pin
37. Hub
38. Cam
39. Key
40. Fork arm
41. Funnel
42. Roller
43. Needle bearing
44. Roller guide
45. Frame
46. Bracket



114
















Fig. 19.2

115
Pompele de injecie n linie sunt
folosite de obicei pentru motoarele navele.
O caracteristic esenial a acestor pompe
este aceea c au cte un element de
pompare pentru fiecare cilindru al
motorului nglobai ntr-un corp comun.
La motoarele mari, unde este
pompat o cantitate mai mare de
combustibil, fiecare cilindru poate fi dotat
cu o pomp de injecie individual de o
construcie asemntoare cu cea n linie cu
deosebirea c are doar un element de
pompare.
Pompa este acionat de came
reglabile, iar micarea este transmis la
pompe prin role.

Corpul pompei este din oel moale
(cu coninut mic de carbon), pistonaul i
buca elementului din oel nitrurat. Camele
i rolele sunt din oel clit.
Pistonaul pompei este de tip cu
muchie elicoidal. Reglarea are loc prin
rotirea pistonaului pompei, care este
conectat la regulatorul acionat prin prghia
de manevr prin intermediul unui sistem de
prghii.
La o curs mai mare a prghiei de
reglare i corespunde o rotire cu un unghi
mai mare a pistonaului crescndu-i cursa
activ. Astfel, chiar dac, cursa pistonului
rmne constant cursa sa activ variaz n
funcie de rotirea sa.
Pentru c pompa de injecie este
conectat cu injectorul printr-o eav lung
i relativ elastic, pentru a avea o injecie
net, este montat o supap de refulare.
Combustibilul este primit de la
pompele de alimentare cu combustibil.
Acestea sunt de tip cu angrenaj acionate
de motoare electrice.
Pompele aspir din tancul de
serviciu i refuleaz combustibilul la
pompa de injecie la o presiune
corespunztoare printr-un filtru care se
cura automat.
Line fuel pumps are usually used in
maritime engines. The essential feature of
these pumps is that they have a pumping
element for each cylinder of the engine,
included in a single body.

In large engines, where a larger
amount of fuel is pumped, each cylinder
may be fitted with an individual fuel pump
of a similar construction with the line fuel
pump, with the difference that it has only
one pumping element.

The fuel pump is operated by
adjustable cams fitted on the fuel camshaft,
and pump motion is transmitted through
rollers.
The pump housing is of mild steel,
and the plunger and the liner (bush) are of
nitrided steel. The cams and the rollers are
of hardened steel.
The pump plunger is of helical edge
type. The regulation takes place by turning
the pump plunger connected to the
governor, which is operated by
maneuvering handle by means of a rod
system.
A larger angle turning of the
plunger, increasing its active stroke
corresponds to a larger motion of the
adjusting rod. So, even if the plunger
stroke remains constant, its active stroke
varies according to its turning.
Because the fuel pump is connected
with the fuel valve by means of a long and
relatively elastic pipe, in order to have a
plain injection, a pressure valve is fitted.
The fuel is received from the fuel
supply pumps. The fuel supply pumps are
of gear type driven by electric motors.

The pumps draw the fuel oil from
the service tank and deliver it to the fuel
pumps at a suitable pressure through a self
cleaning filter.


116
Capitolul 20
Injectorul
Unit 20
Fuel Valve




Fig. 20.1

117





Pulverizator cu tift:
1. Capsul de injecie
2. Cilindru
3. tift de centrare

Acul (pistonaul) i ghidajul acului:
4. Ac (pistona)
5. Ghidajul arcului
6. Inel de oprire
7. Suport (piulia pulverizatorului)
8. Inel de cauciuc
9. Arc
10. Ghidajul arcului (taler)
11. Tija injectorului
12. Ghidajul arcului
13. Corpul injectorului

Filtru complet:
14. aib elastic de siguran
15. Ghidajul arcului
16. Arc
17. Supap
18. Inel de cauciuc
19. Etanare
20. Filtru
21. Ecran
22. Piuli Ermeto
23. urub

tift de testare complet:
24. Piuli
25. aib
26. Arc
27. tift de testare
28. urub
29. urub de nchidere

urubul de aerisire complet:
30. Inel de cauciuc
31. urub
32. Bil
33. Racord
34. Inel de cauciuc
Atomizer with pin:
1. Cap
2. Spindle guide
3. Dowel pin

Spindle & guide:
4. Spindle
5. Spring guide
6. Stop ring
7. Holder
8. Rubber ring
9. Spring
10. Spring guide
11. Spindle
12. Spring guide
13. Valve housing

Filter complete:
14. Circlip
15. Spring guide
16. Spring
17. Valve
18. Rubber ring
19. Seal
20. Filter
21. Shield
22. Ermeto nut
23. Screw

Test pin complete:
24. Nut
25. Washer
26. Spring
27. Test pin
28. Screw
29. Plug screw

Air vent screw complete:
30. Rubber ring
31. Screw
32. Ball
33. Nipple
34. Rubber ring






118
Injectorul este partea sistemului de
injecie care are rolul de a pulveriza i
dispersa combustibilul n camera de ardere
a cilindrului.
Injectoarele pot fi fie de tip nchis,
fie de tip deschis. La injectoarele de tip
nchis orificiile pulverizatorului sunt
nchise pin intermediul unui ventil n form
de ac. Acestea pot fi comandate hidraulic,
mecanic sau electric.
Injectoarele pot fi de tip cu mase
reduse pentru a reduce vibraiile acului
pulverizatorului.
Injectoarele pot fi rcite cu ap,
nercite sau nclzite, cnd temperatura lor
este controlat prin combustibilul circulat
continuu, permind pornirea, oprirea i
operarea cu combustibil greu.
Aranjamentul este fcut pentru colectarea
i nlturarea scurgerilor de combustibil,
dac exist, pentru a preveni ptrunderea n
cilindrii.
Deschiderea injectorului este
controlat prin presiunea combustibilului,
iar injectorul este nchis printr-un arc.
Pentru a evita deformrile datorate
temperaturii i mbunti durabilitatea sunt
utilizate componente simetrice.

Injectoarele prezentate n figura
20.1 sunt prevzute cu ac nchis prin resort
i sunt acionate de presiunea
combustibilului ce vine de la pompele de
injecie.
Corpul injectorului este din oel cu
cilindru din oel nitrurat, iar acul este din
oel special clit.
Injectoarele sunt prevzute cu
pulverizatoare i sunt reglate pentru o
ardere perfect.
Injectoarele sunt prevzute cu
tubulatur de admisie i tubulatur de retur
pentru rcirea cu motorin.
The fuel valve is the injection
system part, which has the role of spraying
and spreading the fuel oil in the cylinder
combustion chamber.
The fuel valves can be of either
closed type or opened type. At the closed
type fuel valves, the atomizer holes are
closed by means of a needle shaped
spindle. They can be hydraulically,
mechanically or electrically driven.
The fuel valves can be of
lightweight type in order to reduce the
spindle vibrations.
The fuel valves can be cooled with
water, uncooled or heated when their
temperature is controlled by constantly
circulating the fuel oil, allowing start, stop
and maneuvering on HFO (Heavy Fuel
Oil). The arrangement is made for
collection and leading away of leakage oil,
if any, in order to prevent it from flowing
down into the cylinders.
The opening of the valves is
controlled by the fuel pressure and the
valve is closed by a spring.
In order to avoid temperature
distortion and to improve durability
symmetrical components are used.

The fuel valves shown in the figure
20.1 are provided with spring-loaded
spindle and are operated by the oil pressure
from the fuel pumps.

The housing is made of steel, with a
spindle guide of nitrided steel, and the
spindle is made of hardened special steel.
The fuel valves are fitted with
atomizers and are adjusted for faultless
combustion.
The fuel valves are provided with
inlet pipe and return pipe for cooling by
diesel oil.


119
Capitolul 21
Uzuri i defeciuni
Unit 21
Wearing and Breakdowns







1. Coroziune i oxidare
2. Ardere i erodare
3. Uzura de oboseal
4. Uzur prin frecare
5. Jocul valvei
6. Zon clit
7. Metalizarea captului
8. Metalizarea suprafeei tijei
9. Metalizarea talerului
10. Zon lovit de gazele de evacuare


Uzura supapelor

Supapele de evacuare dintr-un
motor cu ardere intern sunt folosite ntr-un
mediu dificil.
Regiunile critice de defeciune la o
supap de evacuare sunt urmtoarele (dup
cum sunt artate n figur): zonele 1 i 3
unde n special coroziunea i oxidarea sunt
critice. Zona de sub talerul supapei, zona 3,
suport ncrcri ciclice i datorit
concentrrilor moderate a tensiunilor uzura
de oboseal poate aprea n acest punct.
Faa supapei, zona 2, funcioneaz la o
temperatur oarecum sczut datorit
conduciei termice a scaunului supapei.
Oricum, dac o depunere izolatoare se
depune pe faa supapei, aceasta poate duce
1. Corrosion and oxidation
2. Burning and abrasion
3. Fatigue failure
4. Scuffing
5. Valve lash
6. Hardened zone
7. Tip weld
8. Stem weld
9. Dome coat
10. Exhaust gas impingement


Valve wear

The exhaust valves in an internal-
combustion engine are used in a difficult
environment.
The critical failure regions in an
exhaust valve are the following (as shown
in the figure): The areas 1 and 3 where
corrosion and oxidation are especially
critical. The underhead area of the valve,
area 3, experiences cycling loading, and
because of the mild stress concentrations,
fatigue failure may occur at that point. The
valve face, area 2, operates at somewhat
lower temperature because of the heat
conduction in the valve seat. However, if
an insulating deposit builds up on the valve
face, it can lead to burning. The valve seat
Fig. 21.1
120
la arderea feei supapei. De asemenea
scaunul supapei poate fi degradat de ctre
depozitele abrazive de cenu rezultate n
urma arderii combustibilului.
Ghidul supapei este mai rece dect
capul supapei. Oricum, uzura suprafeei
ghidului supapei, zona 4, poate duce la
uzur prin frecare care va cauza griparea
valvei n poziie deschis i arderea
acestea. Uzura captului supapei , zona 5,
unde valva intr n contact cu culbutorul,
va cauza jocul supapei i va cauza apariia
forelor mai mari dect cele normale.
Eventual, aceasta va determina defeciuni.

Uzura lagrelor

De cele mai multe ori uzura care
apare n timpul primelor cteva ore de
funcionare este minim i este acceptat ca
normal. n timpul utilizrii o parte din
suprafaa subire de acoperire din plumb-
cositor se terge, descoperind cuzinetul
(cupru, nichel sau aluminiu). Striaiile de
uzur sunt concentrate ctre centrul
lagrului datorit diametrului su mare.
Dac un motor prezint aceast uzur dup
mai puin de 2000 ore de funcionare uzura
este considerat anormal, sugernd c
rugozitatea suprafeei de contact dintre fuse
i cuzinei este mrit.
Acest lucru poate fi cauzat de:
Avarierea abraziv datorat
contaminrii uleiului din sistem.
Avarierea coroziv datorat
contaminrii cu ap de mare a uleiului
din sistem sau oxidarea fuselor datorit
condensatului.
Electroeroziunii ce apare n lagrele
principale.

Avarierea abraziv este cauzat de
particulele abrazive care au intrat n uleiul
de ungere. n acest caz trebuie verificate
urmtoarele: slaba filtrare a aerului,
furtunul de admisie spart, slaba filtrare a
lubrefiantului, supraalimentarea cu com-
bustibil sau un regim redus de alimentare
cu aer. Particule abrazive fine pot de
asemenea intra n ulei n timpul
recondiionrii motorului sau prin
neglijen n schimbarea uleiului sau
filtrului.

can also be damaged by abrasive fuel ash
deposits.


The valve stem is cooler than the
valve head. However, surface wear of the
valve system, area 4, can lead to scuffing,
which will cause the valve to stick open
and burn. Wear at the valve tip, area 5,
where valve contacts the rocker arm, will
cause valve lash and the valve to seat with
higher than normal forces. Eventually, that
will cause failure.


Bearings Wear

Most bearing wear that occurs
during the first few hours of operation is
minimal and accepted as normal. Under
normal usage some of the thin lead-tin
overlay surface wears off, exposing the
lining (cooper, nickel, or aluminium). The
pattern of wear is concentrated towards the
center of the bearing because of its larger
diameter. If an engine bearing show this
wear after less than 2000 hours of
operation, the wear is considered to be
abnormal, suggesting that the contact
surface roughness between the journals and
the bearings is increased.
This can be caused by:
Abrasive damage due to contamination
of the system oil.
Corrosive damage due to sea water
contamination of the system oil (acidic)
or oxidation of the journals due to the
condensate.
Spark erosion which appears in main
bearings.

Abrasive damage is caused by the
abrasives that have entered the lubricating-
oil. In this cases the following should be
checked : poor air filtration, intake
manifold leakage, poor lubrication
filtration, overfueling or restricted engine
breathing. Fine abrasives may also enter
the oil during the engine rebuilding period
or through carelessness while making oil
and filter changes.



121
Cele mai multe defeciuni ale
lagrelor sunt datorate particulelor strine
care ptrund ntre fuse i lagre. Aceasta se
aplic de asemenea i altor componente
funcionale. n funcie de tipul materiei
strine din lubrefiant, fusele, lagrele i
componentele pot deveni zgriate, cu
ciupituri sau decolorate, etc.
Particule grosiere pot proveni ca
reziduuri de la deplasarea componentelor
ntregi, de la manipularea necorespunz-
toare a lubrefianilor sau filtrelor de ulei
sau nlturarea incomplet a bavurii n
urma honing-ului sau guririi.
Acest tip de particule cauzeaz
zgrieturi adnci, care scade eficiena
lubrifiantului i disiparea termic.
Particulele vizibile disloc metal
(aluminiu) care adugat la abraziune
cauzeaz creterea temperaturii i topirea
suprafeei de plumb. n acest caz lagrul
este pierdut definitiv. Oricum, dac lagrul
prezint zgrieturi fine ca urmare a
particulelor ncastrate, dar cu toate acestea
suprafaa este lefuit i reformat, poate fi
reutilizat.

Reguli pentru prevenirea
contaminrii lubrifiantului cu mizerii:

Zona de lucru trebuie s fie curat;
naintea asamblrii motorului asigurai-
v c toate componentele i alezajele
trebuie s fie curate. Cnd motorul nu
este n funciune, acoperii-l cu folii de
plastic pentru a-l ine departe de orice
praf fin.
Pstrai toate containerele de pstrare a
uleiului i echipamentului de msurare
curat.
Urmai procedura recomandat de
productor cnd facei schimbul
uleiului i filtrului.
Evitai ntrzieri excesive ntre
schimburile filtrelor deoarece acestea
pot deveni ncrcate.
Cnd se adaug ulei, tergei zona din
jurul jujei (tijei de nivel al uleiului) i
curai-o nainte de a o reintroduce.
Aducei-v aminte c intrarea chiar i a
unei cantiti mici de mizerie n
lubrefiant va produce avarii nsemnate
mai trziu.
Most bearing failures are due to
foreign matter passing between the journals
and the bearings. This also applies, of
course, to other operating components.
Depending on the type of foreign matter in
the lubricant, the journals, bearings and
components may became scratched, pitted
or discolored, etc.
Coarse particles may originate as
residue from moving entire components,
from improper handling of lubricant or oil
filters, or incomplete removal of honing or
boring abrasives.

This kind of particles cause long
deep scratches which decrease the
efficiency of the lubricant and heat
dissipation. The visible particles displace
metal (aluminium) and, added to the
abrasion, cause heat to build up and melt
the lead surface. In this case the bearing is
definitively lost. However, if the bearings
show fine scratches as a consequence of
the embedded particles, but nevertheless
the bearing surface is smooth and
reformed, it can be reused.

Rules for Preventing Lubricant
Contamination with Dirt:

The work area and tools must be clean.
Before assembling the engine, make
sure that all components and bores are
clean. When the engine is not being
worked on, cover it with plastic sheets
to keep out any fine dust.

Keep all oil storage containers and
measuring equipment clean.

Follow the manufacturers
recommended procedure when making
oil and filter changes.
Avoid excessive delay between oil
filter changes because this may cause
the filters to become plugged.
When adding oil, wipe the area around
the dipstick and clean it before
reinserting.
Remember that the entry of even a
small amount of dirt into the lubricant
will create extensive damage at a later
time.
122
Avarierea coroziv apare atunci
cnd uleiul produce un acid slab sau cnd
anhidride puternic acide sunt adugate n
ulei i care, n combinaie cu apa, vor
produce acid sau cnd sarea prezent n
ulei are o concentraie mai mare de 1%. n
acest caz apa va ataca materialul
antifriciune i va cauza formarea unei
cruste negre foarte dure de oxid de staniu
(SnO) care pot zgria i crete rugozitatea
suprafeei fusului. Formarea oxidului de
staniu este intensificat de rugina din
tancurile dublului fund. De aceea este
recomandat s se in suprafaa intern n
special tavanul curat.
Electroeroziunea apare numai n
lagrele i fusele principale. Aceast
eroziune se aseamn cu pitingul n stadiile
incipiente, dar mai trziu cratere mari vor
rzui i extrage din materialul antifriciune.
Electroeroziunea este cauzat de
descrcrile electrice ntre lagrul principal
i suprafaa fusului principal. Acest
potenial este cauzat de formarea unui
element galvanic ntre corpul navei, apa de
mare i axul elicei i arborele cotit.
Protecia mpotriva electroeroziunii
este fcut prin utilizarea unui dispozitiv
foarte performant de mpmntare.
Dispozitivul de mpmntare trebuie s
menin nivelul potenialului la maxim 80
mV de aceea eficacitatea lui trebuie
verificat n mod regulat.

Uzura cmii cilindrului

Coroziunea apare atunci cnd sunt
ari combustibili grei cu un mare coninut
de carbon. Uzura coroziv este cauzat prin
condensare i formarea acidului sulfuric pe
pereii cilindrului.
Coroziunea acidului sulfuric poate fi
cauzat dac temperatura de apei de rcire
este prea mic. Aceasta permite umezelii s
condenseze n mantaua de rcire a
Corrosive damage appears when the
oil develops a weak acid, when the strong
acid anhydrides are added to the oil which,
in combination with water, will develop
acid, or when the salt present in the lube oil
has a higher content than 1 per cent. In this
case the water will attack the white metal
and result in formation of a very hard black
tin-oxide encrustation (SnO) which may
scratch and roughen the journal surface.
The formation of tin oxide is intensified by
rust from the bottom tank. Therefore it is
recommended to keep the internal surface,
especially the ceiling, clean.

Spark erosion appears only in the
main bearings and in the main journals.
This erosion resembles pitting erosion in
the early stages, but later the small craters
will scrape off and pick up white metal.
Spark erosion is caused by a
voltage discharge between the main
bearing and the journal surface. This
potential is caused by the development of a
galvanic element between the ships hull,
the sea water and the propeller shaft/
crankshaft.
The protection against the spark
erosion is done by using a high efficiency
earthing device. The earthing device has to
maintain the potential level at maximum 80
mV, therefore its effectiveness must be
checked regularly.

Cylinder liner wear

Corrosion occurs when heavy fuels
with a high sulphur content are burned.
Corrosive wear is caused by condensation
and the formation of sulphuric acid on the
cylinder wall.
Sulphuric acid corrosion may be
caused if the cooling water temperature is
too low. This allows moisture to condense
in the cylinder cooling jacket and


123
Cmaa cilindrului

Segmenii pistonului

Mantaua pistonului

Uzur coroziv

Uzur abraziv

H
2
SO
4

HCl

Uzur prin
frecare
Zgrieturi

Picturi fine de ap
Infiltraii de ap
Perete rece al
cmii de cilindru
Ageni de curare
Deficiene ale
peliculei de ulei a
cilindrului







Sare n aerul de
admisie
Ap de mare n
combustibil
Ap de mare n uleiul
cilindrului
Infiltraii n rcitorul
de aer
Deficiene ale
peliculei de ulei a
cilindrului






Deficiene ale
peliculei de ulei a
cilindrului
Materialul
Proiectarea
Ajustarea
Sarcina mecanic
Sarcina termic
Lipsa tensiunii n
segmeni
Deformarea
segmenilor pistonului
(n timpul montrii)
Abateri
Supradozarea uleiului
n cilindru (acumulri)
Picturi fine de ap
Ageni de curare

Impuriti n
combustibil
Impuriti n aerul de
admisie
Particule datorate
uzurii









Factori care influeneaz
uzura cmii cilindrului
Cylinder liner

Piston rings

Piston skirt

Corrosive wear

Abrasive wear

H
2
SO
4

HCl

Micro-seizure

Scratches

Water droplets
Water leakages
Cold liner wall
Cleaning agents
Cylinder oil film
deficiencies







Salt in intake air
Sea water in fuel
Sea water in cylinder
oil
Air cooler leakage
Cylinder oil film
deficiencies








Cylinder oil film
deficiencies
Material
Design
Matching
Mechanical load
Thermal load
Lack of ring tension
Deformation of piston
rings (during fitting)
Misalignment
Too high cylinder oil
dosage (deposits)
Water droplets
Cleaning agents

Impurities in fuel oil
Impurities in intake air
Wear particles










Factors Influencing
Cylinder Wear
124

cilindrului i n consecin acidul sulfuric
se poate forma n cilindru.
Apa de mare (sau sare) din aerul de
admisie, combustibil sau uleiul cilindrului
va crea riscul de uzur coroziv a
cilindrului. Coroziunea este cauzat de
clorura de sodiu (sarea), care formeaz
acidul clorhidric.
Un alt risc de uzura coroziv l
constituie agenii de curare. (Dac
echipamentul necesar este instalat, partea
de aer a rcitorului de aer poate fi curat
prin intermediul agenilor de curare
dizolvai n ap tehnic).
n funcie de temperatura i
umiditatea aerului nconjurtor i
temperatura apei de mare, apa poate
condensa pe tuburile mai reci ale
rcitorului de aer. De aceea, colectoare de
cea de ap sunt instalate imediat dup
rcitorul de aer pentru a preveni ca
picturile fine de ap s fie transportate n
cilindrii.
Dac apa intr n cilindrii, pelicula
de ulei poate fi ntrerupt i poate cauza
uzur (n form de trifoi) pe orificiile de
intrare a uleiului de ungere.

Pentru a reduce riscul uzurii
corozive:
Urmai ndeaproape instruciunile de
utilizare ale productorului pentru
instalaia de curare i dozajul
agentului.
inei temperatura de ieire a apei n
intervalul specificat.

Folosii uleiuri alcaline pentru ungerea
cilindrului.
Prenclzii motorul nainte de pornire.
Verificai dac scurgerea captatorului
de cea funcioneaz corespunztor,
pentru a preveni intrarea picturilor fine
de ap n cilindri.
Meninei etane diferitele tancuri de
hidrocarburi.
Separai hidrocarbura cu grij.
Nu folosii tancurile de buncr pentru
apa de balast.
consequently sulphuric acid may form in
the cylinder.
Seawater (or salt) in the intake air,
fuel or cylinder oils will invoke the risk of
corrosive cylinder wear. The corrosion is
caused by sodium chloride (salt), which
forms hydrochloric acid.

Another risk of corrosive wear is
the cleaning agents. (If the necessary
equipment is installed, the air side of the
scavenge air cooler can, be cleaned by
means of cleaning agents dissolved in fresh
water).
Depending on the temperature and
humidity of the ambient air and on the
temperature of the sea water, water may
condense on the coldest air cooler tubes.
Therefore, water mist catchers are installed
directly after the air coolers to prevent
water droplets from being carried into the
cylinders.

If the water enters the cylinders, the
oil film may be ruptured and cause wear
(cloverleafing) on the cylinder lubricating
oil inlets.

To reduce the risk of corrosive
attack:
Strictly follow the suppliers
instructions for the use of the cleaning
system and for the dosage of the agent.

Keep the cooling water outlet
temperature within the specified
interval.
Use alkaline cylinder lubricating oils.

Preheat the engine before starting.
Check if the drain from the water mist
catcher functions properly, to prevent
water droplets from entering the
cylinders.
Maintain the various oil tanks leak-
proof.
Centrifuge the oil carefully.
Do not use the bunker tanks for ballast
water.

125

Abraziunea este cauzat de parti-
culele dure care intr n cilindru prin
intermediul combustibilului (particule
catalitice) sau aerului (nisip). Acestea pot fi
produsul arderii sau uzurii mecanice. De
asemenea particulele dure pot fi produse
prin coroziune.

Uzura abraziv a cilindrului poate fi
rezultatul:
zgrieturilor sau a canalelor adnci n
form de trompet
cavitaiei (vrsat de vnt)
uzura prin frecare

Uzura prin frecare depinde de
materialele folosite pentru cma i
segmenii pistonului. Ea poate fi cauzat de
ungerea ineficient a cilindrului sau
suprancrcarea motorului. n plus
condiiile de funcionare ale motorului
afecteaz de asemenea uzura prin frecare
(uzura prin frecare se poate mri dac aerul
i combustibilul sunt contaminate).

Alte avarii, defeciuni i incidente
la bordul navei:

arborii pot fi torsionai sau frni (rupi)
lagrele si arborii pot avea abateri de
coaxialitate sau paralelism
motorul poate prezenta rateuri la
aprindere
motorul se poate gripa
motorul poate fi suprancrcat
motorul poate funciona cu turaie prea
mare
motorul poate fi supraalimentat (cu
combustibil)
tamburul poate fi supranclzit
colectorul de abur al cldrii poate
exploda
tablele subiri sau esturile se pot
sfia
apa, aerul, gazele etc. se pot scurge
apa dintr-un tanc care se umple se
poate revrsa
motoritii pot umple excesiv un tanc

traseele, filtrele, plcile perforate, sitele
pot fi nfundate
aparatele indicatoare pot fi nereglate
Abrasion is caused by hard particles
which enter the cylinder via the fuel oil
(catalyst fines) or air (sand). These may be
the product of combustion or mechanical
wear. Hard particles may also be produced
by corrosion.


The abrasive cylinder wear can
result of :
scratches or rather deep trumpet
shaped grooves
pitting (pock-marks)
scuffing (micro-seizure)

Frictional wear depends on the
materials used in the liner and in the piston
rings. It may be caused by inefficient
lubrication of the cylinder or by
overloading the engine. In addition, engine
operating conditions also affect frictional
wear (frictional wear may increase if the
air and fuel are contaminated).


Other damages, breakdowns and
situations on board of ship:

shafts may be twisted or broken
bearings or shafts may have
misalignment
engine may present misfiring

the engine may stick
the engine may be overloaded
the engine may overspeed

the engine may be overfueled

the drum may be overheated
the boiler steam drum may blow up

the thin plates and textures (fabrics)
may tear
water, air , gases etc. may leak
the water from a tank that fills up may
overflow
the engine operators may overfill the
tank
passages, filters, strainer plates, sieves/
gauzes may be clogged
the indicating gauges may be
126

arborele cotit poate fi neechilibrat
n sistemul energetic putem avea
sarcin trifazat neechilibrat
creterea presiunii poate fi
necontrolabil
nava poate fi debalastat, delestat sau
instabil
nava poate fi intact (nevtmat)
nava se poate scufunda
membrana poate fi perforat
traversa poate fi flambat
parmele vegetale pot putrezi
aliajul antifriciune dintr-un lagr se
poate topi
un material inflamabil se poate aprinde
n contact cu flacra deschis
o roat dinat poate fi deplasat
o roat de manevr poate cdea
chiulasa se poate fisura
carterul motorului poate avea crpturi
o plac se poate ndoi
o estur se poate deira
o eav poate plesni
un tirant se poate alungi
o cutie se poate turti
elicea poate fi ciupit
pontilul poate fi suprasolicitat
vopseaua se poate usca
mecanismul se poate defecta

cptueala se poate desface
arcul poate sri
metalele pot rugini
izolaia poate mbtrni
ruptura datorat oboselii este cauzat
de tensiunile alternante
unadjusted
the crankshaft can be unbalanced
on the electrical system we may have
unbalanced three-phase load
the pressure raise may be
uncontrollable
the ship may be unbalasted or unstable

the ship may be undamaged
the ship may sink
the membrane may be punched
the beam can be crinkled
natural fiber ropes may rot
the white metal from a bearing may
melt
a flammable material may ignite in
contact with open flame
a gear wheel may be displaced
a hand wheel may fall down
the cylinder cover may fissure
the crankcase may have cracks
a plate may bend
a fabric may ravel
a pipe may split
a stay bolt may lengthen
a box may be flatten
the propeller may be pitted
the stanchion may be over-stressed
the paint may dry
the mechanism may be out of order
(break down)
the lining may detach
the spring may spring
metals may rust
the insulation may age
fatigue failure is caused by alternate
stresses



127
Capitolul 22
Cldri
Unit 22
Boilers



Cldrile sunt folosite la bordul
navei pentru producerea aburului. Acest
abur poate fi utilizat pentru acionarea
motoarelor principale cum ar fi maini
alternative cu abur (care sunt rar utilizate n
zilele noastre) sau turbine cu abur n
petroliere mari submarine i sprgtoare de
ghea nucleare sau pentru acionarea
instalailor auxiliare de bord cum ar fi
turbopompele.


Clasificarea cldrilor navale

Cldrile pot fi clasificate dup mai
multe criterii dup cum urmeaz:
Dup substana care curge prin evi:

- cldri ignitubulare: unde gazele
fierbini curg prin tuburi, iar apa le
nconjoar.
- cldri acvatubulare: la care apa
curge prin tuburi care sunt plasate n
curent de gaze arse.
Dup sursa de cldur folosit:
- cldri cu crbuni: care folosesc
arderea crbunilor pentru a genera
cldur.
- cldri cu pcur: care folosesc
arderea combustibilului lichid pentru a
genera cldur.
- cldri recuperatoare: care folosesc
cldura gazelor evacuate. Acestea sunt
plasate n courile de fum ale navei.
Dup destinaie:
- cldri principale: care sunt destinate
producerii aburului pentru alimentarea
unitilor de propulsie.
- cldri auxiliare: care sunt destinate
producerii aburului pentru instalaiile
auxiliare de bord.
Dup valoarea presiunii aburului
generat:
- cldri de joas presiune: cldri care
au presiunea de lucru mai mic dect 15
bar.
- cldri de medie presiune: cldri care
au presiune de lucru ntre 15 i 29 bar.
Boilers are used on board ship for
producing steam. This steam may be used
for driving the main engines such as
reciprocating steam engines (which are
rarely used nowadays) or steam turbines in
large tankers or nuclear submarines and
icebreakers, or for driving auxiliary
machinery such as turbopumps.




Marine Steam Boilers Classification

Boilers can be classified by several
criteria like the following:
By the substance that flows in the
boiler tubes:
- smoke-tube (fire-tube) boilers: where
the hot gases flow in the tubes and the
water surround them
- water-tube boilers: where the water
flows in the tubes, which are placed in a
hot gas flow.
By the heat source:
- coal-fired /burning boilers: which use
coal combustion to generate heat.

