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Connector Summary (Connectives)

Diagnostic
Connector Diagnostic: identifying specific points that need review

Quiz 1: beginning intermediate Quiz 2: intermediate advanced

Addition and Contrast


FANBOYS: joining words, phrases and clauses with coordinators

Beg. Adv. ESL, Native Speaker


FANBOYS for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so Coordinator types Punctuation Coordinator Position Common Mistakes Beginning w/ And Grammar Notes Practice 1 multiple choice Practice 2 edit the sentence Practice 3 select the part of speech

She danced and waved a fan. She danced and waved a fan, and he played the flute.

And / In addition: joining sentence elements and sentences

Int.Adv. ESL, Native Speaker


Sentence Elements acts and sings Addition / Conclusive Fact In addition Introductory Phrases Besides being Reduced Verb Pairs Come and see Common Mistakes Grammar Notes Practice 1 complete the sentence (MC) Practice 2 correct / incorrect Practice 3 edit paragraph

Anne is an actress. Normally, she acts and sings. Anne acts, sings and dances. In addition, she directs theater productions. adds information You should see Anne. She acts, sings and dances. Moreover, she looks like the main character. adds a conclusive fact Besides being funny, he is also young and smart. adds information Hire him because he is young and smart. Besides, he is funny! adds a conclusive fact or argument

And so / too: shortening a repeated verb in a joined clause

Beg. Adv. ESL


Andso Andtoo Butnot Common Mistakes Tag Questions Practice 1 multiple choice Practice 2 multiple choice

My brother has a new toy, and so do I. (American English) My brother has a new toy, and so have I. (British English) My bother got a new toy, and I did too. My brother got a new toy, but I didn't. You got a new toy, didn't you? Yes, I did. / No, I didn't.

Too / Either: adding a positive or negative comment

Beg. Adv. ESL, Native Speaker


Too/Either Polarity Short Responses But not too Common Mistakes Practice 1 multiple choice Practice 2 multiple choice

I am eight today, and my cousin is too. I am not a child, and my cousin isn't either. I am excited. Me too! (informal) / I am too! I am not worried. Me either! (informal) / I am not either! Nobody helped me. Me either. (negative pronoun) We barely understand it. Me either. (negative adverb)

Both and: joining sentence elements with paired expressions

Beg. Adv. ESL, Native Speaker


Addition bothand, not onlybut also Not only aux. verb Punctuation Negative Addition neithernor Neithernor Eitheror Common Mistakes Practice 1 multiple choice Practice 2 multiple choice

Both the movie and the play were good. Not only the movie but also the play was good. Neither the movie nor the play was good. Either the movie or the play was good. I can't remember.

But / But still: stating contrast or contrary outcome

Beg. Adv. ESL, Native Speaker


But/But still Contrast but, while, whereas, on the other hand, in contrast to, however Contrary Outcome but, still, yet, nevertheless, regardless, in spite of, despite Grammar Notes Practice 1 multiple choice Practice 2 multiple choice Practice 3 multiple choice

like sugar in my coffee, whereas Edward likes black coffee. I like sugar in my coffee in contrast to Edward who likes none.

One the one hand, I like sugar in my coffee. On the other hand, Edgard does not! I shouldn't eat sugar, but still I do. Though I shouldn't eat sugar, I do. I shouldn't eat sugar. Nevertheless, I do.

But not / Except: stating an exception

Beg. Adv. ESL, Native Speaker


But not/Except Before verbs Common mistakes But expressions Nothing but All but But for Who but Cannot but Practice 1 multiple choice Practice 2 multiple choice

He likes vegetables but not carrots. He likes vegetables except (for) carrots. Jack does nothing all day except [to] eat and sleep. He isn't interested in anything except eating and sleeping. Jack eats nothing but hamburgers. Jack ate all but one hamburger.

But / Though: expressing defeat versus challenge

Beg. Adv. ESL, Native Speaker


Implied meanings But/Though

Practice multiple choice

Brian planned on attending a job fair, but the line to get in wrapped around the block. (It discouraged him..) Brian planned on attending a job fair, though the line to get in wrapped around the block. (He stood in it anyway.)

