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REAL PROPERTY SUMMER 2005-2006 TRESPASS TO LAND AND FIXTURES LECTURE ON 15 FEBRUARY 2006 Note: Students should read

pages 8-17 and 36-53 of Land Law by Peter Butt (4 th d!t!on" and should also f!nd and read the se#t!ons and #ases referred to !n the Sub$e#t %u!de on pages 8 (&ef!n!t!on of Land" and '( ()!*tures"+ ,hese notes are not a subst!tute for read!ng the te*t and #ons!der!ng the #ases+ Air !"#e ,he law go-ern!ng the r!ghts of the owners of land !s -ery an#!ent+ Butt .'(6/ refers to a #ontra#t for land !n 0orw!#h !n 1'85 #onta!n!ng the 1a*!1 2#u!us est solu1 e!us est us3ue ad #oelu1 et ad !nferos4 1ean!ng 2the person who owns land owns !t fro1 the hea-ens abo-e to the #entre of the earth below4+ 5e also 1a6es referen#e to the fa#t that the #on#ept 1ay ha-e or!g!nated !n 7ew!sh law at least 18((( years earl!er+ 9f a!rspa#e #ont!nues upwards ad !nf!n!tu1 then what #an reasonably #onst!tute an !ntrus!on !nto th!s a!rspa#e: ;lder ngl!sh #ases (pre-twent!eth #entury" generally #a1e to a #on#lus!on that a te1porary !ntrus!on !nto a!rspa#e d!d not #onst!tute a trespass unless the ob$e#t !ntrud!ng !nto the a!rspa#e e-entually #a1e !nto #onta#t w!th the land+ (Butt .'(3/" <odern author!ty fa-ours the propos!t!on that telephone w!res #ross!ng a ne!ghbour!ng property8 aeroplanes o-erfly!ng land8 #rane $!bs o-erhang!ng8 bullets f!red a#ross land (w!thout tou#h!ng the surfa#e" and ad-ert!s!ng s!gns all #onst!tute a trespass !nto the a!rspa#e regardless of whether that trespass !s per1anent or trans!tory (Butt .'(=/-.'1(/"+ 9n th!s area !t !s ne#essary to loo6 at 1any of the #ases to deter1!ne the way !n wh!#h the law has de-eloped and the so1et!1es #onfl!#t!ng approa#h ta6en by >ourts !n 1a6!ng de#!s!ons+ 9n $e% e& ' I(!eri"% To)"##o Co .1=57/ ' ?B 334 the pla!nt!ff was the lessee of a toba##on!st@s shop #ons!st!ng of a one-storey bu!ld!ng+ ,he defendants owned the bu!ld!ng ad$a#ent to Aelsen@s pre1!ses and for 1any years had a s!gn on the wall of the!r bu!ld!ng that en#roa#hed so1e 4 !n#hes !nto the a!rspa#e abo-e Aelsen@s shop+ Bt so1e po!nt of t!1e th!s s!gn was repla#ed w!th a new s!gn that en#roa#hed so1e 8 !n#hes !nto h!s a!rspa#e+ Bfter so1e d!fferen#es between the pla!nt!ff and the defendant #o1pany8 the pla!nt!ff ga-e not!#e that the s!gn 1ust be re1o-ed+ ,he defendant #o1pany de#l!ned and the pla!nt!ff sought an !n$un#t!on for the re1o-al of the s!gn+ <#0a!r 7+ ga-e #ons!derat!on to 1any !ssues !n#lud!ng the 3uest!on of whether the lease to Aelsen !n#luded a lease of the a!rspa#e abo-e the shop+ 5e #on#luded that !t d!d and on th!s bas!s also #on#luded that the !ntrus!on of the s!gn !nto the a!rspa#e #onst!tuted a trespass+ 5e d!re#ted that a 1andatory !n$un#t!on !ssue for the re1o-al of the s!gn+ ,he !ssue of the he!ght at wh!#h an !ntrus!on !nto a!rspa#e #ont!nued to #onst!tute a trespass #a1e before the >ourt !n B"ro& Ber& tei& o* Lei+, ' S-.'ie/ 0 1e&er"% Lt2 + .1=78/ 1 ?B 47=+