- oil-burning/ oil-fired boilers: which
use oil combustion to generate steam.

- exhaust-gas boilers: which use the
waste gases heat. These are placed in
the ships funnels.
By destination:
- main boilers: which are destined to
produce and supply steam to propulsion
units.
- donkey boilers (auxiliary boilers): which
are destined to produce steam for
auxiliary machinery.
By the generated steam pressure value:

- low pressure boilers: boilers that have
the work pressure less then 15 bar.

- medium (moderate) pressure boilers:
boilers that have the pressure between
128

- cldri de nalt presiune: cldri care
au presiunea nominal mai mare de 30
bar.
Dup valoarea temperaturii aburului
generat:
- cldri care genereaz abur saturat:
care produc abur la temperatura de
saturaie. Acestea nu sunt prevzute cu
supranclzitoare.
- cldri care genereaz abur supranclzit:
care produc abur la o temperatur mai
mare dect temperatura de saturaie.

Dup modul n care este circulat apa
n cldare:
- cldri cu circulaie natural: unde
circulaia apei se face fr ajutorul
vreunui dispozitiv. Aceste cldri se
mpart n:
- cldri cu circulaie natural
lent: unde apa circul cu vitez
mic.
- cldri cu circulaie natural
accelerat: la care apa curge cu
vitez mare.
- cldri cu circulaie artificial: la
care apa este circulat n interiorul
cldrii cu ajutorul unor pompe
speciale.

Dup modul n care este realizat tirajul:
- cldri cu tiraj natural: unde aerul
necesar arderii ptrunde liber n focar.

- cldri cu tiraj artificial: unde aerul
necesar arderii este pompat de
ventilatoare sau turbosuflante.
Ali termeni folosii:
- cldare central
- cldare de incendiu
- cldare automatizat
- cldare complet automatizat
- cldare cu alimentare automat
- cldare cu ardere dubl
- cldare cu comand de la distan
- cldare cu dubl evaporare
- cldare cu flacr ntoars
- cldare cu focar ecranat
- cldare cu supranclzitor automat
- cldare cu evi fierbtoare trans-
versale
- cldare cu tuburi curbe
- cldare radiant
15 and 29 bar.
- high duty boilers: boilers that have
rating pressure higher than 30 bar.

By the generated steam temperature
value:
- boilers which generate saturated
steam: they produce steam at the
saturation temperature. They are not
provided with superheaters.
- boilers which generate superheated
steam: they produce steam at a
temperature higher than the saturation
temperature.
By the mode the water is circulated in
the boiler:
- natural circulation boilers: where the
water circulates without any device
help. These boilers can be divided in:

- slow natural circulation
boilers: where water flows at low
speed.
- composite boilers: where water
flows at high speed.

- assisted circulation boilers (forced -
water- circulation boilers, forced-flow
boilers): where inside the boiler the
water is circulated by means of special
pumps.
By the way the draught is done:
- natural draught boilers: when the
combustion air enters the furnace
naturally.
- artificial (forced) draught boilers:
when the combustion air is pumped by
fans or turbochargers.
Other related term:
- center boiler
- fire bucket
- automatic boiler
- full automatic boiler
- automatic-feeding boiler
- dual-fired boiler
- remote controlled boiler
- double evaporation boiler
- return flame boiler
- all-water-wall boiler
- controlled-superheater boiler
- cross tube boiler

- bent tube boiler
- radiant boiler
129
- cldare submarin
- cldare ignitubulare verticale

Caracteristicile principale ale
cldrii

Debitul cldrii: care este
cantitatea de ap convertit n abur n
unitatea de timp. La cldri sunt folosite
urmtoarele capaciti:
- Debitul nominal: care nseamn debitul
maxim de vapori al cldrii.
- Debitul normal al cldrii: aproximativ
80% din debitul nominal, ce corespunde
randamentului optim.
- Debitul minim al cldrii: care reprezint
valoarea celui mai redus debit cu care
poate funciona cldarea fr s sufere
deteriorri pentru o perioad indefinit de
timp.
- Debitul specific al cldrii: care
reprezint raportul dintre debitul nominal
al cldrii i suprafaa de nclzire.

Presiunea de lucru
- Presiunea nominal: care este presiunea
de lucru maxim admisibil luat n calcul
la proiectare.
- Presiunea nominal de regim: care este
presiunea maxim meninut constant n
timpul funcionrii normale.
- Presiunea de utilizare: care este presiunea
pe care o au vaporii n momentul ieirii
acestora din supranclzitorul cldrii.
- Presiunea de probe: care este presiunea
maxim la care s-au fcut proba hidraulic
a cldrii, de obicei de 1,5 ori mai mare
dect presiunea nominal.

Temperatura aburului: care este
temperatura aburului care poate fi saturat
sau nesaturat.

Suprafaa de nclzire a cldrii:
care este suprafaa metalic care
acumuleaz cldura necesar transformrii
apei n vapori.
Aceast suprafa poate fi:
- Suprafa de nclzire principal: care
este suprafaa metalic care este n contact
cu apa care vaporizeaz pe o parte i cu
- cauldron, caldron
- tubular vertical boiler

Boiler main data


Boiler capacity: which is the
amount of water converted into steam in
time unit. With boilers we have the
following capacities:
- Rating capacity: which means the
maximum discharge of the boiler.
- Normal capacity: about 80 per cent of the
rating capacity, when the boiler reaches the
optimal efficiency.
- Minimal capacity: which means the
lower discharge value when the boiler can
work without suffering damages for an
indefinite amount of time.

- Specific capacity: which is the rating
capacity divided by the heating surface.


Working pressure
- Rating pressure: which is the maximal
allowed working pressure, pressure taken
in consideration at design time.
- Operating pressure: which is the maximal
pressure, maintained constantly during the
normal operation.
- Output pressure: which is the pressure of
the steam at the superheater discharge
outlet.
- Test pressure: which is the maximum
pressure used at the hydraulic testing
usually of 1.5 times the rating pressure.


Steam temperature: that is the
temperature of the steam, which can be
either saturated or superheated.

Boiler heating surface: which is
the metal surface that accumulates the heat
needed for converting the water in steam.

This surface can be:
- Main heating surface: which is the metal
surface that is in contact with water which
vaporizes on one side and the hot gases on
130
gazele arse te cealalt parte.
- Suprafa de nclzire auxiliar: care
este suprafaa care acumuleaz cldura
necesar unei mai bune vaporizri.
(prenclzitor de aer, economizor,
supranclzitor etc.).

Randamentul cldrii: care este
raportul dintre cantitatea de cldur
degajat n focarele cldrii i cantitatea de
cldur transmis apei spre a vaporiza.

Consumul de combustibil: care
este cantitatea de combustibil ars n
unitatea de timp.

Capacitatea de vaporizare a
combustibilului: care reprezint cantitatea
de aer obinut n cldare prin arderea unui
kilogram de combustibil.

Tensiunea termic a focarului:
care este o caracteristic care d informaii
asupra cantitii de cldur degajat prin
arderea combustibilului fiecrui metru cub
al focarului.

Caracteristica de greutate a
cldrii: care este raportul dintre greutatea
cldrii cu sau fr ap i debitul orar.


the other side.
- Auxiliary heating surface: which is the
metal surface that accumulates the heat
needed for a better vaporization (air
preheater, economizer, superheater etc.).


Boiler efficiency: which is the
amount of heat released in the furnace
divided by the amount of heat transmitted
to water to vaporize.

Fuel consumption: which is the
amount of fuel that is burned in the
furnaces in time unit

Vaporization fuel capacity: which
is the amount of air obtained in the boiler
by burning a kilogram of fuel.


Furnace thermal stress: which is a
feature giving information about the
amount of heat released by fuel combustion
to each cubic meter of the furnace volume.


Boiler weight characteristics:
which is the weight of the boiler with or
without water divided by its capacity.




131

Cldarea auxiliar vertical (fig. 22.1)
1. Focar
2. Tub de foc
3. Coroana focarului
4. Eapament eliptic
5. Plac de ancorare
6. Travers principal
7. Nivelul normal de ap
8. Gur de vizit
9. Coroana anvelopei
10. Tirant central
11. Camer ap abur
12. Plac tubular superioar
13. Tuburi ordinare
14. Tuburi cobortoare
15. Tuburi tirante
16. Camera de ap
17. Placa tubular inferioar
18. Guri de vizit
19. Arztor de combustibil
20. Izolaie refractar
21. Zidria vetrei
22. Izolaie
23. Canal vertical de gaze de ardere
24. Cutia/camera de fum
Vertical auxiliary boiler (fig. 22.1)
1. Furnace
2. Fire tube
3. Furnace crown
4. Elliptical flue pipe
5. Stay plate
6. Grider stay
7. Normal water level
8. Manhole door
9. Shell crown plate
10. Center stay
11. Steam/water chamber
12. Upper tube plate
13. Plain tubes
14. Downcomer tubes
15. Stay tubes
16. Water chamber
17. Lower tube plate
18. Manhole door
19. Oil burning unit
20. Refractory
21. Brickwork
22. Insulation
23. Uptake
24. Smoke box




Fig. 22.1

132




F
i
g
.

2
2
.
2


133
Cldarea funcioneaz cu combus-
tibil lichid. Arztorul introduce un amestec
de combustibil i aer n focar prin tubul de
foc.
n focar are loc arderea rezultnd o
cantitate de gaze fierbini care urc n
coroana focarului i de acolo prin
eapamentul eliptic n camera de fum. n
camera de fum gazele cedeaz o mare
cantitate de cldur apei prin intermediul
suprafeei mari de schimb de cldur a
tuburilor. Aceast cldur este folosit de
ap pentru a se vaporiza.
Vaporii urc n camera de
ap/aburi. Apa rece din camera de
ap/aburi coboar datorit gravitaiei, prin
tuburile cobortoare, napoi n camera de
ap. Gazele reziduale merg mai departe
prin canalul vertical de gaze de ardere la
coul de fum.
Aburul produs este descrcat ctre
consumatori prin valvula principal de
abur.
ntreaga cldare are o construcie
sudat. Tirantul central ntrete anvelopa.
Zidria are rol n izolaia termic, iar
izolaia refractar de a direciona cldura
spre camera de ap. Gurile de vizit sunt
prevzute pentru curarea cldrii.
The boiler is oil-fired. The oil
burning unit introduces a mixture of fuel
oil and air in the furnace by the fire tube.

Combustion takes place in the
furnace resulting in an amount of hot gases,
which go upwards to the furnace crown
and through the elliptical flue pipe to the
smoke box. In the smoke box the gases
release a large amount of heat to the water
by means of the large heating surface of the
tubes. This heat is used by water to
vaporize.
The vapours go upwards in the
steam/water chamber. Due to gravitation
the colder water from the steam/water
chamber goes downwards through the
downcomer tubes back to water chamber.
The waste gases go further through the
uptake to the funnel.
The produced steam is discharged
through a main seam stop valve to the
consumers.
The entire boiler has a welded
construction. The center stay strengthens
the shell. The brickwork is for thermal
insulation and the refractory is for directing
the heat to the water chamber. Manhole
doors are provided for the cleaning of the
boiler.
Cldarea cu flacr ntoars (cazan Scotch)
(fig. 22.2)
1. Anvelopa cldrii
2. Valvul principal de abur
3. Gur de vizitare superioar
4. Tirani n spaiul de abur
5. Armtura camerei de foc
6. Camera de foc
7. Antretoazele camerei de foc
8. Flan gt de lebd
9. Tuburi de fum
10. Tub de flacr (furnal) central
11. Tirant
12. Cur de vizit inferioar
13. Tub de flacr (furnal) lateral
14. Tub tirant
15. Tub tirant cu piuli
16. Tub ordinar
17. Tubulatura vertical de evacuare
18. Cutia de fum
19. Gur de vizit
20. Arztor lateral
21. Arztor central
Return flame boiler (Scotch boiler)
(fig.22.2)
1. Boiler shell
2. Steam main stop valve
3. Top manhole
4. Steam space stays
5. Combustion chamber grider
6. Combustion chamber
7. Combustion chamber stay
8. Goose neck flange
9. Smoke tubes
10. Center furnace
11. Stay
12. Bottom manhole
13. Wing furnace
14. Stay tube
15. Stay tube with nut
16. Plain tube
17. Uptake
18. Smoke box
19. Inspection opening
20. Wing oil burner
21. Center oil burner

134
Principalele componente ale unei
cldri cu flacr ntoars sunt: anvelopa,
pereii, furnalele, camerele de ardere,
tuburile fierbtoare, legturile cldrii.
Anvelopa este de o construcie
sudat, are o form cilindric i este
confecionat din oel din trei pri.
Anvelopa susine celelalte componente ale
cldrii i limiteaz spaiul de aer n prile
superioar, inferioar i laterale.
Cldarea are doi perei care
limiteaz spaiul de ap n plan
longitudinal. Acestea pot fi executate dintr-
o singur bucat sau din mai multe buci.
Cnd sunt executai din mai multe buci
sudate acestea au o grosime variabil. De
obicei sunt trei zone de trei grosimi
diferite: zona plcii superioare care are o
grosime relativ mic, zona plcii mijlocii
care are cea mai mare grosime pentru c n
ea sunt practicate multe guri i este supus
eforturilor termice difereniale i zona
plcii inferioare care are aceiai grosime ca
n zona plcii superioare.
Pereii sunt ambutisai nuntru
atunci cnd sunt nituii sau ambutisai n
afar atunci cnd sunt sudai.
Tubul de flacr, cunoscut i sub
denumirea de furnal, este locul unde are
loc combustia. Furnalul este de form
cilindric i este confecionat din oel
special. Datorit arderii furnalul este supus
la o tensiune termic deosebit de puternic
de aceea suprafaa furnalului este ondulat
pentru rezista acesteia.
La o cldare putem gsi dou sau
trei furnale. Fiecare furnal este conectat la
captul sau posterior la cutia de foc prin
intermediul unei flane de tip gt de
lebd.
Dac cldarea este nclzit cu
crbuni furnalele au un grtar pe care sunt
ari crbunii.
Cutia de foc (camera de ardere) este
o prelungire a tubului de flacr n care
arderea continu i se sfrete. Aceast
camer este executat dintr-un material cu
o bun conductibilitate termic i o mare
rezisten la temperaturi nalte, de obicei
este folosit oelul special sau cuprul.
Peretele posterior al cutiei de foc este
nclinat i poate fi prevzut cu zidrie
refractar.
Tuburile cldrii constituie o mare
The main components of a return
flame boiler are: the boiler shell, the end
plate, the furnaces, the fire box, the boiler
tubes, the smoke box, the boiler stays.
The boiler shell is of welded
construction, has a cylindrical shape, and is
made of steel and consists of three parts.
The boiler shell sustains the other parts of
the boiler and limits the water space at the
top, bottom and on the sides.
The boiler has two end plates which
limit the water space in longitudinal plan.
They can be made in a single part or many
parts. When the end plates are made of
many welded parts, they are of variable
thickness. Usually there are three zones of
different thickness: the upper plate zone
with relatively small thickness, the middle
plate zone (which has the largest thickness
because it has many holes in it and
undergoes differential thermal strains) and
the lower plate zone which has the same
thickness as the upper zone plate.

The end plates are flanged inside
when they are riveted or flanged outside
when they are welded.
The fire tube, also known as the
furnace, is the place where combustion
takes place. The furnace is cylinder shaped
and is made of special steel. Because of the
burning the furnace undergoes high
thermal stress therefore the furnace surface
is corrugated in order to resist it.

In a boiler we can find two or three
furnaces. Each furnace is connected at its
back end to the combustion chamber by
means of a gooseneck type flange.

If the boiler is coal-fired the
furnaces have a grate on which the coal is
burned.
The fire box (combustion chamber)
is an extension of the fire tube where the
combustion continues and ends. This
chamber is made of a material with good
thermal conductibility and great strength at
high temperatures; usually special steel or
copper is used. The back wall of the fire
box is tilted and could be provided with
refractory brickwork.

Boiler tubes constitute a large
135
suprafa de schimb de cldur fiind n
contact la interior cu gazele fierbini, iar la
exterior cu apa. Exist dou tipuri de tuburi
de fum: tuburi ordinare i tuburi tirante.
Acestea sunt fixate n dou plci tubulare
dup cum urmeaz:
- tuburile ordinare sunt mandrinate sau
sudate electric
- tuburile tirante sunt nurubate i
asigurate cu piuli i contrapiuli sau
sudate electric.

Tuburile tirante consolideaz
plcile tubulare i ajut de asemenea
schimbul de cldur. Ele sunt amplasate la
periferia plcilor tubulare.
Camera de fum a cldrii este
destinat s permit trecerea gazelor arse la
coul de fum al cldrii. Aceasta este
executat din plci de oel i este ataat de
cldare prin intermediul uruburilor.
Camera de fum este prevzut cu orificii de
vizit pentru a permite curarea tuburilor
i schimbarea lor la nevoie.
n camera de fum, n partea
inferioar a coului de fum poate fi montat
un economizor pentru nclzirea apei de
alimentare pentru a mri randamentul
cldrii.
Pereii plani sunt ntrii prin tirani,
antretoaze, gusee, tuburi tirante, ancore sau
alte elemente similare.
Vatra de crmid asigur protecia
metalului n zonele cu temperaturi nalte i
unde apa circul foarte ncet (zone cum ar
fi partea inferioar a camerei de ardere).

Datorit faptului c n interiorul
cldrii apa nconjoar tuburile de flacr,
cutia de foc, tuburile de fum i plcile
tubulare, toate acestea constituie suprafee
de schimb de cldur.
Cldura degajat prin arderea
combustibilului n furnal este transmis
parial furnalului, iar restul este acumulat
n gazele arse care intr n cutia du foc.
Aici ard ultimele particule de combustibil,
acelea care nu au ars n furnal, astfel nct
cutia de foc acumuleaz cldur din
arderea combustibilului i de la gazele arse
din interiorul ei. Aceast cldur este
transmis apei care nconjoar cutia de foc.
Din cutia de foc gazele fierbini trec prin
tuburile de fum n camera de fum de aici
heating surface being in contact with hot
gases at the inner side and water at the
outer side. There are two types of smoke
tubes: plain tubes and stay tubes. They are
fastened in two tube plates as follows:

- plain tubes are drifted or electrically
welded
- stay tubes are screwed and secured
with nut and lock-nut or electrically
welded

Stay tubes strengthen the tube
plates and also help the heat transfer. They
are placed on the outer side of tube plates.

The boiler smoke chamber is
destined to allow the passage of waste
gases to the boiler funnel. It is made of
steel plates and it is mounted on the boiler
by means of screws. The smoke chamber is
provided with inspection openings to allow
the tubes to be cleaned and changed if
necessary.
An economizer can be mounted in
the smoke chamber at funnel bottom for
heating the feed water in order to increase
the boilers efficiency.

Flat walls are reinforced by long
and short stays, corner stays, stay tubes,
anchors or other similar structures.
Fireplace brickwork ensures the
protection of metal in the zones with high
temperature and where the water
circulation is very slow ( zones like the
combustion chamber bottom).
Because the water inside the boiler
shell surrounds the fire tubes, fire box ,
smoke tubes and tube plates, all those
surfaces are heating surfaces.

The heat released by fuel
combustion in furnace and fire box is
partially transmitted to the furnace, the rest
of it being accumulated in the waste gases
which enter the fire box. The last fuel
particles which have not burned in the
furnace burned here, so that the fire box
accumulates heat from the burning fuel and
waste gases from it. This heat is
transmitted to the water surrounding the
fire box. From the fire box the hot gases
pass trough the smoke tubes to the smoke
136
spre canalul vertical de gaze de ardere,
economizor (dac este prezent) i coul de
fum.
Apa n contact cu suprafeele
fierbini vaporizeaz. Aburul se
acumuleaz n partea superioar a cldrii
camera de abur i pleac spre
consumatori printr-o valvul principal de
abur.
chamber, from here to the uptake,
economizer (if present) and funnel.

In contact with hot surfaces water
vaporizes. The steam is accumulated in the
upper side of the boiler the steam
chamber, and goes to the consumers
through a main steam stop valve.



Cldare Yarrow (cu o singur trecere fig.
22.3.a cu dubl trecere fig.22.3.b)

1. Colector inferior (tambur de abur)
2. Colector inferior (tambur de ap)
3. Focar
4. Supranclzitor
5. Canal vertical de gaze de ardere
Yarrow boiler (single flow type fig. 22.3.a
and double flow type fig. 22.3.b)

1. Steam drum
2. Water drum
3. Furnace
4. Superheater
5. Uptake


Cldri acvatubulare

La cldrile acvatubulare apa
circul n interiorul tuburilor n timp ce
gazele fierbini trec pe la exteriorul
tuburilor cldrii.
Pentru a discuta cldrile
acvatubulare cea mai reprezentativ este
cldarea de tip Yarrow, care este unul
dintre cele mai folosite tipuri de cldri
acvatubulare.
Tipurile timpurii de cldri Yarrow
au avut o construcie simpl; cldarea a
fost construit din trei tamburi cilindrici
lungi: unul superior care este colectorul de
abur i doi tamburi inferiori care sunt
colectoare de ap. Colectorul de abur fiind
conectat cu cele dou colectoare de ap
prin rnduri de tuburi fierbtoare care se
ntindeau pe ntreaga lungime a tamburului.
Water-tube boilers

In the water-tube boilers the water
circulates inside the boiler tubes while hot
gases pass on the outside of the boiler
tubes.
When discussing the water-tube
boilers the most representative is the
Yarrow type boiler, which is one of the
most used types of water-tube boilers.

The earlier type of Yarrow boilers
had a simple design; the boiler was made
of three long cylindrical drums: one upper
drum, which is the steam drum and two
lower drums, which are the water drums.
The steam drum was connected with the
two water drums by rows of water tubes
which were extended on the complete
length of the drum.
Fig. 22.3.b

Fig. 22.3.a


137
La partea inferioar a cldrii ntre
cei doi tamburi erau arztoarele de
combustibil care nclzeau cldarea.
La partea inferioar erau straturi de
zidrie i refractare, pentru izolarea
termic.
mprejurul tuturor componentelor
se afla o carcas rezistent la foc cu orificii
de acces sau vizit. Tuburile erau drepte i
fixate prin mandrinare. n afara cldrii
erau tuburi cobortoare pentru circulaia
apei.
Construciile mai recente de cldri
au adugat proiectului original un alt
colector de ap.
Dup felul n care gazele curg pe
lng tamburi exist dou tipuri de cldri:
cu o singur trecere, unde gazele trec
pe sub colectorul de abur.
cu dubl trecere, unde gazele
nconjoar colectorul de abur.

Tuburile cobortoare au fost
abandonate pentru c apa circula prin
tuburile fierbtoare. Pentru producerea de
abur supranclzit a fost amplasat un
supranclzitor ntre tuburile fierbtoare.
Un registru de co a fost adugat pentru
nchiderea complet sau parial a uneia
dintre cile de gaze pentru a direciona
gazele fierbini prin supranclzitor.
n acest tip de cldare apa este
coninut n colectoarele de ap i tuburile
fierbtoare i se ridic pn la jumtatea
din colectorul de abur. Gazele fierbini trec
pe lng tuburi n drumul lor spre canalul
vertical de gaze de ardere i coul de fum.
Tuburile din mnunchiurile de
tuburi fierbtoare se comport n dou
moduri diferite: tuburile dinspre focar sunt
tuburi urctoare, pentru c ele iau mai
mult cldur de la gazele fierbini, n timp
ce tuburile din cealalt parte sunt tuburi
cobortoare. n tuburile urctoare apa
folosete cldura pentru a se vaporiza.
Aburul urc in colectorul de abur unde este
colectat n jumtatea superioar. Pentru c
colectorul de abur constituie un rezervor de
ap relativ rece, datorit gravitaiei i
diferenei de densitate, se formeaz cureni
de convecie, apa rece din colectorul de
abur ajunge n colectorul de ap cauznd
circulaia natural a apei circular n sistem.
Aburul trece spre consumatori
The oil burners which heated the
boiler were situated at the bottom of the
boiler, between the two water drums.
At the bottom side there were
brickwork and refractory layers for thermal
insulation.
Surrounding all components there
were a fireproof casing with manhole and
inspection openings. The water tubes were
straight-shaped and fastened by drifting.
Outside the boiler there were downcomer
tubes for water circulation.
More recent construction of boilers
have added another water drum to the
original project.
By the way the gases flow around
the drums there are two types of boilers:
single flow type, where the gases pass
under the steam drum.
double flow type, where the gases
surround the steam drum.

The downcomer tubes have been
abandoned because the water circulated
through the boiler tubes. For the
superheated steam production a superheater
was placed between the boiler tubes. A
damper was added for complete or partial
closing of one of the gases way to direct
the hot gases to the superheater tubes.

In this kind of boilers water is
contained in the water drums and tubes and
extends halfway up the steam drum. Hot
gases pass round the tubes on their way to
the uptake and funnel.

The tubes from the water-tubes
bunches act in two different ways: the
tubes on the furnace side are upcomer
tubes, because they take more heat from
the hot gases, while the tubes on the other
side are downcomer tubes. In upcomer
tubes the water uses the heat to vaporize.
The steam goes upward to the steam drum
where it is collected in the top half.
Because the steam drum provides a
reservoir of relatively cold water, due to
the gravitation and the difference of
gravity, convection currents are set up,
colder water from the steam drum get into
the water drum causing the natural
circulation of the water within the system.
The steam passes to the consumers
138
printr-o valvul principal de abur.
Apa de alimentare este introdus n
colectorul de abur lng nivelul de ap, iar
alimentarea este reglat de ctre un
regulator automat de ap de alimentare pe
cel puin una dintre instalaiile de
alimentare separate impuse cldrilor.
Cldrile acvatubulare sunt
proiectate pentru presiuni mai mari dect
cldrile ignitubulare fr a deveni excesiv
de grele.
Cldrile acvatubulare moderne
ncorporeaz un economizor n cldare sau
n canalul vertical de gaze de ardere.
Economizorul este un nclzitor n care apa
de alimentare este nclzit de ctre gazele
arse n loc de abur ca la nclzitoarele de
ap de alimentare normale.

Cldri recuperatoare

Aceste cldri sunt de o construcie
simpl si dau un sens efectiv utilizrii
cldurii pierdute prin gazelor de evacuare a
motoarelor diesel. Acestea sunt verticale i
construcia lor este potrivit n cele mai
multe cazuri pentru potrivirea n coul de
fum.
De obicei cldrile recuperatoare nu
sunt utilizate individual acestea
funcioneaz combinat cu alte cldri
acvatubulare nclzite prin arderea
combustibilului, n instalaii de generare a
aburului, pentru c acestea funcioneaz
numai cnd funcioneaz i motoarele.

through a steam stop valve.
The feed water is fed into the steam
drum bellow the water level and the supply
is regulated by an automatic feed water
regulator on at least one of the separate
feed systems required on the boilers.

Water-tube boilers are designed for
higher pressure than smoke-tube boilers
without becoming excessive in weight.

Modern water-tube boilers
incorporate an economizer in the boiler or
in the uptake. The economizer is a feed
water heater in which the feed water is
heated by flue-gases instead of steam, as in
the feed-water heater normal design.


Exhaust-gas boilers

These boilers are of simple design
and provide an effective way of using the
waste heat from diesel engine exhausts.
They are vertical and in most cases their
construction is suitable for accommodation
in the funnel.

Exhaust boilers are not usually used
individually they operate together with
other oil-fired water-tube boilers in steam
generating plants, as they can only work
when the engines are operated.


Piesele auxiliare ale cldrii

Prin piesele auxiliare ale cldrii
nelegem toate armturile i aparatele de
msur i control care ndeplinesc funcia
de dispozitive funcionale sau de siguran
necesar pentru funcionarea bun i n
siguran a cldrii exceptnd tubulaturile,
colectoarele, focarele i alt echipament
greu.
Mountings on a boiler

By mountings on a boiler we
understand all fittings and gauges which
act as operational or safety devices needed
for good and safe operation of the boiler
except the piping systems, drums, furnaces
and other heavy equipment.
Supape de siguran: care sunt necesare
pentru a evacua orice abur suplimentar din
cldare. Aceste valve se deschid automat la
o presiune maxim, ce nu depete cu mai
mult de 10% presiunea de lucru i permit
aburului s ias prin tubulatura de scurgere
a aburului n coul de fum pn cnd
Safety valves: which are needed to release
any excess steam from the boiler. These
valves open automatically at a maximum
pressure not exceeding 10 per cent of the
working pressure and allow the steam to
escape by the waste steam pipe on the
funnel until the pressure falls to normal
139
presiunea scade din nou la normal. Dac
evile de evacuare a aburului sunt
amplasate dedesubtul supapei, o eav de
golire fr organe de nchidere este
prevzut pentru evacuarea condensatului
din corpul supapelor sau din evile de
evacuare a aburului.
Dup declanare, supapele de
siguran ale cldrilor principale i ale
cldrilor auxiliare importante ntrerup
complet ieirea aburului n cazul cderii
presiunii n cldare la cel mult 0,85 ori
presiunea de lucru.
Sunt cel puin dou supape de
siguran cu arc, de aceeai construcie i
aceiai dimensiune montate pe tamburii
oricrei cldri de regul pe un tub de
legtur comun precum i o supap de
siguran montat pe colectorul de ieire al
supranclzitorului. Aceasta este astfel
reglat s de deschid naintea supapei de
siguran montat pe tambur.
Valvele sunt astfel construite nct
s poat fi deschise manual printr-un
mecanism de acionare special.
Mecanismul de acionare a uneia din valve
trebuie comandat din compartimentul
cldrii, iar comanda celeilalte supape se
afl pe puntea superioar sau alt loc
permanent accesibil dar n afara
compartimentului cldrii.
Supapele de siguran sunt
racordate direct la spaiul de abur al
cldrii, fr organele de nchidere de orice
fel, i sunt astfel construite nct s poat fi
sigilate sau prevzute cu un dispozitiv de
siguran corespunztor care s exclud
posibilitatea de reglare a supapelor fr
tirea personalului de deservire.
Arcurile supapelor de siguran sunt
protejate contra aciunii directe a aburului
evacuat i sunt executate, la fel ca i
suprafeele de etanare ale scaunelor i
conurilor supapelor, din materiale
rezistente la temperatur i coroziune.
Supapele de siguran pot fi de
urmtoarele tipuri:
- supape de nalt presiune
- supape de siguran de mare capacitate:
- cu gaur complet
- de tipul Hopkinson Hylif

- consolidate

again. If the discharge steam pipes are
located below the valves, a drainpipe
without any shut-off devices is provided to
remove the condensate from valve plates or
from discharge steam pipes.


After releasing, the safety valves of
main and essential boilers completely shut
down the steam outlet in case the boiler
pressure drops down to maximum 0.85
times the working pressure.