Rather than: preference and avoidance

Int. Adv. ESL, Native Speaker


Prefer X to Y Would rather Rather thanpreference Rather thanavoidance Rather than Complements Bare Infin vs Gerund Prep Complements Common Mistakes Grammar Notes Practice 1 Practice 2

We would rather walk to work than drive. (X and not Y) We walk to work rather than drive. (X and not Y) We walk to work rather than get caught in traffic. (choosing X to avoid Y)

Cause and Effect (Reason Result)


Because / Because of: indicating cause (reason)

Beg. Adv. ESL, Native Speaker


Because/Because of Due to Noun phrases Common Mistakes Grammar Notes Practice 1 multiple choice Practice 2 multiple choice

Because a gas pipeline exploded, several homes burned down. Because of the gas explosion / an exploding gas line, several homes burned down.

Because of / By: indicating cause vs. method

Adv. ESL, Native Speaker


Cause vs. Agent Common Mistakes Practice 1 multiple choice Practice 2 multiple choice

Demonstrators protested because of high unemployment. reason Demonstrators protested by marching in the street. means Progress was made because of the opposition leaders. reason Progress was made by the opposition leaders. agent

Cause & Effect: indicating a causal relationship

Int. Adv. ESL, Native Speaker


Consequently/Because Cause/Result expressions Cause "cuz" If only because Punctuation Practice 1 multiple choice Practice 2 multiple choice Practice 3 multiple choice

She married at the age of thirteen because she had no other options. She had no other options. Consequently, she married at the age of thirteen. Illiteracy results from a poor childhood education. A poor childhood education results in illiteracy.

Because/Though: expected and unexpected outcomes

Int. Adv. ESL, Native Speaker


Because/Though Intital Position Transitions Because of + NP Because of + Gerund Punctuation Notbecause Common Mistakes Grammar Notes Practice 1 multiple choice Practice 2 correct/incorrect Practice 3 edit

He wore his winter pants because it was snowing. Schools were closed because of the snow. It was snowing. For this reason, the schools were closed. He was biking in his shorts though it was snowing. The schools were open in spite of the cold temperature. It was snowing. Nevertheless, the schools were open.

Because Clauses: shortening a cause-effect clause

Beg. Adv. ESL, Native Speaker


Beginning a sentence Ending a sentence Be verbs Common Mistakes Past Events Practice multiple choice

Because Tom worked so hard, he earned a good salary. (same time) Working so hard, Tom earned a good salary. (same time) Because Tom had been working so hard, he needed a vacation. Having worked so hard (earlier time), Tom needed a vacation.

So / Such that: emphasizing qualities and characteristics

Int.. ESL, Native Speaker


So-that v. Such that Sentence Structure Diagrams So Emphasis v Effect So much v Such Common Mistakes Practice read & complete sentences (MC)

The meteor storm was so beautiful that we watched it all night. It was such a beautiful meteor storm that we watched it all night. We will learn so much interesting information that it will take years to process it. (quantity) We will learn such interesting information that it will take years to process it. (quality)

So that: expressing purpose vs. effect

Int. Adv. ESL, Native Speaker


So that / So SoPurpose SoEffect Punctuation So expressions Practice 1 multiple choice

We stayed up all night so that we could watch a meteor storm. We stayed up late, so we were able to see the meteor storm as it passed.

Cause-Effect Review: expressing a cause and effect relationship

Beg. Adv. ESL, Native Speaker


Cause/Effect Chart Grammar Notes Terms Practice 1 multiple choice Practice 2 correct/incorrect Practice 3 edit sent.

His computer froze, so he hit it. He hit it so hard that he damaged the keyboard. He took it to a repair center because it needed a new keyboard. He paid a lot to have it fixed. As a consequence, he never hit his computer again.

Time-Relative Conjunctions
After/ Before/ When: indicating time-relative activities

Int. ESL, Native Speakers


Present & Future Time Frames Same time vs. After Common Mistakes Past Time Frames Punctuation Grammar Notes Practice 1 correct/incorrect Practice 2 multiple choice Practice 3 edit sentence

When I call the dog, she comes. After I call the dog, she comes. Before I call the dog, I open the door. After I take the dog out, we'll sit down for a while.

When / While: indicating same-time activities

Int. ESL, Native Speaker


Same-time Events Other Expressions Punctuation

Common Mistake Grammar Notes Practice 1 complete the sentence (MC) Practice 2 correct/incorrect

When you called, he picked up his cell phone. While he was talking on the phone, the baby slept.