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9n that #ase the defendants flew o-er the pla!nt!ff@s land for the purpose of ta6!ng aer!al photographs that were then offered for sale to the pla!nt!ff+ ,he pla!nt!ff #la!1ed da1ages for the trespass by the defendant !nto h!s a!rspa#e for the purpose of ta6!ng the photograph+ &esp!te the defendants argu!ng that the aeroplane had not flown o-er the Baron@s land8 %r!ff!ths 7+ found 2at so1e t!1e !n photograph!ng the house the a!r#raft flew o-er the pla!nt!ff@s far1land+4 5!s 5onour then #ons!dered the law #on#ern!ng whether the !ntrus!on !nto the a!rspa#e #onst!tuted a trespassC 29 #an f!nd no support !n author!ty for the -!ew that a landowner@s r!ghts !n the a!r spa#e abo-e h!s property e*tend to an unl!1!ted he!ght+ 9n Wandsworth Board of Works v. United Telephone Col Ltd. 8 13 ?B&+ =(4 Bowen L+7+ des#r!bed the 1a*!18 us3ue ad #oelu18 as a fan#!ful phrase8 to wh!#h 9 would add that !f appl!ed l!terally !t !s a fan#!ful not!on lead!ng to the absurd!ty of a trespass at #o11on law be!ng #o11!tted by a satell!te e-ery t!1e !t passes o-er a suburban garden+4 2,he proble1 !s to balan#e the r!ghts of an owner to en$oy the use of h!s land aga!nst the r!ghts of the general publ!# to ta6e ad-antage of all that s#!en#e now offers !n the use of a!r spa#e+ ,h!s balan#e !s !n 1y $udg1ent best stru#6 !n our present so#!ety by restr!#t!ng the r!ghts of an owner !n the a!r spa#e abo-e h!s land to su#h he!ght as !s ne#essary for the ord!nary use and en$oy1ent of h!s land and the stru#tures upon !t8 and de#lar!ng that abo-e that he!ght he has no greater r!ghts !n the a!r spa#e than any other 1e1ber of the publ!#+ 2Bpply!ng th!s test to the fa#ts of th!s #ase8 9 f!nd that the defendants@ a!r#raft d!d not !nfr!nge any r!ghts !n the pla!nt!ff@s a!r spa#e8 and thus no trespass was #o11!tted+ 9t was on any -!ew of the e-!den#e fly!ng 1any hundreds of feet abo-e the ground and !t !s not suggested that by !ts 1ere presen#e !n the a!r spa#e !t #aused any !nterferen#e w!th any use to wh!#h the pla!nt!ff put or 1!ght w!sh to put h!s land+ ,he pla!nt!ff@s #o1pla!nt !s not that the a!r#raft !nterfered w!th the use of h!s land but that a photograph was ta6en fro1 !t+ ,here !s8 howe-er8 no law aga!nst ta6!ng a photograph8 and the 1ere ta6!ng of a photograph #annot turn an a#t wh!#h !s not a trespass !nto the pla!nt!ff@s a!r spa#e !nto one that !s a trespass4 ,he #ases of 3oo%%erto& "&2 3i% o& ' Ri#,"r2 Co t"i& and 1r","( ' $ D Morri "&2 So& are both #ases deal!ng w!th !ntrus!ons !nto a!rspa#e by #rane $!bs+ 9n 3oo%%erto& "&2 3i% o& ' Ri#,"r2 Co t"i& .1=7(/ 1 Bll D 483 the bu!ld!ng #ontra#tors had !nstalled a h!gh #rane on a s!te to ass!st w!th the bu!ld!ng wor6+ )ro1 t!1e to t!1e about 5( feet of the #rane $!b e*tended o-er the pla!nt!ff@s land at a he!ght of about 5( feet abo-e the pla!nt!ff@s land+ 9n h!s $udge1ent8 Sta1p 7 set out the fa#ts of the #ase and sa!dC 29t !s !n 1y $udge1ent well establ!shed that !t !s no answer to a #la!1 for an !n$un#t!on to restra!n a trespass that the trespass does no har1 to the pla!nt!ff+ 9ndeed8 the -ery fa#t that no har1 !s done !s a reason for rather than aga!nst the grant!ng of an !n$un#t!onE for !f there !s no da1age done the da1ages re#o-ered !n the a#t!on w!ll be no1!nal and !f the !n$un#t!on !s refused the result w!ll be no 1ore nor less than a l!#en#e to #ont!nue the tort of trespass !n return for the no1!nal pay1ent+4 5!s 5onour then #ons!dered the e*er#!se of h!s d!s#ret!on and granted an !n$un#t!on but postponed !ts operat!on+ 29 a1 #ons#!ous that by so do!ng 9 a1 g!-!ng w!th one hand and ta6!ng away w!th the other+ But by so do!ng 9 g!-e effe#t to the pro#ess by wh!#h 9 ha-e #o1e to 1y #on#lus!on that !n Page ' of 1(