There are at least two spring-loaded
safety valves of identical construction and
equal size fitted on the drum of each boiler
usually on a common branch piece and one
valve on the superheater outlet header. This
valve is set to operate before the safety
valve installed on the drum.


The valves are arranged so that they
can be lifted by a special hand operated
easing gear. The easing gear of one of the
valves is operated from the boiler room and
that of the other valve is located on the
upper deck or on other location,
permanently accessible but outside the
boiler room.

The safety valves are directly
connected to the boiler steam space without
any closing device, and are so designed
that they could be sealed or provided with
an equivalent safeguard to make it
impossible for the valves to be set without
the knowledge of the personnel.

The springs of the safety valves are
protected from direct exposure to steam
and are manufactured, as well as the
sealing surfaces of seats and valves, of
heat-and corrosion-resistant materials.

The safety valves can be of the
following types:
- high-lift valves
- high-capacity safety valves:
- full-bore safety valves
- Hopkingson Hylif safety
valves
- consolidated safety valves

140
Valvule de alimentare principale: pentru
admisia apei n cldare, acestea sunt
plasate de obicei la captul cldrii i
introduc apa chiar n apropierea nivelului
de lucru al apei.
Valvulele de alimentare sunt de
tipul cu autoreinere. ntre valvula de
alimentare i cldare este instalat o
valvul de nchidere pentru separarea
cldrii de tubulaturile care duc la aceasta.
Valvulele de reinere i valvulele de
nchidere pot fi amplasate n acelai corp.
Valvula de nchidere se va monta direct pe
corpul cldrii.

Valvule de alimentare auxiliare: care sunt
montate ntotdeauna ca rezerv n caz de
defectare a celeilalte sau pentru
alimentarea cldrii n port.

Valvule de purjare: care sunt amplasate n
apropierea fundului cldrii pentru a-l goli
n ntregime sau parial. Aceast valvul
este conectat la o valvul amplasat pe
bordajul navei. Apa este suflat n mare de
presiunea aburului din cldare.
Valvulele de purjare sunt montate
direct pe corpul cldrii sau instalate pe
racorduri tubulare sudate.

Dispozitive pentru extracia de suprafa:
care sunt amplasate pe colectorul superior
la cldrile cu suprafa liber de
vaporizare pentru a asigura eliminarea
spumei i reziduurilor de le suprafaa de
evaporare.

Valvule pentru extracia de fund: care
sunt amplasate la partea inferioar a
cldrii spre a permite eliminarea
reziduurilor de la fundul cldrii sau pentru
folosirea integral sau parial a apei cnd
este nevoie.

Valvule de golire: care sunt montate direct
pe corpul cldrii sau instalate pe racorduri
tubulare sudate spre a permite golirea apei
din instalaie.

Valvule de circulaie: care sunt amplasate
n apropierea fundului i sunt folosite
numai pentru a produce o circulaie
artificial a apei la ridicarea presiunii
pentru a minimiza eforturile datorate
Main feed valves: for water admission in
the boiler, these are usually placed on the
end of boiler and admit the water just
bellow the working water level.

The feed valves are of a non-return
type (check valves). A shut-off valve is
installed between the check valve and the
boiler, for separating the boiler from the
pipes leading to it. Non-return valves and
shut-off valves may be mounted within the
same body. The shut-off valve should be
fitted directly to the boiler.


Auxiliary feed valves: which are always
fitted as a stand-by in case of damage of
the other one and are also used for feeding
the boiler in port.

Blow-down valve: which are placed near
the bottom of the boiler to empty it either
wholly or partially. This valve is connected
to one valve on the ships side. Water is
blown out into the sea by the steam
pressure from the boiler.
The blow-down valves are fitted
directly to the boiler shell or installed on
the tubular welded-in branch pipes.

Upper blow-off valves: which are placed
on the upper header at boilers with a free
evaporating surface to ensure the scum and
sludge removal from the evaporating
surface.


Bottom blow-off valves: which are placed
at boiler bottom to allow the removal of
sludge from the boiler bottom or for the
whole or partial use of the boiler water
when needed.


Drain valves: which are fitted directly to
the boiler shell or installed on the tubular
welded-in branch pipes in order to allow
water to be drawn from the system.

Circulating valve: which are fitted near the
bottom and are only used to produce an
artificial circulation of the water when
raising steam to minimize the strains due to
unequal expansion of the boiler plates.
141
dilatrii inegale ale plcilor.

Robinete pentru luarea probelor de ap
din cldare: care sunt prevzute ntr-un loc
corespunztor pentru a permite luarea
probelor de ap. Nu este permis montarea
acestor robinete pe tubulaturi i racorduri
destinate altor scopuri.

Sufltoare de funingine: care sunt montate
pe cldri pentru ndeprtarea depunerilor
de funingine datorate gazelor arse pentru a
menine curate suprafeele de nclzire.

Valvule principale de abur: care sunt
montate pe cldare pentru a controla
trecerea aburului spre motor. Acestea sunt
de tip cu reinere.

Dispozitive pentru evacuarea aerului: care
Sunt folosite pentru a elimina aerul din
cldare atunci cnd aceasta este umplut cu
ap. Acestea sunt montate pe
supranclzitoare i economizoare intr-un
numr suficient.

Robinete de control: acestea sunt folosite
pentru a verifica dac exist ap sau aer la
un anumit nivel. Ei se folosesc de obicei la
cldrile de joas presiune n dreptul
nivelului minim i maxim.

Indicatoare de nivel: care sunt prevzute
pentru a indica n permanen nivelul apei
n cldare. Apa urc n tubul de sticl la
aceiai nlime ca nivelul din interiorul
cldrii. Din motive de siguran fiecare
cldare trebuie s aib cel puin dou
indicatoare de nivel pentru ap.
Aceste indicatoare pot fi de
urmtoarele tipuri:
indicatoare de nivel locale
- cu tub de sticl
- cu sticl plat
- cu reflexie
- transparente
de la distan


Indicatoarele de nivel sunt montate
n partea frontal a cldrii la acelai nivel
selectat, la distana cea mai mic posibil
fa de planul diametral vertical al cldrii,
respectiv tamburului.


Salinometer valves: which are fitted in an
appropriate place to allow samples of water
to be drawn off for testing. The fitting of
such valves or cocks on pipes and branches
intended for other purposes is not allowed.


Soot blowers: which are fitted on boilers
for soot removal from the exhaust gases
passages in order to maintain the heating
surfaces clean.

Main steam stop valves: which are fitted
on top of the boiler in order to control the
passage of steam to the engine. These are
of non-return type.

Valves for deaeration (aeration cocks):
which are used to evacuate the air from the
boiler when the boiler is filled with water.
These are fitted on the superheater and on
economizers in a sufficient number.


Controlling cocks: these are used to check
if there is water or air at a certain level.
They are usually used on the low-pressure
boilers at the minimum level height and
maximum level height.

Water level indicators (water gauges):
which are fitted to permanently indicate the
level of water in the boiler. The water rises
in the glass tube to the same height as the
level inside the boiler. For safety reasons
every boiler must have at least two
independent water level indicators.
These indicators can be of the
following type:
local gauges
- cylindrical glass type
- flat prismatic glass
- reflex type
- transparent type
remote gauges


The water level indicators are fitted
on the front side of the boiler, at an
appropriately selected equal height and at
the shortest possible distance from the
vertical centerline of the boiler (drum).
142
Aceste dispozitive sunt prevzute
cu dispozitive de nchidere cu acionare
sigur pentru deconectarea aparatelor n
cazul spargerii sticlei.
Indicatoarele de nivel pentru ap
sunt racordate la cldare prin intermediul
evilor de legtur independente. n
interiorul cldrii nu sunt permise evi de
conducere la indicatorul de nivel pentru
ap. Aceste evi de legtur sunt protejate
mpotriva expunerii la cldura radiant a
gazelor fierbini i rcirii intense.
Fiecare cldare cu circulaie
natural ( cu suprafa de evaporare a apei
liber) are nivelul minim de ap marcat cu
o linie de referin trasat pe cadrul corpul
indicatorului de nivel pentru ap. n plus,
nivelul minim de ap este marcat pe o
plcu ataat pe corpul cldrii aproape
de indicatorul de nivel pentru ap cu o linie
de referin i o inscripie Nivel minim
inferior.

Manometre: care sunt prevzute pentru a
indica presiunile din cldare.
Fiecare cldare este prevzut cu
cel puin dou manometre racordate la
spaiul de abur prin evi separate prevzute
cu valvule de nchidere sau robinete de
nchidere. ntre manometru i eav, se vor
monta robinete sau valvule cu trei ci, care
s permit deconectarea manometrului de
la cldare, punerea sa n comunicaie cu
cldrile recuperatoare, punerea sa n
comunicaie cu atmosfera pentru purjarea
evilor de legtur i racordarea
manometrului de control.
Unul din manometre este montat pe
partea frontal a cldrii fiind protejat n
mod eficient contra aciunii cldurii de
radiaie degajate de cldare, iar al doilea la
postul principal de comand al mainilor.
Manometrele trebuie s fie
controlate la timp i marcate cu data
verificrii de ctre organele competente.

Termometre: care sunt folosite pentru a
indica temperaturile din cldare spre a evita
supranclzirea.

Alarme de nivel minim de ap i oprirea
combustibilului: care sunt prevzute
pentru a proteja cldarea mpotriva
defeciunilor majore i personalul de
These gauges are provided with
shut-off devices with safe drives for
disconnecting the apparatuses in case of
glass break.
Water level indicators are
connected to the boiler by means of
independent pipes. No pipes leading to the
water level indicator are allowed inside the
boiler. These connecting pipes are
protected from exposure to hot gases
radiant heat and intense cooling.

Each natural circulation boiler (with
a free water evaporating surface) has its
lowest water level marked with a reference
line drawn on the boiler water level
indicator frame or body. Additionally, the
lowest water level is marked on a plate,
attached to the boiler shell close to the
water level indicators, in the form of a
reference line and an inscription Lowest
level.

Pressure gauges: which are provided to
indicate the pressures in the boiler.
Each boiler is fitted with at least
two pressure gauges connected to the steam
space through separate pipes provided with
stop valves or cocks. Three way valves or
cocks are provided between the pressure
gauge and the pipe, thus making it possible
to shut off the pressure gauge from the
boiler, connect it to the waste-heat boilers,
connect it to the atmosphere, blow-off the
connecting pipe and install the control
pressure gauge.

One of the pressure gauges is
installed on the front side of the boiler,
which is suitably protected from the heat
emitted by the boiler and the other in the
main engine control station.
Pressure gauges shall be duly tested
and stamped with the check-up data by the
competent authorities.

Thermometers: which are used to indicate
the temperatures in the boiler in order to
avoid superheating.

Low water alarms and oil fuel shut off:
which are provided in order to protect the
boiler from serious damages and the
personnel from injuries that may occur
143
deservire de rniri care pot aprea cnd
nivelul apei este prea mic. Cnd nivelul
apei este prea mic cldarea se
supranclzete i poate exploda.
when the water level is too low. When the
water level is too low the boiler gets
overheated and may blow up.


Instalaia de generare a aburului
(fig. 22.4)
1. Cldare auxiliar
2. Cldare recuperatoare
3. nclzitor pentru apa de alimentare
4. Apa tehnic de rcire a motorului
5. Colector de ap n circuitul primar
6. Colector de abur n circuitul secundar
7. Circuitul secundar
8. Pompa de compens
9. De la tancul de ap distilat de
compens
10. Supranclzitor
11. Abur spre consumatori
12. Serpentin de nclzire pentru
meninerea cldrii n stare de
ateptare.
Steam generating plant
(fig. 22.4)
1. Donkey boiler
2. Exhaust gas boiler
3. Feed water heater
4. Engine cooling fresh water
5. Primary boiler water drum
6. Primary boiler steam drum
7 Secondary boiler
8. Make-up pump
9. From distilled make-up water tank

10. Superheater
11. Steam to services
12. Steam heating coil for keeping boiler
on stand-by condition




Fig. 22.4

144

13. La baa cald
14. Alimentare de la baa cald
15. Registru de fum
16. Pompa de ap principal
17. Pompa de ap secundar
18. Pompa de circulaie (auxiliar)
19. Aer de la ventilatoare
13. To hot weel
14. Feed from hot weel
15. Damper
16. First feed water pump
17. Secondary feed water pump
18. Circulation pump (auxiliary pump)
19. Air from fans



Instalaia de generare a aburului
este constituit din: o cldare recuperatoare
cu dou pompe de circulaie a apei n
cldare, dou cldri auxiliare cu dou
pompe de alimentare cu ap, o pomp
auxiliar de alimentare cu ap, un
nclzitor de ap de alimentare, o pomp de
compens ap pentru cldare, dou pompe
pentru arztoarele de combustibil, dou
ventilatoare pentru tirajul artificial.
Cldarea recuperatoare funcio-
neaz mpreun cu unul din tamburii
secundari ai cldrilor auxiliare i o pomp
de circulaie ap n cldare i furnizeaz
abur necesar pentru serviciul pe nav n
serviciul maritim normal, cnd cldarea
este nclzit cu gazele reziduale de la
motorul principal.
Conectarea este fcut astfel nct
s se poat realiza funcionarea simultan a
cldrii recuperatoare (funcionnd
nclzit cu gaze evacuate) i cldarea
auxiliar (nclzit prin arderea
combustibilului).
Cldarea recuperatoare poate
funciona folosind tamburul secundar al
cldrii auxiliare fr ca circuitul fierbtor
primar s fie aprins.
Capacitatea cldrii auxiliare este
astfel calculat spre a fi capabil s
furnizeze abur pentru serviciul tancurilor
pe mare i operaiunii de descrcare marf,
folosind trei pompe de marf, n port.

Cldarea recuperatoare

Suprafaa de nclzire a cldrii
recuperatoare este format din colaci n
spirale ptrate. Aceti colaci sunt aranjai
ntre colectoarele de intrare i ieire i
fixate cu flane pentru a fi nlocuite cu
uurin.

The steam generating plant consists
of: one exhaust-gas boiler with two boiler
water circulating pumps, and two donkey
boilers with two feed water pumps, one
auxiliary feed water pump, one feed water
heater, one boiler water make-up pump,
two fuel oil burning pump, two forced draft
fans and other necessary equipment.


The exhaust-gas boiler is operated
in combination with one of the secondary
drums of the donkey boilers and one boiler
water circulating pump, and supplies steam
required for the ships service at normal
sea service, when the boiler is heated with
the exhaust gas of the main engine.

The arrangement is made so that the
simultaneous operation of the exhaust
boiler (operated with exhaust gas heating)
and the donkey boiler (being oil fired) can
be carried out.

The exhaust-gas boiler can operate
using the secondary drum of the donkey
boiler without the primary boiler being
burned.
The donkey boilers capacity is
calculated to be capable of supplying steam
for tanker service at sea and for cargo oil
discharging operation using three cargo oil
pumps in port.

Exhaust-gas boiler

The heating surface of the exhaust-
gas boiler is composed of heating coils in
square spirals. These coils are arranged
between the inlet and outlet headers and
fixed with flanges to the headers in order to
be replaced easily.
145
Mantaua cldrii este bine izolat i
echipat cu ui pentru uurarea nlocuirii,
inspectrii i currii colaci.

La cldarea recuperatoare sunt
prevzute dispozitive de suflare a
funinginii, de tipul cu abur operate manual.
Registrul de ocolire ncorporat este
prevzut pentru a crete sau descrete
vaporizarea n cldarea recuperatoare cnd
cererea de abur este redus.
Pentru cldarea recuperatoare este
prevzut o instalaie de circulaie a apei n
cldare cu dou pompe de circulaie ap n
cldare.
Capacitatea fiecrei pompe este
calculat pentru vaporizarea maxim cnd
motorul principal este utilizat la puterea
maxima continu iar una din ele este de
rezerv.
Pompa este folosit pentru
circulaia forat a apei din tamburul
secundar al cldrii auxiliare prin cldarea
recuperatoare, astfel nct aburul este
separat de amestecul rentors n mai sus
amintitul.

Cldrile auxiliare

Fiecare cldare cu dubl vaporizare
consta dintr-un circuit fierbtor primar, un
circuit fierbtor secundar, un
supranclzitor i un nclzitor de aer cu
gaz.
Circuitul fierbtor primar este o
cldare acvatubular de nalt presiune i
folosit n exclusivitate pentru nclzirea
circuitului fierbtor secundar n circuit
nchis. Nici o impuritate petrolier sau
piatr de cazan nu este amestecat n
circuitul primar.
O serpentin de nclzire, ce
primete, pe mare, abur de la circuitul
fierbtor secundar, este prevzut n
colectorul de ap al circuitului fierbtor
primar pentru a ine cldarea cald, astfel
nct este posibil punerea rapid a cldrii
n stare normal de generare a aburului
dup aprinderea combustibilului.
Circuitul fierbtor secundar este
folosit pentru generarea aburului pentru
utilizare curent n diferite scopuri.
Lng tamburul secundar este
folosit un separator de abur pentru
The boiler casing is well insulated
and equipped with doors for convenience
of removal, inspection and cleaning of the
coils.
On the exhaust-gas boiler soot-
blowing devices of manually operated
steam blow type are provided.
The built-in by-pass damper is
provided to decrease the evaporation of the
exhaust-gas boiler when the steam demand
is reduced.
For the boiler there is a boiler water
circulating system with two boiler water
circulating pumps.

Each pump capacity is calculated
for maximal evaporation when the main
engine is operating at the maximal
continuous output and one of them serves
as stand-by.
The pump is used to force-circulate
the boiler water into the secondary drum of
the donkey boiler through the exhaust-gas
boiler so that the steam is separated from
the mixture returned into above mentioned.


Donkey boilers

Each double evaporation boiler
consists of a primary boiler, a secondary
boiler, a superheater and a gas air-heater.


The primary boiler is a high-
pressure two-drum water-tube boiler and it
is used exclusively for heating of the
secondary boiler in the closed cycle. No
impurities of oil and scale are mixed in the
primary system.

A heating coil is provided in the
water drum of the primary boiler to keep
the primary boiler warm, receiving steam
from the secondary boiler at sea, so that it
is carried out to put the boiler quickly in
normal steaming condition after firing oil.


The secondary boiler is for
generating steam for actual use of various
purposes.
Beside secondary drum, a steam
separator for the steam-water mixture
146
amestecul de ap-abur rentors de la
cldarea recuperatoare.

Instalaia de alimentare cu ap

Pentru cldrile auxiliare sunt
prevzute instalaia de alimentare cu ap a
tamburului secundar, instalaia de
compens ap distilat pentru circuitul
fierbtor primar i instalaia combinat de
alimentare.
Instalaia de alimentare cu ap a
tamburului secundar are dou pompe
pentru apa de alimentare, un nclzitor
pentru apa de alimentare, un tanc pentru
condensat i tot echipamentul necesar.
Apa de alimentare este introdus n
tamburul secundar, automat reglat, de ctre
regulatorul automat de ap de alimentare
prin nclzitorul de ap de alimentare de
ctre oricare din pompe cealalt pomp
este de rezerv.
Cnd cldarea recuperatoare este
folosit n serviciul maritim normal pompa
auxiliar acionat electric pentru apa de
alimentare este folosit pentru aceasta.
Compensarea apei distilate n
circuitul primar este efectuat de o pomp
de compens acionat electric din tancul
de compens.
nclzitorul de ap are capacitatea
de a nclzi cantitatea de ap de alimentare
necesar pentru ambele cldri la
vaporizarea nominal de la 60C la 100C
cnd furnizeaz abur mainilor auxiliare
acionate cu abur.


Instalaia arztoarelor de combustibil


Instalaia arztoarelor de
combustibil la cldrile auxiliare este
alctuit din: dou pompe pentru
combustibilul de ars, filtre de tip duplex cu
comutaie pe aspiraie i refulare i alt
echipament necesar.
Pompa de combustibil acionat de
un motor cu dou viteze aspir din tancul
de decantare motorin i refuleaz n
tubulatura din faa fiecrui arztor printr-un
filtru dublu.
Instalaia este prevzut cu o
tubulatur de retur pentru combustibil i
returned from the exhaust-gas boiler is
used.

Feed water system

For donkey boilers boiler a feed
water system for secondary drum, a make
up distilled water system for the primary
boiler and boiler compound feeding system
are provided.

The secondary drum feed system
has two feed water pumps, one auxiliary
feed pump, one feed water heater, one
cascade tank, and all the necessary
equipment.
The feed water is fed to the
secondary drum under automatic regulation
by feed water regulators through the feed
water heater by either one off the feed
pump; the other pump is on stand-by.

When the exhaust gas boiler is
operated in normal sea service the auxiliary
feed water pump of electric motor driven
type is used for this service.
The make-up of the distilled water
to the primary boiler is performed by an
electric motor driven make-up pump from
the distilled make-up water tank.
The feed water heater has the
capacity to heat the amount of feed water
for both boilers at the rating evaporation
from 60C to 100C when supplying
exhaust steam to the steam driven
auxiliaries.


The oil burning system


The fuel oil burning system for
donkey boilers consists of: two fuel oil
burning pumps, duplex change over type
suction and delivery strainers and other
necessary equipment.

The two-speed motor driven fuel oil
burning pump draws oil from the diesel oil
settling tank and discharges it to the burner
manifold on each boiler front via duplex
strainer.
The plant is provided with a return
oil line for burners and fuel oil relief line
147
tubulatur de suprapresiune de la valvula
regulatoare de presiune.
Fiecare din pompele de
combustibil pentru arztoare are o
capacitate calculat pentru a servi ambele
cldri funcionnd la debitul maxim
cealalt fiind de rezerv.
Pe tubulatura de alimentare a
cldrilor auxiliare este prevzut un
debitmetru pentru combustibil.

Instalaia de tiraj artificial

Dou seturi de ventilatoare cu
motor orizontal pentru tirajul artificial sunt
prevzute n camera cldrilor astfel nct
fiecare ventilator poate furniza aer pentru
ardere ctre fiecare cldare la vaporizarea
maxim.
Ventilatorul aspir aer cald din
camera cldrilor i refuleaz n focarele
cldrilor prin nclzitoarele de aer.
Canalul de aer este confecionat din
plci de oel i este bine rigidizat cu
colare de rigidizare pentru a preveni
deformarea sau strmbarea n timpul
funcionrii.
ntre canalul fiecrei cldri este
prevzut o interconectare cu registru de
obturare astfel nct fiecare ventilator poate
furniza aer ctre fiecare cldare sau spre
ambele cldri.
Aerul necesar arderii este reglat
automat prin sistemul CAA (Controlul
Automat al Arderii) sau manual, numai n
caz de urgen cu valvula de intrare cu care
este echipat fiecare ventilator pentru tirajul
artificial, n situaia cnd un ventilator
servete ambele cldri.
from the pressure regulating valve.

Each of the fuel oil burning pumps
has a capacity calculated to serve both
boilers when operated at maximal rating,
and the other unit serving as a stand-by.

On the supply line to the donkey
boilers one fuel oil flow is provided.


The forced draft system

Two sets of horizontal motor driven
forced draft fans are provided on boiler
space so that each fan can supply the
combustion air to each boiler at maximum
evaporation.

The fan draws hot air from the
boiler space and delivers it to the boiler
furnace through air heaters.
The air duct is made of steel plates
and well braced with angle stiffeners to
prevent warping or distortion during
operation.

Between each boiler duct an
interconnection with cut-out damper is
provided so that either fan can supply air to
either boiler or to both boilers.

The combustion air is regulated
automatically by ACC (Automatically
Combustion Control) system or manually,
but only for emergency cases by the inlet
vane each forced draft fan, is provided
with, in case of one fan serving both
boilers.


148
Capitolul 23
Turbine cu abur
Unit 23
Steam Turbines

Turbina cu abur este o main de
for care convertete n lucru mecanic
energia aburului produs ntr-o cldare prin
intermediul unor palete n micare de
rotaie. Aceasta poate fi fcut n dou
trepte, una de nalt presiune i una de
joas presiune.
Turbinele cu abur pot fi clasificate
dup cum urmeaz:
Dup principiul termodinamic de
funcionare:
- turbine cu aciune la care toat
cderea de entalpie ( cderea de
cldur) a aburului, disponibil pe
turbin este transformat n energie
cinetic, paletele rotorului avnd
numai rolul de a transforma energia
cinetic n energie stereomecanic.
Fora tangenial care d natere
cuplului motor este obinut prin
devierea curentului de abur de ctre
paletele rotorului.
- turbinele cu reaciune unde
cderea de entalpie a aburului are loc
numai parial ntre palatele statorului,
care sunt numite palete directoare,
restul cderii de entalpie avnd loc
ntre paletele rotorului.
- turbinele combinate sunt turbine
multietajate unde treptele de nalt
presiune sunt construite de tipul cu
aciune, iar treptele de joas presiune
sunt construite de tipul cu reaciune.

Dup modul n care se realizeaz
transformrile energetice:
- turbine unietajate: (turbine
simple) unde cderea de entalpie este
realizat ntr-un singur etaj.
- turbinele cuasietajate, (turbine
Curtis, turbine cu trepte de vitez)
care sunt turbine cu aciune unde
cderea de entalpie disponibil este
transformat n energie cinetic printr-
o singur coroan de ajutaje (ca la
turbina monoetajat), dar energia
cinetic este transformat n energie
stereomecanic n mod treptat n dou
The steam turbine is a power plant
that converts the energy of the steam
produced in a boiler by means of some
rotating blades into work. This can be done
in two stages one of high pressure and one
of low pressure.

Steam turbines can be classified as
follows:
By their thermodynamic working
principle:
- action/impulse turbines where all
steam enthalpy drop (heat drop)
available for the turbine is converted
into kinetic energy only in the turbine
cylinder blades, the turbo blades only
convert the kinetic energy into
stereomechanical energy. The
tangential force that gives the motor
couple is obtained from the steam flow
deviation by the turbo blades.

- reaction turbines where the steam
enthalpy drop takes place only
partially in the turbine cylinder blades,
which are named guide blades, the rest
of it taking place in the turbo blades.

- combination turbines are
multistage turbines where the high-
pressure stages are of an action turbine
construction and the low-pressure
stages are of a reaction turbine
construction.
By the way in which the energy
transformations are completed:
- single-stage(d) turbines (simple
turbine) where the enthalpy drop is
done in a single stage.
- Curtis turbines which are action
turbines where the available enthalpy
drop is converted into kinetic energy
by means of one single nozzle plate
(like in the single stage turbines) but
the kinetic energy is converted into
stereomechanical energy gradually by
means of two or three blade rows
mounted on the turbine drum.
149
sau trei coroane de palete fixate pe
rotor.
- turbinele multietajate (turbine cu
trepte de presiune) unde cderea de
entalpie se realizeaz n mai multe
trepte dispuse n serie.
Dup direcia curentului de abur:
- turbine axiale la care liniile de
curgere a aburului sunt situate pe o
suprafa de revoluie avnd axa
geometric situat n axa de rotaie a
rotorului turbinei.
- turbine radiale la care liniile de
curgere a aburului sunt situate n
planuri perpendiculare cu axa de
rotaie a rotorului turbinei.

Dup valoarea presiunii finale:
- turbine cu condensaie la care
destinderea aburului se face pn la o
valoare inferioar presiunii
atmosferice, aburul fiind evacuat ntr-
un condensator.
- turbine cu contrapresiune la care
aburul este evacuat cu o presiune mai
mare dect presiunea atmosferic fiind
utilizat n alte procese.




- multi-stage turbines (pressure-
compound/stage turbines) where the
enthalpy drop takes place in several
serial stages.
By the steam flow direction:
- axial (flow) turbines where the
steam flow lines are situated on a
revolution surface with its geometrical
axis corresponding to the revolution
axis of the turbine drum.
- radial (flow) turbines where the
steam flow lines are situated on
planes, which are perpendicular with
the revolution axis of the turbine
drum.
By the final pressure value:
- condensing steam turbines where
the steam expansion is done to a value
lower than the atmospheric pressure,
the steam being discharged in a
condenser .
- back-pressure turbines where the
steam is discharged with a pressure
higher than the atmospheric pressure
being used for other processes.

Fig. 23.1

150


F
i
g
.

2
3
.
2


151






F
i
g
.

2
3
.
3


152






1. Carcasa turbinei (partea de joas
presiune)
2. Carcasa turbinei (partea de nalt
presiune)
3. Carcasa valvulei de urgen cu
nchidere rapid
4. Scaunul valvulei regulatoare
5. Scaunul valvulei de urgen cu
nchidere rapid
6. Valvula regulatoare
7. Valvula de urgen cu nchidere rapid
8. Ajutaj, coroan (sector) cu ajutaje
9. Ajutaj, diafragm
10. Termometru
11. Rotorul turbinei
12. Paleta
13. Pinion
14. Roat
15. Arborele de acionare
16. Etanare cu labirint
17. Aprtoare pentru abur
18. Aprtoare pentru ulei
19. Aliaj pentru lagrul fusului
20. Aliaj pentru lagrul de mpingere
21. Filtru de abur
22. Buca valvulei de urgena cu nchidere
rapid
1. Turbine casing (low pressure side)

2. Turbine casing (high pressure side)

3. Emergency stop valve casing

4. Governor valve seat
5. Emergency stop valve seat

6. Governor valve
7. Emergency stop valve
8. Nozzle, nozzle plate
9. Nozzle, diaphragm
10. Thermometer
11. Turbine rotor
12. Blade
13. Pinion
14. Wheel
15. Output shaft
16. Labyrinth packing
17. Steam guard
18. Oil guard
19. Journal bearing metal
20. Thrust bearing metal
21. Steam strainer
22. Emergency stop valve bush

Fig. 23.4

153
23. Buca valvulei regulatoare
24. Tija valvulei de urgena cu nchidere
rapid
25. Tija valvulei regulatoare
26. Arcul valvulei de urgena cu nchidere
rapid
27. Roata melcat
28. Axul de conductor al valvulei
regulatoare
29. Cuplajul cu roi dinate
30. Arbore de decuplare
31. Carcasa reductorului cu roi dinate
32. Angrenaj de pompare pentru pompa de
ulei
33. Aliaj pentru lagrul pompei de ulei
34. Axul conductor al pompei de ulei
principale.
35. Presetupa frontal
36. Presetupa posterioar
37. Tubulatur pentru aburul de etanare

Pentru a converti eficient n lucru
mecanic marea cdere de cldur ce apare
atunci cnd aburul cu presiune i
temperatur nalt iese la o presiune de
evacuare negativ (nalt vacuum), este
adoptat o roat Curtis cu dou rnduri de
palete pentru prima treapt pentru a face
fa cderii de cldur chiar mari, iar
pentru a doua la a asea treapt este folosit
tipul Rateau pentru a reduce numrul total
de trepte.
Din motive tehnologice i alegerea
mai uoar a materialelor carcasa turbinei
este mprit n planul vertical n dou
pri din care cea de nalt presiune conine
camera de distribuie a aburului i de la
prima pn la a treia treapt, iar partea de
joas presiune conine treptele a patra pn
la a asea. Pe lng aceasta ntreaga carcas
este mprit orizontal n dou pri pentru
deschiderea i inspectarea facil a turbinei.
Carcasa turbinei de joas presiune
este prevzut cu guri de vizitare pentru
verificarea paletaturii ultimelor trepte.
Captul carcasei de joas presiune
este fixat rigid de carcasa reductorului, iar
captul carcasei de nalt presiune este
susinut de un picior (o capr) flexibil prin
carcasa lagrului frontal pentru a absorbi
dilatarea termic axial.
Anumite piese turnate i tuuri
pentru racordarea recipientelor, tubulaturi
i armturi sunt mbinate prin sudare.
23. Governor valve bush
24. Emergency stop valve stem

25. Governor valve stem
26. Emergency stop valve spring

27. Warm wheel
28. Governor driving shaft

29. Gear coupling
30. Trip shaft
31. Reduction gear casing
32. Pumping gear for main gear L.O.
pump
33. Bearing metal for main L.O. pump
34. Main L.O. pump driving shaft.

