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Chapter 3-Concept and Methodologies of Metal Forming and sheet Metalworking

1. Explain the strain hardening process. Strain hardening is a process in which metals harden when flexed mechanically or process that takes place in the crystal lattice of a material. This form of hardening is useful to increase the strength of metals that cannot be hardened by heat treatments. Strain hardening or work hardening can be done by process like extrusion or forging that dislocation of metal happen and it will change the properties of part. It will increase the tensile strength and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) but decrease the ductility of part and also increase the brittleness.

2. Compare the different between orthogonal cutting and oblique cutting. Orthogonal metal cutting Cutting edge of the tool is perpendicular to the direction of tool travel. The direction of chip flow is perpendicular to the cutting edge. The chip coils in a tight flat spiral For same feed and depth of cut the force which shears the metal acts on a smaller areas. So the life of the tool is less. Produces sharp corners. Smaller length of cutting edge is in contact with the work. Generally parting off in lathe, broaching and slotting operations are done in this method. Oblique metal cutting The cutting edge is inclined at an angle less than 90o to the direction of tool travel. The chip flows on the tool face making an angle. The chip flows sideways in a long curl. The cutting force acts on larger area and so tool life is more.

Produces a chamfer at the end of the cut For the same depth of cut greater length of cutting edge is in contact with the work. This method of cutting is used in almost all machining operations.

Tutorial Question 3. Draw the merchant force diagram.


4. Describe 4 types of chips during metal cutting. Continuous Chips Formed with ductile materials machined at high cutting speeds and/or high rake angles Deformation takes place along a narrow shear zone called the (primary shear zone) may develop a secondary shear zone due to high friction at the toolchip interface Built-up Edge (BUE) Chips Consists of layers of material from the work piece that are deposited on the tool tip As it grows larger, the BUE becomes unstable and eventually breaks apart

Serrated Chips Also called segmented or non-homogeneous chips They are semi-continuous chips with large zones of low shear strain and small zones of high shear strain (shear localization) Chips have a sawtooth-like appearance

Tutorial Question Discontinuous Chips Consist of segments that attached firmly or loosely to each other Form under the following conditions: 1. Brittle workpiece materials 2. Materials with hard inclusions and impurities 3. Very low or very high cutting speeds 4. Large depths of cut 5. Low rake angle 5. Explain factors that affect the tool life. Cutting speed


Cutting speed has the greatest influence on tool life. As the cutting speed increases the temperature also rises. The heat is more concentrated on the tool than on the work and the hardness of the tool metric changes so the relative increase in the hardness of the work accelerates the abrasive action.

Tool material Physical and chemical properties of work material influence tool life by affecting form stability and rate of wear of tool.

Feed and depth of cut With a fine feed the area of chip passing over the tool face is greater than that of coarse feed for a given volume of swarf removal, but to offset this chip will be greater hence the resultant pressure will nullify the advantage.

Tool Geometry A tool with large rake angle becomes weak as a large rake reduces the tool cross-section and the amount of metal to absorb the heat.

6. With an illustration, show flank, crater and nose wear.

Tutorial Question 7. Define what is machinability


Machinability is referred to the ease with which a metal can be machined in terms of: 1. Surface finish and surface integrity 2. Tool life 3. Force and power required 4. The level of difficulty in chip control Good machinability indicates good surface finish and surface integrity, a long tool life, and low force and power requirements Machinability ratings (indexes) are available for each type of material and its condition

8. During open-die forging process, determine the root cause of barrelling. Barreling is caused by frictional forces that oppose the outward flow of the workpiece at the die interfaces

9. Suggest methods to prevent the barrelling.

10. Define the extrusion process. In extrusion, large deformations can take place without fracture as the material is under high tri-axial compression Extrusion is a process of forcing the metal to flow through a shape- forming die. The metal gets deformed due to compressive and shear force applied at inlet end. Extrusion is the process where a solid plastic (also called a resin), usually in the form of beads or pellets, is continuously fed to a heated chamber and carried along by a feed screw within

11. Compare the different between extrusion process and drawing process. extrusion process a cylindrical billet is forced through a die in a manner similar drawing process

which the cross-section of solid rod, wire, or tubing is reduced or changed in shape by pulling it through a die large deformations can take place without The die angle influences the drawing force fracture, because the material is under high and the quality of the drawn product triaxial compression during extrusion extruded products typically have a a limit to the magnitude of the force, constant cross-section because when the tensile stress reaches the yield stress of the metal being drawn, the work-piece will simply yield and, eventually, break.