pr!n#!ple there ought to be an !n$un#t!on but on the part!#ular fa#ts of th!s #ase not unt!l the defendants ha-e had a proper opportun!ty of f!n!sh!ng the $ob+ 9f for any reason the $ob would not be f!n!shed !n 0o-e1ber 1=7(8 appl!#at!on #ould be 1ade8 w!th what result 9 6now not8 to e*tend the suspens!on of the order+4 9n 1r","( ' $ D Morri "&2 So& .1=74/ ?r D 1 the pla!nt!ff sought an !n$un#t!on !n a #ase w!th al1ost !dent!#al fa#ts to Foollerton+ F+B+>a1pbell 7 referred to Foollerton and sa!dC 2,he fa#ts !n that #ase #orrespond -ery #losely to the fa#ts before 1e+ Sta1p 7+ held that ne!ther the absen#e of any da1age #aused by the trespass8 e!ther present or apprehended8 (n"or the pr!n#!ple 6nown as 2the balan#e of #on-en!en#e4 was an answer to the #la!1 for an !n$un#t!on+4 29n all the #!r#u1stan#es 9 #ons!der that 9 #annot allow the defendant to #ont!nue to #o11!t th!s unlawful trespass+ 9f 9 d!d not grant the !n$un#t!on 9 would be #ondon!ng a #lear brea#h by the defendant of the pla!nt!ff@s propr!etary r!ghts+ 9 #ons!der !t should be stopped now and that no spe#!al fa#tors e*!st wh!#h would $ust!fy 1y refus!ng to grant an !n$un#t!on or to suspend !t for any length of t!1e+ ,he t!1e to see6 per1!ss!on and for negot!at!on was pr!or to the #o11en#e1ent of the wor6+4 9n L4P I&'e t(e&t Pt. Lt2 ' 5o/"r2 C,i" I&'e t(e&t (0o '" (1=8=" '4 0SFLD 4=( a 1andatory !n$un#t!on was sought for the re1o-al of s#affold!ng e*tend!ng 1+5 1etres !nto the a!rspa#e of the pla!nt!ff+ Bfter #ons!der!ng the argu1ents 5odgson 7+ granted an !n$un#t!on+ 5!s 5onour sa!d !n partC 29f the defendant@s sub1!ss!on !s to the effe#t that entry !nto a!rspa#e !s a trespass only !f !t o##urs at a he!ght and !n a 1anner wh!#h a#tually !nterferes w!th the o##up!er@s a#tual use of land at the t!1e8 then 9 th!n6 !t !s !n#orre#t+ 9n 1y -!ew8 the rule stated !n Bernstein of Leigh (Baron) v Skyviews & General Ltd by %r!ff!ths 7 was rather that a trespass o##urred only !f the !n#urs!on was at a he!ght wh!#h 1ay !nterfere w!th the ord!nary user of land8 or !s !nto a!rspa#e wh!#h !s ne#essary for the ord!nary use and en$oy1ent of the land and stru#tures uponC see (at 4868488"+ 9t was held !n that #ase that there was no trespass by an aeroplane fly!ng 1any hundreds of feet abo-e the land+ ;n the other hand8 !n Woollerton and Wilson v i!hard Costain and Graha" v # $ %orris and Sons& the !n#urs!ons of #rane $!bs at he!ghts of the order of 5( feet abo-e the pla!nt!ff@s roof were treated as trespasses+ 9 th!n6 the rele-ant test !s not whether the !n#urs!on a#tually !nterferes w!th the o##up!er@s a#tual use of land at the t!1e8 but rather whether !t !s of a nature and at a he!ght wh!#h "ay !nterfere w!th any ord!nary uses of the land wh!#h the o##up!er "ay see f!t to underta6e+4 ,he se#ond #ase of L4P I&'e t(e&t Pt. Lt2 ' 5o/"r2 C,i" I&'e t(e&t (0o 3" (1=8=" '4 0SFLD 4== dealt w!th the !ssue of #o1pensat!on for the da1age suffered by the pla!nt!ff+ Before the ter1s of the !n$un#t!on ordered !n the pre-!ous pro#eed!ngs !t be#a1e apparent that the bu!ld!ng #ould be #onstru#ted w!thout the need to trespass on L7P@s land+ ,h!s was #ontrary to the e-!den#e g!-en !n the #ase+ 5!s 5onour awarded e*e1plary da1ages of su#h an a1ount as to br!ng the total da1ages to the f!gure re3uested by the pla!nt!ff before any trespass o##urred+ 5!s 5onour sa!dC 2 G+9 th!n6 !t should be 1ade #lear to de-elopers that they #annot e*pe#t to do better by an unlawful trespass than by pay!ng the pr!#e de1anded by an ad$o!n!ng owner8 at least unless the pr!#e de1anded !s #learly unreasonable+4