35. Front gland
36. Rear gland
37. Piping for sealing steam

In order to efficiently convert into
work the great heat drop occurring when
high pressure high temperature steam
passes through and goes out at a high
vacuum exhaust pressure, one Curtis wheel
with 2-row blades is adopted for the first
stage to cope with the rather great heat
drop and for the second to sixth stages the
Rateau type is used to reduce the whole
number of stages.

For manufacturing convenience and
easy material selection the turbine casing is
divided along the vertical plan into two
sections, of which the high pressure section
contains the steam chest and the first to the
third stage, and the low pressure section
contains the fourth to sixth stages.
Moreover, the whole casing is horizontally
divided into two parts for easy opening and
inspection of turbine.
The low pressure turbine casing is
provided with openings for the inspection
of blading in the last stages.
The low pressure end of the casing
is firmly bolted to the reduction gear
housing and the high pressure end is
supported by a flexible pedestal through
the front bearing housing to absorb axial
thermal expansion.
Some cast elements and branches
for connecting receivers, piping and fittings
are joined by welding.
154
Pentru etanare ntre flanele de
mbinare orizontal i vertical a turbinei
se folosete acoperirea suprafeelor de
mbinare cu un strat de unsoare cu grafit n
locul garniturilor.
Diafragmele fixate n corpul
turbinei au posibilitatea dilatrii termice n
sens radial, n limitele descentrrii
admisibile.
Calculul diafragmelor este efectuat
pentru o sarcin corespunztoare cderii
maxime de presiune pe treapta respectiv.
Sgeata efectiv a diafragmei trebuie s fie
mai mic dect sgeata la care sunt posibile
atingerile de disc sau garniturile de
etanare a diafragmei.
Carcasa condensatorului este
prevzut cu guri de vizitare pentru
controlul rndurilor superioare de evi i pe
ct posibil, pentru acces n interiorul
condensatorului.
Turbina este construit astfel nct
s permit ridicarea capacelor lagrelor
fr demontarea corpului turbinei, a
capetelor pieselor de etanare i a
tubulaturilor.
Rotorul turbinei este decupat
grosier dintr-un oel forjat solid dup o
testare strict a materialului i un tratament
termic i apoi finisat cu precizie dup un
test de stabilitate termic. Apoi, dup ce
este prevzut cu palete de turbin i
accesorii este supus testului de echilibru
dinamic.
Calculele de rezisten ale pieselor
rotorului sunt efectuate pentru puterea
maxim precum i alte sarcini posibile la
care tensiunile pot atinge valori maxime.
Mai mult calculele pieselor
rotorului trebuie verificate pentru o turaie
care depete valoarea maxim cu cel
puin 20 %.
mbinrile paletelor cu cep cu pri
demontabile ale discului sau alte
construcii asemntoare nu se folosesc
pentru c pot duce la slbirea local
considerabil a periferiei rotorului.
Pentru paletele turbinei, din cauza
cererii de mare rigiditate mpotriva forei
centrifuge i vibraiei, i rezisten la
coroziune i eroziune la viteze mari ale
aburului varind din starea de temperatur
de supranclzire la starea de condensare
este utilizat un oel de cel mai nalt grad
For the purpose of packing between
the flanges of horizontal and vertical joints
of turbine, coating with graphite paste of
joint faces is used instead of gaskets.

The diaphragms fitted in the turbine
have the possibility of radial thermal
expansion with permissible misalignment
limits.
The diaphragms are designed for a
load corresponding to maximum pressure
drop in the respective stage. The actual
deflection of the diaphragm is less than that
which may cause touching of the
diaphragm packing.

The condenser casing is provided
with openings for inspection of the upper
rows of condenser tubes and, where
possible, for providing access inside the
condenser.
The turbine is designed as to allow
lifting of bearing without dismantling the
turbine casing, ends of sealing
arrangements and pipelines.

The turbine rotor is roughly cut out
of a solid forging steel after strict material
testing and heat treatment and then
accurately finished after a heat stability
test. Then, after being fitted with turbine
blades and accessories, it is subjected to the
dynamic balance test.

The strength of rotor parts is
calculated for maximum power as well as
for other possible loads, at which stresses
may rise to maximum values.
Moreover, the calculation of rotor
and parts thereof is checked for a speed
exceeding the maximum value by at least
20 per cent.
Joints of blade tenon with
detachable parts of the disk side and other
similar constructions are not used because
they may cause considerable local
loosening of the rim.
For the turbine blades, because of
the demand for great rigidity against the
centrifugal force and vibration, and
resistance against corrosion and erosion in
high speed steam ranging widely from high
temperature superheated condition to wet
condition, the highest grade 13CrMoWV
155
13CrMoWV. Ani ndelungai i atenie
amnunit s-au acordat nu numai
verificrilor din timpul fluxului tehnologic
ct i fixrii paletelor.
Rotorul turbinei i axul pinionului
sunt susinute fiecare de ctre dou lagre
astfel nct axele de mare vitez pot fi
stabilizate.
Lagre cu cuzinei cu autocentrare
sunt folosii pentru a preveni efectiv
deviaia datorat sgeii axului flexibil al
rotorului turbinei.
Lagrele sunt prevzute cu cale de
rulare rotativ sau cu dispozitive pentru
egalizarea automat a presiunii exercitate
pe reazeme.
Rotorul turbinei i axul pinionului
sunt conectate printr-un cuplaj flexibil cu
roi dinate astfel nct puterea poate fi
transmis lin fr interferena angrenrii
reductorului cu roi dinate. Axul volantului
i axul generatorului, mbinate mpreun
printr-un cuplaj rigid sunt susinute de trei
lagre din care dou sunt de ambele pri
ale volantului i unul n apropiere de
generator astfel nct este redus lungimea
axial.
Reductorul cu roi dinate este cu o
singur pereche de roi dinate cu un singur
nceput. Pinionul este realizat prin
rectificare dup cementare, iar roata este
terminat prin everuire dup normalizare.
n interiorul carcasei reductorului este
prevzut pompa de ulei de ungere de tipul
cu roi dinate condus prin roi dinate de
la asul volantului.
Etanri cu labirint sunt prevzute
n locul unde rotorul turbinei trece prin
carcasa turbinei. Pentru c aburul de
evacuare este de obicei dirijat la
condensatorul cu vacuum presetupa
posterioar (n partea de joas presiune)
este supus ntotdeauna unei presiuni
negative i chiar presetupa din fa (n
partea de nalt presiune) i face cteodat
presiune negativ, ambele presetupe sunt
prevzute cu un dispozitiv pentru a furniza
abur de etanare la presiunea controlat de
0,150,05 kg/cm
2
.
Pentru c acest dispozitiv are la
presetupa frontal presiune pozitiv
exceptnd timpului cnd sarcina este
sczut, aburul ce se scurge de la aceasta
este dirijat la presetupa posterioar ca abur
steel is used. Long years technique and
minute attention have been given not only
to the inspection during the manufacturing
course but also to the fastening of blades.
The turbine rotor and pinion shaft
are supported each by two bearings so that
the high speed shafts can be stabilized.

Bearings with self-aligning shells
are used to effectively prevent the
deviation due to shaft deflection of the
flexible-shaft turbine rotor.
The bearings are fitted with pivoted
races or with devices for automatic
equalizing of pressure exerted on the pads.

The turbine rotor and pinion shaft
are connected by a flexible gear coupling
so that the power can be transmitted
smoothly without interference of the
meshing of the reduction gear. The wheel
shaft and the generator shaft, connected by
a rigid coupling, are supported by three
bearings of which two are on both sides of
the wheel and one near the generator so
that the axial length can be reduced.

The reduction gear is of the single-
helical single-reduction type. The pinion is
finished by grinding after casehardening
and the wheel is finished by shaving after
normalizing. Inside the reduction gear
casing the gear-type main L.O. pump
driven by gears from the wheel shaft is
provided.

Labyrinth packings are provided
where the turbine rotor passes through the
turbine casing. Since the exhaust steam is
generally led to the vacuum condenser, the
rear gland (low pressure side) is always
subjected to negative pressure and even the
front gland (high pressure side) sometimes
incurs negative pressure, both glands are
provided with a device to supply sealing
steam at controlled pressure of 0.150.05
kg/cm
2
.


As this device has positive pressure
at the front gland except for the time of low
load, the steam leaking from it is led to the
rear gland as sealing steam, which, if too
much, is restored to the condenser by
156
de etanare, care , dac este prea mult este
napoiat la condensator prin intermediul
valvulei cu membran cu trei ci, iar dac
este prea puin mai mult abur este furnizat
automat dintr-o surs de abur separat.
n afara reglajului automat exist
posibilitatea reglajului manual al presiunii
sistemului de aspiraie al aburului de
etanare.
Fiecare turbin este prevzut cu un
sistem de purjare care s asigure eliminarea
total a condensatului din toate treptele i
spaiile turbinei. Sistemul de purjare este
construit astfel nct s exclud
posibilitatea intrrii condensatului n
turbinele care nu sunt n funciune.
Turbina este prevzut cu un
reculator de turaie constant Woodward
care este conectat direct la axul vertical de
acionare al regulatorului a crui turaie
este redus printr-un set de angrenaje melc
roat dinat prevzut la captul axului
turbinei.
Pentru a mbunti eficiena la
caracteristici de sarcini pariale ale
generatorului (cnd turbina acioneaz un
generator electric), este adoptat o valvul
cu un grup de trei ajutaje. Construcia ei
este de tipul cu prghie oscilant controlat
prin deschiderea sau nchiderea supapelor
de ajutaj n trepte de la regulatorul
Woodward prin prghia regulatorului, tija
valvulei i prghia oscilant. Cum numai o
tij de valv trece prin carcas pentru trei
valvule de ajutaj construcia este simpl i
scurgerea din partea presetupei pot fi
reduse la minimum.
Orice variaie apare n turaia
turbinei regulatorul de turaie constant
Woodward o sesizeaz, acioneaz valvula
pilot a servomotorului hidraulic prin
prghia de legtur, mic pistonul
hidraulic puternic i deschide sau nchide
valvulele regulatoare. Mai mult prin
intermediul clapetei prevzute pe acest
regulator sau comutatorul de control a
turaiei din punctul de control al camerei
mainilor turaia poate fi modificat n
intervalul de 5% din turaia nominal.
Turbinele sunt prevzute cu un
dispozitiv de protecie la supraturare care
acioneaz asupra unui automat de
siguran (o valvul cu nchidere rapid)
care s ntrerup automat accesul aburului
means of the three way diaphragm valve,
and if too little, more steam is
automatically supplied from a separate
steam source.

In addition to automatic control
there is a possibility for hand control of
the steam suction pressure in the gland-
sealing system.
Each turbine is provided with a
blowing system to ensure complete
removal of condensate from all stages and
housings of the turbine. The blowing
system is arranged so as to prevent the
condensate from entering the idle turbines.

The turbine is provided with a
Woodward constant speed governor that is
directly connected to the vertical governor
driving shaft, the speed of which is reduced
by a set of worm gearing fitted at the
turbine shaft end.

In order to improve efficiency in
partial load characteristics of the generator
(when the turbine drives an electric
generator), a 3 nozzle group governor
valve is adopted. Its construction is of the
bar-lift valve type, controlled by opening
or closing of the three nozzle valves
stepwise from the Woodward Governor
through the governor lever, valve spindle
and lifting bar. As only one valve spindle
passes through the valve casing for three
nozzle valves, the construction is simple
and leakage from the gland portion can be
reduced to the minimum.
Whenever variation occurs in the
turbine speed the Woodward constant
speed governor senses it, operates the
hydraulic servomotor pilot valve through
the link lever, moves the strong hydraulic
piston and opens or closes the governor
valves. Moreover, by means of the knob
provided on this governor or the speed
control switch in the engine control room,
speed can be changed within the range of
5% of rated speed.

Turbines are provided with an
overspeed device acting on a safety
arrangement (quick-closing stop valve) to
shut off automatically the admission of
steam to the turbine when the rotor exceeds
157
n turbin n momentul n care rotorul
depete cu 15% turaia corespunztoare
puterii maxime. Valvula cu nchidere
rapid este acionat de dispozitivul de
supraturare legat direct de arborele
turbinei sau de un ntreruptor cu ulei care
poate fi folosit ca dispozitiv de protecie la
supraturare care primete impuls de la un
rotor de pompare instalat pe axul turbinei.
Fiecare turbin este prevzut cu o
aparatur de acionare manual pentru
ntreruperea aburului n caz de urgen prin
nchiderea valvulei cu nchidere rapid.
n afar de ntreruptorul de limit,
turbinele sunt prevzute cu dispozitive
capabile s acioneze n mod automat
valvula cu nchidere rapid ntrerupnd
admisia aburului n urmtoarele cazuri:

- la scderea presiunii uleiului de
ungere n sistem sub limita minim
indicat de uzina constructoare;
- la creterea presiunii n
condensator peste limita maxim
stabilit de uzina constructoare;
- la deplasarea axial limit a
rotorului;

Un sistem de semnalizare avertizare
este prevzut pentru a preveni creterea
inadmisibil a temperaturii uleiului n
oricare din lagrele turbinei.
Pe tubulatura de evacuare a tuturor
turbinelor sunt prevzute supape de
siguran sau dispozitive echivalente.
Orificiile de evacuare ale supapelor pot fi
prevzute cu aprtori.
Pe priza de abur a dispozitivului de
manevr sau pentru admisia aburului sunt
prevzute filtre de o construcie sigur.
Posturile de comand ale turbinelor
sunt dotate cu aparate care s indice
urmtoarele:
- turaia arborelui turbinei i
arborilor;
- presiunea i temperatura aburului
dup valvula de manevr, camerele cu
ajutaje, n camera treptei de reglaj, n
magistralele prizelor de abur i n
sistemul de aspiraie i etanare;
- temperatura uleiului lucrat, la
fiecare lagr prin folosirea
by 15 per cent the number of revolutions
corresponding to the maximum output. The
quick-closing stop-valve is actuated by the
overspeed device directly connected to the
turbine shaft or an oil switch, which may
be used as an overspeed device receiving
impulse from an impeller directly driven by
the turbine shaft.

Each turbine is fitted with a hand-
operated device to shut off the steam in
emergency cases by closing the quick-
closing stop valve.
In addition to the emergency
overspeed release, the turbines are fitted
with devices capable of automatically
actuate the quick-closing stop valve and
shutting of the admission of steam in the
following cases:
- drop of the lubricant pressure in
the system, below the minimum value
specified by the manufacturer;
- rise of pressure in the condenser
above the maximum value specified
by the manufacturer;
- maximum shifting of rotor;


An alarm signal system is provided
in order to prevent an inadmissible rise of
the lubricating oil temperature in any of the
turbine bearings.
Safety valves or equivalent devices
are fitted on all turbine exhaust pipes. The
exhaust holes of the safety valves are
visible and can be provided with screens.

On the maneuvering gear valve
steam intake steam filters of a reliable
construction are fitted.
The turbine control stations are
fitted with instruments for measuring the
following:
- revolutions per minute of the
turbine shaft and shafting;
- steam pressure and temperature
after the maneuvering valve, in the
nozzle boxes, in the governing stage
chamber, bleed mains and suction and
gland-sealing system;
- outlet lubricating oil temperature
in each bearing by use of local
158
termometrelor locale i indicatoare de
temperatur la distan;
- regimurile de serviciu cum ar fi:
pregtirea pornirii, inversarea
marului, meninerea n stare de
funcionare sau aducerea n starea de
staionare de lung durat;
- vidul.

Sunt prevzute mijloace de sem-
nalizare de prevenire pentru urmtorii
parametrii:
- cderea uleiului de ungere n
instalaia de ungere;
- creterea temperaturii uleiului la
ieirea din fiecare lagr;
- creterea presiunii uleiului la
intrarea n turboagregat;
- creterea presiunii n condensator;
- deplasarea axial a rotorului.
thermometers and remote temperature
indicators;
- parameters of conditions of
prestarting, reversing, stand-by
keeping and bringing to prolonged idle
state;

- the vacuum

Warning signals are fitted for the
following parameters:

- lub oil pressure drop in the
lubricating system;
- rise of oil pressure at the outlet of
each bearing;
- rise of pressure at the turbounit
inlet;
- rise of pressure in the condenser
- axial movement of the rotor.


159
Capitolul 24
Combustibili



Prin combustibil nelegem o
substan sau amestec care genereaz o
mare cantitate de cldur prin ardere
(combustibili chimici) sau reacii nucleare
(combustibili nucleari).
Combustibilii chimici pot fi
clasificai dup starea lor de agregare in
combustibili solizi, lichizi, sau gazoi.

Combustibilii solizi:
- mangal
- cocs
- semicocs
- cocs de petrol
- deeuri combustibile (rumegu, tala,
coji de semine)

Combustibili lichizi:
- petrol lampant
- motorin
- pcur
- benzin
- gaze lichefiate
- alcool

Combustibilii gazoi sunt:
- gaz de ap
- gaz de aer (gas aerian)
- gaz de cocserie
- gaz de cracare
- gaz de furnal
- hidrogen
- acetilen

Combustibili lichizi

Pentru a putea fi folosit un
combustibil trebuie s ndeplineasc
anumite cerine incluse n specificaiile
combustibililor.
Combustibilii furnizai unei nave
trebuie tratai la bord nainte de utilizare.
Informaii detaliate despre instalaiile de
Unit 24
Combustibles



By a combustible we understand a
substance or mixture that generates a high
amount of heat by burning (chemical
combustibles) or nuclear reaction (nuclear
combustibles).
Chemical combustibles can be
classified according to their state of
aggregation in: solid, liquid and gaseous
combustibles.
The solid combustibles:
- charcoal
- coke
- semi-coke
- petroleum coke
- combustible wastes (sawdust, shavings,
husks)

The liquid combustibles (fuel oils or fuels):
- kerosene (lamp oil)
- Diesel oil (gasoil)
- heavy oil
- petrol
- liquefied gases
- alcohol

The gaseous combustibles are:
- water gas
- air gas
- coke gas
- cracking gas
- furnace gas
- hydrogen
- acetylene

Fuel oils

In order to be operable, a fuel
should meet certain requirements included
in fuel specifications.

Fuels supplied to a ship must be
treated on board before use. Detailed
information on fuel oil system layout can
160
alimentare cu combustibil pot fi gsite n
Recomandrile CIMAC privind proiectarea
instalailor de tratare combustibil pentru
motoarele diesel.
Toate specificaiile combustibililor
se refer practic la combustibil ca furnizat,
i de aceea, dau n primul rnd specificaii
pentru cumprare. Datele suplimentare din
analizele standard a combustibililor se
refer la reglajul tratamentului la bordul
navei i este de un puin folos operatorului
cnd se refer la datele funcionale ale
motorului.

Calitatea combustibililor
be found in the CIMAC Recommendations
concerning the design of heavy fuel
treatment plants for diesel engines.

Practically all fuel specifications
refer to fuel as supplied and, as such, serve
primarily as purchasing specifications.
Furthermore, the data in a standard fuel
analysis serves to adjust the onboard
treatment and is actually of little use to the
operator when referring to the engine
operational data.


Fuel oil quality

Specificaii orientative (valori maximale) Guiding specifications (maximum values)
Densitatea la 15C
Viscozitatea cinematic
la 100C
la 50C
Punctul de inflamabilitate
Punctul de curgere
Cifra de cocs
Cenua
Sedimentele totale dup
mbtrnire
Ap
Coninut de sulf
Coninut de vanadiu
Aluminiu + Siliciu
Kg/m
3

cSt
cSt
C
C
%(m/m)
%(m/m)
%(m/m)

%(v/v)
%(m/m)
mg/Kg
mg/Kg
991

55
700
>600
30
22
0.15
0.10

1.0
5.0
600
80

Density at 15C
Kinematic viscosity
at 100C
at 50C
Flash point
Pour point
Carbon residue
Ash
Total sediment after
ageing
Water
Sulphur
Vanadium
Aluminium + Silicon
Kg/m
3

cSt
cSt
C
C
%(m/m)
%(m/m)
%(m/m)

%(v/v)
%(m/m)
mg/Kg
mg/Kg
991

55
700
>600
30
22
0.15
0.10

1.0
5.0
600
80

In conformitate cu ISO 8217/CIMAC - H55 Equal to ISO 8217/CIMAC - H55


Viscozitatea
Viscozitatea este proprietatea
lichidelor care caracterizeaz tensiunea
tangenial care apare n timpul curgerii i
se opune micrii straturilor lichidului.
Viscozitatea poate fi dinamic sau
cinematic. Viscozitatea cinematic este
raportul dintre viscozitatea dinamic i
densitatea absolut a lichidului.
La combustibili marini prin
viscozitate nelegem viscozitate
cinematic.
Viscozitatea combustibililor se
msoar de obicei in centistokes la 50C
sau secund Redwood (viscozitatea
convenional)
Viscozitatea poate fi considerat
numai un criteriu de calitate pentru
combustibili i este enunat n principal
Viscosity
Viscosity is the feature of liquids,
which characterizes the tangential stress
that appears during the flow and opposes
the liquid layer movement.
The viscosity can be dynamic
viscosity or kinematic viscosity. Kinematic
viscosity equals the dynamic liquid
viscosity divided by its absolute density.
In marine fuels by means of
viscosity we understand kinematic
viscosity.
Fuel viscosity is usually measured
in centistokes at 50C or second Redwood.
(Conventional viscosity).

Viscosity can only be considered a
quality criterion for fuel oils, and is stated
mainly for handling reasons. It is necessary
161
din motive de manevrare. Este necesar s
se cunoasc viscozitatea pentru alegerea
pompelor, tratamentului (prenclzitoare,
separatoare centrifugale) i temperatura de
injecie.

Densitatea
Densitatea absolut este raportul
dintre masa i volumul unui solid.
Densitatea relativ este raportul
dintre densitatea absolut i densitatea unui
produs de referin aflat ntr-o anumit
stare. (ex. apa distilat la 4C i 760 torr).
Densitatea absolut este msurat n
kilograme pe metru cub [Kg/m
3
],
kilograme pe litru [Kg/l], sau grame pe
centimetru cub [g/cm
3
].
Densitatea este legat de calitatea
combustibilului prin aceea c produsele de
cracare au un coninut mai ridicat de
carbon, sunt mai aromatice i de aceea mai
grele. De aceea combustibilii cu densitate
mare sunt de asemenea bogai in reziduuri
de carbon i asfalt.
Caracteristicile de aprindere i
ardere ale combustibililor cu densitate
mare pot fi inferioare. O viscozitate
sczut, mpreun cu o densitate mare, pot
indica o calitate de aprindere slab.
Posibilitatea separrii apei din combustibil
este asigurat prin limitarea densitii din
motive de centrifugare.
Densitatea este n mod normal
msurat la temperatura mai nalt i
densitatea la 15C este calculat pe baza
tabelelor care, depinznd de originea lor,
data editrii, i de datele pe care sunt
bazate, pot da densiti uor diferite la
15C.
n timp ce limita de 991 Kg/m
3

trebuie observat cnd sunt utilizate
separatoarele tradiionale (Purificatoare-
Clarificatoare) limita de 1010 Kg/m
3
este
acceptat n cazul sunt instalate separatoare
capabile s opereze combustibil cu
asemenea densitate.

Punctul de inflamabilitate
Punctul de inflamabilitate este
temperatura cea mai sczut la care, in
condiii determinate i presiune atmosferic
de 760 tor, vaporii de deasupra
combustibilului se aprind pentru prima dat
n contact cu o flacr deschis.
to know the viscosity for the selections of
pumps, treatment (preheaters and
centrifuges) and injection temperature.



Density
Absolute density equals the weight
of a solid divided by its volume.
Relative density equals the absolute
density divided by the density of a
reference product being in a certain state.
(E.g. distilled water at 4C and 760 torr).
Absolute density is measured in
kilograms per cubic meter [Kg/m
3
], or
kilograms per liters [Kg/l], or grams per
cubic centimeters [g/cm
3
].
Density is related to fuel quality
due to the fact that cracked products have a
higher carbon content, are more aromatic,
and are thus heavier. Therefore fuels with
high density are also rich in carbon residue
and asphalt.

The ignition and combustion
characteristics of higher density fuels may
be inferior. A low viscosity, together with a
high density, may indicate poor ignition
quality. Limiting the density for reasons of
centrifuging ensures the water separation
ability of the fuel oil.

Density is normally measured at
higher temperatures, and the density at
15C is calculated on the basis of tables
which, depending on their origin, date of
issue, and the data on which they are based,
may give slightly differing densities at
15C.
Whereas the limit of 991 Kg/m
3

must be observed when traditional
centrifuges (Purifier-Clarifier) are used
1010 Kg/m
3
is acceptable in case
centrifuges capable of handling fuel of this
density are installed.


Flash point
The flash point is the lower
temperature, in the standard conditions and
atmospheric pressure of 760 torr, when the
fuel vapors in addition with the
surrounding air ignite first time in contact
with an open flame.
162
Limita punctului de inflamabilitate
este impus pentru protecie mpotriva
incendiului.
Limita legal cerut la bordul navei
este n mod normal 60C.
Cnd un reziduu greu de cracare a
fost diluat cu un diluant uor volatil
amestecul de combustibil va avea un punct
de inflamabilitate n regiunea de 60C. Un
punct de inflamabilitate aa sczut indic o
tendin de evaporare a diluantului volatil
care va cauza ca viscozitatea
combustibilului s creasc dup perioada
de depozitare, n cele din urm ducnd la o
incorect viscozitate la injectoare.

Punctul (temperatura) de curgere
Punctul de curgere (nghe) este
temperatura cea mai sczut cnd, n
condiii determinate, combustibilul nc
mai curge.
O valoare ridicat a punctului de
curgere indic, de obicei, un coninut
ridicat de parafine, care este bun pentru
combustie, dar creeaz condiii proaste
pentru stocarea i manevrarea
combustibilului. Manevrarea trebuie s se
fac la o temperatur mai mare (cu 5-10C)
dect punctul de curgere combustibilului n
tubulaturi.

Coninutul de sulf
Sulful este prezent n combustibil
prin intermediul compuilor organici, cu o
structur complex, de aceea aceast
concentraie este dat n sulf elementar.
Principalul efect al sulfului este
coroziunea. Prin ardere sulful este
combinat cu oxigenul i d dioxidul de sulf
(SO
2
) acesta, mai departe acesta n contact
cu apa d acidul sulfuric care este o
substan foarte coroziv.
Efectul coroziv al acidului sulfuric
n timpul combustiei este contracarat prin
folosirea lubrefianilor adecvai i controlul
temperaturii pereilor camerei de ardere.
Coninutul de sulf are un efect
neglijabil asupra procesului de ardere.


Reziduurile de carbon
Reziduurile de carbon sunt
msurate n Carbon Conradson sau in
Microcarbon. Combustibilii cu o cantitate
The flash point limit is set as a
safeguard against fire.

The legal limit required for
shipboard use is normally 60C.
When a heavily cracked residue has
been cut back with a light volatile diluent,
the fuel blend will have a flash point often
in region of 60C. Such a low flash point
indicates a tendency of the volatile diluent
to evaporate, which would cause the fuel to
increase its viscosity over the storage
period, ultimately leading to an incorrect
viscosity at fuel injectors.


Pour point
The pour point is the lowest
temperature when, in standard conditions
the fuel still flows.

A high value of the pour point
usually indicates a high content of paraffin,
which is good for combustion but creates
bad conditions for fuel storage and
handling. Handling should be done at a
temperature 5-10 higher than the pour
point to avoid the congelation of fuel in
pipes.


Sulfur (sulphur)
Sulphur is present in fuel by means
of organic compounds, with a complex
structure; therefore this concentration is
given in elementary sulphur.
The main effect of sulphur is
corrosion. By burning, sulfur is combined
with oxygen and gives sulphur dioxide
(SO
2
). Further, in contact with water, this
gives sulphuric acid - a highly corrosive
substance.
The corrosive effect of sulphuric
acid during combustion is counteracted by
adequate lube oils and temperature control
of the combustion chamber walls.
The sulphur, content has a
negligible effect on the combustion
process.

Carbon residue
The carbon residue is measured as
Conradson Carbon or as Microcarbon.
Fuels with high carbon residue content may
163
mare de reziduuri de carbon produc
depunerea sporit pe cile de gaze
necesitnd curarea mai frecvent, n
special a turbosuflantelor i caldarinelor
recuperatoare.
Unele schimbri n ardere
necesitnd reglarea presiunilor maxime din
motive de economicitate, pot fi atribuite
coninutului ridicat de reziduuri de carbon.
O parte din coninutul de reziduuri de
carbon reprezint coninutul de asfalturi.

Coninutul de asfalturi
Asfalturile sunt molecule mari cu o
rat carbon/hidrogen ridicat, foarte
aromatice cu carbonul combinat n vaste
structuri circulare. Acestea nu sunt
insolubile n normal heptan (care este un
solvent parafinic total), dar sunt solubile n
toluen ( care este un solvent aromatic
total).
Efectul asfalturilor asupra arderii
este similar cu acela al reziduurilor de
carbon. Se consider n general c
asfalturile sunt componente care ard greu
care e posibil s ntrzie procesul de ardere.

Asfalturile de asemenea afecteaz
proprietile de ungere a uleiului. n cazuri
extreme un coninut ridicat de asfalturi
poate duce la blocarea pompei de
combustibil. Combustibilii cu un coninut
ridicat de asfalturi tind s emulsioneze cu
apa.