By the time: indicating a future completion time

Int. Adv. ESL, Native Speaker


By the time v. When Future Present Past Common Mistake Future Perfect Passive Practice 1 multiple choice Practice 2 correct / incorrect Practice 3 read and edit

[adverbial clause, PP + clause]

By the time I leave work, the sun will be setting. (ongoing) By the time I leave work, the sun will have set. (completed)

Reduced Time Clauses: shortening a before, after, when, while clause

Int. Adv. ESL, Native Speaker


Reducing a Clause Clause Position Omitting When / While

After Common Mistakes Grammar Notes Practice 1 complete the sentence (MC) Practice 2 complete the sentence (MC)

While John was walking home, he came across a skunk. While walking home, John came across a skunk. Walking home, John came across a skunk. Walking home from school, *a skunk sprayed John.

Review
Connector Review: Connective words that relate phrases and clauses

Int. Adv. ESL, Native Speaker


Connector Chart ccoordinators, subordinators, and linking adverbs Practice 1 multiple choice Practice 2 edit sentences in paragraph

The day was cold and windy. They day was cloudy, windy and also cold. It was cloudy and windy. Also, it was cold. The wind was strong as well as cold. Besides being windy, it was also cold. The day was windy and cold. In addition, it was bright and clear.

It was bright, clear and windy. Moreover, it was cold. It was bright, clear and windy. Furthermore, it was cold

Connector Edit: finding conjunction, adverb and transition word errors

Int. Adv. ESL


Review Links Practice multiple choice

*We had to go home even we hadn't found what we were looking for.

Parallel Phrasing: joining like items with and and but

Int. Adv. ESL, Native Speaker


Unparallel v. Parallel Parallel Adverbs Parallel Modifiers Parallel Verbs Parallel Phrases Practice 1 multiple choice Practice 2 multiple choice

Also see: Parallel Gerund Prac

*My English is improving slow but surely. My English is improving slowly but surely.

Sentence Editing: correcting connector use

Int. Adv. ESL, Native Speaker


Review link adding punctuation, removing wordiness, adding capitalization Practice edit sent.

*Because I needed to miss a board meeting, so I notified the speaker.

Related Pages
Indeed / Even: emphasizing unexpected or extraordinary details

Int. Adv. ESL, Native Speaker


Emphasis Words Indeed/ Even In Fact/ Even Even/Even though Even though/ Even if Punctuation Common Mistakes Grammar Notes Practice 1 multiple choice Practice 2 multiple choice Practice 3 multiple choice

His work is indeed more amazing than before. His work is in fact more amazing than before. His work is even more amazing than before.

Clause/ Fragment: identifying larger parts of a sentence

Int. Adv. ESL, Native Speaker


Sentence Parts Phrase Clause independent/ dependent Sentence spoken/ written Common Mistakes Practice 1 identify Practice 2 edit sent.

*Each year, millions of people travel to the U.S. In fact, eighty-six million. (fragment) Put your suitcase down. *Over there. (fragment) *How about a visa? (fragment)

*Yellow highlighted words are examples of incorrect usage.

Run-on Sentences: identifying simple and compound sentences

Int. Adv. ESL, Native Speaker


Simple Sentence Compound Sentence with conjunctions or semicolons Exceptions Practice 1 identify Practice 2 edit sentence

My friend and I blogged and read over his shoulder.

My friend blogged, and I read over his shoulder.


Participle w/ Preps: describing emotional reactions

Int.Adv. ESL

Coordinated Participial Modifiers Practice 2 correct / incorrect

The children were interested in hearing his story. The press was excited about the President's speech. He is interested in and excited about his new project.

For Example / That is to say: adding examples or clarification (seriated lists)

Int. Adv. ESL, Native Speaker


For Example List Examples Technical List e.g. That is Clarification Technical i.e. Common Mistakes Punctuation Resources Practice correct/incorrect

Calcium is in green leafy vegetables, for example, broccoli, kale, arugula, and spinach. There is calcium in vegetables such as broccoli, kale, arugula, and spinach.

Cruciferous vegetables (i.e., Brassicaceae) have flowers shaped like a cross.