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ABSTRACT

Seismic isolation is an emerging trend in earthquake resistant design with great potential for constructing safer structures in seismic prone regions. Aseismically isolated structure experiences reduced seismic forces and accelerations and moves essentially as a rigid body, preventing damage due to deformations. This is achieved by mounting the structure on horizontally flexible seismic base isolators, which make the structure move in slower and smoother fashion, avoiding resonance. In addition, seismic energy imparted to the structure is substantially reduced or dissipated by the isolators, which are properly designed for such a purpose, rather than through inelastic deformations of the structure, which causesdamage to its structural and non-structural components. In this paperan analytical study performed ona six storey RC framed building having moment resisting frame construction isolated using leadrubber bearing (LRB) is presented. Analytical results were compared for the selected building with and without the designed seismic base isolation system. The study showed that significant reduction in base shear, inter storey drift and acceleration responses for the base isolated building when compared to fixed base building demonstrating the efficiency of the base isolation system designed.

1. INTRODUCTION
Seismic isolation is an emerging trend in earthquake resistant design with great potential for the future. A seismically isolated structure experiences reduced seismic forces and accelerations and moves essentially as a rigid body, preventing damage due to deformations. In a base isolated structure the seismic protection is achieved by shifting its natural period away from the range of the frequencies for which the maximum amplification effect of ground motion is expected. In this way the input seismic energy imparted to the structure is significantly reduced and consequently it is possible to avoid large plastic deformation and related damage phenomena due to nonlinear response. In the base isolation strategy, it is possible to obtain a considerable reduction of large displacements attained at the base level as a consequence of the energy dissipation due to damping and hysteretic properties of isolation device. Many buildings have been constructed on various types of seismic bearings, and such structures have shown superior performance during earthquakes. 1.1 Historical Background A purely sliding isolation system is the earliest and the simplest isolation system proposed in 1909 by Johannes Avetican Calantarients, a medical doctor in England. He suggested separating the structure from the foundation by a layer of talc, isolation system reduces accelerations in the isolated building at the expense of large relative displacements between the building and the foundation.

Fig.1 Calantarientsbase isolation system using a layer of talc as the isolation medium. 1.2 Seismic Base Isolation Using Sand

The largest is a four storey dormitory building constructed for the Earthquake Strong Motion Observatory in Beijing in which the sliding surface is a layer of specially selected sand between terrazzo plates that are located above the foundation and under the walls at the ground floor level[2]. 1.3 New Bhuj Hospital with Base Isolation Technology The 300-bed new Bhuj hospital replaces the building that claimed 176 lives when it collapsed during the January 2001 Gujarat earthquake. This is the first seismically isolated building in India fitted with laminated rubber bearings. With this technology, the buildingcanswayfor35 cm in the two horizontal directions for an earthquake measuring eight on the Richter scale.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Farzad Naeim and James M. Kelly (1999), introduced a measure, to be incorporated into the seismic risk assessment framework for economic decision-making of buildings, denoted as the probable frequent loss, which is defined as the mean loss resulting from shaking with 10% exceedance probability in 5 years and provide complete, up to date coverage of seismic isolation, complete with a systematic development of concepts in theory and practical application presented by numerical examples.

Petros Komodromos (2000): This state-of-the-art volume provides a thorough exploration of seismic isolation, an innovative performance-based approach, which can be used to minimize earthquake induced loads, and to mitigate or reduce resulting damage in low-tomedium-rise buildings.

T.K. Datta (2010): This book presented various forms of inputs; spectral analysis of structures for ground motion and response spectrum analysis for fixed base and base isolated structures, and the concept of ductility.

Wai-Fah Chen and Charles Scawthorn (2003): The procedure presented in this book serve merely to illustrate the key concepts involved in initial sizing of the base isolation systems. To implement design procedure for the seismic isolators, three different isolation systems, i.e the high damping rubber bearing, lead-core rubber bearing, and FBS, are considered in this book.

Farzad Naeim (2000): This seismic design handbook covers the criteria adopted by current model code which involves two level approach to seismic hazard including design methods such as static and dynamic analysis.

Trevor E. Kelly, R. Ivan Skinner and Bill (W.H.) Robinson (2010): The book provides practical examples of computer applications as well as device design examples so that the structural engineer is able to do a preliminary design. The book also addresses the steps that need to be taken to ensure the design is code compliant.

