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Axial Musculature Head Muscles Temporalis Depressor Mandibulae Mylohoid Trunk Muscles Coccygeosacralis Origin Anterior lateral surface

of the urostyle Posterior lateral surface of urostyle Urostyle Insertion Neural arch and transverse process of sacral vertebra Ilium Action Keeps coccyx in line with ilium Supports articulation of coccyx with the ilium Extends back and elevates head Compresses the abdomen Flexes the vertebral column Compresses the abdomen Compresses the abdomen Origin Mid-dorsal line Mid-dorsal line Median raphe Insertion Posterior region of the mandible Angle of the jaw Inner surface of the lower jaw Action Raises the lower jaw Lowers the jaw Raises the floor of the mouth

Coccygeoiliacus

Longissimus dorsi

External oblique

Lumbo-dorsal fascia

Rectus abdominis Linea alba Inscriptiones tendinae

Pubis Lumbo-dorsal fascia, ribs

Posterior end of the skull, dorsal surface of the vertebrae Beneath the muscle on the ventral side of the abdomen Sternum Pubis

Appendicular Musculature Muscles of the forelimb Origin Latissimus dorsi Fascia of the anterior trunk region Sterno-radialis Episternum Pectoralis (2) Pectoral girdle, sternum (1) Fascia of the rectus abdominus Coracoid Scapulo-coracoid

Insertion Shoulder joint, humerus Proximal end of the radioulna Humerus

Action Draws arm away from the body Draws the arms towards the chest Draws the arms towards the chest

Deltoid Triceps brachii

Proximal end of the humerus Distal end of the humerus, proximal end of the radioulna Insertion Proximal end of the tibio-fibula

Draws the arms towards the chest Straightens the forearms

Muscles of the hindlimb Triceps extensor femoris Origin Posterior border of the ilium, anterior border of the Action Straightens the shanks, bends the thigh Sio

Semimembranosus

acetabulum Ischium

Biceps femoris

Posterior margin of ischium Posterior margin of the ischium Lower end of the ilium Pelvic girdle Small headtop aponeuroses that covers the knee; Big headglistening tendon at the back of the knee connected to the ligament binding the femur and the tibio-fibula Distal end of the femur Distal end of the femur Entire length of the tibio-fibula

Proximal end of the tibio-fibula, back of the knee Proximal end of tibiofibula Proximal end of the tibio-fibula Distal end of femur Achilles tendon

Gracilis major Sartorius Adductor magnus Gastrocnemius

Draws the thigh medially and bends the shanks Draws the thigh medially and bends the shanks Draws the thigh medially Bends the leg Adducts thigh and draws thigh ventrally Flexes leg and extends foot

Peroneus

Tibialis anticus Tibialis posticus

Distal end of the tibiofibula, proximal end of the tarsal bones Tarsals Proximal end of the tarsals

Straightens the shank, bends the foot Bends the foot Extends the foot

Sio