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,he pos!t!on was re!nfor#ed by the $udge1ent of Bryson 7 !n Be&2"% Pt. Lt2 ' Mir'"# Pro6e#t Pt. Lt2 (1==1" '3 0SFLD 464+ ,h!s #ase !n-ol-ed the #onstru#t!on of a 1ult! story bu!ld!ng us!ng s#reens to prote#t the wor6 and pre-ent bu!ld!ng 1ater!al fall!ng fro1 the bu!ld!ng+ ,he s#reens 1o-ed upward as the bu!ld!ng was #onstru#ted but en#roa#hed !nto the a!rspa#e of the pla!nt!ff@s bu!ld!ng+ B se#ond en#roa#h1ent #on#erned a #rane and 2weather-an!ng4+ Bryson #ons!dered Bernste!n8 %raha18 L7P8 and Foollerton (a1ongst others" and #on#luded that an !n$un#t!on was warranted notw!thstand!ng that the need for the s#reen would be #o1pleted so1e f!-e wee6s after the hear!ng of the #ase+ ,he defendants argued that !t would be an undue hardsh!p to ha-e to stop wor6 wh!le a new 1ethod of #onstru#t!on was wor6ed out and put !n pla#e+ 5!s 5onour was un1o-edC 29 do not see !t as a hardsh!p at all+ 9t !s all the defendant@s own do!ng and the result of the!r us!ng a #onstru#t!on 1ethod wh!#h would #ause en#roa#h1ent and ob-!ously !n-ol-ed the1 !n the need to get per1!ss!on8 yet they d!d not obta!n per1!ss!on+ ,he!r own e-!den#e shows that by adopt!ng the #onstru#t!on 1ethod wh!#h they ha-e used they 1ade a sa-!ng now 3uant!f!ed at H'3=8(((+((4 ,he #ases of Ro2ri+7e ' U*to&8 Pi#-eri&+ ' R7228 and C%i*to& ' 9i #o7&t B7r. should be loo6ed at for general pr!n#!ples+ ,he referen#es are !n the %u!de at page 8+ ,he ,as1an!an #ase of D"'ie ' Be&&i o& (1='7" 4 ,LD 8 #on#erned a #at shot and 6!lled by a ne!ghbour!ng owner wh!le the #at was s!tt!ng (1!nd!ng !ts own bus!ness" on the roof of an ad$o!n!ng shed+ B $ury found for the defendant although d!re#ted by the $udge to f!nd for the pla!nt!ff+ ,he pla!nt!ff appl!ed for a new tr!al and !n th!s hear!ng 0!#holls > 78 after #ons!der!ng a d!#tu1 fro1 Lord llenborough !n Pi#-eri&+ ' R722 and 3uot!ng fro1 Lord Bla#6burn !n $e&.o& ' 5"rt sa!dC 29t see1s an absurd!ty to say that !f 9 f!re at another@s an!1al on h!s land8 h!t !t8 6!ll !t8 and so lea-e the bullet !n !t8 9 ha-e #o11!tted no trespass8 and yet8 !f 9 1!ss the an!1al and so let the bullet fall !nto the ground8 ha-e #o11!tted a trespass+ Su#h d!st!n#t!ons ha-e no pla#e !n the s#!en#e of the >o11on Law+4 29f the ho-er!ng aeroplane !s perfe#ted the log!#al out#o1e of Lord llenborough@s d!#tu1 would be that a 1an 1!ght ho-er as long as he pleased at a yard8 or foot8 or an !n#h8 abo-e h!s ne!ghbour@s so!l8 and not be a trespasser8 yet !f he should tou#h !t for one se#ond he would be+4 See the &a1age by B!r#raft B#t 1=5' wh!#h pre#ludes a#t!ons for trespass but !1poses str!#t l!ab!l!ty for da1age #aused by o-erfly!ng a!r#raft+ Se#t!on '+ Be%o/ +ro7&2 %e'e%: (i&er"% ri+,t ,he sa1e general pr!n#!ples apply as espoused !n Bernste!n+ ,he r!ghts of the owner of the surfa#e e*tend downwards suff!#!ently to enable the owner to en$oy the surfa#e and pre-ent !t be!ng under1!ned+ arly grants of land fro1 the >rown reser-ed 1!neral r!ghts and r!ghts to 1!ne for #oal and other 1!nerals+ ,he e*tent of the r!ghts reser-ed needs to be #ons!dered by referen#e to !nd!-!dual t!tles and the date of the or!g!nal grant fro1 the >rown+ ;n pages 14-15 of the 4 th ed!t!on of Land Law8 Butt sets out the dates for the d!fferent reser-at!ons+

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So1e land grants were l!1!ted as to depth+ 0o trespass #an o##ur below that depth+ ,here are no ngl!sh or Bustral!an #ases that appear to e*plore the !ssues+ E&#ro"#,(e&t o* B7i%2i&+ ,he general rule !s that anyth!ng #onstru#ted on the land of so1eone else be#o1es the property of that other person+ Su#h a bu!ld!ng !s regarded as a1ount!ng to a g!ft to the owner of the land+ 3u!ty te1pers th!s r!ght by apply!ng the follow!ng pr!n#!ples as set out !n R"( 2e& ' D. o& (1866" LD 1 5L 1'= 9f a stranger bu!lds on so1eone else@s land !n the 1!sta6en bel!ef that !t !s that person@s land8 and the true owner !s aware of the 1!sta6e but does noth!ng to pre-ent #onstru#t!on then e3u!ty w!ll pre-ent the true owner fro1 assert!ng t!tle to the land+ 9f a stranger bu!lds on so1eone else@s land 6now!ng the true pos!t!on as to ownersh!p then e3u!ty w!ll not ass!st the stranger+ ,he se#ond propos!t!on !s now te1pered where the stranger has #arr!ed out the wor6 !n rel!an#e upon so1e assert!on by the true owner that an !nterest !n the land w!ll be a#3u!red+ 9f !n the #!r#u1stan#es !t would be un#ons#!onable for the owner to assert the owner@s str!#t legal r!ghts then e3u!ty w!ll !nter-ene and the #ourt w!ll try to wor6 out what !s the best order or orders to be 1ade !n the part!#ular #ase+ ,he >ourt 1ay award an !rre-o#able l!#en#e8 a long ter1 lease8 a l!#en#e to o##upy the land for a per!od of t!1e8 possess!on unt!l the a1ount e*pended has been repa!d8 or 1ay order that the bu!ld!ng be re1o-ed w!th!n a reasonable t!1e+ E&#ro"#,i&+ )7i%2i&+ Bt #o11on law any part of a bu!ld!ng wh!#h en#roa#hes onto ne!ghbour!ng land !s the property of the owner of that land+ 9t follows that the owner #an o##upy the en#roa#h1ent and pre-ent the owner of the re1a!nder of the bu!ld!ng fro1 o##upy!ng !t+ 9f an owner of an en#roa#h!ng bu!ld!ng fa!ls to re1o-e the en#roa#h1ent after a re3uest to do so8 then !t !s ne#essary to approa#h the #ourt for a 1andatory !n$un#t!on to ha-e the en#roa#h1ent re1o-ed+ 9n 1any #ases !t !s poss!ble to deal w!th the 1atter under the n#roa#h1ent of Bu!ld!ngs B#t 1=''+ ,h!s a#t g!-es the Land I n-!ron1ent >ourt power to hear and deter1!ne d!sputes #on#ern!ng en#roa#h1ents by per1anent bu!ld!ngs of a substant!al nature+ Deta!n!ng walls8 #on#rete dr!-eways8 protrud!ng floor bea1s8 weld 1esh fen#e set !n #on#rete foot!ngs ha-e all been held to be Jsubstant!alJ or Jper1anentJ+ Pa-!ng !n a #ourtyard has not8 nor has a pu1p house for a sw!11!ng pool+ ,he >ourt #annot 1a6e orders relat!ng to bu!ld!ngs totally on the wrong land+ 9n A("te- Li(ite2 ' 1oo+oore/o& Pt. Li(ite2 (1==3" 176 >LD 471 the 5!gh >ourt was as6ed to #ons!der whether the B#t appl!ed to a bu!ld!ng #onstru#ted totally on the wrong land+ 9n !ts wr!tten $udge1ent the >ourt sa!dC