Coninutul de apa
Cantitatea de ap din combustibil
este limitat de ctre productori prin
intermediul specificaiilor. Apa nrutete
arderea combustibilului i ntr-o cantitate
mare o poate chiar opri.
Apa din combustibil trebuie
nlturat prin centrifugarea
combustibilului nainte de utilizare.
Aceasta se aplic n special apei srate,
sodiului al crui coninut se poate depozita
pe valve i turbosuflant. n situaiile
dificile este recomandat folosirea
antiemulsionanilor chimici pentru a ajuta
separarea apei. Dac apa nu poate fi
nlturat este recomandat omogenizarea
dup centrifugare.
Coninutul de ap este dat n
procente.
cause increased fouling of the gas ways,
necessitating more frequent cleaning,
especially of the turbochargers and exhaust
gas boiler.

Some changes in combustion,
requiring adjustment of maximum
pressures for reason of economy, may also
be attributed to a high carbon residue
content. Part of the carbon residues
represents the asphaltenes.

Asphaltenes
Asphaltenes are large molecules
with extremely high carbon/hydrogen ratio,
highly aromatic with the carbon combined
in large ring structures. They are insoluble
in normal heptane (which is a totally
paraffinic solvent) but soluble in toluene
(which is a totally aromatic solvent).

The effect of asphaltenes on the
combustion is similar to that of the carbon
residue. It is generally considered that
asphaltenes are slow burning components
that are likely to delay the combustion
process.
Asphaltenes also affect the fuel oil
lubrication properties. In extreme cases,
high asphalt content may lead to fuel pump
sticking. Fuels with a high content of
asphaltenes may tend to emulsify with
water.


Water
The amount of water in fuel is
limited by fuel suppliers by means of
specifications. Water worsens the fuel
combustion and in a high content it can
even stop it.
Water fuel should be removed from
the fuel by centrifuging the fuel before use.
This applies especially to salt water, the
sodium content of which may result in
deposits on valves and turbochargers. In
difficult cases the use of chemical emulsion
breakers is recommended to assist the
separation of water. If water cannot be
removed, homogenizing after centrifuging
is recommended.

Water content is given in per cent.

164

Coninutul de cenua
Cenua reprezint contaminanii
solizi precum i metalele prezente n
combustibil n compui solubili. Coninutul
de cenu este n mod normal derivat din
compuii organici/metalici , de obicei
vanadiu i nichel n forme solubile,
mpreun cu sodiu adesea prezent ca i
constituent aprut natural sau luat n timpul
transportrii.
O parte din acetia pot fi particule
catalitice cum ar fi silicatul de aluminiu din
procesul de rafinare. Asemenea particule
sunt foarte abrazive i sunt cauza principal
a uzurilor serioase a pistonaelor pompelor
de injecie, injectoarelor de combustibil i
chiar segmenilor i cmilor de cilindru.
Cenua solid trebuie eliminat ct
mai n profunzime posibil prin
centrifugare.

Coninutul de vanadiu i sodiu
Vanadiul este prezent n
combustibil n compui solubili i, n
consecin, nu pot fi nlturai.
Vanadiul n combinaie cu sodiul
poate duce la coroziunea supapei de
evacuare i la depozite n turbosuflant, n
special n cazurile de coninut foarte mare
de vanadiu.
Pentru coninute mai mici de sodiu
i vanadiu, rata masic este considerat de
mic importan ( pentru vanadiu un
coninut mai mic de 150 mg/Kg).
Sodiul este n mod normal prezent
n combustibil datorit contaminrii cu ap
srat, i de aceea, va fi nlturat prin
centrifugare. Sodiul poate de asemenea
ajunge n motor n form de cea
aeropurtat.
Vanadiul i sulful sunt exprimate n
pri per milion (mg/Kg).

Coninutul de aluminiu i siliciu
Limita coninutului de aluminiu i
siliciu a fost introdus spre a reduce
coninutul de particule catalitice , n
principal trioxidul de aluminiu (Al
2
O
3
) i
dioxidului de siliciu (SiO
2
).
Particulele catalitice dau o cretere
a uzurii abrazive i de aceea, coninutul lor
trebuie redus ct mai mult posibil prin
centrifugarea combustibilului nainte de a

Ash
Ash represents solid contaminants
as well as metals present in the fuel in
soluble compounds. The ash content of fuel
is normally derived from organic/ metallic
compounds, usually vanadium and nickel
in soluble form, together with sodium often
present as a naturally occurring constituent
or picked up during transportation.

Part of them may be catalyst
particles such as aluminium silicate from
the refining process. Such particles are
highly abrasive and there are many cases of
serious wear of fuel pump plungers, fuel
injectors valves (nozzles) and even piston
rings and liners.
Solid ash should be removed to the
widest possible by centrifuging.


Vanadium and sodium
Vanadium is present in the fuel in
soluble compounds and, consequently,
cannot be removed.
Vanadium in combination with
sodium may lead to exhaust valve
corrosion and turbocharger deposits,
especially in the case of high vanadium
content.
For smaller contents of sodium and
vanadium, the weight ratio is considered of
less importance (for vanadium content less
than 150 mg/Kg).
Sodium is normally present in fuel
as a salt-water contamination and may, as
such, be removed by centrifuging. Sodium
may also reach the engine in the form of
airborne seawater mist.

The vanadium and sulphur are
expressed in parts per million (mg/Kg).

Aluminium and silicon
The limit to aluminium and silicon
has been introduced in order to restrict the
content of catalytic fines, mainly
aluminium trioxide (Al
2
O
3
) and silicon
dioxide (SiO
2
).
Catalytic fines give rise to abrasive
wear, and their content should, therefore,
be reduced as far as possible by
centrifuging the fuel oil before it reaches
165
ajunge n motor.



Calitile de aprindere
In mod normal datele analitice
aplicate pentru combustibili nu conin nici
o indicare a calitilor de aprindere, nici
specificaiile curente i standardele. De
asemenea nefiind un parametru important
pentru motoarele lente i lent-rapide cu rate
de compresie ridicate, calitatea de
aprindere poate fi prezis prin calcule
bazate pe viscozitate i densitate.
O mare densitate n combinaie cu o
viscozitate sczut poate fi un indiciu al
slabei caliti de aprindere.

Stabilitatea combustibilului
Combustibilii sunt produi pe baza
unei largi varieti de iei i procese de
rafinare. Datorit incompatibilitii,
asemenea combustibili pot ocazional tinde
s devin instabili cnd sunt amestecai,
din acest motiv amestecarea trebuie evitat
ct mai mult posibil.
Un amestec de combustibili
incompatibili n tancuri poate determina o
chiar mare cantitate de reziduuri eliminate
de separatoarele centrifuge sau duce chiar
la blocarea separatorului.
Neomogenitatea n tancul de
serviciu poate fi contracarat prin
recircularea coninutului tancului prin
separator.


Tratarea combustibililor

Separarea centrifugal
Combustibilii trebuie ntotdeauna
considerai ca i contaminai dup livrare
i de aceea trebuie curai riguros spre a
nltura contaminanilor solizi ct i lichizi
nainte de utilizare. Contaminanii solizi
din combustibil sunt n principal rugina,
nisipul, praful i catalizatorii de rafinare.
Contaminanii lichizi sunt n principal ap,
de ex. sau dulce sau srat.
Impuritile din combustibil pot
cauza defectarea pompelor de injecie i
injectoarelor i pot provoca uzura
cmilor cilindrilor i deteriorarea
scaunelor supapelor de evacuare. De
the engine.



Ignition quality
Normally applied analytical data for
fuel oil contain no direct indication of
ignition quality; neither do current
specifications and standards. Although not
an important parameter for low and
medium speed engines with high
compression ratios, the ignition quality can
be predicted by calculations based on
viscosity and density.
High density in combination with
low viscosity may be an indication of poor
ignition quality.

Fuel oil Stability
Fuel oils are produced on basis of a
wide variety crude oils and refinery
processes. Due to incompatibility, such
fuels may occasionally tend to be unstable
when mixed, therefore mixing should be
avoided to the widest possible extent.

A mixture of incompatible fuels in
the tanks may result in rather large
amounts of sludge taken out by centrifuges
or even lead to centrifuge blocking.

Re-circulating the contents of the
tank through the centrifuge can counteract
inhomogeneity in the service tank.



Fuel Oil Treatment

Centrifuging
Fuel oils should always be
considered as contaminated upon delivery
and should therefore be thoroughly cleaned
to remove solid as well as liquid
contaminants before use. The solid
contaminants in the fuel are mainly rust,
sand, dust and refinery catalysts. Liquid
contaminants are mainly water, i.e. either
fresh water or salt water.
Impurities in the fuel can cause
damage to fuel pumps and fuel valves, and
can result in cylinder liner wear and
deterioration of the exhaust valve seats.
Also increased fouling of gasways and
166
asemenea depunerea mrit pe conductele
de gaze i palele turbosuflantei poate
rezulta din folosirea combustibilului
inadecvat curat.
Curarea efectiv poate fi asigurat
numai prin folosirea unui separator
centrifugal. Capacitatea separatoarelor
instalate trebuie, la urma urmei, s
concorde cu instruciunile productorului
separatorului. Pentru a obine o separare
optim, este de cea mai mare importan ca
separatorul s fie folosit cu o viscozitate a
combustibilului ct mai mic posibil, i
combustibilului i se permite s rmn n
vasul separatorului ct mai mult posibil. O
viscozitate suficient de sczut este
obinut prin folosirea prenclzitorului
separatorului la temperatura maxim
permis pentru combustibilul respectiv.
Combustibilul este meninut n
separator ct mai mult posibil prin reglarea
ratei curgerii prin separator astfel nct s
corespund cantitii de combustibil cerut
de motor fr recirculri excesive. n
consecin separatorul trebuie s
funcioneze 24 ore pe zi exceptnd durata
necesar splrii.
Separatoarele cu pompe de
alimentare separate cu o capacitate
potrivit ieirii motorului sunt preferate.
Avnd n vedere calitatea
combustibilului actual, nevoia de splare a
separatorului (frecvena de tragere) nu
trebuie subestimat.
La separatoarele echipate cu
uruburi sau/i discuri de reglare, alegerea
corect a acestora este de o importan
special pentru eliminarea eficient a apei.

Manualul separatorului indic care
disc sau reglaj al urubului trebuie ales pe
baza densitii combustibilului.
Practica curent este s se aib cel
puin dou separatoare disponibile n
scopul separrrii combustibilului.
Cea mai bun separare, n special n
eliminarea particulelor catalitice, este
atins cnd separatoarele se folosesc n
serie de ex. n modul
Purificator/Clarificator.
Dac capacitatea separatorului
instalat este inferioar, n raport cu
viscozitatea specific a combustibilului
utilizat, i dac mai mult dect un separator
turbochargers blades may result from the
use of inadequately cleaned fuel oil.


Only using a centrifuge can ensure
effective cleaning. The capacity of the
installed centrifuges should, at least, accord
with the centrifuge makers instructions.
To obtain optimum cleaning, it is of most
importance that the centrifuge be operated
with as low a fuel oil viscosity as possible,
and that the fuel oil is allowed to remain in
the centrifuge bowl for as long as possible.
A sufficiently low viscosity is obtained by
operating the centrifuge preheater at
maximum allowable temperature for the
fuel concerned.


The fuel is kept in the centrifuge as
long as possible by adjusting the flow rate
through the centrifuge so that it
corresponds with the amount of fuel
required by the engine without excessive
re-circulating. Consequently the centrifuge
should operate for 24 hours a day except
during the necessary cleaning.
Centrifuges with separate feed
pumps with a capacity matched to the
engine output are to be preferred.
Taking todays fuel qualities into
consideration, the need for cleaning the
centrifuges (shooting frequency) should
not be underestimated.
On centrifuges equipped with
adjusting screws and/or discs, their correct
choice and adjustment is of special
importance for the efficient removal of
water.
The centrifuge manual states which
disc or screw adjustment should be chosen
on the basis of the density of fuel.
The normal practice is to have at
least two centrifuges available for fuel
cleaning purposes.
The best cleaning effect,
particularly regarding the removal of
catalytic fines, is achieved when the
centrifuges are operated in series, i.e. in
purifier/clarifier mode.
If the installed centrifuge capacity
is low, related to the specific viscosity of
the fuel oil used, and if more than one
centrifuge are available, parallel operation
167
sunt disponibile, trebuie aplicat
funcionarea n paralel spre a se obine o
rat de curgere i mai mic. Oricum, n
vederea obinerii de rezultate apropiate
recomandrilor, trebuie luat serios n
considerare instalarea unui nou echipament
n concordan cu calitatea actual a
combustibililor i debitului recomandat.

Prenclzirea
Spre a se asigura o pulverizare
corect temperatura combustibilului trebuie
reglat n concordan cu viscozitatea
specific a combustibilului utilizat.
Temperatura inadecvat va
influena arderea i poate cauza uzura
sporit a cmilor de cilindru i
segmenilor pistoanelor, precum i
deteriorarea scaunelor supapelor de
evacuare. O prea mic temperatur de
prenclzire, de ex. o prea mare viscozitate
poate produce prea mari presiuni de
injecie, ducnd la o tensiune mecanic
excesiv n instalaia de combustibil.
n cele mai multe instalaii,
prenclzirea este fcut prin intermediul
aburului i viscozitatea este inut la
nivelul specificat prin regulatorul de
viscozitate controlnd alimentarea cu abur.
Valoarea reglat a viscozimetrului
este 10-15 cSt. Oricum, experiena de
serviciu a artat c viscozitatea
combustibilului nainte de pompa de
combustibil nu este un parametru critic, din
acest motiv se permite o viscozitate pn la
20 cSt. dup prenclzitor. Pentru a evita
depunerea prea rapid pe prenclzitor
temperatura nu trebuie s depeasc
150C.

Instalaii de alimentare cu combustibil
Instalaia de alimentare cu combustibil
const din:
- Instalaia de ambarcare i transfer
combustibil
- Tancuri de depozitare
- Tancuri de decantare
- Separatoare centrifugale

- nclzitoare de combustibil
- Filtre de combustibil
- Omogenizatoare
should be considered as a means of
obtaining an even lower flow rate.
However, in view of the above results and
recommendations, serious consideration
should be given to installing new
equipment in compliance with todays fuel
qualities and flow recommendations.


Preheating
In order to ensure correct
atomization the fuel oil temperature must
be adjusted according to the specific fuel
oil viscosity used.
Inadequate temperature will
influence the combustion and may cause
increased wear on cylinder liners and
piston rings, as well as deterioration of the
exhaust valve seats. Too low a preheating
temperature, i.e. too high viscosity may
result in too high injection pressures,
leading to excessive mechanical stress in
the fuel oil system.

In most installations, preheating is
carried out by means of steam, and the
viscosity is kept at a specified level by a
viscosity regulator controlling the steam
supply.
The recommended viscosity meter
setting is 10-15 cSt. However, service
experience has shown that the viscosity of
the fuel before the fuel pump is not too
critical a parameter, for which reason a
viscosity of up to 20 cSt. after preheater is
allowed. In order to avoid too a rapid
fouling of the preheater the temperature
should not exceed 150C.


Fuel oil systems
The fuel oil system consists of :

- Bunker filling and transfer systems

- Storage tanks
- Settling tanks
- Centrifuging system (centrifuge
separators)
- Fuel heaters
- Fuel filters
- Homogenizes
168
- Filtre fine
- Supradecantoare
- Instalaia presurizat de combustibil
(Instalaia de injectare)
- Fine filters
- Superdecanters
- Pressurized fuel oil system


169
Capitolul 25
Instalaia de separare
Unit 25
Separation System





1. Separator centrifugal
2. Bloc electrovalv, ap
3. Buton pentru oprirea de urgen
4. Unitate de control
5. Bloc electrovalv, aer
6. Furtun flexibil
7. Debitmetru
8. Presostat maximal
9. Presostat minimal
10. Manometru
11. Valvul de reglare
12. Valvul cu trei ci
13. Termometru
14. Starter
15. Tanc ap tehnologic
16. Pomp hidrocarbur separat
17. Regulator debit
18. Instalaia de nclzire hidrocarbur

1. Centrifuge (separator)
2. Solenoid valve block, water
3. Emergency stop push-button
4. Control unit
5. Solenoid valve block, air
6. Flexible hose
7. Flow indicator
8. High pressure switch
9. Low pressure switch
10. Pressure indicator
11. Regulating valve
12. Three-way valve
13. Temperature indicator
14. Starter
15. Operating water tank
16. Separate oil feed pump
17. Flow switch
18. Oil heating system

Fig. 25.1

170
Intrri i ieiri:
A. Intrare hidrocarbur neseparat
B. Ieire hidrocarbur separat
C. Recirculare hidrocarbur
D. Aer comprimat
E. Ap tehnic
F. Ieirea de evacuare reziduuri
G. Scurgere carcas cup
H. Ieire ap separat


Purificarea combustibililor

Combustibili furnizai drept
combustibili diesel marini de tipurile
uor, mediu i greu sunt n general
amestecuri de hidrocarburi sau hidrocarburi
reziduale de distilare. n funcie de origine
combustibilul poate conine impuriti i
precipitai absorbii n timpul stocrii sau
transportului sau care sunt inerent n
combustibil.
Aceste impuriti n combustibili
pot avea urmtoarele efecte: uzura
pronunat a injectoarelor, pompelor de
injecie, cmilor de cilindrii i
pistoanelor, producerea de neetaneiti ale
valvelor, cementare i rcire insuficient,
ardere necorespunztoare.
Purificarea combustibilului ofer
urmtoarele avantaje:
- arderea optim a combustibililor curai
- reducerea uzurii n cilindrii, pistoane,
jicloare, pompe de injecie etc.
- se pot folosi de asemenea combustibili
de slab calitate
- prevenirea ncrustarea i griparea
pieselor importante
- prevenirea avarilor nedorite


Purificarea uleiului

n timpul funcionrii uleiul
unitilor de propulsie mari, fie motoare
diesel sau turbine, sunt n mod constant
contaminai. Toate prile aflate n micare
de rotaie sau prile alunectoare
rspndesc impuriti metalice. mpreun
cu praf, condens i produse de
descompunere , acestea sunt depozitate n
baia carterului. Uleiurile oricum conin
Flow in- and outlets
A. Oil inlet
B. Clean oil outlet
C. Oil recirculation
D. Compressed air
E. Fresh water
F. Sludge discharge outlet
G. Bowl casing drain
H. Water outlet


Purification of Fuel Oils

Fuels supplied as marine diesel
oils of the light, medium and heavy types
are generally mixtures of oils or residual
oils from distillation. According to its
origin the oil may contain impurities and
precipitates absorbed during storage or
transport or which are inherent in the oil.


These impurities in the oil may
have the following effects: severe wear on
injection nozzles, fuel pumps, cylinder
liners and pistons, valve leakage,
carbonization and poor cooling, inadequate
combustion.

The purification of fuel oils offers
the following advantages:
- optimum combustion of purified fuels
- reduction in wear on cylinders, pistons,
jets, feed pumps etc.
- poor quality oils may also be used

- prevention of encrustation and seizure
of important parts
- prevention of undesirable breakdowns


Purification of Lubricating Oil

During operation the lubricating
oils of large propulsion units, whether
diesel engines or turbines, are constantly
being contaminated. All rotating or sliding
parts shed metallic impurities. Together
with dust, condensation and products of
decomposition, these are deposited in the
sump. Oils may, however, contain certain
acids which together with foreign matter
171
acizi care mpreun cu materiile strine ce
acioneaz precum catalizatori pot cauza
mbtrnirea prematur a uleiului.
Separarea centrifugal previne acest proces
i durata de utilizare a uleiurilor este
prelungit considerabil.
n cazul motoarelor diesel, n
special motoarelor de tipul cu piston
concav, reziduurile din urma arderii i
materialele incombustibile din cilindru
ptrund de asemenea, n carter. Reziduurile
sulfuroase i produsele de descompunere
din combustibil combinate cu vaporii de
ap, un alt produs n urma arderii n
cilindru, i dup condensare, formeaz apa
acid care poate cauza avarieri serioase
lagrelor, pistoanelor i cilindrilor.
n cazul motoarelor diesel mari pot
aprea scurgeri n cmile cilindrilor i
pistoanelor rcite cu ap. Separatoarele a
protejat adesea motoarele principale
mpotriva defeciunilor altfel inevitabile.
Pe lng impuritile datorate particulelor
metalice, apa care a ptruns n instalaia de
ungere trebuie eliminat complet spre a
preveni mbtrnirea prematur a uleiului.

Purificarea uleiului ofer
urmtoarele avantaje:
- nlturarea amnunit a noroiului i
apei chiar din uleiurile pentru regimuri
grele
- economii apreciabile de ulei la toate
tipurile de motoare
- uzura sczut a lagrelor la motoarele
diesel i turbine
- prevenirea avariilor nedorite
- prelungirea substanial a duratei de
utilizare a uleiurilor


Demineralizarea uleiurilor pentru
turbinele cu gaz

Cteva din elementele infime
duntoare ca de exemplu vanadiul, sodiul,
potasiul i calciul ptrund la nalte
temperaturi duc la coroziune n turbin sau
cauzeaz depuneri pronunate pe lamele.
Spre a preveni distrugerile costisitoare
rezultnd din asemenea defeciuni,
combustibilii turbinelor cu gaz sunt
acting as a catalyst may cause premature
aging of the oil. Centrifuging prevents this
process and the life of the oils is
considerably prolonged.


With diesel engines, especially
trunk-type piston engines, combustion
residues and incombustible materials from
the cylinder also penetrate into the crank
chamber. Sulphurous residues and
decomposition products of the fuel oil
combine with the water vapour, another
product of the combustion in the cylinder
and, after condensation, form acid water
which may cause serious damage to
bearings, pistons and cylinders.
With large diesel engines leaks in
the cylinder liners and on water-cooled
pistons may occur. Separators have often
protected main engines from otherwise
unavoidable damage. In addition to
impurities due to particles of metal, water
that has penetrated into the lubricating
system must also be entirely eliminated in
order to prevent premature aging of the oil.

The purification of lubricating oils
offers the following advantages:
- thoroughly removal of dirt and water
even with heavy-duty oils

- appreciable savings of lubricating oils
on all engines
- low bearing wear on diesel engines and
turbines
- prevention of undesirable breakdowns
- substantially longer service life of the
lube oil.


Demineralization of Fuel Oil
for Gas Turbines

Some of the harmful trace elements
such as for example vanadium, sodium,
potassium and calcium lead at high
temperatures to corrosion in the turbine or
cause pronounced deposits on blades. To
prevent costly failures resulting from such
damage, gas turbine fuel oils with high
mineral contents are demineralized in
172
demineralizai n instalaii de splare. Aici,
proporiile de elemente duntoare infime
solubile n ap precum sodiul, potasiul i
calciul sunt reduse la valorile specificate de
productori i aciunea coroziv a
vanadiului este eliminat prin adugare de
magneziu.


Pentru a nelege funcionarea
separatorului centrifugal trebuie cunoscui
civa termeni:
Hidrocarbur: Aici ulei sau combustibil.
Reziduuri: Contaminanii separai i
emulsiile grele ap/hidrocarbur.
Descrcarea reziduurilor: Evacuarea
nmolului din cupa separatorului.
Debitul: Combustibilul introdus n
separator. Exprimat n m
3
/h sau l/h.
Suprafaa de separare ap/hidrocarbur:
stratul mrginitor ntre faza apei (la
exterior) i faza hidrocarbur (la interior) n
cupa separatorului.
Garnitura de ap: Apa din spaiul de
reziduuri al cupei separatorului pentru
prevenirea prsirii cupei de ctre
hidrocarbur prin ieirea de ap la
purificare.
Purificare: Separarea a dou lichide
insolubile cu densiti diferite, i n acelai
timp nlturarea solidelor.
Clarificare: Separarea contaminanilor
solizi din lichid.
Mod de funcionare la purificare:
Separarea continu a apei din hidrocarbur.
Cupa separatorului este prevzut cu disc
gravitaional pentru a forma garnitura de
ap (poziionnd suprafaa de separare
ap/hidrocarbur).
Mod de funcionare la clarificare:
Separarea reziduurilor fr coninut de ap
din hidrocarbur. Nici o garnitur de ap
nu mai este prezent n cupa separatorului,
iar capacitatea de operare cu ap este
limitat.
Discul gravitaional: Disc amplasat n
clopotul cupei pentru poziionarea
suprafeei de separare ap/hidrocarbur
ntre stiva de discuri i marginea exterioar
a discului superior, n modul de funcionare
la purificare.
Disc clarificator: Un disc opional, care
nlocuiete discul gravitaional n cupa
separatorului, i de aceea garnitura de ap
washing systems. Here, the proportions of
harmful water soluble trace elements such
as sodium, potassium and calcium are
reduced to the values specified by the gas
turbine manufacturer and the corrosive
action of the oil soluble vanadium is
eliminated by the addition of magnesium.


To understand the operation of the
centrifuge some terms should be known:

Oil: Here either lubricating oil or fuel oil.
Sludge: Separated contaminants and heavy
water/oil emulsion.
Sludge discharge: Ejection of sludge from
separator bowl.
Throughput: Oil feed to separator.
Expressed in m
3
/h or l/h.
Oil/water interface: Boundary layer
between the water phase (outer) and the oil
phase (Inner) in a separator bowl.

Water seal: Water in the sludge space of
the separator bowl to prevent the oil from
leaving the bowl through the water outlet,
in purifier mode.

Purification: Separation of two insoluble
liquids with different densities, and, at the
same time, removing solids.
Clarification: Separation of solid
contaminants from a liquid.
Purifier mode: Continuous separation of
sludge and water from the oil. The
separator bowl is furnished with a gravity
disc to form the water seal (positioning the
oil/water interface).

Clarifier mode: Separation of sludge with
no water content from the oil. No water
seal is present in the separator bowl, and
water-handling capacity is limited.


Gravity disc: Disc in the bowl hood for
positioning the oil/water interface between
the disc stack and the outer edge of the top
disc, in purifier mode.


Clarifier disc: An optional disc, which
replaces the gravity disc in the separator
bowl, thus no water seal exists.
173
nu mai exist.

Ap de dezlocuire: Adaus de ap n cupa
purificatorului pentru a dezlocui
hidrocarbura nainte de descrcarea
reziduurilor.
Revizie curent: Revizia cupei
separatorului i ntrri i ieirii
hidrocarburii. Schimbarea etanrilor cupei
i garniturilor tubulaturilor de intrare i
ieire ale separatorului.
Revizie principal: Revizia ntregului
separator, incluznd partea inferioar,
intrarea i ieirea, cupa separatorului etc.
Schimbarea garniturilor i etanrilor n
conformitate cu revizia curent, etanrile
i lagrele prii inferioare.
Reparaia capital: nlocuirea pieselor
pentru angrenajul cu roat melcat, axe,
arcuri, carcasele lagrelor etc.


Displacement water: Addition of water
into purifier bowl to displace the oil prior
to a sludge discharge.

Intermediate service: Overhaul of
separator bowl and oil inlet/outlet.
Exchange of seals in bowl and gaskets in
the inlet/outlet piping of separator.

Major service: Overhaul of the complete
separator, including bottom part, inlet and
outlet, separator bowl etc. Exchange of
gaskets and seals according to intermediate
service, seals and bearings on bottom part.

Reconditioning service: Exchange of parts
for the worm gearing, shafts, springs
bearing housing etc.


Separation by gravity stationary vessel Centrifugal separation rotating vessel

Separare gravitaional (decantare) vas florentin Separare centrifugal vas rotativ


Principiile separrii

Un lichid murdar ntr-un vas
staionar se va limpezi ncet dup cum
particulele grele se aeaz n partea
inferioar sub influena gravitaiei. n cazul
lichidelor nemiscibile lichidul mai greu se
va aeza sub lichidul mai uor. Continua
separare i sedimentare poate fi obinut
ntr-un tanc de decantare (vas florentin).
Ieirile sunt poziionate la nivele adaptate
diferitelor densiti ale celor dou lichide.
Contaminanii solizi din amestecul lichid
se vor decanta i vor forma un strat de
depuneri (nmol) pe fundul tancului.
Valoarea gravitaiei este mai degrab mic

Separation Principles

A dirty liquid in a stationary vessel
will clear slowly as the heavy particles in
the liquid settle on the bottom under the
influence of gravity. In the case of
insoluble liquids the heavier liquid will
place itself underneath the lighter liquid.
Continuous separation and sedimentation
can be achieved in a settling tank. The
outlets are positioned at levels adapted to
the different densities of the two liquids.
Solid contaminants in the liquid mixture
will settle and form a sediment layer
(sludge) on the tank bottom. The value of
gravity acceleration is rather small;
174
i n consecin viteza de separare este
mic. De aceea pentru a mri viteza de
separare este nevoie s se creasc
acceleraia; nimeni nu poate mri
acceleraia gravitaional, i de aceea
aceasta este fcut prin nlocuirea
acceleraiei gravitaionale cu acceleraia
centrifug, care poate fi mrit prin mrirea
turaiei. Astfel n vasele care se rotesc rapid
fora de greutate este nlocuit de fora
centrifug care mrete viteza de decantare
cu un factor de cteva mii. Ce dureaz ore
sub influena gravitaiei dureaz doar
secunde ntr-o cup separatoare de nalt-
turaie.
Procesul de separare este influenat
de o serie de factori cum ar fi: temperatura,
viscozitatea sau diferena de densiti (rata
gravimetric specific). O temperatur
nalt de separare este n mod normal
favorabil separrii hidrocarburilor
minerale. Temperatura influeneaz
viscozitatea i densitatea i trebuie inut
constant n timpul separrii. Viscozitatea
sczut faciliteaz separarea. nclzirea
poate reduce viscozitatea. Cu ct este mai
mare diferena de densitate dintre cele dou
lichide cu att e mai uoar separarea. De
asemenea nclzirea poate mri diferena
de densitate.
Suprafaa de separaie dintre apa de
etanare i hidrocarbur trebuie poziionat
ntre stiva de discuri i marginea exterioar
a discului superior. Dac interfaa se mut
n afara marginii exterioare a discului
superior etanarea de ap se va rupe,
descrcnd hidrocarbura cu apa. O
suprafa de separaie poziionat n
interiorul stivei de discuri va cauza
rezultate proaste n separare.
Rata debitului (timpul n care se
afl n cmpul centrifugal) trebuie s fie
corespunztoare n ceea ce privete
mrimea separatorului, tipul de hidro-
carbur i viscozitatea. Debite excesive pot
duce la separarea proast.
Hidrocarburi cu densitate mare
sau/i viscozitate mare, precum i un debit
ridicat, va poziiona suprafaa de separaie
mai aproape de periferia cupei dect pentru
o hidrocarbur cu proprieti sczute.
Pentru a compensa factorii de mai
sus suprafaa de separaie este adus n
poziia corect prin modificarea ieirii
consequently, the separation speed is small.
Therefore, to increase the separation speed
it is necessary to increase the acceleration;
no one can increase gravity acceleration, so
this is done by replacing the gravity
acceleration with centrifugal acceleration,
which can be increased by increasing the
revolutions per minutes (r.p.m.). So, in
rapidly rotating vessels gravity is replaced
by centrifugal force which increases the
settling velocity by a factor of several
thousands. What takes hours under the
influence of gravity takes only seconds in a
high-speed separator bowl.

The separation is influenced by a
series of factors such as: temperature,
viscosity or density difference (specific
gravity ratio). A high separating
temperature is normally favorable in
mineral oil separation. The temperature
influences oil viscosity and density and
should be kept constant throughout
separation. Low viscosity facilitates
separation. Heating can reduce viscosity.
The greater the density difference between
the two liquids, the easier the separation.
Heating can also increase the density
difference.

The interface between the water
seal and the oil should be positioned
between the disc stack and the outer edge
of the top disc. If the interface moves
outside the outer edge of the top disc the
water seal will break, discharging the oil
with the water. An interface positioned
inside the disc stack will cause bad
separation results.

The rate of throughput (the time in
the centrifugal field) must be suitable with
respect to the separator size, type of oil and
viscosity. Excessive throughput may cause
bad separation.

Oil with high density and/or high
viscosity, as well as high throughput; will
position the oil/water interface closer to the
bowl periphery than for oil with low
properties.
To compensate the above factors
the interface is adjusted to a correct
position by altering the outlet for the water
175
pentru ap (schimbnd discul
gravitaional). Schimbarea discul
gravitaional cu unul cu diametru mai mare
al orificiului, va mica suprafaa de
separaie nspre periferia cupei n timp ce
un disc cu un diametru mai mic al
orificiului va muta suprafaa de separare
mai aproape de centrul cupei.
Presiunea excesiv la ieirea
hidrocarburii mpiedic pomparea ei n
afar. Nivelul interior al hidrocarburii se va
muta nspre centrul cupei, i n acelai timp
va mpinge suprafaa de separare n afar
spre periferia cupei. Efectul este o poziie
greit a suprafeei de separaie, care poate
cauza ruperea etanrii de ap.
(exchanging the gravity disc). Changing
the gravity disc with larger hole diameter
will move the interface towards the bowl
periphery whereas a disc with smaller hole
diameter will move the interface closer to
the bowl center.


Excessively high pressure in the oil
outlet prevents the oil from being pumped
out. The inner oil level will then move
towards the center of the bowl and, at the
same time, push the oil water interface
outward towards the bowl periphery. The
effect is a wrong interface position, which
may cause broken water seal.


Construcia separatorului:

Partea superioar a agregatului (fig. 25.2):

Centrifuge construction:

Machine top part (fig. 25.2):
1. Partea superioar a cadrului
2. urub
3. urub articulat
4. tift cilindric cu gaur
5. tift crestat
6. Crlig de nchidere
7. Piuli cu strngere manual
8. Inel cu seciune dreptunghiular
9. Dispozitivul cu disc derulator
10. urub
11. aib
12. urub
13. urub
14. Prezon
15. Garnitur
16. Dispozitivul de ap tehnologic
17. aib
18. Piuli
19. Inel cu seciune circular
20. Clopot cadru
21. Distanier
22. aib de protecie
23. urub
24. Dispozitiv de alimentare i evacuare
25. urub
1. Frame top part
2. Screw
3. Hinged bolt
4. Cylindrical pin with hole
5. Slotted pin
6. Clamping shoe
7. Handweel nut
8. Rectangular ring
9. Paring disc device
10. Screw
11. Washer
12. Screw
13. Screw
14. Stud bolt
15. Gasket
16. Operating device
17. Washer
18. Nut
19. O-ring
20. Frame hood
21. Height adjusting ring
22. Protecting washer
23. Screw
24. Feed and discharge device
25. Screw
176






Fig. 25.2

177


26. aib
27. Tubulatur
28. Inel cu seciune circular
29. Inel cu seciune circular
30. Inel cu seciune dreptunghiular
26. Washer
27. Pipe
28. O-ring
29. O-ring
30. Rectangular ring
Fig. 25.3

178
31. Ecran
32. Racord
33. Teu
34. Furtun
35. Colier pentru furtun
36. Furtun de legtur
31. Screen
32. Nipple
33. Tee
34. Hose
35. Hose clip
36. Connecting hose


Dispozitivul de alimentare i evacuare
(fig. 25.3):
1. Disc desfurtor
2. Inel cu seciune circular
3. Garnitur
4. Disc desfurtor
5. Inel cu seciune circular
6. Manon de ghidare
7. Inel cu seciune circular
8. Carcas de racordare
9. Inel cu seciune circular
10. Suport
11. Inel cu seciune circular
12. Tubulatur de intrare
15. Racordul furtunului
15A.Racord
15B.Racord cu cot
15C.Racord
15D.Piuli cu urechi
16. Piuli
17. Tub distanier
18. urub
19. Inel cu seciune circular
20. Tub de sticl
21. Flan
25. Racord cu cot
26. Manometru
27. Inel cu seciune dreptunghiular
28. Robinet cu bil
Feed and discharge device (fig 25.3):

1. Paring disc
2. O-ring
3. Gasket
4. Paring disc
5. O-ring
6. Guide sleeve
7. O-ring
8. Connecting housing
9. O-ring
10. Support
11. O-ring
12. Inlet pipe
15. Hose liner
15A.Hose liner
15B.Elbow
15C.Sleeve
15D.Wing nut
16. Nut
17. Spacing tube
18. Screw
19. O-ring
20. Glass tube
21. Flange
25. Elbow
26. Pressure gauge
27. Rectangular ring
28. Ball valve

Partea inferioar a agregatului (fig. 25.4):
1. Tahometru
2. Frna de siguran
3. Cep
4. Sticl de nivel ulei
5. Cep
6. Piuli olandez (nfundat)
7. Dispozitiv conductor
8. Capacul lagrului
9. Piuli
10. Cadrul inferior
Machine bottom part (fig. 25.4):
1. Revolution counter
2. Guard
3. Plug
4. Oil gauge glass
5. Plug
6. Cap nut
7. Driving device
8. Bearing shield
9. Nut
10. Frame bottom part


179


Cupa separatorului (fig. 25.5):

1. Tambur
2. Duz
3. Piston mobil
4. Inel cu seciune circular
5. Obturator
6. Arc
7. Suportul arcelor
8. Inel cu seciune circular
9. urub
10. Semicupa inferioar alunectoare
11. Inel cu seciune dreptunghiular
12. Inel cu seciune circular
13. Con de distribuie
14. Distribuitor
15. Disc separator
16. Element de intercalaie
17. Disc separator
18. Disc separator
19. Inel de nivel
20. Inel cu seciune circular
21. Disc superior
22. Clopotul cupei
Separator bowl (fig. 25.5):

1. Bowl body
2. Nozzle
3. Operating slide
4. O-ring
5. Valve plug
6. Spring
7. Spring support
8. O-ring
9. Screw
10. Sliding bowl bottom
11. Rectangular ring
12. O-ring
13. Distributing cone
14. Distributor
15. Bowl disc
16. Ving insert
17. Bowl disc
18. Bowl disc
19. Level ring
20. O-ring
21. Top disc
22. Bowl hood
23. Inel de etanare
24. Inel de fixare
26. Inel cu seciune circular
27. Garnitur
28. Disc gravitaional
23. Seal ring
24. Lock ring
26. O-ring
27. Gasket
28. Gravity disc




Fig. 25.4

180








Fig. 25.5

181
Frna de siguran (fig. 25.6):
1. Frn de siguran
2. Sabot de frn
2A. Plcu de frn
2AA. urub
3. Arc
4. Mner
5. aib
6. tift crestat
7. Ax
8. tift crestat


Guard (fig. 25.6):
1. Guard
2. Brake shoe
2A. Friction pad
2AA. Screw
3. Spring
4. Handle
5. Washer
6. Slotted pin
7. Spindle
8. Slotted pin














Fig. 25.6

182

Mecanismul conductor (fig. 25.7 i
fig.25.8):
1. Buc
2. Inel cu seciune circular
3. aib de blocare
4. Piuli rotund
5. Axul cupei
6. Manon melcat
7. Distanier
8. Lagr cu alunecare (rulment)
9. aib de blocare
10. Piuli rotund
11. Amortizor axial
11A.Suportul arcului
11B.Inel de uzur
11C.Arc
11D.Cui spintecat
12. Carcasa rulmentului
13. Lagr cu alunecare (rulment)
14. Deflector
15. Carcasa arcului
16. Amortizor
17. Arc
18. Cep filetat
19. Inel cu seciune circular
20. urub
21. aib Grower (arcuit)
22. Inel cu seciune circular
23. Carcas de protecie
24. urub
25. Colier de protecie
26. Inel cu seciune circular
27. Plac de protecie
28. urub
29. Axul roatei de pe melc
30. aib de etanare
31. Inel cu seciune circular
32. Inel de etanare
33. Roata de pe melc
34. Lagr cu alunecare (rulment)
35. Lagr cu alunecare (rulment)
36. aib de blocare
37. Piuli rotund
38. Butuc
39. Lagr cu alunecare (rulment)
40. Distanier
41. Lagr cu alunecare (rulment)
41. aib de blocare
43. Piuli rotund
44. Inel cu seciune circular
45. Inel cuplaj
46. urub
47. aib Grower (arcuit)
Driving device (fig. 25.7 and fig. 25.8):

1. Bushing
2. O-ring
3. Lock washer
4. Round nut
5. Bowl spindle
6. Worm
7. Spacing washer
8. Ball bearing
9. Lock washer
10. Round nut
11. Axial buffer
11A.Spring support
11B.Wear ring
11C.Spring
11D.Split pin
12. Ball bearing house
13. Ball bearing
14. Deflector
15. Spring casing
16. Buffer
17. Spring
18. Screw plug
19. O-ring
20. Screw
21. Spring washer
22. O-ring
23. Protecting guard
24. Screw
25. Protecting collar
26. O-ring
27. Protecting plate
28. Screw
29. Worm wheel shaft
30. Sealing washer
31. O-ring
32. Seal ring
33. Worm wheel
34. Ball bearing
35. Ball bearing
36. Lock washer
37. Round nut
38. Nave
39. Ball bearing
40. Spacing ring
41. Ball bearing
42. Lock washer
43. Round nut
44. O-ring
45. Coupling ring
46. Screw
47. Spring washer
183
48. urub
49. Garnitur
50. Floc de frn
50A.Plcu de frn
50AA urub
51. Plac elastic
52. Disc de cuplaj
53. urub de blocare
54. Butuc de cuplare
55. urub
48. Screw
49. Gasket
50. Friction block
50A.Friction pad
50AA Screw
51. Elastic plate
52. Coupling disc
53. Stop screw
54. Coupling nave
55. Screw







Fig. 25.7

184







Fig. 25.8

185







1. Ap de etanare i deslocuire
2. Intrare hidrocarbur neseparat
3. Ieire hidrocarbur separat
4. Ieire ap
5. Discul derulator ap
6. Disc gravitaional
7. Disc derulator hidrocarbur
8. Disc superior
9. Stiv de discuri separatoare
10. Spaiu pentru reziduuri
11. Ap pentru nchiderea cupei
12. Ap pentru deschiderea cupei
13. Distribuitor
14. Inel de nivel
15. Camera de derulare hidrocarbur
1. Sealing and displacement water
2. Oil inlet
3. Clean oil outlet
4. Water outlet
5. Water paring disc
6. Gravity disc
7. Oil paring disc
8. Top disc
9. Disc stack
10. Sludge space
11. Bowl closing water
12. Bowl opening water
13. Distributor
14. Level ring
15. Oil paring chamber




Principiul de funcionare

Hidrocarbura este introdus n
separator de ctre o pomp de alimentare
(ncorporat sau separat). Pompa
incorporat este de tipul cu roi dinate i
deplasament pozitiv acionat de o
derivaie de la axul motor al separatorului.
Working principle

Oil is fed to the separator by a feed
pump (built-on or separate). The built-on
feed pump is of positive gear type driven
by a take off from the separator motor
shaft. The feed pump is not controlled from
the control unit and has to be manually
Fig. 25.9

186
Pompa de acionare nu este controlat de la
unitatea de control i trebuie s fie pornit
i oprit manual. Hidrocarbura care este
introdus n separator trebuie meninut la
o temperatur de separare corect i
constant. Aceasta este atins n
nclzitorul instalat ntre pompa de
hidrocarburi i separator. nclzitorul poate
fi electric sau cu abur.
Separarea are loc n cupa
separatorului, care este acionat de un
motor electric, prin intermediul unui
angrenaj melc-roat dinat. Cupa
separatorului se rotete cu o vitez foarte
mare genernd o for centrifug
substanial. Atunci reziduurile i apa sunt
separate eficient din hidrocarbur.
Hidrocarbura neseparat este
introdus n cup prin intrarea
hidrocarburii i cea separat prsete
cupa prin ieirea hidrocarburi curate. Apa
separat este descrcat continuu prin
ieirea pentru ap. Reziduurile separate
sunt colectate n interiorul cupei i
descrcate la intervale de timp prin ieirea
de descrcare a reziduurilor.
Apa de etanare i de dezlocuire
este introdus n cup prin deschiderea de
intrare a apei. Apa de nchidere a cupei este
introdus prin intrarea apei de nchidere.
Cnd separatorul este folosit ca i
purificator, hidrocarbura neseparat curge
de la intrarea pentru hidrocarburi prin
distribuitor n spaiile dintre discuri n stiva
de discuri unde are loc separarea. Apa i
reziduurile se vor mica spre periferia
cupei n timp ce hidrocarbura separat se
mic nspre centrul cupei.
Din centrul cupei hidrocarbura
separat intr n camera derulatoare a
hidrocarburii prin inelul de nivel. Discul
derulator nerotativ al hidrocarburii
pompeaz hidrocarbura separat la ieirea
hidrocarburii separat.
Pentru a mpiedica hidrocarbura s
treac de discul superior i s ias cu apa, o
etanare de ap se stabilete in cup prin
intrarea de ap.
Reziduurile sunt descrcate prin o
serie de orificii din peretele cupei. Aceste
orificii sunt inute nchise de ctre
semicupa glisant inferioar care este
presat hidraulic in sus mpotriva inelului
de etanare din semicupa superioar de
started and stopped. The oil which is fed to
separator must be maintained at a correct
and constant separating temperature. This
is achieved in the heater, which is installed
between the oil pump and the separator.
The heater can be electrical or steam
heater.


Separation takes place in the
separator bowl, which is driven by an
electric motor, via a worm gear
transmission. The separator bowl rotates
with very high speed generating a
substantial centrifugal force. Sludge and
water is then efficiently separated from the
oil.
Unseparated oil is fed to the bowl
through the oil inlet and separated oil
leaves the bowl at the clean oil outlet.
Separated water is continuously discharged
through the water outlet. Separated sludge
is collected inside the bowl periphery and
discharged at intervals through the sludge
discharge outlet.

Sealing and displacement water to
the bowl is fed through the opening water
inlet. Bowl closing water is fed through the
closing water inlet.
When the separator is operated as
purifier, unseparated oil flows from the oil
inlet through the distributor into the spaces
between the discs in the disc stack where
separation takes place. Water and sludge
will move toward the bowl periphery while
the clean oil moves towards the bowl
center.
From the bowl center the clean oil
enters the oil-paring chamber via the level
ring. The non-rotating oil paring disc to the
clean oil outlet pumps the clean oil out.


To prevent the oil from passing the
top disc and escaping along with the water,
a water seal is established in the bowl via
water inlet.
Sludge is discharged through a
number of ports in the bowl wall. These
ports are kept shut by the sliding bowl
bottom, which is hydraulically pressed
upwards against a sealing ring in the bowl
top part by the force of the bowl closing
187
ctre fora apei de nchidere cup. La
descrcare, adugarea apei de deschidere n
sistemul de acionare al cupei evacueaz
apa de nchidere a cupei. Atunci semicupa
glisant inferioar este mpins n jos de
ctre presiunea din interiorul cupei, iar
reziduurile i apa sunt descrcate. Dup
descrcarea reziduurilor semicupa glisant
este mpins napoi n poziia iniial,
nchiznd orificiile pentru reziduuri ale
cupei.
Alimentarea cu hidrocarbur este
oprit n timpul descrcrii. Pentru a
preveni descrcarea hidrocarburii mpreun
cu reziduurile (i apa), este introdus apa
de dezlocuire prin intrarea apei de
dezlocuire. Aceast ap va fora suprafaa
de separaie ap-hidrocarbur nspre
centrul cupei, astfel nct doar apa i
reziduurile sunt descrcate. Dup
descrcarea reziduurilor o nou etanare de
ap este stabilit i separarea este reluat.
Apa separat urc pe lng partea
exterioar a discului superior, peste discul
gravitaional i este pompat n afar de
discul derulator nerotativ pentru ap.
Atunci apa prsete cupa prin ieirea
pentru ap. Dac separatorul nu este
echipat cu disc derulator pentru ap, apa nu
este pompat n afar, dar prsete cupa
prin discul gravitaional.
n timpul separrii reziduurile sunt
colectate n spaiul de reziduuri n afara
stivei de discuri.
Cnd separatorul este folosit ca i
clarificator, n mod normal hidrocarbura nu
conine ap liber. Principiul de separare
este asemntor cu cel al purificatorului,
chiar dac nu mai exist ap de etanare n
cup. i nici o ap de dezlocuire nu mai
este introdus nainte de descrcarea
reziduurilor.
Intervale ndelungate ntre
descrcri pot cauza acumularea i
compactarea reziduurilor. Reziduurile se
pot atunci rupe neuniform la descrcare i
determina cupa s devin dezechilibrat.
Dac dezechilibrul este prea mare exist
riscul deteriorrii grave a separatorului i
de rnire a personalului.
water. At discharge, adding of opening
water into the bowl operating system drains
the bowl closing water. The sliding bowl
bottom is then pushed downwards by the
pressure from inside the bowl, and the
sludge and water are discharged. After the
sludge discharge the sliding bottom is
pushed back in position, closing the sludge
ports in the bowl.


The oil feed is off during a sludge
discharge. To prevent discharge of oil
together with the sludge (and water),
displacement water is fed through the
displacement water inlet. This water will
force the oil-water interface towards the
bowl center, so that only sludge and water
are discharged. After a sludge discharge a
new water seal is established and the
separation is resumed.

Separated water rises along the
outside of the top disc, over the gravity
disc, and is pumped out by the non-rotating
water paring disc. The water then leaves
the bowl through the water outlet. If the
separator is not equipped with water paring
disc the water is not pumped out but leaves
the bowl through gravity disc.

During separation sludge is
collected in the sludge space outside the
disc stack.
When the separator is operated as
clarifier, the oil normally does not contain
any free water. The principle of separation
is similar to that of the purifier, although
there is no water seal in the bowl. Neither
is there any displacement water admitted
before a sludge discharge.

Long intervals between sludge
discharge can cause accumulation and
compaction of sludge. The sludge may then
break up unevenly on discharge and cause
the bowl to become unbalanced. If such
unbalance is too large, there is risk of
serious separator damage and injury to
personnel.


188
Capitolul 26
Generatorul de ap tehnic NIREX
Unit 26
NIREX Freshwater Generator

1
2
3
4
5
6 7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16



1. Tubulatur de ap de mare de la
condensator
2. Tub de vacuum
3. Tubulatura pentru apa de alimentare
4. Termometru
5. Valvul unisens
6. Ejector combinat saramur/aer
7. Pompa de ap tehnic
8. Motorul pompei de ap tehnic
9. Tubulatura de ap tehnic la pomp
10. Manometru
11. Separator de picturi
12. Cadru de susinere
13. Tubulatur saramur
14. Schimbtor de cldura vaporizator
15. Plac de presiune
16. Capac

Acest tip de generator este folosit
pentru a transforma apa de mare n ap
tehnic, pentru furnizare de ap tehnic de
bun calitate pentru utilizri casnice i
tehnologice. Pentru instalarea pe nave i
platforme (de foraj marin), ct i pentru
localizri deprtate pe coast, acest tip de
distilator este proiectat pentru funcionare
automat cu control continuu al calitii
apei.
Distilatoarele pot fi dimensionate
pentru a satisface orice temperatur a apei
de la 55-95C i oricrei temperaturi a apei
1. Seawater pipe from condenser

2. Vacuum pipe
3. Pipe for feed water
4. Thermometer
5. Non return valve
6. Combine brine/air ejector
7. Fresh water pump
8. Motor for freshwater pump
9. Freshwater pipe to pump
10. Pressure gauge
11. Separator
12. Bed frame
13. Brine pipe
14. Heat exchanger-evaporator
15. Pressure plate
16. Front cover

This type of generator is used to
convert seawater into fresh water by
vacuum distillation for the supply of high
quality fresh water for domestic and
process utilization. For installation on ships
and rigs and remote onshore locations, this
kind of distiller is designed for automatic
operation with continuous control of
freshwater quality.

Distillers can be dimensioned to
suit any water temperature from 55-95C
and any cooling water temperature
189
de rcire cerute. Cantitatea apei tehnice
produse poate fi modificat ntre orice
limite variind numrul de plci n
agregatele schimbtoare de cldur.

Distilatorul NIREX ofer o serie de
avantaje cum ar fi urmtoarele:
- Este simplu, de o execuie compact,
avnd o rcire combinat a
condensatorului, un ejector cu ap i un
sistem de alimentare cu ap.
- Ap tehnic de nalt calitate, datorit
sistemului de control al apei tehnice;
cantitatea redus de solide dizolvate
(salinitate) permite furnizarea apei pure
care poate fi folosit direct pentru
completarea apei cldrilor de abur.
- Interval de utilizare ndelungat.
Materiale cu grad ridicat de rezistent
la coroziune, cum, ar fi plcile cu titan
ale schimbtorului de cldur i alte
materiale rezistente la aciunea apei de
mare (neacoperite), asigur o durat de
utilizare ndelungat a echipamentului.
- Costuri sczute pentru funcionare i
operare. Funcionarea nesupravegheat
combinat cu accesul uor la interior
reduce la minimum rata or-om
necesar pentru funcionare i
ntreinere.


Principiul de funcionare
Spre a fi distilat, apa de alimentare
este luat de la ieirea apei de rcire a
condensatorului. Aceasta intr n
vaporizator unde se vaporizeaz la
aproximativ 40-50C pe msur ce trece
printre plcile nclzite de ctre mediul de
nclzire.
Aceast temperatur de vaporizare
corespunde la un vacuum de 90-95%,
meninut de ctre ejectorul de
saramur/aer. Vaporii generai trec printr-
un separator de picturi unde stropii de ap
de mare intrai sunt nlturai i cad datorit
gravitaiei in colectorul de saramur n
partea inferioar a camerei distilatorului.
Vaporii curai de ap tehnic trec n
condensor, unde condenseaz n ap
tehnic n timp ce trec printre plcile reci,
rcite de apa de mare de rcire, un
salinometru este prevzut mpreun cu o
required. The quantity of fresh water
produced can be altered within each size by
varying the number of plates in the heat
exchanger assemblies.

NIREX distiller offers a series of
advantages like the following:
- It is simple, of compact design, having
a combined condenser cooling, ejector
water and feed water system.

- High quality freshwater, due to the
freshwater control system; the low
content of dissolved solids (salinity)
ensures the supply of pure water which
can be used directly as make-up for
steam boilers.
- Long life . High grade corrosion
resistant materials, such as the titanium
heat exchanger plates and other
seawater resistant materials (non-
coated), ensure a long lifetime for the
equipment.

- Low operation and maintenance costs.
The start-and-forget operation,
combined with the easy access to the
interior, reduce man-hours required for
operation and maintenance to
minimum.


Working principle
The feed water to be distilled is
taken from the sea cooling water outlet of
the condenser. It enters the evaporator,
where it evaporates at about 40-50C as it
passes between the plates heated by the
heating medium.

This evaporating temperature
corresponds to a vacuum of 90-95%,
maintained by the brine/air ejector. The
generated vapour passes through a demister
where any drops of seawater entrained are
removed and fall, due to gravity, to the
brine sump at the bottom of the distiller
chamber. The clean freshwater vapours
continue to the condenser, where they
condense into fresh water as they pass
between the cold plates cooled by the sea
cooling water; a salinometer is provided
together with an electrode unit fitted on the
190
unitate cu electrozi montat n partea
refulrii pompei de ap tehnic. Dac
salinitatea apei tehnice produse depete
valoarea maxim permis (2ppm),
electrovalva i alarma sunt activate pentru
a descrca automat apa n santin.
Acest generator de ap tehnic este
proiectat pentru funcionare automat n
compartimente maini nesupravegheate
periodic i alte moduri de funcionare
automate.
Mediul de nclzire este fie apa de
rcire a cilindrilor motorului fie un circuit
nchis nclzit prin abur.
Pompa ejectorului este instalat
separat i are aspiraia separat de la caseta
de ap de mare. Aceast pomp furnizeaz
agent de rcire sub form de ap de mare n
condensator, ap de alimentare pentru
vaporizare i ap pentru ejectorul combinat
de saramur/aer.
Apa tehnic produs este pompat
n tanc de ctre o pomp de ap tehnic
ncorporat.
Panoul de comand instalat separat,
cu contactoarele motoarelor i
salinometrul, furnizeaz energie electric
ejectorului i pompei de ap tehnic i
controleaz tensiunea (aplicat)
salinometrului i valvulei de descrcare.

Instalaia care conine generatorul
NIREX este compus n principal din:
Unitatea generatorului de ap
tehnic ce include plcile cu titan ale
schimbtoarele de cldur pentru
vaporizator i condensor, carcasa
distilatorului ejectorul n dou trepte
saramur/aer, pompa de ap tehnic,
senzorul de control pentru ap tehnic,
pompa combinat pentru apa de rcire i
apa ejectorului, panoul de comand cu
contactoarele motoarelor i salinometrul,
unitatea de dozare chimic antitartru
(depunere de piatr) (necesar la
temperatura mediului de nclzire peste
75C).
Pentru a mbunti funcionarea
instalaiei mai pot fi adugate urmtoarele
echipamente opionale:
Un sistem de injectare abur,
echipament de accelerare a aburului i un
sistem de deviaie a apei calde, filtru pentru
reglarea (redurizarea) pH ului apei
freshwater pump delivery side. If the
salinity of the produced fresh water
exceeds the permitted maximum value (2
ppm), the solenoid valve and the alarm are
activated to automatically dump the
produced fresh water into the bilge.
This freshwater generator is
designed for automatic operation in
periodically unmanned engine rooms and
other automated operations.

The heating medium is either the
engine jacket cooling water or a closed
circuit heated by steam.
The ejector pump is separately
installed and has separate suction from the
sea chest. This pump supplies coolant in
the form of seawater in the condenser,
feed-water for the evaporation and water
for the combined brine/air ejector.

The freshwater produced is pumped
to the tank by the built-on fresh water
pump.
The separately installed control
panel, with motor starters and salinometer,
supplies electrical power to the ejector and
freshwater pumps and control voltage to
the salinometer and dump valve.


The plant which encloses the
NIREX generator is mainly composed of:
Freshwater generator unit,
including titanium plate exchangers for
evaporator and condenser, distiller shell,
two stage brine/air ejector, freshwater
pump, freshwater control sensor and
internal piping, combined cooling and
ejector water pump, control panel with
motor starters and salinometer, feed-water
anti-scale chemical dosing unit (necessary
at heating medium temperatures above
75C.



To improve plant operation, the
following optional equipment could be
added:
A steam injector system, equipment
for steam boosting and hot water loop
system, freshwater pH adjustment
(rehardening) filter, freshwater disinfection
191
tehnice, echipament pentru dezinfecia apei
tehnice.
Pentru pornirea distilatorului
trebuiesc fcute urmtoarele operaii:
1. deschidei valvele de la aspiraia i
refularea pompei ejectorului.
2. deschidei clapetul de bordaj al
ejectorului combinat aer/saramur.
3. nchidei valvula de aer din partea
superioar a vasului separatorului.
4. pornii pompa ejectorului. Verificai
presiunea nainte de ejector min. 2,8-
3 bar i dup ejector max 0,6 bar.
5. cnd exist un minim de 90% vacuum,
deschidei valvulele de intrare i ieire
din sistemul de rcire a cilindrilor.

6. trimitei alimentarea cu ap cald spre
seciunea vaporizatorului prin reglarea
valvulei de ocolire, pn cnd este
atins temperatura dorit apei de rcire
cilindrii (la intrare 75C, la ieire
60C). Temperatura de fierbere n
interiorul separatorului trebuie s fie
de aproximativ 40C.
7. pornii salinometrul.
8. Pornii pompa de ap tehnic.

Trebuie avut atenie pentru a se
evita un flux de ap necorespunztor care
ar avea urmtoarele efecte:
- n cazul cnd fluxul este prea mic
temperatura de ferbere sczut va
scdea producia apei tehnice. n acest
caz avem un nivel ridicat de saramur
n vizorul vasului separator.
- n cazul cnd fluxul este prea mare
temperatura ridicat de fierbere va
scdea producia de ap tehnic, va
crete salinitatea i scdea vacuumul. n
acest caz avem un nivel sczut al
saramurii n vizorul vasului
separatorului.
Pentru a stabili fluxul modificai
valvula de ocolire.
n timpul primelor cteva minute,
dup pornirea pompei de ap tehnic
salinitatea apei produse poate fi mai mare
de 2 ppm, de aceea, este recomandat s se
descarce n santin, pentru aceasta
deschidei valva de la refularea pompei de
ap tehnic. Cnd ncepe vaporizarea,
temperatura de vaporizare scade n timp ce
equipment.

For starting the distiller the
following operations should be done:
1. open valves on the suction and
discharge side of the ejector pump.
2. open overboard valve for combined
air/brine ejector.
3. close air valve on the upper part of the
separator vessel.
4. start ejector pump. Check the pressure
before ejector min 2,8-3 bar and after
ejector max 0,6 bar.
5. when there is a minimum of 90%
vacuum, open hot water inlet and
outlet valves from jacket cooling
system.
6. start hot water supply to evaporator
section by adjusting by-pass valve,
until desired jacket water temperature
is reached (inlet 75C, outlet 60C).
The boiling temperature inside the
separator vessel ought to be about
40C.

7. switch on the salinometer.
8. start freshwater pump.

Caution should by taken to avoid
improper hot water flow which will cause
the following effects:
- in case the flow is too low, low boiling
temperature will drop the fresh water
production. In this case we have high
brine level in the sight glass of the
separator vessel.
- in case the flow is too high, high
boiling temperature will drop the
freshwater production, increase salinity
and drop vacuum . In this case we have
low brine level in the sight glass of the
separator vessel.

