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Introduction to PROFIBUS and PROFINET

Andy Verwer Technical Officer for PROFIBUS UK Verwer Training & Consultancy Ltd

Gold distributor

PROFIBUS Characteristics
PROFIBUS is a bi-directional digital communication network for field devices.
Multi-drop network, many devices on one cable communicates not only process values but also diagnostics, device parameters, calibration and performance data etc.

The data can represent analogue values and/or discrete (on/off) values.
But all data is digitally encoded and transmitted.

PROFIBUS is extensively specified.


All PROFIBUS devices are interoperable. Multi vendor systems are easily constructed. Best of breed devices can be selected. Common set of tools for maintenance and engineering.
Introduction to PROFIBUS and PROFINET, Instrumentation & Offshore, Aberdeen, September 2012 Page 2

PROFIBUS
PROFIBUS is the worlds leading fieldbus system:
Over 40 million devices installed world wide. Approximately 3,000 products from over 300 different suppliers.

PROFIBUS has been around for almost 25 years.


Over that period the specification has been extended and refined (in a backwardly compatible way) so that new application areas have been opened up. High speed synchronised servo applications (Robotics and NC machines). Functional safety systems (process safety, interlocking). Operation in hazardous environments (intrinsic safety). High availability systems (reliability and redundancy). Etc.
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The PROFIBUS Family


PROFIBUS DP - Decentralised Periphery
Low cost, simple, high speed field-level communications. Generally designed for internal use (cabinet mounting).

Introduction to PROFIBUS and PROFINET, Instrumentation & Offshore, Aberdeen, September 2012

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The PROFIBUS Family


PROFIBUS PA - Process Automation
Developed specifically for the process industry to replace 4-20mA transmission. Two-wire connection carrying both power and data. Generally designed for external use (field mounting).

Introduction to PROFIBUS and PROFINET, Instrumentation & Offshore, Aberdeen, September 2012

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The PROFIBUS Family


PROFINET
Standardised Industrial Ethernet High speed highly deterministic and capable networking. Generally designed for internal use (just like DP)

Introduction to PROFIBUS and PROFINET, Instrumentation & Offshore, Aberdeen, September 2012

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Connection Technologies
PROFIBUS DP uses 2-core RS485 screened twisted pair wiring. 9-pin sub-D or M12 connectors extensively used. DP can also use plastic or glass fibre optic cabling. BFOC (ST) connectors widely used PROFIBUS PA uses Manchester Bus Powered (MBP) cabling over 2 cores. Glanded screw or M12 connection normally used PROFINET uses 4-core Ethernet sreened twisted pair cabling. RJ45 or M12 connectors universally used.
Introduction to PROFIBUS and PROFINET, Instrumentation & Offshore, Aberdeen, September 2012 Page 7

Application areas
Manufacturing Automation Car manufacturing Bottling systems Storage systems Water Treatment and sewage Robotics Building Automation Traffic automation Heating, air-conditioning Building Process Automation Automation Water and sewage treatment Chemical and petrochemical plant Paper and textile industries Power industry Gas & Oil Power plants Switchgear Functional safety systems High reliability systems Redundancy.
Robotics

Brewing industry

Car manufacture

Paper and Printing Industry

Pipelines

Food Industry

Bottling Plants

Polymer production and Storage Page 8

Introduction to PROFIBUS and PROFINET, Instrumentation & Offshore, Aberdeen, September 2012

The PROFIBUS family


Factory/plant level Demanding tasks, extensive data Cell/control level High speed, modest data
PROFIBUS DP RS485 Ethernet TCP/IP

Master

PC PLC

DP/PA coupler

HMI

PROFIBUS PA - MBP

Exi

Field level

Slaves
Sensors Actuators Drives Remote I/O Control valves Transmitters DP cells Page 9

Introduction to PROFIBUS and PROFINET, Instrumentation & Offshore, Aberdeen, September 2012

The PROFIBUS family


Factory/plant level Demanding tasks, extensive data Cell/control level High speed, modest data Field level
PLC

TCP/IP

Ethernet

PC

PROFInet
HMI

Other fieldbus networks PROFIBUS PA Exi

PROFIBUS DP

Sensors Actuators

Drives

Remote I/O AS-i

Control valves

Transmitters

DP cells Page 10

Introduction to PROFIBUS and PROFINET, Instrumentation & Offshore, Aberdeen, September 2012

Levels of Access
Operator Monitoring
Ethernet

Manager Engineering

Engineer

Class-2 master

Class-1 master
PROFIBUS DP PROFIBUS PA

Control

Drives

Actuators

Instruments

Valves
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Introduction to PROFIBUS and PROFINET, Instrumentation & Offshore, Aberdeen, September 2012

Levels of Access
Control
Requires regular cyclic update of process values. Deterministic timing (not necessarily fast). The most important cannot be interrupted!

Monitoring
Not necessarily regularly updated (cyclic or acyclic). Interruptions can be tolerated.

Engineering
Active only when required (acyclic). Non-deterministic communication OK. But must not interrupt the above!
Introduction to PROFIBUS and PROFINET, Instrumentation & Offshore, Aberdeen, September 2012 Page 12

Class-1 Masters
The Class-1 master is responsible for cyclic or regular data exchange. This provides all process values for control and monitoring. The Class-1 master must be configured to communicate with the slaves. Configuration is normally carried out using a proprietary software tool supplied for the PROFIBUS master station. All PROFIBUS equipment suppliers provide standard General Station Description or GSD files. GSD files can be read by the configuration tool to provide detailed information on the devices being used on the bus. GSD files make integration of devices from different vendors in a bus system simple.
Introduction to PROFIBUS and PROFINET, Instrumentation & Offshore, Aberdeen, September 2012 Page 13

Network Configuration
Configuration tool

Master Class I

GSD

GSD

GSD

GSD

GSD

GSD

PROFIBUS

GSD files

Slaves

Every PROFIBUS device is given a unique identification number which identifies the type of device. The GSD file is specific to the ID number.
Introduction to PROFIBUS and PROFINET, Instrumentation & Offshore, Aberdeen, September 2012 Page 14

Class-2 Masters
Class-2 masters can be used to access management and engineering information from devices (acyclic data). This is particularly important in PA systems where extensive device information can be accessed in a standardised way. Class-2 masters do not need configuration, however, they do need information on the devices that are to be accessed. This information can be provided in two different ways:
Electronic Device Descrition (EDD) files. Device Type Manager (DTM) software.
Introduction to PROFIBUS and PROFINET, Instrumentation & Offshore, Aberdeen, September 2012 Page 15

The PA Profile
The PROFIBUS PA Profile provides a mandatory specification for all PA devices. It specifies the organisation of the cyclic data so that the process value for every device is standardised. The Process Value is always communicated in a standardised format:
Standard floating point format for analogue values. Standard digital format for discrete values. Plus a standardised status value which encodes the quality of the measurement (good, bad, usable etc.)

The profile also specifies the organisation of the acyclic data so that standard tools can be used to access this data.
Introduction to PROFIBUS and PROFINET, Instrumentation & Offshore, Aberdeen, September 2012 Page 16

What is PROFINET?
PROFINET is an open Industrial Ethernet standard developed by the PROFIBUS Organisation. PROFINET

PROFINET is NOT PROFIBUS over Ethernet! However, PROFINET is well thought out to incorporate the requirements of modern systems based on the lessons learned from PROFIBUS.
Introduction to PROFIBUS and PROFINET, Instrumentation & Offshore, Aberdeen, September 2012

is completely standard Ethernet (IEEE802.3). operates at 100Mbit/s over twisted-pair copper or fibreoptic cables, makes use of TCP/IP and other IT standards for non-realtime communications (i.e. configuration and parameters). Provides a real-time channel for time-critical communications (i.e. process data)

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PROFINET IO
PROFINET IO provides remote IO using Ethernet connection and the PROFINET communication protocol. PROFINET IO uses Real-Time and Non Real-Time communications. PROFINET makes use of relevant TCP/IP protocols for setup, configuration and maintenance functions:
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, DNS Domain Name Service, SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol, ARP Address Resolution Protocol, HTTP Web page access, and lots more!
Introduction to PROFIBUS and PROFINET, Instrumentation & Offshore, Aberdeen, September 2012 Page 18

PROFINET
PROFINet stack (OSI model): 7 - Application Layer 6 - Presentation Layer 5 - Session Layer 4 - Transport Layer 3 - Network Layer 2 - Data Link Layer 1 - Physical layer TCP/UDP IP PROFINET Real-time channel Non time-critical communication Real-time communication

PROFINET Application Layer

Standard Fast Ethernet IEEE802.3 Network

Introduction to PROFIBUS and PROFINET, Instrumentation & Offshore, Aberdeen, September 2012

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PROFINET IO
The TCP/IP channel is used for non-time critical tasks.
Downloading of configuration, parameters, Diagnostics, Device management information, etc.

The Real-Time channel is used for time-critical data:


Cyclic process data, Alarms and critical messages, Communication monitoring.