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2,he en#roa#h1ent by a bu!ld!ng of wh!#h the B#t !s spea6!ng !s a hor!Kontal en#roa#h1ent 2'eyond the 'o(ndary) between the land of the en#roa#h!ng owner and the land of the ad$o!n!ng owner+ ,he def!n!t!on of 2en#roa#h!ng owner4 1a6es !t #lear that the en#roa#h!ng bu!ld!ng e*tends 'eyond the 'o(ndary of the en#roa#h!ng owner@s landGGG+,hus an 2en#roa#h1ent4 under the B#t !s an en#roa#h1ent by a bu!ld!ng that tra-erses the 2boundary4 between the #ont!guous par#els of land+4 ,he #ourt 1ay order #o1pensat!on or that the en#roa#h1ent be re1o-ed+ Fho 1ay apply and the way #o1pensat!on !s #al#ulated !s set out !n se#t!ons 3 and 4+ FIXTURES 1e&er"% Fhen a #hattel !s brought onto land !t 1ay reta!n !ts #hara#ter as a #hattel or #hange !ts #hara#ter and be#o1e a f!*ture+ ,h!s be#o1es rele-ant !n at least 5 s!tuat!onsC when realty !s sold8 f!*tures pass w!th the realty w!thout the need for any e*press 1ent!on to be 1ade of the1+ >hattels do not pass w!thout 1ent!on !n the #ontra#t+ ,he standard for1 of #ontra#t for the sale of land has a l!st on the front page wh!#h !s des!gned to be #o1pleted and spe#!f!#ally !n#ludes a bo* for 2e*#lus!ons4+ a 1ortgagee !s ent!tled to f!*tures !n the e-ent of a default8 but !s not #hattels+ ent!tled f!*tures to

#hattels !nstalled or upon a property wh!#h belong to a tenant 1ay be#o1e (sub$e#t to any r!ght the tenant 1!ght ha-e to re1o-e those #hattels" f!*tures !nstalled !n or on property by a l!fe tenant be#o1e part of the

re-ers!on

on death8 f!*tures pass to the benef!#!ar!es ent!tled to the realty8 they are not part of the personal estate of the de#eased ,he general pr!n#!ple #an be stated as 23u!#3u!d plantatur solo8 solo #ed!t 2 L 2whate-er !s atta#hed to the land belongs to the land4+ A&&e:"tio& ' I&te&tio& ,he old #o11on rule rel!ed al1ost e*#lus!-ely on the degree of anne*at!on !n deter1!n!ng whether a #hattel reta!ned !ts #hara#ter as a #hattel or be#a1e a f!*ture+ ,h!s rel!an#e on anne*at!on has de#l!ned and the deter1!nat!on !s now pr!1ar!ly based on the !ntent!on of the person pla#!ng the !te1+ 9f the !te1 !s pla#ed w!th the !ntent!on of better en$oy!ng the land then !t !s l!6ely to be a f!*ture+ 9f the !te1 !s pla#ed w!th the !ntent!on of better en$oy!ng the !te1 then !t !s l!6ely to re1a!n a #hattel+ ,here are two presu1pt!onsC Fhere the !te1 !s f!*ed to land to any e*tent (other than s!1ply by !ts own we!ght" !t !s presu1ed to be a f!*ture and the burden of pro-!ng otherw!se !s w!th the owner of the #hattel+