To establish the flow adjust, the
by-pass valve.
During the first few minutes, after
the freshwater pump starts, salinity of
produced water may be higher than 2 ppm;
thus, it is recommended to dump it into the
bilge; for that, open the valve on the
discharge side of the fresh water pump.
When evaporation starts, the boiling
temperature rises, while the obtained
192
vacuumul scade la aproximativ 90%. Dup
un timp se stabilizeaz vacuumul i
temperatura de fierbere normale.
Pentru a opri distilatorul trebuie
fcute urmtoarele operaii:
1. oprii alimentarea cu ap cald a
seciunii vaporizatorului.
2. oprii pompa de ap tehnic.
3. oprii salinometrul
4. oprii pompa ejectorului
5. deschidei valvula de aer.
6. nchidei valvulele de pe aspiraia i
refularea pompei ejectorului.
7. nchidei clapetul de bordaj al
ejectorului combinat aer/saramur.
vacuum drops to aprox. 90%. After a few
minutes, normal vacuum and boiling
temperature are established.
To stop the distiller the following
operations should be done:
1. stop hot water supply to evaporator
section.
2. stop fresh water pump.
3. switch off salinometer
4. stop ejector pump.
5. open air valve.
6. close valves on the suction and
discharge side of ejector pump.
7. close overboard valve for combined
air/brine ejector.

193
Capitolul 27
Generatorul de ap tehnic Atlas
Unit 27
Atlas Fresh Water Generator





1. Motor diesel
2. Pompa de ap de rcire motor
3. Pompa de ap de mare
4. Rcitor de aer
5. Rcitor ap tehnic
6. Peste bord
7. Rcitor ulei
8. Ieire apei de mare de rcire
9. Intrare apei de mare de rcire
10. Intrare ap de rcire motor
11. Ieire ap de rcire motor
12. Ctre tancul de ap tehnic
13. Termometru
14. Vacuummetru
15. Valv de siguran
16. Robinet de ieire aer
17. Valvul eliminare vacuum
18. Manovacuummetru
19. Van sferica
20. Manometru
21. Rsufltor pentru apa de alimentare
22. Van armat cu arc
1. Diesel Engine
2. Engine cooling water pump
3. Seawater pump
4. Air cooler
5. Fresh water cooler
6. Overboard
7. Lubricating oil cooler
8. Cooling seawater outlet
9. Cooling seawater inlet
10. Engine cooling water inlet
11. Engine cooling water outlet
12. To fresh water tank
13. Thermometer
14. Vacuum gauge
15. Relief valve
16. Air outlet cock
17. Vacuum breaker valve
18. Compound gauge
19. Globe valve
20. Pressure gauge
21. Feed water orifice
22. Spring loaded valve
Fig. 27.1

194
23. Filtru
24. Pompa ejectoarelor
25. Valvul inversabil
26. Ejector cu ap (pentru saramur)
27. Ejector cu ap (pentru aer)
28. Pompa de ap tehnic
29. Celul detectare salinitate
30. Indicator de salinitate
31. Buzer de alarm
32. Valvul electromagnetic
33. Valvul de inversare
34. Robinet mostre
35. Debitmetru
36. Schimbtor de cldur (vaporizator)
37. Separatorul de picturi
38. Condensator

Separatorul de ap tehnic Atlas
cuprinde un vaporizator, un separator de
picturi i un condensator ct i accesorii
cum ar fi ejectorul pentru aer, ejectorul cu
ap pentru descrcarea saramuri, pompa
ejectoarelor, indicator de salinitate pentru
apa tehnic, electrovalv, debitmetru etc.
Este n form asemntoare cu un
cilindru vertical cu vaporizatorul ataat la
partea inferioar. La partea superioar a
vaporizatorului este montat oblic
separatorul cu un condensator incorporat.
Grupul de tuburi al schimbtorului de
cldur este fixat pe o direcie
perpendicular, tuburile care sunt trase n
plcile tuburilor la ambele capete.
Deflectorul este situat n partea inferioar a
separatorului, iar condensatorul compus
dintr-un grup lateral de tuburi de rcire este
ncastrat n partea superioar.

Un asemenea separator
funcioneaz dup cum urmeaz:
Dup cum este artat n schem,
legtura cu circuitul de rcire cu ap
tehnic a motorului diesel este foarte
simpl astfel nct nu este nevoie de nici o
schimbare a mrimii pompei de ap de
rcire a motorului cnd se instaleaz la
generatorul de ap tehnic.
O parte din apa tehnic de rcire (la
aproximativ 60-65C) care iese din motor
este ndreptat spre schimbtorul de
cldur al generatorului de ap tehnic i
cedeaz cldura sa apei de mare n timp ce
curge pe lng suprafaa exterioar a
tuburilor de nclzire. Apa de rcire curge
23. Filter
24. Ejector pump
25. Check valve
26. Water ejector (for brine)
27. Water ejector (for air)
28. Fresh water pump
29. Salinity cell
30. Salinity indicator
31. Alarm buzzer
32. Solenoid valve
33. Check valve
34. Test cock
35. Flow meter
36. Heat exchanger
37. Separator shell
38. Condenser

The Atlas fresh water generator
comprises a heat exchanger, a separator
and a condenser with such accessories as
air ejector, water ejector for brine
discharge, ejector pump, fresh water pump
salinity indicator, solenoid valve, flow
meter etc.
It is shaped like a vertical cylinder
with the heat exchanger attached to the
lower part. On top of the heat exchanger,
the separator with a built-in condenser is
located skewerly. The heating tube nest of
the heat exchanger is set in a perpendicular
direction; the tubes are rolled into the tube
sheets at both ends. The deflector is located
in the lower part of the separator and the
condenser, composed of a lateral cooling
tube nest, is housed in the upper part.



Such a separator operates as
follows:
As indicated in the piping diagram,
the connection with the cooling fresh water
system of the diesel engine is so simple
that no change is necessary in the size of
the engine cooling water pump of the main
engine when, installing the fresh water
generator to it.
A part of the cooling fresh water
(about 60-65C) flowing out of the diesel
engine is lead to the heat exchanger of the
fresh water generator and supplies its heat
to the seawater while it flows along the
outer surface of the heating tubes. The
cooling water flows back into the engine
195
napoi n sistemul de rcire cu ap a
motorului, cu temperatura redus cu 5-
10C.
Apa de mare de rcire a
condensatorului pleac de la refularea
pompei de ap de mare, curge prin tuburile
de rcire pentru a condensa vaporii generai
la exteriorul tuburilor. Se ntoarce la
circuitul de rcire cu ap de mare al
rcitorului de ulei de ungere i rcitorul de
ap tehnic, sau este descrcat peste bord,
temperatura sa crescnd cu aproximativ
6C.
Ejectorul cu ap pentru aer menine
vacuumul nveliului generatorului de ap
tehnic. Apa de mare venind de la pompa
ejectoarelor o parte antreneaz ejectorul
pentru ap, iar o parte alimenteaz cu ap
schimbtorul de cldur (vaporizatorul) i
antreneaz ejectorul cu ap pentru
descrcarea saramurii.
Apa de alimentare trece prin filtru,
valvula armat cu arc, rsufltorul apei de
alimentare pn cnd ajunge la capacul
inferior al schimbtorului de cldur
(vaporizatorului). n timp ce trece prin
tuburile de nclzire, este nclzit de apa
tehnic de rcire a motorului (60-65C) i
este vaporizat sub vacuum ridicat care
ajunge la 70.5 cm Hg. Vas (la aproximativ
40C).
Deflectorul separ stropii fini de
ap de mare de vaporii generai care
ptrund n condensator. Stropii de ap de
mare i apa de mare neevaporat
(saramura) sunt absorbite n afara corpului
separatorului i descrcate n afara navei de
ctre ejectorul pentru descrcat saramur.
Vaporii generai, condensai de ctre apa
de mare ce curge prin evile de rcire ale
condensatorului, se transform n ap
tehnic i este trimis de ctre pompa de
ap tehnic in tancul de ap tehnic instalat
la nav.
Cnd salinitatea n apa produs
depete 10 p.p.m. electrovalva de pe
calea refulrii pompei de ap tehnic este
acionat de ctre indicatorul de salinitate
i returneaz automat apa ctre corpul
separatorului. Cnd puritatea apei produse
satisface standardele (e sub 10 p.p.m.) este
automat introdus n tancul de ap tehnic.
cooling water circulation system, with its
temperature reduced by 5-10C.

The cooling seawater of the
condenser, lead from the discharge side of
the seawater pump, flows through the
cooling tubes to condense the vapor
generated outside the tubes. It returns to the
cooling seawater system of the lubricating
oil cooler and the fresh water cooler, or it is
discharged overboard, its temperature
having risen about 6C.

The water ejector for air maintains
the fresh water generator shell vacuum.
The sea water coming from the ejector
pump partly drives the water ejector for air
and partly feeds water to the heat
exchanger and drives the water ejector for
brine discharge.

The feed water passes through the
filter, the spring loaded valve, the feed
water orifice, until it flows in the bottom
cover of the heat exchanger. While passing
to the heating tubes, it is heated with the
engine cooling fresh water (60-65C) and it
is evaporated under a high vacuum that
reaches 70.5 cm Hg. Vas (at about 40C).


The deflector separates fine drops
of seawater from the generated vapor
which flows into the condenser. Separated
seawater drops and unevaporated seawater
(brine) are sucked out of the separator shell
and discharged outside the vessel by the
water ejector for brine discharge. The
generated vapor, condensed by the
seawater flowing through the cooling tubes
of the condenser, turns into fresh water and
is led by the fresh water pump to the fresh
water tank installed in the vessel.

When the salinity in the produced
water exceeds 10 p.p.m., the solenoid valve in
the fresh water pump outlet line is activated
by the salinity indicator and automatically
returns the water to the separator shell. Wen
the purity of the water produced meets
standards (below 10 p.pm.) it is automatically
fed into the fresh water tank.

196
Capitolul 28
Instalaia de tratare biologic a
apelor uzate
Unit 28
Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

5 6
7
14
8
9
1 2 3 4
12
13
18
19
17
20
15
16
10
11



1. Camera preliminar
2. Camera de activare (aerare) a
reziduurilor, nmolului
3. Camer de decantare
4. Camer de clorinare
5. WC-uri
6. Pioare
7. Valvul unisens
8. Compresoare
9. Presostat
10. Duuri i czi de baie
11. Chiuvete
12. Electrovalv
13. Valvul cu membran
14. Filtru
15. Dozator
16. Indicator de nivel
17. Pomp de descrcare
18. Pomp de circulaie
19. Pahar de laborator
20. Spre santin
21. Valvul dreapt

1. Preliminary chamber
2. Activated sludge (aerating) chamber

3. Sedimentation chamber
4. Chlorinating chamber
5. WC scuppers
6. Urinals
7. Non-return valve
8. Compressors
9. Pressure gauge
10. Showers and bathtubs
11. Wash/hand basin (wash bow)
12. Solenoid valve
13. Diaphragm valve
14. Strainer
15. Batcher
16. Float switch
17. Discharge pump
18. Circulating pump
19. Beaker
20. To bilge
21. Straight through Valve

Fig. 28.1

197
Instalaia de tratare a apelor uzate
este destinat neutralizrii materiei fecale
i apelor uzate sanitare ce se produc pe
nav. n concordan cu Convenia
MARPOL materia fecal este denumit
ap uzat neagr n timp ce apele uzate
sanitare sunt numite ap uzat gri. Acest
tip de instalaie de tratare a apelor uzate
poate fi montat pe nave cu arie de
croazier nelimitat i funcioneaz ntr-un
mod complet automatizat.
Funcionarea instalaiei de tratare
biologic a apelor uzate se bazeaz pe
procesele biologice care au loc n camera
biologic. Procesul de tratare a apelor uzate
folosete efectul natural al procesului
autopurificrii apelor uzate, datorat
microorganismelor, n special bacteriilor
aerobe, care transform substana organic
n alte microorganisme i dioxid de carbon.

Motivul principal pentru instalarea
instalaiei pe nav este de a feri apele
litoralurilor sau altor acvatorii protejate de
MARPOL sau alte reglementri mpotriva
polurii cu ape uzate.
Instalaia poate fi folosit pentru
tratarea apelor uzate ce se produc la
buctria navei i pentru dezinfectarea
apelor uzate sanitare.
Pentru funcionare, instalaia de
tratare a apelor uzate utilizeaz procesul
biologic natural al descompunerii materiei
fecale de ctre bacteriile aerobe. Apele
uzate sunt aerate n camera apelor uzate
activate apoi transferate ntr-un tanc de
decantare. Sedimentele colectate n camer
ct i spuma de pe suprafaa sunt
recirculate pentru o descompunere
suplimentar n camera apelor uzate
activate. Apele uzate purificate sunt
direcionate n camera de clorinare pentru
dezinfectare.
Clorul este utilizat n tratarea apei
pentru dezinfectare, prevenirea i
distrugerea mirosurilor i nlturarea
culorii.
n timp ce principala sa utilizare
este ca mecanism dezinfectant, aciunea sa
bactericid este nesigur. Este probabil s
distrug enzimele extracelulare ale
celulelor bacteriilor i este posibil ca el s
treac totui prin pereii celulelor pentru a
ataca sistemele intracelulare. Eficiena
The sewage treatment plant is
designated for neutralization of fecal
matter and sanitary sewage arising on
ships. According to MARPOL Convention,
fecal matter is named black sewage
while sanitary sewage is named gray
sewage. This kind of sewage plant can be
mounted on the ship of unlimited cruising
area and runs in a fully automatic mode.


The operation of the biological
sewage treatment plant is based on the
biological processes taking place in the
biological chamber. The sewage treatment
process utilizes the natural effect of sewage
self-cleaning process owing to micro-
organisms, specially to the aerobic
bacteria, which transform organic
substance into other micro-organisms and
carbon dioxide.
The main reason to install the plant
on the ship is to guard the coastal sea water
and other water areas protected by
MARPOL or by other regulations against
polluting with sewage.
The plant can also be used for
biological treatment of sewage arising in
the galley and for disinfecting of sanitary
sewage
For its operation, the sewage
treatment plant utilizes the natural
biological process of fecal matter
decomposition by aerobic bacteria. The
sewage is aerated in the activated sludge
chamber and then transferred into the
setting tank. The setting collected in the
chamber as well as the surface scum are
recirculated for additional decomposition
into the activated sludge chamber. The
purified sludge is directed into the
chlorination chamber for disinfection.

Chlorine is used in water treatment
for disinfection, prevention and destruction
of odors and color removal.

While its principal use is as a
disinfectant mechanism, its bactericidal
action is uncertain. It is likely that chlorine
destroys the extracellular enzymes of the
bacterial cells, and possible that it might
actually pass through the cell wall to attack
intracellular systems. The bactericidal
198
bactericid a clorului este redus prin
creterea valorilor pH-ului i temperaturii.
Clorul este un element foarte activ
i cnd este adugat n ap ca element liber
sau ca rezultat al altor reacii chimice,
acesta se va combina cu materia organic i
anorganic i va oxida ali compui
anorganici.
Clorul liber disponibil reacioneaz
cu amoniacul i multe amine organice
pentru a forma cloraminele.
Clorul n ap n combinaii chimice
cu amoniacul i ali compui cu azot care
modific gradul de aciune bactericid este
cunoscut drept clor combinat disponibil.
Cererea apei este diferena dintre cantitatea
rezidual de clor prezent, fie n stare
liber fie combinat, dup o anumit
perioad de timp.

Apele uzate sanitare (apele uzate
gri) sunt vrsate direct n aceast camer.
Dezinfectarea este realizat prin
intermediul soluiei de hipoclorit de sodiu
(NaOCl). Nava trebuie echipat cu un
sistem separat de tubulaturi pentru ambele
tipuri de ape uzate, fecale i sanitare.

Componentele principale ale
instalaiei sunt dup cum urmeaz:

Elementul principal al instalaiei este
corpul din oel laminat divizat n
urmtoarele patru camere:
- camera preliminar
- camera de activare a reziduurilor,
nmolului
- camera de decantare
- camera de clorinare
De asemenea instalaia mai cuprinde
urmtoarele instalaii:
- Tubulaturile de ap uzat i pompele:
- ramura de circulaie cu pompa de
circulaie, filtru, indicator de
presiune, valva plat;
- circuitul de evacuare cu pompa de
evacuare, indicator de presiune,
robinet pentru luat mostre de ap
uzat pompat peste bord i valvule;
- Sistemul de aer comprimat cu compresoarele:
- dou compresoare nelubrefiate;
- tubulatur de colectare cu indicator
de presiune, conectat prin robinete
de separare de refulrile
efficiency of chlorine is reduced by
increased pH values and low temperatures.
Chlorine is a very active element
and when added to water as free, or as
result of other chemical reactions, chlorine
will combine with organic and inorganic
matter and oxidize some organic and
inorganic compounds.
Free available chlorine reacts with
ammonia and many organic amines to form
chloramines.
The Chlorine in water, in chemical
combination with ammonia or other
nitrogenous compounds which modify its
rate of bactericidal action, is known as the
combined available chlorine. The chlorine
demand of water is the difference between
the amount of chlorine present as residual,
either free or combined, after some
designated period.
The sanitary sewage (gray
sewage) is fed directly into this chamber.
The disinfection is obtained by means of a
sodium hypochlorite solution (NaOCl).
The ship should be equipped with separate
piping system for both fecal and sanitary
sewage.

The main components of the plant
are as follows:

The basic element of the plant is the
steel sheet made body divided into the
following four chambers:
- preliminary chamber
- activated sludge (aerating) chamber

- sedimentation chamber
- chlorinating chamber
The plant also comprises following
installations:
- Sewage pipework with pumps:
- circulating branch with circulating
pump, strainer, pressure gauge,
diaphragm valve;
- discharge circuit with discharge
pump, pressure gauge and cock for
sampling the sewage pumped
outboard and valves;
- Compressed air system with compressors:
- two oil-free compressors;
- collecting pipe with pressure gauge,
connected by shutoff cocks with the
outlets of both compressors;
199
compresoarelor;
- tubulatur cu valvule pentru distribuirea
aerului comprimat elementelor
individuale;
- sistem de tubulaturi cu supape de
reinere protejnd compresoarele
mpotriva necrii, furniznd aer
comprimat duzelor de aerare i
ejectoarelor;
- dou electrovalve cu trei ci
-Sistemul electric cu panoul de comand



- piping with valves for distributing
the compressed air to the individual
items;
- piping system with a check valve
protecting the compressors against
flooding, supplying compressed air to
the aeration nozzles and ejectors;

- two three-way solenoid valves
- Electric system with control panel






199
Capitolul 29
Crma i maina crmei
Unit 29
The Rudder and the Steering Gear



2
3 9
16
18
4
6
5
14
15
10
8
7
12
13
12
1

Fig. 29.1

1. Valvul dreapt
2. Ventil de nchidere (supap obtura-
toare)
3. Valv de siguran
4. Valv cu contragreutate cu blocare a
pendulului
5. Sertar de distribuie cu trei poziii,
patru ci cu acionare manual i
electric i revenire cu arc (revenire
mecanic)
6. Sertar de distribuie cu dou poziii i
patru ci cu revenire cu arc
7. Sertar de distribuie (valv electromag-
netic) cu dou poziii, patru ci i
revenire cu arc
8. Indicator de poziie al crmei
9. Echea crmei

1. Straight valve
2. Shut-off valve

3. Safety valve
4. Counter-balance valve with break
release shuttle valve
5. Spring loaded three position, four
connection manual-solenoid slide
valve

6. Spring loaded two position four
connection, slide valve
7. Spring loaded two position, four
connection, solenoid valve

8. Rudder position indicator
9. Rudder tiller

200


10. Indicator de presiune
11. Rcitor de ulei cu aer
12. Indicator de fluiditate
13. Filtru de ulei
14. Pomp de umplere acionat manual
15. Pomp cu volum fix
16. Tija pistonului
17. Orificiul axului crmei
18. Cilindru hidraulic (motor hidraulic
liniar)
10. Pressure gauge
11. Air oil cooler
12. Pouring meter
13. Oil strainer
14. Manual operated refilling pump
15. Pump, single fixed displacement
16. Piston rod
17. Ruder stock hole
18. Hydraulic cylinder

Maina crmei (mpreun cu crma)
pe lng motorul principal este unul dintre
cele mai importante dispozitive ale navei,
care asigur funcionarea n siguran a
navei. Acest dispozitiv ndeplinete
urmtoarele sarcini de baz:
- ine cursul drept al navei
- schimb cursul pentru a manevra nava.


Clasificarea crmelor
Crmele pot fi clasificate dup
urmtoarele criterii:
Dup modul de asamblare a penei
crmei cu corpul navei:
- crm simpl
- crm semisuspendat
- crm suspendat


Dup poziia axului crmei fa de
muchia de atac:
- crm necompensat

- crm insuficient compensat
- crm semicompensat
- crm compensat

- crm supracompensat
Dup forma geometric a seciunii
longitudinal-orizontale:
- crm plat
- crm carenat (cu profil
hidrodinamic)
Dup poziia de amplasare la corpul
navei:
- crm central
The steering gear (with the attached
rudder) besides the main engine is one of
the most important ship device that ensures
the ship operational safety. This device
performs the following two basic tasks:

- keeps the right course of the ship,
- changes course of the ship in order to
maneuver it.

Rudder classification
Rudders can be classified by the
following criterions:
By the mode the ruder blade is
assembled with the ships hull:
- ordinary rudder
- partially underhung rudder
- suspended/ hanged/ hanging/
underhung rudder, (spade)-type
rudder
By the rudder stock position relative to
entering edge:
- unbalanced rudder, door-type
rudder, ordinary rudder
- underbalanced ruder
- semi-suspended/underhang rudder
- (full)-balanced rudder, equipoised
rudder
- overbalanced rudder
By the rudder blade shape:

- center-plate rudder, flat-plate rudder
- streamlined/ hydrofoil/ fariform
rudder
By the position on the ships hull:

- middle rudder
201
- crm lateral
- crm orizontal prova (la
submarine)
- crm orizontal prova (la
submarine)

- crm prova
- crm vertical (la submarine)

- crm vertical superioar(la
submarine)
Dup scopul ndeplinit:
- crm principal
- crm de asiet (la submarine)
- crm de guvernare
- crm de reducere a apuprii
- crm de avarie
- crm suplimentar de manevr
Dup numrul de safrane:
- crm cu un singur safran
- crm cu dou safrane
- crm cu trei safrane
- crm cu mai multe safrane
Dup construcie:
- crm compensat reactiv
- crm cu adaos
- crm cu arip
- crm cu aripioar
- crm cu balamale
- crm cu bordaj metalic
- crm cu bulb
- crm cu consol
- crm cu ghidaj
- crm cu contraghidaj
- crm cu elice
- crm cu jet
- crm cu pene verticale
- crm cu spaiu ntre bordaje
- crm din lemn
- crm n tunel orientabil
- crm reactiv
- crm reversibil

Echipament mecanic
- quarter/ side rudder
- bow/ forward plane (at submarines)

- after hydroplane/ plane, stern diving
plane, stern plane/ fin (at
submarines)
- bow/ auxiliary rudder
- steering/ vertical rudder(at
submarines)
- dorsal rudder

By the action that they perform:
- main ruder
- trimming plane (at submarines)
- steering rudder
- lifting rudder
- jury rudder
- manoeuvring rudder
By the number of blades
- ordinary rudder
- twin rudder
- triple-bladed rudder
- multi(ple)-blade rudder
By construction:
- balanced reaction rudder
- salmon tail
- flapped rudder
- flapped fin/ruder flap-type rudder
- hinged rudder
- side-plate rudder
- bulb rudder
- horn rudder
- nozzle rudder
- contra (-guide) rudder
- steerable propeller, rudder propeller
- jetavator
- kitchen rudder
- hollow ruder
- wooden rudder
- box/ bucket type rudder
- reaction rudder, jetavator
- kitchen rudder

Mechanical equipment
203
Acionarea crmei este fcut
hidraulic n timp ce controlul micrii ei
este fcut electrohidraulic.
Maina crmei este alctuit din
urmtoarele pri:
a) partea motorului hidraulic cu
urmtoarele elemente:
- echea crmei
- doi cilindri hidraulici (motoare
hidraulice liniare)
b) dou uniti de acionare, fiecare din
ele coninnd:
- tanc de circulaie ulei
- dispozitiv de pompare
- bloc cu valve
- rcitor de ulei cu aer
c) tanc de pstrare ulei

Echipament electric

Echipamentul electric este menit s
funcioneze mpreun cu maina electro-
hidraulic a crmei. Acest sistem permite
separarea circuitelor hidraulice principale
n cazul cderii unuia dintre circuite.
Acest sistem este alctuit din:
- dou tablouri de alimentare
- un panou de semnalizare i control

- un panou de semnalizare pentru
Punctul de Comand i Control
(PCC)

Instruciuni de exploatare

Fiecare dintre pompe are propriile
sisteme hidraulic i electric de control
independente. Exist dou moduri de a
orienta crma la nav primul, de pe punte
iar al doilea, din camera mainii crmei
prin intermediul distribuitoarelor de control
cu prghie. Sistemul permite urmtoarele
posibiliti de control ale mainii crmei:

a) Comanda de la distan
- cu sincronizare prin intermediul
timonei
- fr sincronizare prin intermediul
butoanelor sau controlerelor cu prghii
(micarea crmei are loc pn la
ntreruperea manual a funcionrii)
Rudder driving is performed
hydraulically while its movement control is
carried out electrohydraulically.
The steering gear consists of the
following units:
a) rudder actuator unit with main
elements such as:
- rudder tiller
- two hydraulic cylinders

b) two independent drive units, each of
them containing:
- oil circulation tank
- pump unit
- valve block
- air oil cooler
c) oil storage tank

Electrical equipment

The electrical system is intended to
co-operate with the electrohydraulic
steering gear. This system enables the
separation of the main hydraulic circuits in
case of failure in one of the circuits.
This system consists of:
- two supply-power boxes
- one signaling and control panel
bridge
- one signaling panel for Engine
Control Room (ECR)


Operating instructions

Each of the pumps has its
independent hydraulic and electrical
control system. There are two ways of
rudder deflection control in the ship first,
from the bridge and second, from the
steering gear room by means of the control
slide levers. The following steering gear
control possibilities are provided by the
system:
a) Remote control
- follow-up by means of the steering
wheel
- non-follow-up by means of buttons or
lever controller (rudder movement is
carried on until interrupting manual
control operation)
204
- automat prin intermediul pilotului
automat.
b) Comand local (n compartimentul
mainii crmei)
n cazul controlului local prin
intermediul butoanelor i prghiilor de
control a distribuitoarelor electromagnetice
(cnd comanda de la distan este
funcional) este necesar s se deconecteze
circuitul de comand de la distan de la
tabloul de alimentare. Poziia curent este
indicat de indicatorul de poziie al crmei.





Mod de funcionare

Maina crmei se poate afla n unul
din cele trei moduri de operare n timpul
exploatrii:
a) Funcionare de baz, adic o pomp
lucreaz cu doi cilindrii hidraulici,
aceasta este funcionarea normal.
Pompele trebuie schimbate la fiecare
24 ore.
b) Funcionarea de avarie, nsemnnd c
o pomp lucreaz cu un cilindru
hidraulic care i aparine. n general,
viteza navei trebuie sczut pentru a
nu crete presiunea nominal n
instalaia hidraulic.
c) Funcionarea n paralel, este o
funcionare special a mainii crmei:
dou pompe i doi cilindri
funcioneaz simultan. Funcionarea
simultan a ambelor pompe este
permis n zonele unde Autoritile
Administrative cer acest tip de
funcionare.

NOT
Funcionarea cu dou pompe i un singur
cilindru NU ESTE permis!

Procedura de pornire

Pornirea instalaiei mainii crmei
depinde de pornirea oricrui motor electric
al unitii conductoare. n cazul cnd
unitatea 1 lucreaz, unitatea 2 trebuie s fie
n starea ateptare (prin apsarea
- automatic by means of an automatic
pilot.
b) Local control (at the steering gear
room)
In case of local control by means of
buttons or control levers of the solenoid
directional control slide valves (when the
remote control is normally efficient) it is
required to disconnect the remote control
circuit at the power switchboard. Actual
rudder position is indicated on the rudder
position indicator.





Operating mode

The steering gear may be in one of
three operation modes during its
exploitation, i.e.
a) Basic operation, meaning one pump
works two hydraulic cylinders, that is
normal work. Pumps should be
switched over every 24 hours.

b) Emergency operation, i.e. one pump
works with one hydraulic cylinder
belonging to it. Generally the speed of
the ship should be decreased in order
to not exceed the nominal pressure of
hydraulic installation.
c) Additional operation, is a special kind
of steering gear operation: two pumps
and two hydraulic cylinders operate
simultaneously. Simultaneous
operation of both pumps is permissible
in areas where Administration
Authorities require such kind of
operation.

NOTE
The work of two pumps with one cylinder
IS NOT permissible!

Starting procedure

Switching-on the steering gear for
basic operation depends on switching-on
any electric motor of the drive unit. In case
of the drive unit 1 working, the drive unit 2
should be on stand-by mode (by pushing
205
butonului ATEPTARE n zona unitii 2 a
tabloului de comand pe panoul de control
de punte). Aceasta permite funcionarea
sistemului automat n cazul n care vreo
defeciune intervine n unitatea care
lucreaz, unitatea aflat n starea
ateptare va pornii automat. Acest tip de
controlare a mainii crmei este rcit ca la
funcionare cuplat i mai mult acesta este
optimul din punct de vedere a siguranei
funcionrii.

Oprirea pe termen scurt
(maina crmei este gata s funcioneze)
Aceast procedur de oprire const
n oprirea ambelor motoare ale unitii de
for.

Oprirea pe termen lung
(ex. reparaia capital a mainii crmei)
Acest mod de oprire a mainii
crmei const n oprirea ambelor motoare
de lucru ale unitii de for i ntreruperea
alimentrii cu energie.

Cuvinte suplimentare:

Tancul de pstrare ulei
Niplu de ungere
Echea crmei
Tija pistonului
Ventil de aer
Orificiul axului crmei

Unitatea de for(conductoare)
Valv de golire
Indicator nivel ulei
Filtru de ulei
Supapa de siguran principal
Valv electromagnetic
Mnerul valvei de nchidere
Motorul electric al pompei principale
Indicatoare de nivel sczut i foarte sczut

Rcitorul de ulei cu aer
Valv de nchidere
Supap de reglare a debitului
Termostat
Indicator de presiune
Rcitor
Motorul electric al ventilatorului
Ventilator

Blocul de valvule al cilindrilor hidraulici
the button STAND-BY at the field of the
drive unit 2 of the control box on the
bridge control panel). This enables the
functioning of the automatic system in
the event that any fault occurs in the
working drive unit in the stand-by mode
shall start working automatically. This state
of steering gear controlling is cooled as in
coupled work and moreover, it is
optimum on the operational safety side.


Short-term stopping procedure
(steering gear is still ready to operate)
This way of steering gear stopping
procedure depends on switching-off both
electric motors of drive units.

Long-term stopping procedure
(e.g. overhaul of steering gear)
This kind of steering gear stopping
procedure consists of switching off both
working electric motors of drive unit and
cutting off power supply.