Introduction to PROFIBUS and PROFINET, Instrumentation & Offshore, Aberdeen, September 2012

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PROFINET IO
Many features that have been developed for PROFIBUS devices have been directly incorporated into PROFINET:
Standardised module and channel-related diagnostics, Alarm and status information, Identification and Maintenance (I&M) functions, Time stamping, Highly deterministic process cycle timing (Isochronous), Device description file (GSD) with configuration data for the device and available modules PROFINET uses XML.
Introduction to PROFIBUS and PROFINET, Instrumentation & Offshore, Aberdeen, September 2012 Page 21

Integration with Fieldbus


PROFIBUS devices are widely used in many different application areas. This investment is protected with PROFINET for both manufacturers and end-users. PROFINET provides a transparent interface with PROFIBUS via a standardised gateway or Proxy. The Proxy is a PROFINET IO device on one side and a PROFIBUS master on the other. PROFIBUS Configuration is integrated into the PROFINET configurator and is downloaded via Ethernet.

Introduction to PROFIBUS and PROFINET, Instrumentation & Offshore, Aberdeen, September 2012

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Integration with Fieldbus

PROFINET

PROXY PROFIBUS DP PROFIBUS PA

PROXY INTERBUS-S

Other fieldbusses?

Introduction to PROFIBUS and PROFINET, Instrumentation & Offshore, Aberdeen, September 2012

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Some Myths about PROFINET


PROFIBUS runs at up to 12Mbit/s, whereas PROFINET runs at 100Mbit/s. Therefore PROFINET is about 8 times faster than PROFIBUS. NOT TRUE! PROFINET gives similar performance to PROFIBUS. PROFINET will replace PROFIBUS in the next five years. NOT TRUE! PROFINET will replace some PROFIBUS DP devices, but PROFIBUS PA will continue. Both DP and PA will be supported for many years to come.
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Some Myths about PROFINET


PROFINET is not standard Ethernet NOT TRUE! PROFINET always uses completely standard Ethernet. It just doesnt always use TCP/IP protocols only used for non time critical communications. PROFINET systems can be maintained by our IT people. TRUE, BUT NOT A GOOD IDEA! PROFINET is much more than just an IT network. Real time determinism, reliability, device diagnostics and security are all much more important than on IT systems
Introduction to PROFIBUS and PROFINET, Instrumentation & Offshore, Aberdeen, September 2012 Page 25

Functional Safety with PROFIBUS & PROFINET


PROFIBUS and PROFINET also offer safety oriented communication that allows for integrating safety oriented components. A second 'safety fieldbus' is not necessary. ProfiSafe V2 can be used in systems that are certified according to IEC61158 to Safety Integrity Level 3 (SIL3). ProfiSafe is used in a wide range of applications:
Factory Automation, Robotics, Materials storage. Process Automation, Gas & Oil

Introduction to PROFIBUS and PROFINET, Instrumentation & Offshore, Aberdeen, September 2012

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Functional Safety with PROFINET


Safety application Standard application Safety application Standard application

PROFISAFE layer Standard PROFIBUS/NET protocol

PROFISAFE layer Standard PROFIBUS/NET protocol

PROFIsafe layer

PROFINET/ PROFIBUS Blackchannel

PROFIsafe V2 provides functional safety for both PROFIBUS and PROFINET systems. Suitable for use in SIL3 applications.
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Introduction to PROFIBUS and PROFINET, Instrumentation & Offshore, Aberdeen, September 2012

Benefits of PROFIBUS/PROFINET
Totally standardised and interoperable.
Choose best of breed devices. Ensures compatibility. Protects your investment.

Flexible connection technologies.


Systems for internal or external use Saves wiring but things often go wrong! Training in design and installation is essential.

Levels of access.
Control & monitoring. Engineering and management information.
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Training
A wide range of PROFIBUS and PROFINET training is available including: Certified Installer Courses
basic courses for anyone involved in PROFIBUS or PROFINET technology

Commissioning & Maintenance training


Practical troubleshooting for PROFIBUS & PROFINET.

Certified PROFIBUS or PROFINET Engineer


In depth training for experts.

Certified System Design Course


Covers essential and optimal design of all networked control and automation systems
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Training
Certified PROFIBUS and PROFINET training is available from the UKs accredited training centres: PROFIBUS International Competence Centre Manchester Metropolitan University.
in Manchester, or a location of your choice. (www.sci-eng.mmu.ac.uk/ascent/).

PROFIBUS International Training Centre Verwer Training & Consultancy Ltd


On-site training. (www.VerwerTraining.com)
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