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Fhere the !te1 !s s!1ply rest!ng on the land by !ts own we!ght !t !s presu1ed not to be a f!*ture and the burden of pro-!ng otherw!se !s w!th the landowner+ Bs these are presu1pt!ons they 1ay be rebutted by e-!den#e to the #ontrary+ Bt paragraph .3(6/ Butt sets out 1any e*a1ples of the rele-an#e of !ntent!on when deter1!n!ng the status of !te1s that were #hattels when brought onto the land+ 5e g!-es e*a1ples ofC a 0ew Mealand bush tra1way8 se#urely f!*ed to the ground but only pla#e for a te1porary purpose unt!l logs re1o-ed an#estral pa!nt!ngs f!*ed !n purpose des!gned wall n!#hes (pla#ed there for the en$oy1ent of the pa!nt!ngs8 but not part of the 2grand ar#h!te#tural des!gn4" not be!ng #ons!dered f!*tures+ hea-y 1etal grates rest!ng on the ground by the!r own we!ght (be#ause they repla#ed other e*!st!ng f!*ed grates" s#ulptured 1arble -ases 1arble l!ons8 1arble slab garden seats #ar-ed wooden f!gures !n

portra!t and tapestry be#ause they were part of an 2 l!Kabethan roo14 be!ng f!*tures although so1e !te1s rested only by the!r own we!ght+ Fhere there !s the poss!b!l!ty of #hattels for1!ng part of what 1!ght be #alled a 2grand ar#h!te#tural des!gn4 !t !s ne#essary to #ons!der whether su#h a s#he1e #an be sa!d to e*!st+ ,he #ase of D;E.&#o7rt ' 1re+or. (1866" LD 3 3 38' deals w!th th!s top!#+ 9t !s referred t !n Butt at .3(6/ and .3(=/+ N"t7re o* I&te&tio& ,he nature of the !ntent!on of the person pla#!ng the #hattel 1ust be deter1!ned ob$e#t!-ely L !t 1ust be 2patent for all to see4 <odern de#!s!ons su#h as N 5 D7&& Pt. Lt2 ' L M Eri# o& Pt. Lt2 (1=8(" B0M >on- D 3(( loo6 at a#tual !ntent!on+ 9n th!s #ase a PBBN telephone syste1 had been !nstalled !n leased pre1!ses by the tenant+ ,he syste1 re1a!ned the property of the lessor of the e3u!p1ent (&unn" wh!#h #ould re1o-e the e3u!p1ent at the end of the e3u!p1ent lease+ ,he tenant8 Pett!t I Se-!tt8 1o-ed out of the pre1!ses before the end of the property lease and &unn sought to re1o-e the PBBN e3u!p1ent as !t was ent!tled to do under !ts lease of the e3u!p1ent+ ,he lessor of the pre1!ses8 r!#sson8 #la!1ed that the PBBN had be#o1e a f!*ture and #ould not be re1o-ed+ 9n h!s $udge1ent8 <ahoney 7+B+ sa!dC 29t !s 8 !n 1y op!n!on8 now a##epted that a #hattel 1ay be#o1e part of realty notw!thstand!ng that !t !s not8 !n any for1al sense8 anne*ed to !t but rests on !t 1erely by !ts own we!ghtCG+ -en !f a #hattel !s phys!#ally anne*ed to the realty8 !t 1ay yet re1a!n8 at all t!1es8 personaltyG4 Page 7 of 1(

2Fhether the 3uest!on of whether #hattels ha-e be#o1e part of the realty !s a 3uest!on of fa#t (see s(pra" or a #on#lus!on of law8 -ar!ous 1atters ha-e been seen as of ass!stan#e !n the f!nal deter1!nat!on of !t+ ,he per!od of t!1e for wh!#h the #hattel was to be !n pos!t!on8 the degree of !ts anne*at!on to the land8 what was to be done w!th !t8 and the fun#t!on to be ser-ed by !ts anne*at!on8 are all 1atters wh!#h ha-e been seen to be rele-ant for th!s purpose+4 9n the sa1e #ase8 %lass 7+B+ sa!d !n h!s $udge1entC 2,he state1ents of pr!n#!ple found !n the 1any de#!ded #ases are not eas!ly sus#ept!ble of re#on#!l!at!on+ But on #erta!n propos!t!ons they are agreed+ 1+ ,he ult!1ate 3uest!on !s whether a #hattel has be#o1e part of the realty to wh!#h !t !s atta#hed+ 9t !s a 3uest!on of fa#t wh!#h !n a d!-!ded tr!bunal !s de#!ded by a $uryG '+ ,he 3uest!on !s to be deter1!ned ha-!ng regard to all rele-ant #!r#u1stan#es wh!#h !n#lude the purpose of anne*at!on and the 1ode of anne*at!onG+ 3+ Blthough both of these fa#tors are rele-ant ne!ther !s #on#lus!-e+ )or e*a1ple a #hattel wh!#h has been se#urely f!*ed to the pre1!ses 1ay ne-ertheless not be a f!*tureG >ontrar!w!se a #hattel 1ay be#o1e a f!*ture notw!thstand!ng that the party anne*!ng !t 1ay ha-e no su#h a#tual !ntent!on+4 9t #an be seen fro1 e*a1!n!ng the #ases referred to !n &unn and other #ases that ea#h #ase 1ust be deter1!ned on !ts own fa#ts+ <any of the #ases are #onfl!#t!ng+ ,he status of the person br!ng!ng the #hattel onto the land !s also rele-ant+ Bn owner !s 1u#h 1ore l!6ely to be seen to be br!ng!ng #hattels #apable of anne*at!on to the land onto the land w!th the !ntent!on that they be#o1e f!*tures+ ,hose w!th a l!1!ted !nterest8 su#h as lessees and l!fe tenants8 are 1ore l!6ely to be !ntend!ng that #hattels do not be#o1e f!*tures+ 9n Rei2 ' S(it, (1=(5" 3 >LD 6568 the 5!gh >ourt held that a house ere#ted by the lessee but rest!ng on p!ers only by !ts own we!ght was no longer a #hattel but had be#o1e a f!*ture+ 9n St"&2"r2 Port%"&2 Ce(e&t Co Pt. Lt2 ' 1oo2 (1=8'" 47 BLD 1(7 the Pr!-y >oun#!l deter1!ned that a #e1ent 1!ll we!gh!ng 1(( tons was a #hattel and #ould be re1o-ed by the -endor+ ,he #ontra#t for sale of the -endor@s land #onta!ned a #lause allow!ng the -endor to re1o-e the 1!ll pro-!ded su#h re1o-al too6 pla#e w!th!n 1' 1onths of the date of the #ontra#t+ )or -ar!ous reasons the 1!ll had not been re1o-ed w!th!n that t!1e+ ,he Supre1e >ourt of 0ew South Fales found that the 1!ll had be#o1e a f!*ture when the -endor had fa!led to re1o-e !t w!th!n the t!1e allowed+ ,he Pr!-y >oun#!l allowed an appeal be#auseC on !ts proper #onstru#t!on the #ontra#t e*#luded the 1!ll fro1 the sale fa!lure by the -endor to re1o-e the 1!ll w!th!n 1' 1onths would not 1ean that ownersh!p passed to the pur#haser8 but would sound !n da1ages or allow the pur#haser to see6 an !n$un#t!on order!ng the -endor to re1o-e the 1!ll+