Additional words:

Oil storage reservoir
Grease nipple
Rudder tiller
Piston rod
Vent valve
Rudder stock hole

Drive unit
Drain valve
Oil level indicator
Oil filter
Main safety valve
Solenoid valve
Cut-off valve handwheel
Main pump electric motor
Low and very low level indicators

Air oil cooler
Cut-off valve
Throttle valve
Thermostat
Pressure gauge
Cooler
Fan electric motor
Fan

Hydraulic cylinder valve block
206
Tija pistonului
Cilindru hidraulic
Valv de siguran
Valv de ocolire

Supapa pilot direcional controlat
electromagnetic
Carcasa treptei principale (a
distribuitorului)
Traductor inductiv de poziie marginal al
valvei
Blocul valvulelor de reglare
Suprareglare manual pentru a schimba
starea pilotului mecanic
Bobina valvei pilot
Carcasa treptei pilot


Tabloul de distribuie / msurare i control
Alimentare
Semnalizare de control
Pompa funcioneaz
nclzire
ntreruptorul principal
ntreruptorul pentru nclzire
Mod de funcionare pomp:
- Oprit
- Local
- La distan
Temperatur ulei
Confirmarea alarmei
Filtru de ulei nfundat
Comanda de la distan deconectat
Funcionarea ventilatorului:
- Oprit
- Automat
- Pornit

Panoul de comand de punte
Alimentare pomp
Pompa funcioneaz
Avarie
Suprasarcin
Separarea circuitelor hidraulice
Fr faz
Nivelul de ulei sczut
Ateptare
Confirmarea alarmei
Verificare semnalizri
Comutare comand de la distan
Piston rod
Hydraulic cylinder
Relief valve
By-pass valve

Pilot operated solenoid controlled
directional valve
Main stage spool

Inductive sensing element of marginal
main valve position
Adjustment valve block
Manual override to shift pilot stage
mechanically
Pilot valve coil
Pilot stage spool


Power switchboard
Supply
Control signaling
Pump run
Heating
Main switch
Heating switch
Pump operation
- Off
- Local
- Remote
Oil temperature
Alarm confirmation
Oil filter fouled
Remote control disconnection
Fan operation:
- Off
- Auto
- On

Bridge control panel
Pump supply
Pump run
Failure
Overload
Hydraulic circuits separation
No phase
Low level oil
Stand-by
Alarm confirmation
Lamp test
Remote drive switching


207
Capitolul 30
Tancuri la bordul navei
Unit 30
Tanks on Board of Ship














1. Tanc
2. Valvul de golire
3. Serpentin de nclzire
4. Aerisire
5. Indicator de nivel
6. Tubulatur de umplere
7. Tav pentru scurgeri
1. Tank
2. Drain valve
3. Heating coil
4. Air vent
5. Level gauge
6. Refill piping
8. Leaking tray

Instalaia de balast
Tanc de balast lateral superior
Tanc de balast dublu fund
Picul prova
Picul pupa

Combustibil greu
Tanc de combustibil dublu fund
Tanc prea plin combustibil
Tanc rezerv combustibil greu
Tanc decantare
Tanc filtru
Tanc serviciul combustibil greu
Tanc serviciu combustibil caldarin
Recipient amestec combustibil

Motorin
Tanc rezerv motorin
Tanc decantare motorin
Tanc serviciu motorin
Tanc serviciu motorin pentru D.G.
Rezervor motorina pentru caldarin.


Ulei
Tanc ulei circulaie
Tanc ulei lucrat
Tanc rezerv ulei cilindri
Tanc rezerv ulei D.G.

Ballast system
Upper side ballast tank
Double bottom ballast tank
Fore peak
Aft peak

Heavy fuel
Double bottom fuel tank
Over full tank
Store H.F. tank
Settling tank
Filter tank
Daily H.F. service tank for
Daily service tank for boiler
Mixing tank

Diesel fuel
Store diesel fuel tank
Settling diesel fuel tank
Daily service tank
Daily service tank for auxiliary engines
Boiler diesel oil tank


Lubricating Oil
Circulation oil tank
Used oil tank
Cylinder store tank
Auxiliary engines store tank
1

2

3

4

5

7

6

Fig. 30.1

208
Tanc rezerv ulei compresoare
Tanc rezerv ulei ungere
Tanc ulei servicii generale
Tanc petrol
Tanc serviciul ulei D.G.
Tanc amestecare ulei anticoroziv
Tanc decantare ulei D.G.
Rezervor ulei anticoroziv
Tanc expansiune instalaie de ungere tub
etambou
Tanc rezerv ulei cilindrii
Tanc control ulei cilindrii

Ap dulce
Tanc rezerv ap dulce
Tanc ap potabil
Tanc expansiune ap cilindrii M.P.
Tanc expansiune ap cilindrii D.G.
Tanc expansiune ap rcire pistoane M.P.
Tanc ap sanitar
Hidrofor ap sanitar
Hidrofor ap potabil
Tanc expansiune injectoare
Rezervor ap comand separator

Scurgeri
Tanc scurgeri preaplin ulei
Tanc scurgeri ap dulce
Tanc scurgeri separator santin
Tanc scurgeri sanitare
Tanc scurgeri separator ulei
Tanc scurgeri sanitare
Tanc scurgeri punte principal i
intermediar
Tanc scurgeri ulei M.P.
Tanc scurgeri buctrie i compartimentul
frigorific
Rezervor scurgeri tricloretilen
Tanc scurgeri ulei ungere tub etambou.

Tancuri diverse
Tanc control condens
Boiler ap sanitar
Tanc curire chimic
Compartimentul loch
Baa cald


Compressor store tank
Store tank
Service oil tank
Petroleum tank
Daily service tank for auxiliary engines
Anticorrosion mixing oil tank
D.G. oil settling tank
Anticorrosion oil tank
Stern tube lubricating oil expansion tank

Cylinder lubricating oil storage tank
Cylinder lubricating oil control tank

Fresh water
Store tank
Drinking water tank
Main engine cylinder expansion tank
D.G. cylinder expansion tank
Main engine pistons water expansion tank
Sanitary water tank
Sanitary water hidrophore tank
Drinking water hidrophore tank
Injection expansion tank
Operation tank for fuel oil separator.

Drains
Lubricating oil over full drain tank
Fresh water drain tank
Bilge generator drain tank
Sanitary sludge tank
Lubricating oil separator drain tank
Sanitary drains tank
Main and intermediate deck drain tank

Main engine lubricating oil drain tank
Galley and cooling provision rooms drain
tank
Ethylene trichloride tank
Stern tube lubricating oil drain tank

Miscellaneous tanks
Condensate control tank
Sanitary water boiler
Chemical coolers cleaning tank
Loch room
Hot well


209
Capitolul 31
Alte echipamente
Unit 31
Other Equipment

Crlig de remorcare
Se utilizeaz n cadrul instalaiei de
remorcare a navei.

Frn linie de arbori
Se utilizeaz pentru blocarea arborilor port
elice din instalaiile de propulsie ale
navelor maritime i fluviale n caz de
avarie.

Lagre radiale pentru linia de arbori
Lagrele radiale sunt destinate sprijinirii
arborilor intermediari din instalaiile de
propulsie ale navelor maritime i fluviale
de toate tipurile i categoriile.

Cuplaj elastic
Este utilizat pentru cuplarea arborilor
coaxiali cu diametre ntre 16mm i 180
mm, n lanuri cinematice n care n
vecintatea cuplajului se afl o transmisie
prin curea permind schimbarea curelei
prin spaiul liber creat ntre suprafaa
frontal a semicuplajelor la demontarea
uruburilor.

Instalaie grui brci salvare
Se utilizeaz pentru lansarea la ap i
aducerea la post a brcilor de salvare la
navele maritime i fluviale.

Vinci barc de salvare
Este utilizat pentru acionarea gruielor
brcilor de salvare pentru lsarea la ap i
aducerea la post a brcilor de salvare la
navele maritime i fluviale. Este suspendat
cu prindere pe piciorul gruiei i este
proiectat s asigure viteza minim de
ridicare i fora la tambur. Este compus
din:
- rotor electric de acionare
- reductor cu roi dinate
- frn centrifugal
- tambur

Cabestan de manevr
Se folosete n cadrul instalaiilor de
manevr i legare a navelor maritime i
fluviale.
Caracteristici principale:
- fora nominal de traciune
- viteza nominal de virare
- viteza de virare n gol
Towing hook
It is used in the ship towing system.


Shaft line brake
It is used for stopping the propeller shafts
in the propelling systems of river and
seagoing ships in case of emergency.


Radial Bearings for Shaft Line
Radial bearings are destined for supporting
the intermediate shafts in propelling
systems of river and seagoing ships of all
types and categories.

Flexible clutch
It is used for line shafts coupling having
diameters between 16 and 180 mm, in
kinematic chains where there is a belt drive
allowing belt changing by the free space
between the front surface of half couples
on bolts removal.



Life boat davit system
It is used for lowering at water level and
setting into running position of life boats
on river and seagoing ships.

Life boat winch
It is used for driving life boat davits for
lowering and setting into running position
of life boats provided on river and sea
going ships. It is suspended with fastening
on the davit base and it is designed to
ensure the minimum hoisting speed and
drum force . It is composed from:

- driving electric motor
- reduction gear
- centrifugal brake
- drum

Waping capstan
It is used in mooring systems of river and
seagoing ships.

Main characteristics:
- nominal tensile force
- hauling rated speed
- idle having speed
210
Vinci de ancor i manevr
Este folosit n cadrul instalaiilor de
ancorare al navelor maritime i este
destinat operaiilor de manevr, acostare i
plecare de la cheu.

Stop cu rol i cuit
Se utilizeaz pe nav n cadrul instalaiei
de ancor i are ca scop blocarea lanului
ntr-o anumit poziie pentru a evita o
solicitare prea mare a vinciului. Alte tipuri
de stope:
- stop cu urub
- stop cu cuit
- stop cu rol i cuit sudate

Dispozitiv pentru eliberarea rapid a
lanului cu crlig
Se utilizeaz pe navele de suprafa de
toate categoriile n scopul fixrii i
declanrii captului lanului din pu n
situaia cnd ancora trebuie abandonat.

Pod rulant cu bra culisant
Se utilizeaz pentru transportul diverselor
piese i subansamble grele n
compartimentul maini de la bordul
navelor maritime i fluviale.
Se compune din:
- crucior longitudinal
- crucior transversal
- reductor

Amortizor contra vibraiilor
Amortizorul contra vibraiilor se utilizeaz
la stabilizarea conductelor de evacuare a
gazelor, instalaiilor navale cu tubulaturi de
abur i aer la bordul navelor maritime i
fluviale.

Pornitor magnetic nerevesibil
Se utilizeaz pentru pornirea direct a
motoarelor asincrone trifazate cu rotor n
scurtcircuit care se amplaseaz n
compartimente i spaii cu grad de protecie
IP 54.
Aparat de punere n paralel a
alternatoarelor
Se utilizeaz pentru sincronizarea manual
a generatoarelor sincrone trifazate n
vederea cuplrii la bare a acestora.

Aparat pentru controlul izolaiei
Este destinat supravegherii permanente a
rezistenei a reelelor electrice navale
trifazate cu nul izolat.
Anchor and maneuvering windlass
It is used on anchor gear of seagoing ships
and it is designed for manoeuvre, mooring
and departure operations.


Roller and dog stopper
It is used on board of ship within the
anchor gear system and it is intended for
blocking the chain in a certain position as
to avoid too much stressing on the
windlass. Other types of stoppers:
- screw stopper
- dog stopper
- welded roller and dog stopper

Hook chain quick releasing device

It is used on surface ships of all categories
to secure and let go of the end of the chain
arranged in the chain well if ever the
anchor must be abandoned.

Overhead crane with sliding boom
It is used for carrying different parts, heavy
subunits in the engine room on board of
river and seagoing ships.

It consists of :
- longitudinal carriage
- transversal carriage
- reduction gear

Vibration damper
The vibration damper is used for stabilizing
gas exhaust pipes, steam and air marine
piping systems on board of river and
seagoing ships.


Non reversing magnetic starter
It is used for direct starts of three phased
asynchronous motors with short circuited
impeller arranged in rooms and spaces with
IP 54 protection.

Parallel connection device for alternators

It is used for manual synchronization of
three phase synchronous generators for
their coupling to bars.

Apparatus for insulation control
It is designed to permanently check the
insulation resistance of the three phased
marine electrical network with insulated zero.

211
Capitolul 32
Ali termeni
Unit 32
Other Terms


Accesorii maini

Bidon vaselin
Can de luat probe de ap caldarin
Can de uns supap
Can de uns cu cioc scurt
Lad pentru scule
Lad metalic
Cutie metalic pentru spun
Cutie etan pentru bumbac mbibat
Cap primire produse petroliere
Foale de mn
Plnie cu sit
Perie de curat tuburi
Platou de lemn
Cheie pentru ridicarea produselor petroliere
Siring de priuit cioc drept
Siring de priuit cioc ndoit
Trus de scule pentru evi

Accesorii electrotehnic radio

Creion indicator de joas tensiune
Voltmetru
Ampermetru
comutator voltmetric (cheie voltmetric)
Lamp de control n cutie
Lamp soare
Ciocan de lipit drept
Ciocan de lipit n col
Ciocan de lipit cu vrf schimbabil
Ciocan de lipit electric
Mner cu revenire
Oal de topit cositor
Indicator de succesiunea fazelor (portabil)
Clete pentru extras sigurane tubulare
urubelni cu prindere a urubului
Penar

Ali termeni electrotehnici

Tensiune de serviciu
Tensiunea de alimentare
Tensiune nominal
Tensiuni de verificare
Curent nominal
Curentul maxim
Putere instalat
Puterea absorbit


Machine accessories

Vaseline con
Water dumping con
Valve lubricating con
Short pipe lubricating con
Tools box
Metal box
Soap metallic box
Valves keys
Receiving cap for petroleum product
Bellows
Funnel with seize
Tubes striping brush
Wooden plate
Key for mobile panels lifting
Lubricating syringe right nozzle
Lubricating syringe bent nozzle
Tool set for pipes

Radio electro-technical accessories

Voltage indicator pencil
Voltmeter
Ammeter
Voltmeter switch
Control lamp in box
Cargo cluster lamp
Soldering iron
Angle soldering iron
Soldering iron whit changeable end
Electric soldering iron
Collapsible handle
Soldering crucible
Phase sequence indicator (portable)
Tube fuses tongs
Screwdriver with screw fastening
Pencil box

Other electro-technical term

Service voltage
Supply voltage
Rated voltage
Test voltages
Rated current
Maximum current
Installed capacity
Absorbed power
212
Precizia de msurare
Poziia de montare
Grad de protecie
Temperatura ambientului
Frecven
Microntreruptor
ntreruptor pachet tripolar
ntreruptor automat USOL
ntreruptor cumpn
Comutator cu came
Buton de acionare
Buton de comand protejat
Buton cu lamp
Contactor tripolar
Siguran fuzibil
Siguran automat
Siguran minion
Releu termic
Lamp de semnalizare cu transformator
Lamp de semnalizare format fi
Lamp cu incandescen
Socluri pentru lmpi
Motor trifazat
Motor cu rotorul n scurtcircuit
Post de comand
Releu de timp
Rezisten de nclzire
Rezisten bobinat
Contactori frn
Indicator de succesiune a fazelor
Automat tripolar
Contactor de comand
Soclu lmpi incandescente
Soclu lmpi cu mercur
Sonerie
Trecere
Born de trecere
Born unilateral
Priz
Priz etan
Priz neetan
Transformator monofazat
Modul punte redresoare
Modul element serie
Modul filtrare
Modul reglare
Modul de protecie
Plac modul relee
unt de curent
Bare de curent
Balast



Measuring precision
Mounting position
Protection degree
Ambient temperature
Frequency
Micro switch
Three pole packet switch
Automatic switch USOL
Toggle switch
Cam switch
Bush button
Protected control push button
Press-button with lamp
Three pole contactor
Fusible plug
Automatic fusible
Mignon fuse
Thermal relay
Signal lamp with transformer
Plug shaped signaling lamp
Bulb lamp
Lamp sockets
Three phase motor
Squirrel cage induction motor
Control post
Timing relay
Heating resistance
Wire wound resistance
Break contactors
Phase sequence-indicator
Three pole relay
Control contactor
Glows-lamp base
Mercury vapour lamp base
Bell
Passage
Passing terminal
One side terminal
Plug
Watertight plug
Non watertight plug
Single phase transformer
Rectifying bridge modulus
Serious element modulus
Filtering modulus
Adjusting modulus
Protection modulus
Relays modulus plate
Current shunt
Current bars
Ballast



213

Aparate i instrumente de control

Calculator de vnt
Cutie etan pentru hri
Oglind de semnalizare cu plic
Compas grosime
Compas de gaur
Compas de trasat
Compas de lungime
Compas de trasat variabil
Echer variabil

Dispozitive

Boraci cu roat i clinchet
Dispozitiv de ndoit evi
Dispozitiv pentru scoaterea flanelor
Dispozitiv de ridicat sarcini
Dispozitiv pentru deplasare flane
Dispozitiv pentru presat ochei
Dispozitiv pentru presarea cablurilor
Dispozitiv de presat capse foi cort
Dispozitiv pentru tiat garnituri
Dispozitiv pentru decupare garnituri maini
unelte
Dispozitiv pentru tiat evi
Dispozitiv de strngere
Dispozitiv de ridicat butoaie
Dispozitiv pentru scoatere rulmeni
Dispozitiv de lefuire a colectoarelor
Dispozitiv de scos cuple, lagre, etc.
Dispozitiv pentru extras buce
Dispozitiv pentru curirea canalelor
Dispozitiv de mandrinat evi
Foarfec pentru tiat oel profil
Instrument combinat pentru tiat nveliul
cablurilor
Menghin pentru evi
Coloan pentru cric manual
Dispozitiv pentru golit butoaie
Dispozitiv pentru strns la menghin
Dispozitiv pentru flanat evi de cupru
Dispozitiv pentru lefuit scaune pentru robinete
Dispozitiv pentru lefuit scaune pentru valve
Dispozitiv pentru deplasarea flanelor le evi
Menghin rotativ
Termometru armat

Scule

Bac pentru menghin
Cpuitor
Ciocan special de lemn pentru matisat

Controlling instruments and apparatus

Course-end speed computer
Watertight container for maps
Signal mirror
Thickness compass
Hole compass
Marking compass
Length compass
Variable marking compass
Variable square rule

Devices

Ratchet drill with and dog wheel
Pipe bending device
Flange removing device
Load lifting device
Flanges shifting device
Eyelet cable pressing device
Cable pressing device
Torpondim hooks pressing device
Gasket for cutting device
Machine-tools gaskets device

Pipes cutting device
Tightening device
Barrels lifting device
Rolling bearing extractor
Collectors grinding device
Bearings couples extracting device
Bushes removing tool
Key graves cleaning device
Tube expanding device
Steel section scissors
Cables cover cutting combined tool

Pipe vice
Manual jock column
Barrel discharging device
Vice tightening device
Copper pipes flanging device
Cock seats grinding device
Valves seats grinding device
Pipes flanges moving device
Turning vice
Armored temp. gauge

Tools

Vice slide blade
Riveting set
Splicing wooden special hammer
214
Ciocan special metalic pentru matisat
Ciocan de lemn pentru tmplrie
Ciocan de lemn pentru clftuit
Ciocan de lemn semi
Ciocan de rugin
Ciocan de aluminiu
Ciocan de cupru
Ciocan planator
Ciocan de temuit
Cavil arc de lemn
Ciocan drept semirotund
Cavil dreapt
Cavil ndoit
Dorn pentru scos prezoane rupte
Clete cu flci drepte
Clete cu flci rotunde
Punctator
Cavil pentru parm
Ciocan de lucru pentru tinichigerie
Ciocan de plumb
Cheie cu lan pentru evi
Cherner
Cuit de frezat stnga
Cuit de frezat dreapta
Cuit de teit pe dreapta
Cuit de teit pe stnga
Cuit lateral pe stnga
Cuit lateral pe dreapta
Cuit pentru degajare interioar
Ciocan de lctuerie bombat
Ciocan buterol
Contramatri cu mner
Contramatri
Contrabuterol
Cheie pentru nurubat deurubat prezoane

Dalt pentru tiat canale
Dalt dreapt
Dalt pentru crauit (sudur)
Dalt de temuit
Dalt de clftuit
Dalt pentru ndesare
Dalt de dulgher
ablon pentru raze
Dorn special pentru scoaterea niturilor
Dalt pentru tiat nituri cu coad
Dorn format mic
Dorn alam
Dalt n cruce
Dalt pentru tiat la cald
Dalt format mic
Inim de antrenare pe strung
Mner de scule
Manivel pentru tarozi
Splicing metallic special hammer
Wooden hammer for joinery
Wooden hammer for caulking
Half wooden hammer
Rust hammer
Aluminium hammer
Copper hammer
Set hammer
Calking hammer
Wooden needle spike
Half round straight hammer
Straight spike
Bent spike
Stud bolts taking out spike
Right-nose pliers
Round-nose pliers
Drop-point
Rope spike
Tinners hammer
Lead hammer
Pipe chain shackle
Punch
Left mill
Right mill
Bevel tools-right hand
Bevel tools-left hand
Side tool-left hand
Side tool-right hand
Interior groove cutter
Spherical fitters hammer
Snap hammer
Upper die whit handle
Upper die
Rivet bucker
Stud screwing/unscrewing key
(Stud bolt wrench)
Channels cutting chisel
Straight chisel
Welding chisel
Calking chisel
Caulking chisel
Beating chisel
Joiners chisel
Fillet gauge
Special mandrel for unriveting
Rivet cutting chisel with handle
Small shape mandrel
Brass puncheon
Grooving chisel
Hot cutting chisel
Small shape chisel
Carrier heart
Tools handle
Top barer handle
215
Oal pentru topit compoziia pentru lagre
Portcuit prelucrare interior
Portcuit prelucrare exterior
Plac pentru perforat
Port tarod universal
Priboi
Preducea
Pan de oel
Platou de tuat
Rachet
Rang
Randalin striere dreapta
Rac pentru scos garnituri
Rzuitor dreptunghiular
Rzuitor curbat
Randalin striere ncruciat
ablon pentru scriere cifre
ablon pentru scriere litere
ablon pentru verificarea ascuirii
burghielor
ablon pentru cuite de strung
ablon raze
Suport nicoval
ablon pentru verificarea ascuirii cuitului
de strung
Trgtor
Trasator paralele
Mner scule
Lingur pentru turnat compoziia
Rzuitor unghiular
Port tarod universal
Prghie cu role
Gtuitor pentru nicoval ascuit
Gtuitor pentru nicoval semisferic
Gtuitor pentru nicoval conic
Platou tuat
Ciocan pentru boluri chei terminale i de
mpreunare
Ciocan tifturi
Ciocan de plumbuit
Dispozitiv pentru dezangrenarea cheilor
Kenter

Utilaje

Cric cu urub
Dispozitiv de ridicat cu prghia
Main de frecat vopsea
Pomp manual pentru scos produse
petroliere
Cric cu urub mic
Pomp manual dubl hidraulic
Pomp cu mner de nalt presiune
Dispozitiv manual de ridicat arbori
Babbit pouring pot
Intern working holder cutter
Extern working holder cutter
Perforating plate
Top barer holder
Punch
Hollow punch
Steel wedge
Touch up plate
Scraper
Crowbar
Milting tool
Attachment for gaskets squeezing
Rectangular scraper
Curved scraper
Crossed knurling tool
Number writing template
Template for writing the letters
Template for checking the drills

Cutter control template
Radius gauge
Anvil holder
Template for checking the turn tool

Metal drawer
Surface gauge
Tool handle
White metal pouring ladle
Angular scraper
Universal top borer
Roller lever
Pointed anvil necking device
Half-round anvil necking device
Conical anvil necking device
Lapping plate
Hammer for the end wrench bolts

Hammer for studs
Lead hammers
Kenter wrench disengaging device


Implements

Screw jack
Lifting device whit lever
Point rolling machine
Manual pump for oil products taking off

Small screw jack
Hydraulic double hand pump
High pressure hand pump
Shafts lifting hand device
216
Crucior de ridicat i transportat n CM

Accesorii incendiu

Brar de strngere a furtunelor
Cioc de barz cu jet compact Roth
Cioc de barz cu jet compact Stortz
Cioc de barz cu jet combinat Roth
Suport pentru furtun de exterior
Suport pentru furtun de interior
Furtul de incendiu Roth
Furtun de incendiu Stortz
Fra pentru nisip
mbinare intern Roth
mbinare intern Stortz
Cutie cu nisip
Panou ci inventar de incendiu
Rang uoar
Reducie Stortz
Reducie Roth
Suport pentru perei din oel pentru
stingtoare cu CO
2

Suport pentru perei pentru stingtoare cu
CO
2

Suport pentru perei din marinit pentru
stingtoare
Stingtor portabil cu spum aeromecanic
Ptur

Corpul omenesc

Cap
Frunte
Ochi
Sprncean
Gean
Pleoap
Nas
Nar
Gur
Buze
Limb
Dinte
Brbie
Obraz
Fa
Ureche
Pr
Barb
Musta
Gt, ceaf
Gt, gtlej
Spate
Piept
Piept, sn
Lifting transport carriage ER

Fire accessories

Hose clamp
Roth compact jet hose-nozzle
Stortz compact jet hose-nozzle
Roth combined jet hose-nozzle
Exterior hose basket
Interior hose basket
Roth fire hose
Stortz fire hose
Sand shovel
Internal jointing Roth
Internal jointing Stortz
Sand box
Fire extinguishing tools panel
Light bar
Stortz reduction
Roth reduction
Steel bulkhead support for CO
2

estinguisher
Light walls support for CO
2
estinguisher

Marinite wall estinguisher support

Air foam portable estinguisher
Blanket

Human body

Head
Forehead
Eye
Eye brow
Eye lash
Eye lid
Nose
Nostril
Mouth
Lips
Tongue
Tooth
Chin
Check
Face
Ear
Hair
Beard
Moustache
Neck
Throat
Back
Chest
Breast
217
Sni
Pntece
Membre
Bra
Umr
Cot
ncheietura minii
Palm
Deget
Degetul mare
Picior
Genunchi
Glezn
Laba piciorului
Clci
Talp
Deget (de la picior)
Stomac
Creier
Plmni
Ficat
Inim
Rinichi

Boli

Rceal (guturai)
Durere de cap
Durere de dini (msele)
Durere de stomac)
Durere de gt
Grip
Pneumonie
Tuberculoz
Bronit
Faringit
Amigdalit
Meningit
Encefalit
Reumatism
Cancer
Holer
Cium
Malarie (friguri)
Variol (vrsat negru)
Variol (vrsat de vnt)
Difterie
Febr tifoid
Pojar
Oreion
Tetanos
Tuse convulsiv
Lepr
SIDA
Sifilis
Breasts
Belly
Limbs
Arm
Shoulder
Elbow
Wrist
Palm
Finger
Thumb
Leg
Knee
Ankle
Foot
Heel
Sole
Toe
Stomach
Brains
Lungs
Liver
Heart
Kidneys

Diseases

Cold
Head-ache
Tooth-ache
Stomach-ache
Sore throat
Influenza (flu)
Pneumonia
Consumption (tuberculosis)
Bronchitis
Pharyngitis
Tonsilitis (amygdalitis)
Meningitis
Encephalitis
Rheumatism
Cancer
Cholera
Plague
Ague (malaria)
Smallpox
Chicken-pox
Diphtheria
Typhoid fever
Measles
Mumps
Tetanus
Whooping cough
Leprosy
AIDS
Syphilis

218

Bibliografie selectiv



Selective References



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maritime Bucureti 1982
2. * * * Romanian Register of Shipping Rules for the Classification and Construction
of Sea-going Ships Bucureti 1986
3. I. A. Manoliu: Nave i navigaie Ed. tiinific i Enciclopedic Bucureti 1984
4. V. Maier: Mecanica i construcia navei vol.III Construcia navei Ed. Tehnic
Bucureti 1989
5. * * * Japanese Industrial Standard 1979
6. G. Husein, M. Tudose: Desen tehnic manual cls. a IX i a X-a Ed. Didactic i
Pedagogic Bucureti 1977
7. I. Vranca: Desen industrial Ed. Tehnic Bucureti 1984
8. Timings, R.L. , Roger Leslie General Engineering Harlow: Longman Scientific &
Technical 1995
9. G. Uzunov, A. Pruiu, I. Dragomir, E. Dinu, D. Catan, A. Petre: Manualul ofierului
mecanic maritim vol. I Ed. Tehnic Bucureti 1997
10. A. Pruiu, G. Uzunov, I. Dragomir, E. Dinu, D. Catan, T. Popa: Manualul ofierului
mecanic maritim vol. I Ed. Tehnic Bucureti 1998
11. V. Carp: Tehnologia materialelor Academia Naval Mircea cel Btrn Constana
1995
12. Blackey T. N. English for Maritime Studies Cambridge 1987
13. V. Anton, M. Popoviciu, I. Fitero: Hidraulic i maini hidraulice Ed. Didactic i
Pedagogic Bucureti 1978
14. E.J. Schulz: Diesel Mechanics McGraw-Hill 1985
15. Ilie Patrichi: Exploatarea i repararea instalaiilor i sistemelor navale Ed.
Academiei Navale Mircea cel Btrn Constana 2000
16. C. Alexandru: Maini i instalaii navale de propulsie Ed. Tehnic Bucureti 1991
17. Smith & Van Ness: Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics
McCraw-Hill 1975
18. A. Dragalina: Calculul arborelui cotit al motoarelor diesel navale Ed. Muntenia &
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19. * * * Encyclopedia of Science and Technology McGraw-Hill 1971
20. D. Abietancei, C. Haegan, I. Stoica, D. Claponi, I. Ciobanu: Motoare pentru
automobile i tractoare vol.1 construcie i exploatare Ed. Tehnic Bucureti 1978
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25. P. Bocnete: Turbine cu abur construcie i exploatare Ed. Dobrogea 1996
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32. C. Nedelcu, I. Murar, A. Bratu, A. Banta: Dicionar Romn-Englez Ed. Teora
Bucureti 2000
33. * * * Dicionarul explicativ al limbii romne Ed. Univers Enciclopedic 1998
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35. C.I. Pop: Dicionar Romn-Englez Terminologie maritim Ed. Dobrogea
36. Minea Alina: Dicionar de mecanic naval Englez Romn Ed. Academiei Navale
Mircea cel Btrn Constana 2000
37. * * * Documentaie tehnic cargou 12500 TDW
38. * * * Documentaie tehnic vrachier 55000 TDW
39. * * * Documentaie tehnic petrolier 90000 TDW
40. * * * Catalog produselor tipizate folosite n industria naval . ICPRONAV Galai
1982

























9 789730 119053
ISBN 978-973-0-11905-3