Tutorial Question


12. Describe the effect of die angle for extrusion process. Low die angle-surface is large, which increases friction at die-billet interface - Higher friction results in larger ram force. Large die angle-more turbulence in metal flow during reduction. - Turbulence increases ram force required. Optimum angle depends on work material, billet temperature and lubrication.

13. Explain the purpose of lubrication during extrusion process. 1. Material flow during extrusion. 2. Surface finish and product quality 3. Extrusion forces for the large extrusions an extremely thick oil carrier is needed to withstand the heat, and also the compressed air/water mix to cool punches 14. Explain the advantages of cold extrusion process compared with hot extrusion process. 1. 2. 3. 4. Improved mechanical properties Good control of dimensional tolerances Improved surface finish Production rates and costs that are competitive Cold extrusion Good mechanical properties due to severe cold working as long as the temperatures created are below the re-crystallization temperature. Good control of dimensional tolerances Improved surface finish with use of proper lubricates Production rates and costs that are competitive No oxidation takes place

Hot extrusion The material produced via hot extrusion is more ductile

It is a lot easier to perform hot extrusion since it requires less force and energy During the deformation process, the pores found in the metal are reduced in size or are completely closed up. high equipment set up and maintenance cost

Tutorial Question 15. Explain with illustration the deep drawing.


16. A solid cylindrical slug made of 4135 stainless steel is 120 mm in diameter and 80 mm high. It is reduced in height by 50% at room temperature by open-die forging with flat dies. Assuming that the coefficient of friction is 0.25, calculate the forging force at the end of the stroke.

17. Estimate the force required for punching a 30-mm diameter hole through a 2.7-mm thick annealed titanium- alloy Ti-6Al-4V sheet at room temperature.

18. A sheet metal with length 30 cm and thickness 15 mm is to be bent with angle 90. Determine the bend allowance if the bending radius is 5cm. Assume that the process is ideal case.

Tutorial Question


Chapter 4- Concept and Methodologies of Particulate Processing of Metals & Ceramic

1. Describe the Powder Metallurgy process. process involves metal powders compacted into desired shapes and sintered to form a solid piece parts can be mass produced to net shape or near net shape, eliminating or reducing the need for subsequent machining. Powder-metallurgy process consists of: Powder production Blending

Compaction Purposes of compaction are to obtain the required shape, density and particle-to-particle contact Pressed powder is known as green compact Density depends on the pressure applied Higher the density of the compacted part, the higher are its strength and elastic modulus Compacting pressure required depends on the characteristics and shape of the particles, method of blending and lubricant Sintering Sintering is the process whereby green compacts are heated in a furnace to below the melting point but high enough to allow bonding (fusion) of the individual particles Affecting mechanical properties are temperature, time, and processing history Porosity cannot be avoided completely due to voids remaining after compaction and gases evolve during sintering Finishing operations Sizing: cold pressing to improve dimensional accuracy Coining: cold pressing to press details into surface Impregnation: oil fills the pores of the part Infiltration: pores are filled with a molten metal

Tutorial Question 2. Explain with illustration the Powder Metallurgy process.


3. Describe with illustration the atomization method for powder production.

a) Involves a liquid-metal stream produced by injecting molten metal through a small orifice b) Stream is broken up by jets of inert gas or air or water known as gas or water atomization

c) Size and shape of the particles formed depend on the temperature of the molten metal, rate of flow, nozzle size, and jet characteristics d) In centrifugal atomization, the centrifugal forces break up the stream and generate particles 4. Justify the 3 ways to identify the metal powder classification.

Tutorial Question


5. Define the green compact in powder metallurgy.

6. Justify the advantage of using multiple punches than single punch during pressing.

7. Compare the Cold Isostatic Pressing (CIP) and Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). Cold Isostatic Pressing (CIP) conducted at room temperature have a higher green strength which allows for close tolerances, complex shapes, and better machinability. Relatively inexpensive. Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) involves isostatic pressing conducted at increased temperature used to remove defects from castings and heat-treat creep damaged products. Higher equipment cost and production To improve properties in superalloy and titanium-alloy castings for the aerospace industry

8. Determine the main advantage when using HIP. Produces fully dense compacts of uniform grain structure and density Handling larger parts Increased design flexibility allows for considerable design flexibility in shaping components, making it especially suitable for products. Often involving irregular shapes and small runs of a type and size, each HIP product/component can be individually designed so that it is guaranteed to meet its operating conditions. Reduction of costly operations The ability to manufacture products with irregular shapes and complex geometry means less need for costly operations like machining and welding. 9. Justify the type of product is made by Powder Injection Molding.

Tutorial Question


10. Give one example of product can be made by pressureless compaction.

11. Explain with illustration the ceramic shaping process.

1) First, the raw materials must be ground or crushed down into fine particles. 2) Next, the particles must be mixed with additives, which include: binder- to hold particles together lubricant- to reduce friction and aid in removing from mold wetting agent- to improve mixing process (commonly water) plasticizer- to improve ease of forming mixture agents- control of foaming and sintering deflocculent- to create uniform mixture by applying like charges to all particles, causing them to repel each other 3) Finally, the material must be shaped, dried, and fired. 12. Compare the wet pressing and dry pressing for ceramic. wet pressing Moisture content in mixture is typically 10-15%. dry pressing With a moisture content below 4%,

13. Explain the important of drying and firing processes for shaping ceramic.

Tutorial Question


14. Give 3 poor and good designs for powder metallurgy process.

15. Give 5 advantages of using powder metallurgy process.

Advantages Elimination or reduction of machining High production rates Wide variations in compositions Wide property variations Scrap is eliminated or reduced

Disadvantages Inferior strength properties Dimensional changes during sintering High cost of tooling and equipment Limitations on part size and shape complexity Size and shape limitations

Chapter 5- Concept and Methodologies of Joining and Assemble Processes


Tutorial Question


1. Explain 3 categories of joining. Welding Adhesive bonding Mechanical fastening

2. Describe 5 important aspects of manufacturing and assembly operations. Simple product may be impossible to manufacture as a single piece The product is easier and more economical to manufacture as individual components Products need to be designed to be able to be taken apart for maintenance or replacement of their parts Different properties may be desirable for functional purposes of the product Transporting the product in individual components and assembling them later

3. Give the requirements of mechanical fastening in assembly operation. Less costly to use fewer, but larger, fasteners Minimum number of fasteners Fit between parts to be joined should be loose Fasteners of standard size should be used Holes should not be too close to edges or corners

4. Give 3 examples of mechanical fastening that required hole preparation.

5. List 3 mechanical fastening methods that not use fasteners. crimping seaming


Tutorial Question


6. Define what is fusion welding. Compare the principle of the process with solid-state welding, brazing and soldering. Fusion welding is defined as melting together and coalescing materials by means of heat Filler metals are metals added to the weld area during welding Fusion welds made without the use of filler metals are known as autogenous welds

solid-state welding no filler metal is added.

brazing joining of metal pieces is done with the help of filler metal. These are weakest joint out of three. Not meant to bear the load. Use to make electrical contacts generally. Temperature requirement is up to 450C. No need to heat the workpieces. No change in mechanical properties after joining. Cost involved and skill requirements are very low. No heat treatment is required.

soldering joining of metal pieces is done with the help of filler metal. These are stronger than soldering but weaker than welding. These can be used to bear the load up to some extent. It may go to 600C in brazing. Workpieces are heated but below their melting point. May change in mechanical properties of joint but it is almost negligible. Cost involved and sill required are in between others two. No heat treatment is required after brazing.

7. Explain 3 types of flame during oxy-fuel gas welding. Neutral flame: Acetylene and oxygen mix at the ratio of 1:1. Oxidizing flame: A flame with excess oxygen is known as oxidising flame Reducing flame: If oxygen is insufficient for full combustion, the flame is known as a reducing or carburising flame

8. Explain the function of flux on filler wire. Used to supply additional metal to the weld zone during welding Available as filler rods or wire and may be bare or coated with flux Purpose of the flux is to retard oxidation of the surfaces of the parts being welded by generating a gaseous shield around the weld zone

Tutorial Question


9. Describe the different of welding quality for different polarities in arc-welding. In straight polarity, the workpiece is positive (anode) and the electrode is negative (cathode). It produces welds that are narrow and deep

In reverse polarity, the workpiece is negative and the electrode is positive. The weld zone is shallower and wider

10. Explain the principle of plasma arc welding.

During plasma-arc welding, the additional pilot-arc burns between the tungsten electrode and the plasma nozzle. Mostly, the current intensity of the pilot-arc lies between 3 and 15 amps. The plasma gas pushes the pilot-arc slightly out of the plasma nozzle, so that the arc can be seen here as a bright spot of light. The pilot-arc ionizes the arc gap which has as a result the extremely high ignition reliability that is typical for the plasma-arc welding system. The weld pool is protected by the shielding gas, flowing between the outer shielding gas nozzle and the plasma nozzle. As shielding gas pure argon or argon-rich gas-mixtures with hydrogen or helium are possible.

Tutorial Question


Compared to conventional arc-welding systems, the necked plasma-arc has a markedly higher energy density and lower arc scattering. While the diameter of the TIG-arc grows markedly bigger from the tip of the electrode toward the work piece, the diameter of the plasma-arc grows only slightly. Advantages of Plasma Arc Welding (PAW): Requires less operator skill due to good tolerance of arc to misalignments; High welding rate; High penetrating capability (keyhole effect); Disadvantages of Plasma Arc Welding (PAW): Expensive equipment; High distortions and wide welds as a result of high heat input.

11. Give 3 factors that affect the friction welding.

12. Explain the principle of spot welding. In resistance spot welding, two or more sheets of metal are held between electrodes through which welding current is supplied for a definite time and also force is exerted on work pieces. The welding cycle starts with the upper electrode moving and contacting the work pieces resting on lower electrode which is stationary. The work pieces are held under pressure and only then heavy current is passed between the electrodes for preset time. The area of metals in contact shall be rapidly raised to welding temperature, due to the flow of current through the contacting surfaces of work pieces. The pressure between electrodes, squeezes the hot metal together thus completing the weld. The weld nugget formed is allowed to cool under pressure and then pressure is released.


Tutorial Question


13. Give 4 advantages of using spot welding compared with oxy-fuel welding. Spot welding is quick and easy There is no need to use any fluxes or filler metal to create a join Spot welding can be performed without any special skill. can be used to join many different metals, and can join different types to each other. Sheets as thin as 1/4 inch can be spot welded, and multiple sheets may be joined together at the same time.

14. With illustration, show 3 distinct zone of welding joint. Base metal Heat-affected zone - The surrounding area of base metal that did not melt, but was heated enough to affect its grain structure. Weld metal(Fusion zone) -The area of base metal and filler metal that has been completely melted


Tutorial Question


15. Explain the effects of residual stress to the product after welding operation. Suggest solutions to reduce the stress. When two plates are being welded, the plates are at ambient temperature. If the plate is not free to warp, it will develop residual stresses. Due to localised heating and cooling during welding, the expansion and contraction of the weld area causes residual stresses. Problems caused by residual stresses is reduced by preheating the base metal or the parts to be welded Preheating will reduce the cooling rate and level of thermal stresses developed Workpieces may be heated in a furnace, electrically or by radiant lamps for thin sections Residual stresses can be relieved by plastically deforming the structure by a small amount

16. Define what is weldability. Similar to Machinability, it defines the capacity of a metal to be welded into a suitable design and the resulting weld joint to perform satisfactorily in the intended service. The factors affecting weldability, welding process, base metal, filler metal and surface condition. 17. Describe the consideration factors before selecting the type of welding process. Configuration of the parts or structure to be joined Manufacturing methods Types of materials Location, accessibility, and ease of joining Application and service requirements Effects of distortion Costs involved in edge preparation Costs of equipment

18. Explain how to improve porosity during welding operations. Proper selection of electrodes and filler metals Improved welding techniques

Tutorial Question Proper cleaning and the prevention of contaminants Reduced welding speeds


19. Explain what the different between welding and brazing. welding joining of two or more pieces of aluminum by applying heat or pressure, or both, with or without filler metal These are the strongest joints used to bear the load. Strength of a welded joint may be more than the strength of base metal. brazing joining of metal pieces is done with the help of filler metal. These are weakest joint out of three. Not meant to bear the load. Use to make electrical contacts generally. Temperature requirement is up to

Temperature required is up to 3800C 450C. of welding zone Workpiece to be joined need to be No need to heat the workpieces. heated till their melting point. Mechanical properties of base metal No change in mechanical properties may change at the joint due to heating after joining. and cooling. Heat cost is involved and high skill Cost involved and skill level is required. requirements are very low. Heat treatment is generally required to No heat treatment is required. eliminate undesirable effects of welding. joining is done over the entire two pieces are placed in contact and a bead is run down the edges. The joining surface of the two mating parts is done on the edges. 20. With illustration, explain the different between TIG welding and plasma-arc welding.

Principle of Powder Metallurgy Powder technology is the science for the manufacture of parts from metal powders by compaction and heating that creates a homogeneous mass. Heating is executed in a furnace and is called sintering. The temperature at which sintering is performed is lower than the melting point of the powdered material. Sintering consists of diffusion in solid state by which particles of compacted powder are bonded together. This is the basic working principle of powder technology.