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B -ery !nstru#t!-e #ase !s that of 3e)) ' Fr"&- Be'i 8 Lt2 .1=4(/ 1 Bll D '47+ 9n 3e)) a tenant had #onstru#ted a large shed of #orrugated !ron supported by t!1ber posts rest!ng on a #on#rete slab+ ,he posts were supported by !ron straps e1bedded !n the slab but bolted to the posts+ ,he roof and s!des were #apable of re1o-al !n se#t!ons+ ,he owner asserted that the slab and superstru#ture were one un!t and 1ust re1a!n+ ,he tenant asserted that the slab 1ust stay as a f!*ture but that the rest of the superstru#ture was not a f!*ture and #ould be re1o-ed+ S#ott L+7+ !n del!-er!ng the $udge1ent of the >ourt sa!dC 2,hat the #on#rete floor was so aff!*ed to the ground as to be#o1e part of the so!l !s ob-!ous+ 9t was #o1pletely and per1anently atta#hed to the ground8 and8 se#ondly8 !t #ould not be deta#hed e*#ept by be!ng bro6en up and #eas!ng to e*!st as a #on#rete floor or as the #e1ent and rubble out of wh!#h !t had been 1ade+ &oes that fa#t of !tself pre-ent the superstru#ture fro1 be!ng a tenant@s f!*ture: 9 do not th!n6 so+4 2,he $udge held8 and 9 th!n6 r!ghtly held8 that the superstru#ture was 2to a -ery large e*tent4 a 2te1porary4 bu!ld!ng8 by wh!#h 9 understand h!1 to 1ean that the ob$e#t and purpose for wh!#h the #o1pany ere#ted !t were !ts use for su#h t!1e as they 1!ght need !t+4 ,he 1ore re#ent #ase of P"%7()eri ' P"%7()eri (1=86" 0SF >on-D 55-'87 deals w!th a d!spute between brothers where an arrange1ent was entered !nto for the sale to one brother by the other of an !nterest !n property as tenant !n #o11on+ ,he property #o1pr!sed ' self #onta!ned flats+ ,here was an e*#hange of letters e-!den#!ng the arrange1ent but noth!ng !n the letters #on#ern!ng f!*tures or #hattels+ ,he sto-e and #arpet were held to be f!*tures but the other !te1s #la!1ed to be f!*tures by the pur#haser were found to be #hattels+ 9n h!s $udge1ent Aearney 7+ 3uoted fro1 1any #ases and for1ed the follow!ng -!ewC 29t would see1 fro1 perusal of these and other author!t!es !n the f!eld that there has been a per#ept!ble de#l!ne !n the #o1parat!-e !1portan#e of the degree or 1ode of anne*at!on8 w!th a tenden#y to greater e1phas!s be!ng pla#ed upon the purpose or ob$e#t of anne*at!on8 or8 putt!ng !t another way8 the !ntent!on w!th wh!#h the !te1 !s pla#ed upon land+ ,he sh!ft has !n-ol-ed a greater rel!an#e upon the !nd!-!dual surround!ng #!r#u1stan#es of the #ase !n 3uest!on as d!st!n#t fro1 any atte1pt to see6 to apply so1e s!1ple rule or auto1at!# solut!onGGGno standard solut!on !s to be der!-ed fro1 su#h #ases wh!#h8 upon ult!1ate analys!s8 are found to turn upon the!r !nd!-!dual fa#ts+4 Fh!le generally on#e an !te1 be#o1es a f!*ture !t #annot be re1o-ed fro1 the land by anyone other than the owner of the land8 the law re#ogn!ses that there are so1e #!r#u1stan#es where that 1!ght o##ur+ ,he #ases of Lei+, ' T".%or and S!.er ' P,i%%i! o& deal w!th a l!fe tenant and tenant respe#t!-ely+ 9n Lei+, ' T".%or (1=('" B> 157 at 16' a l!fe tenant of a 1ans!on aff!*ed -aluable tapestr!es to the walls of the draw!ng roo1+ ,hey were fastened to #an-as stret#hed o-er str!ps of wood and na!led to the str!ps wh!#h were na!led to the walls+ ,he tapestr!es #ould be re1o-ed w!thout any 2stru#tural !n$ury4+ ,he l!fe tenant d!ed and her e*e#utors and the re1a!nder1en both #la!1ed the tapestr!es+ ,he 5ouse of Lords de#!ded that the tapestr!es reta!ned the!r #hara#ter as #hattels as they #ould only be en$oyed as orna1ental tapestr!es by f!*!ng the1 !n th!s way+ ,here was 2no !ntent!on to ded!#ate these tapestr!es to the house4+

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,he tapestr!es 2put up w!th that purpose and atta#hed !n that 1anner8 d!d not pass w!th the freehold to the re1a!nder1an8 but for1ed part of the personal estate of the tenant for l!fe8 and were re1o-able by her e*e#utor+4 9n S!.er ' P,i%%i! o& .1=31/ ' >h 183 a lessee of a flat for '1 years !nstalled ant!3ue panell!ng8 orna1ental #h!1ney p!e#es8 and f!repla#es+ 0o stru#tural #hanges were 1ade for the panell!ng but sl!ght alterat!ons were ne#essary for the #h!1ney p!e#es and f!repla#es+ Fhen the lessee d!ed8 h!s e*e#utors #la!1ed the r!ght to re1o-e the panell!ng8 #h!1ney p!e#es and f!repla#es as tenantOs f!*tures+ ,he lessor #la!1ed that they were part of the stru#ture and that the!r re1o-al would #ause da1age+ ,he >ourt of Bppeal held thatC 2!n deter1!n!ng whether a part!#ular #hattel was a tenant@s or a landlord@s f!*ture the >ourt had to #ons!der what were the ob$e#t and purpose of anne*at!on8 and what would happen !f the anne*ed #hattel were re1o-ed+ So long as the #hattel #ould be re1o-ed w!thout do!ng !rreparable da1age to the de1!sed pre1!ses8 ne!ther the 1ethod of atta#h1ent nor the degree of anne*at!on8 nor the 3uantu1 of da1age that would be done e!ther to the #hattel !tself or to the de1!sed pre1!ses by the re1o-al8 had any bear!ng on the r!ght of the tenant to re1o-e !t8 e*#ept !n so far as !t threw l!ght upon the 3uest!on of the !ntent!on w!th wh!#h the tenant aff!*ed the #hattel to the de1!sed pre1!ses+4 ,he 1ost l!6ely #ase !s where a tenant f!*es !te1s to the property for the purpose of enabl!ng the tenant to use the pre1!ses the sub$e#t of the lease+ ,he #o11on law allowed tenants to re1o-e trade8 orna1ental or do1est!# f!*tures fro1 the property+ Fh!le the lease was !n for#e and the f!*ture atta#hed to the land8 the lessor was sa!d to be the owner of the f!*ture sub$e#t to the tenant@s r!ght of re1o-al+ B"i& ' Br"&2 (1876" 1 Bpp >as 76'+ 9n Ne/ <e"%"&2 1o'er&(e&t Pro!ert. Cor! ' 5 M 0 S Lt2 .1=8'/ ?B 1145 a tenant o##up!ed pre1!ses under a lease+ Blthough th!s #ase !n-ol-ed a d!spute about a 1ar6et rent where rent was deter1!ned on the bas!s that the lease had ended8 the tenant had -a#ated and re1o-ed any tenantOs f!*tures8 !t was held on appeal that at #o11on law a tenant had a r!ght to re1o-e tenantOs f!*tures fro1 de1!sed pre1!ses so long as he was !n possess!on as a tenant+ &unn L+7+ su11ar!sed the 1atterC 29f a tenant surrenders h!s lease and -a#ates the pre1!ses w!thout re1o-!ng the tenant@s f!*tures8 then he !s held to ha-e abandoned the1+ But !f he surrenders h!s lease8 e!ther e*pressly or by operat!on of law8 and re1a!ns !n possess!on under a new lease8 !t !s a 3uest!on of #onstru#t!on of the !nstru1ent of surrender whether or not he has also g!-en up h!s r!ght to re1o-e h!s f!*tures+ 9f noth!ng !s sa!d8 then the #o11on law rule appl!es8 and he reta!ns h!s r!ght to re1o-e the f!*tures so long as he !s !n possess!on as a tenant+4

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