Soil Dynamics and Special Design Aspects (2010): This journal paper discusses several types of isolation and supplemental damping systems previously being used in building structures to solve problems related to vertical vibrations or wind loading. For example, the World Trade Center Tower in New York City was built with a system of visco-elastic dampers to alleviate human discomfort due to wind loading. The use of passive energy dissipation systems for seismic design is a relatively recent development, although there are now examples of these systems throughout the world. Arya A.S. (1984): In this paper we observed that, in the severe earthquakes of Bihar (1934) small masonry buildings that slid on their foundation survived the earthquake, while similar buildings fixed at the base were destroyed. P. P. Thakare and O. R. Jaiswal (2011): In this paper they presented the importance of passive control mechanisms including base-isolation systems which are gaining large attention as a mean to protect structures against seismic hazard. In this study, the 3-story RC building which is located in seismic zone IV is used as test model. Lead plug bearing is used and represented using bilinear force deformation behavior. There are two main portions. The two portions are base isolators design and comparative study of the performances of fixed base condition and base-isolated condition. Static analysis on fixed base condition and reanalysis of dynamic analysis on base-isolated condition is used. Also, response spectrum analysis and linear time history analysis are used on both the fixed base and base isolated buildings. Hiroki Hamaguchi (2010): The author conducted a study of aging effect on natural rubber bearings actually used in a seismically isolated building for almost ten and twenty years. First, compressive creep and mechanical characteristics such as vertical stiffness and horizontal stiffness were measured. Various characteristics of the rubber material such as hardness, strength and adhesion to steel plates were investigated after the bearing was cut into pieces. Test results of the rubber bearings showed that the creep fitted with a suggested predicting equation and that

vertical stiffness of the bearing increased less than twenty percent to the initial value, while horizontal stiffness increased about ten percent.

A. B. M. Saiful Islam (2011): The author selected isolation systems namely, the lead rubber bearing (LRB) and high damping rubber bearing (HDRB) for his research work. Mathematical formulation and limiting criteria for design of every individual part have been stimulated. The suitability to incorporate isolators for seismic control has been explored in detail. The study divulges simplified design procedures for LRB and HDRB for buildings in Bangladesh. The detail design progression has been proposed to be included in Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC).

R.G. Tyler (2011): This paper discusses the use of rubber bearings in base isolated structures. In Japan alone, there are likely to be 100 base-isolated buildings completed by the end of 1994, all of which would be rubber bearings. Vertical load capacity and characteristics of vertical deflection in relation to rubber layer thickness and instability are discussed. Shear stiffness and deflection characteristics are outlined together with methods used for providing damping, including damping lead rubber bearings. It is suggested that tensile forces should be permitted in the short-term loading induced by earthquakes and this is confirmed by current Japanese practice in using fully bonded bearings.

Evany Nithya S. and Dr. Rajesh Prasanna (2012): This paper addresses the importance of keeping the superstructure stable while the foundation is being shaken by an earthquake. So there arises a need to design a system that puts this concept into practice, along with many other engineers doing independent work in other countries, have produced a wealth of information about base isolators and have become common knowledge to structural engineers. By introducing base isolators, the maximum expected lateral force that will occur due to seismic ground motion at the base of a structure is considerably reduced. This concept has created a breakthrough in structural design and as years go, it will prove to be a life-saving innovation of historic proportions.

2. MECHANISM OF SEISMICISOLATION
The isolation system decouples the structure from the horizontal components of the ground motion by imposing structural elements with low horizontal stiffness between the structure and foundation. The isolation reduces the fundamental frequency of the structure that is much lower than the fixed base frequency and the predominant frequencies of the ground motion [3]. Typical behavior of a fixed base structure and an isolated structure during ground movement are shown in Fig.2.

Fig. 2 Fixed base and Base Isolated building during ground movement 2. 1 Classification of Seismic Isolation Systems Seismic Isolation systems are generally classified as Elastomer based systems Sliding / Friction based systems Spring type systems Sleeved-Pile system Rocking systems

3. ISOLATION SYSTEM BASED ON LEAD RUBBER BEARING

Lead Rubber Bearings (LRB) are seismic isolators made up of alternate layers of steel laminates and hot vulcanized rubber with a cylindrical central lead core. The energy dissipation provided by the lead core, through yielding, allows to achieve an equivalent viscous damping coefficient up to about 30%, i.e. two times that of high damping elastomeric isolators[4]. Typical cross section of lead rubber bearings is shown in Fig.3.

Fig. 3 Typical cross section of Lead Rubber Bearing The advantage claimed in this type of bearing is that the unnecessary movement of the structure under low load levels due to wind and low intensity earthquake is prevented on account of the high elastic stiffness of the plug. At higher loads, the plug yields and the shear stiffness of the system is significantly reduced providing the desired period shift characteristics and energy dissipation mechanism. Through the high energy dissipation capacity, it is possible to reduce the horizontal displacement, in comparison with that of an isolation system with the same equivalent stiffness but lower energy dissipation capacity. Usually, they are circular in shape but can also be fabricated in square sections; they can also be fabricated with more than one lead core. 3.1 Mechanical Characteristics of Lead Rubber Isolators The total horizontal and vertical stiffness of the rubber isolators is computed using single degree of freedom system equation, shown in the Table 1[5].

Table 1 Mechanical characteristic of lead rubber isolators 3.2 Advantages of Seismic Isolation Base isolator considerably reduces the shaking in superstructure as it absorbs the energy from the earthquake. Using base isolation frame, column and beam thickness can be reduced. Hence total cost of the building is reduced. Shear wall can be avoided. Cost of the isolation system is generally estimated to be 6-10% less than the conventional seismic resistant design using passive energy dissipation systems. Isolated buildings are expected to be operational during and after the earthquake event.

3.3 Disadvantages of Seismic Isolation It is more expensive. In India, it is even costlier because of deficiency in expertise and material. Requires periodic monitoring, inspection and maintenance, hence cost is fairly high. Elastomeric base isolators must be removed every 10 years for testing and compared with the tests done prior to installation.

There is no effective restoring force and displacements become extremely large in case of natural rubber bearing having small damping.

4. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS
Dynamic analysis using STAAD Pro software is normally performed to obtain the design seismic force, and its distribution to different levels along the height of the building and to the various lateral load resisting elements [3]. 4.1 Response Spectrum Analysis In the present study response spectrum method of analysis was performed using the design spectrum specified, or by a site-specific design spectrum mentioned. Response spectra for 5 percent damping IS 1893:2002 shown in Fig.4 [6] is selected in the present design.

Fig.4.Response spectra for 5 percent damping IS 1893: 2002 4.2 Problem Definition

Plan and general layout dimensions of the six storey building of a commercial complex selected in the present study are shown in Figs. 5.1 and 5.2 respectively. The building is considered to be located in seismic zone III on a site with medium soil. The selected building was designed for seismic loads as per IS 1893(Part 1): 2002 [7]. The isolation reduces the fundamental lateral frequency of the structure from its fixed base frequency and thus shifts the position of the structure in the spectrum from the peak-plateau region to the lower regions. Also, it brings forth additional damping due to the increased damping introduced at the base level, and thus further reduction in the spectral acceleration is achieved.

Fig. 5.1 Typical floor plan

Fig. 5.2 General lay-out of the Building. 4.3 Load Combination As per IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002, the following load combinations were considered for analysis: 1.5 (DL + IL) 1.2 (DL + IL EL) 1.5 (DL EL) 0.9 DL1.5 EL

5. ANALYTICAL RESULTS
Response spectrum analysis was performed for the selected fixed base and base isolated six storey buildings. The superstructure is assumed to be in elastic linear range. Isolator properties used in base isolated building are given in the Table 1. The comparisons of natural frequencies and time periods are shown in Table2 and Fig. 6. The storey shear and spectral acceleration for fixed base and base isolated buildings are shown in Table 3 and Fig.7.

Table 2 Natural frequency and time periods for fixed base and base isolated building

Table 3 Storey shear and spectral acceleration for fixed base and base isolated building

Fig. 6. Comparison of Time period for Fixed Base and Base Isolated building.

Fig. 7 Comparison of spectral acceleration and storey shear for fixed base and base isolated building.

6. CONCLUSIONS
Concept and mechanism of base isolation and its merits and demerits are presented in this paper. An analytical study using response spectrum method on a base isolated six storey building isolated using lead rubber bearing is presented in this paper. Comparison of the analytical responses for the base isolated building and fixed base building were also made to evaluate the isolation efficiency of the base isolation system adopted in the study. The study showed that the base shear forces and floor acceleration responses of the base isolated building is reduced by 55 to 60 percent when compared to the fixed base building. From the limited analytical study conducted the efficiency of the seismic base isolation system adopted in the study was demonstrated.

7. REFERENCES
Petros Komodromos (2000) Seismic Isolation for Earthquake-Resistant Structures, WIT press, Southampton, Boston. Farzad Naeim and James M. Kelly (1999) Design of Seismic Isolated Structures from Theory to Practice, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York. T.K. Datta (2010) Seismic Analysis of Structures, John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd. Trevor E. Kelly, R. Ivan Skinner and Bill (W.H.) Robinson (2010) Seismic Isolation for Designers and Structural Engineers Wai-Fah Chen and Charles Scawthorn (2003) Earthquake Engineering Handbook, CRC PRESS, London. IS: 1893 (part 1): 2002 Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, BIS, New Delhi, India. Dr. H. J. Shah and Dr. Sudhir K Jain, (2009) Design Example of a Six Storey Building, Department of Applied Mechanics M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara.