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HistoryUnitTestStudyGuide

Chapters23and24
Empire,Industry,andEverydayLife(18701890)
WesternTakeoverinAfricaPoliticalPoweroverEconomicPower IncreaseinIndustryExpansionandColonization=Increaseinmigrationandtraveling DisruptedSocialandFamilyLife DisruptedthePopulation DisruptedtheTraditionalEuropeanCulturebyNewForeigners VIOLENCEWITHINCOUNTRY IncreaseinIndustrialization... IncreaseinImperialism IncreaseinManufacturing IncreaseinUrbanization LeadstoanIncreaseinNationalism

TheNewImperialism
Bigdemandformaterialsandlotsofcompetitionforterritory (gourdon(alsoreligiousandmoralmotives,(3cschristianity,commerce,civilization) andwhitemansburdenbyKipling)) 1876Britishgovernmentdeclaresitselfanempire Largeandsuccessfulmeansofexpansionandindustrialization Increasedsubjugationviolence TamingtheMediterranean EuropewantstopoliticallycaptureEgypt Alreadyfundedmostoftheirurbanizationdemandedinterest 1879BritainandFrancetakeoverEgyptianTreasury 1882BritainandFranceinvadeEgypttoattempttotakeovergovernmentandeconomy UpperClassandColonistbenefittedfromchangewhilelowerclassceasedtoexist Europeansinforcenewpaymentsystembasedonethnicityandreligion(social darwinism) 1881FrancecapturesTunisia TheScrambleforAfrica EuropewantsAfricasrawgoods:palmoil,cotton,metals,diamonds,cocoaandrubber TheBritish,French,Belgians,Portuguese,Italians,andGermansjockeyedtodominate peoples,land,andresources(p.762)
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KingLeopoldII(Belgium)aspiredtoclaimalloftheCongo,alreadyhadCameroon Triedtoexpandempirethroughtyrannicinvasion(cutoffhands) FriedavonBlowandCarlPeters(Germany)settleinEastAfricacauseproblems anddisruptsocietycompletely BritishtrytotakeoverallofAfricawhileFrenchtrytoholdontoWesternAfrica 18841885KingLeopoldII(Germany(Belgium?))asksOttoVonBismarck(Germany) tocallTheBerlinConferencetocontrolthesettlementsalongtheAfricancoasttoguaranteethe rightstointernalterritory Lineardissectionofthecontinent:boundariesbetweenAfricancultureandethniclife Bannedthesaleofalcoholandcontrolledtheflowofarmstoindigenouspeoples Acceleratedconquestofthecontinent Heroicnewspaperarticlesandmusiccompositionspromotenationalism SmallruralbattlesbetweennativeandforeignfarmersinSouthAfrica CecilRhodes(Britain)investedinalargepartoftheSouthAfricandiamondindustryand promotedracismandelitismsocialdarwinism AfricancommunitybroughttogetherthroughtheuniversaltyrannythattheEuropeans inflictedonthem BritainindustrializedmostofEastAfrica(1874BritainseizesMalaypeninsula1885Britain seizesBurma)foruseoftradeandmaterials,possiblefailureduetotheirunstablegovernments 1885IndianEliteClassfoundtheIndianNationalCongress
AcquiringTerritoryinAsia TheBritishtriedtomaketheAsiansandIndiansBritish.Newimperialism.Wantedraw materialslikerubber,oil,andrice. JapansImperialAgenda JapanwasnotconqueredbyEuropeans,buttheydidgetalittleWesternFlavor.wanteda modernindustry,foreigntrade.lateronwoulddestroyRussianships,totalunderdog. TheParadoxesofImperialism TheCostsandProfitsoftheEmpire Greatriches<costofempiretoohigh.Empiresaregoodshortterminvestments. TheCivilizingMission Europeansdidteachtheirculturetothecountriestheytookover. TriedtocivilizetheirsubjectswerenotabletoaccomplishwhattheEuropeanshad. (gourdon(CULTURALDIFFUSION)boardingschool,polo,chickenvindaloo,ect.. InferiorityandSuperiority EuropeansdidexploretheAsianandAfricanculturesthough,buttheywerebiasedand misinterpretingalot NonEuropeanswerelowlifesandthatwasthejustificationofimplementingWestern Culture+Christianity.
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TheIndustryofEmpire
Economicandtechnologicalpowerdevelopments.Consumereconomytransformeddaily lives. IndustrialInnovation TheSpreadofFactoriesandInnovationsinAgricultureandMedicinelessdeathsand illnesses ThebirthoftheDepartmentStore 2ndindustrialRevolutionbasedonironandsteel. IncreaseinElectricity IncreaseinIndustrialization IncreaseinInfrastructure Outwork:19thcenturyprocessofhavingindustrialworkdoneinindividualhomes TheSpreadofFactoriesandInnovationsinAgriculture BritainwasthefirstEuropeancountrytoindustrialize Despitenewmachines,outworkwasstillneeded MechanizingAgricultureandPerishableProductionchemicalfertilizersboostedcrop revenue.Commercialcanning,tin,barbedwire,fridges. TheToolsofEmpire SteampoweredgunboatsfromEurope(usedtowinOpiumWar). Quinine:medicineusedtofightoffmalaria NowEuropeanscouldgotothetropicsdieing. DroughtanddiseaseplaguednativesofAfricaandAsia,makingithardertofightoff Westerners. ChallengestoBritishDominance GermanyandtheU.S.startedtosurpasstheBritishtechnologically,research,and innovation.Germanyspentasmuch$oneducationasthemilitary.TheU.S.began usingtheirnaturalresources(coal,oil,gold,etc).Britaintoofocusedonexpansion AreasofSlowerIndustrialization Lotsofcountrieshadvaryingratesofindustrializationwithintheirterritory Italy:industrializedinNorth,agriculturalinSouth AustriaHungary:industrializedinmajorcities,everywhereelsewasagricultural andtraditional Scandinavia:usedalotofelectricityleadersinhydroelectricpower Russia:lowindustrializationbecauseofsmallurbanlaborforce Serfsboundtothemir(landedcommunity)ratherthanfactories 18971916TheconstructionofRussiasTransSiberianRailroad Increaseinindustrialandmilitarypower Peasantsmustpayforthecountrysindustrializationdebt(highertaxes)
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Unevenbenefitsofindustrializationpeasantsandworkingclasscannotafford Russianlife FacingEconomicCrisis 1873EconomicdepressionbyunevenprosperitythroughoutEurope Increaseinunemploymentandbankruptcyamongstallclasses Ultimatelycausedbythesuddenboomofindustryandfinance(veryexpensiveto industrializesteelandironfactories) Industrialgrowthmovedtoofastforthedistributionandconsumptionofgoods Newindustryproducedgoodstooexpensiveforworkingandlower classes(majorityofthepopulation)topurchase CapitalIntensiveIndustriesFactorieswhichneedlargeamountsofmoneyto sufficientlyandprofitablyrun LimitedLiabilityCorporationpromotedinvestingbypromisingtoprotectinvestors fromliability Thegrowthofstockmarketsduetomoreconfidenceininvesting Gavebusinessesthefundstoinnovatethroughincreaseinprivatecapital LondonStockExchangebiggestcenterforinvestingandinternationaleconomy 1873ThebeginningofCartelsandTrusts CartelsAcollaborationofindustriestocontrolpricesandrestraincompetition Ex.1880Germancoalcarteldominatedmorethan95%ofcoalproductionin Germanyeventuallyownedsomanyindustriescollectivelythattheycould essentiallyrestrictoutputandsetpricesoftheentirecoalindustry TrustsAcollaborationofindustriestocontrolpricesthroughstock Ex.1882JohnD.Rockefeller(America)createdtheStandardOilTrust: boughtoutstockfromalargegroupofoilcompaniesandsharedthecontrolof stockamongstagroupoftrusteeseventuallyownedsomuchstockthatthey couldessentiallycontroltheentireoilindustry Thosewhosetupcartelsandtrustswereactuallyrestrictingthefreemarket. Govthereforeimposedimporttaxestoprotectdomesticindustries 18701880Importsexceededexportslessjobopportunitiesandincreaseofsocialunrest Farmerssufferedfromindustrializationmakingforeigngoodsmoreaccessibleandthus diminishingtheneedfortheirproducts Governmentsapprovedtariffstomakeforeigngoodsmoreexpensive RevolutioninBusinessPractices Thebeginningofmanagersmorejobsinallsortsofbusinesses,especiallyforwomen TheWhiteCollarSector Bureauspromotedmorejobsinvolvingorganizationandcommunicationforyoung, unmarriedwomen
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Increaseinthebeliefofdomesticityhusbandsunwillingtolettheirwiveswork Familylifebecomesmoreexpensivewomenmustworknowinorderto supporttheirfamilies Womenpaidmuchlesseventhoughtheymaybedoingtheexactsametasksas aman TheDepartmentStore NewjobsforsalesgirlsThenewdomainofwomen Boostedconsumption Introductionofcatalogues Leisurelyplaceformiddleclasswomentospendtheirhusbandsmoneyonsilksand tapestries (womenbecamemarketconsumerstomanagetime(shopping)) EuropeancitiesadaptingMiddleEasternstyles EspeciallypopularinFrance: AristideandMargueriteBoucicaut(France)ofBonMarch JohnWanamaker(America)ofWanamakers NolimitationsConsumptionofcolonialgoods. Thenewpopularityaroundsoap(createdbypalmoilfromAfrica)allowed consumerstofeelmorehygienicandmorecivilizedthanothercountries Consumerismallowedtravellerstofindexocticgoodsandnewinnovativemedicines andtechnologies(seeFriedaVonBlowandCarlPeters)

ImperialSocietyandCulture
Completeupdatetothesocialhierarchy Manymoremillionairesexpansionofaprofessionalmiddleclass Morepeoplewereaffluentenoughtoownproperty,travel,andgivetheirchildrena bettereducation Peoplewerehealthierduetoimproveddietsandgovernmentsponsoredprogramsadvocating theideaimageofapersonwithimperialpowers(thus,fitness) MillionsofpoorEuropeanswhocouldnotrisetoimperialismmigratedinhopesoffindingbetter lifeandopportunitieselsewhereintheworld TheBestCirclesandtheExpandingMiddleClass BestCircleupperclass Aristocratsdidnotlikenewmoneybecausetheydidnothavetitles,large/oldfamilyestates. Upperclassexcludedthepoorerbybeingcontrolling,proper,andprosperous. TheheightofSocialDarwinismProsperityresultedfromtheirnaturalsuperiorityoverthepoor PoorAristocratslikedmarryingofftheirsonsanddaughterstonewmoneytohelpthemselves outandviseversa.
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Newpasstimebecamebiggamehuntingmenwouldgoonexpeditionsandshootanimals. Presentingfindingsestablishedfinancialstatusvisually Russiatriedtoattractprosperousforeignerstohelpbuilditsprofessionalandbusinessclass Upperclassattemptedtoexcludeinferiorsbycontrollingfromwhichclassthepersonwhotheir childsleptwithwas,especiallythegirls WorkingPeoplesStrategies WorkingPeopleLeaveEurope Reasonsforleavingnativeland:notenoughprosperousland,famine,higherrent,antisemitism (JewishfledfromRussia). Easiertoimmigratebecauseofrailroadsandsteamshipsanditalsobecameaffordable. Youngmenwouldgotoanotherplaceandworkforhalftheyearsotheycouldhelpthefamily. magicdollars MovingtoEuropeancitiesalsobecamepopularurbanizationincreased. AdaptationtoIndustrialChange Bettertechnologylessjobshigherproductivitylonghours NationalFitness:Reform,Sports,andLeisure SocialDarwinistconcernsaboutnationalfitness.MiddleclassandUpperclassreformers foundedorganizationsforsocialimprovement. ReformfortheWorkingClasses Clinics,healthcenters,etcwerefounded. thegovernmentintervenedinthelivesofworkingclassfamilies,thegov.wasworried thatthepoorwerenotabletoeverprosper. Thepoorreceivedfreelunchesatschool,howeverthegovernmentdidhavingsurprise inspections. SportsandLeisure Soccer,Rugby,cricket.LowerandUpperclassescametogethertosupporttheir nationsteam. Gymnasticsforgirls,soccerforboys.Keepingthemselvesfitandathletic. ArtisticResponsestoEmpireandIndustry Artistsbegantouseandexploretheprocessofglobalexpansionandeconomicinnovation. Darwinisticstrongcivilizationsiftheydidntadapttochangewouldfail Impressionism:A19thcenturyartisticstylethatcapturedlightinimages,itderivedfrom japaneseinfluences.Itwastheoppositeoftherealismofphotos. TheBirthofMassPolitics Workers,Politics,andProtest Workeractivism,strikes,rebellers.Workersbandedtogethertofightagainstthebosses UnionsandStrikes
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PoliticalParties SecondInternational workersunite,regardlessofnationality,MARXIST(antiviolence antianarchist) advocateforuniversalsuffrage tooextremethough,tooradical,rightthingsbutnoonewanttocauseits inconvenient,workersunionizetogainright FoundedbyKarlMarx(Germany) (Gourdon)Blockofnationalistrepresentatives gottogetherandmadeblockofvotes MARXIST overthrowbourgeois controlgovernmentwithoutadministration (neverhappens)Transitiongovernmenttopeopletocreateclasslesssociety (wontworkbecausepeopledontliketogiveuppower) LabourParty,SocialistPartyandSocialDemocraticPartySocialistPartiesofthe WorkingClass Believedthatcapitalismcausedinjusticetowomensocialistsocietywould endgenderinequality NewUnionismReplacedlocalcraftbasedunionswiththosethatextended membershipwithalltypesofworkers Womenwantequality Hadmanagerwhohelpedplananorganizedstrike/protest ExpandingPoliticalParticipationinWesternEurope PublicationsinEurope Thespreadofpoliticsthroughpublications Extremelynosey,harshandruthless AllowedthepoliticalinputoftheMiddleClass BritishPoliticalReforms Whigs(liberal) Tories(conservative) LaborParty(moreliberalthanwhigs) CharlesStewartParnell(Ireland)AdvocatedHomeRuleintheBritishParliament HomeRuleTherighttoanindependentIrishParliamentfromtheBritishparliament= denied

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PROGRESSIVEREFORMACTSOF:1832,1867,1884 1832AmeasurepassedbytheBritishParliamenttoincreasethenumberofmalevotersby about50percentandgiverepresentationstonewcitiesinthenorth,itsetaprecedentfor wideningsuffrage 1867VotingrightsdoubledfortheamountofmeneligibletovoteinEnglandandWales 1884Doubleelectoraltoaround4.5millionmen Grantedtherighttovotetoamassmalecitizens Doubledthesizeofthemaleelectorate(lottapeoplecanvote) FrancesThirdRepublic FrenchGovernmentwhichsucceededNapoleonIIIssecondempireafteritsdefeatin theFrancoPrussianwarof18701871 Problems:Depression,corruptionandantisemitism 1875TheEstablishmentofaFrenchpresidencyandChamberofDeputies Shakyrepublicthatlastedforawhile Nostrongleader Boulanger,goodleaderbutdidnttakethrone PoliticalLiberalismRejected Italysnationalismdecreasesbecauseofthelackofmalesuffrage(14%) PowerPoliticsinCentralandEasternEurope LowindustrializationinRussia,Hungary,Germany,andAustria BismarcksGermany(bloodandiron) Realpolitik=powerpolitics BismarkCONSERVATIVEthough
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useseducationtoindoctrinatethechildren AuthoritarianAustriaHungary WorriedaboutRussia bufferstatesform SlavicpeoplefeelcomfortablewithrussiafromforaustrialedtoWWIstrong nationalismbutsickmanofeurope) UnrestinRussia AlexIIIrepressivecrackdown,backlash splintergroupsliberals wishrussiawasmodernized mostpeoplepeasantnotmanythough crazyshitabouttogodown,lottachangebouttohappen Conclusion

ModernityandtheRoadtoWar(18901914)
PublicDebateoverPrivateLife PopulationPressure SoaringPopulation AlarmovertheFallingBirthrate ReformingMarriage NewWomen,NewMen,andthePoliticsofSexualIdentity SciencesoftheModernSelf NewApproachestoMentalAilments FreudandPsychoanalysis SigmundFreudAustrian,Jewish,UpperClass,ViennesePsychoanalyst Studiessexdrives(radicalattime) Thoughtthatwomenhavesexdrivesaswellasmen Manydaughtersingroupoffriendssenttohim. PsychoanalysisHealingbytalkingandfromthetalkinglookingforpatterns PSYCHOLOGYHASREPLACEDRELIGION ModernityandtheRevoltinIdeas TheOppositiontoPositivism TheRevolutioninScience AntoineBecquerel(France)discoveredradioactivityin1896 MarieCurieandPierreCurie(France)discoverednewelementsfortheperiodictable MarieCuriewasnotrecognizedforherworkbecauseshewasawoman MarieCurieeventuallywasthefirstrecipienttoeverreceivetwoNobelPeacePrizes MaxPlanck(Germany)DiscoveredtheQuantumTheory
PurpleImportantPeople BlueImportantDates RedImportantFacts 9 GreenImportantIdeologies/Terms

AlbertEinstein(Germany)DiscoveredtheSpecialandGeneralTheoriesofRelativity MostScientistswerenotacceptedbecausetheirideasweretooradicalandoftenchallenged ideassuggestedthroughreligion ModernArt AVarietyofStyles ArtasPoliticalCriticism ArtNouveau Artisticstyleingraphics,fashion,andhouseholddesign Featuredlowing,sinuouslines Borrowedinlargepartfromasianart TheRevoltinMusicandDance HenriMatisse(France)LeadingfigureofFauvismandhopedtorelaxthemindandappealto allsexes PaulCzanne(France)Createdgeometricartthroughpaintdabs,accentuatingstructureand everydaylife PabloPicasso(Spain)Startedcubismtocreatebizarreandunrecognizableforms,ex.Les DemoisellesdAvignon ShowedtheprofoundinfluencesofAfrican,AsianandSouthAmericanArts Lessdecorativeandmorebrutalthanmostartistsofthetime Suggestedwesterncivilizationwasnotasitappearedtobe EdvardMunch(Norway) Kandinsky Stravinsky Debussy(revoltagainstideaofstrikingforperfection) GrowingTensionsinMassPolitics leadingtoWWI reformersdemandsansweredwithrepression
TheExpandingPowerofLabor callforjusticeinplayssuchasjuliusceasar germansocialdemocraticparty helpelectworkersintoParliament RightsforWomenandtheBattleforSuffrage righttovoteandownwagesifmarried EmmelinePankhurst Organizedmilitantbranchofbritishwomensuffrage RevisingLiberalisminBritain Notenoughirishinparliament
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UnrestinItaly TransformismoWaytoappeasepeoplespoliticalpatronage voteformeigiveyouwhatyouwant corruptandstillhappening AntiSemitism,NationalismandZionisminMassPolitics Noonelikedthejewsandthattime Greatlyrepressedbymanydifferenteuropeans Ledtomassexodus AuthoritarianisminRussia NicholasII(Russia)=TsarofRussiaafterAlexanderII resistedreform Promotedantisemitism TheDreyfusAffairinFrance Jewishcaptainwhowenttoexile Falselychargedwithspyingforgermany Jaccusewritten RiotsbeginbecausetheyreFrench NationalistandAntiSemiticPoliticsinGermany Usedantisemitismtowinsupport WilliamIIaristocracywentagainsteverythingBismarkworkedon blamedjewsforfoodshortages EthnicPoliticsinAustriaHungary MagyarizationTheassimilationoracculturationprocessbywhichnonHungarian nationalscametoadopttheHungariancultureandlanguageduetosocialpressure Toomanyethnicgroups Jewishresponsemoveoutandmarrychristians didntworksotherewasamassexodus TheJewishResponsetoAntiLiberalPolitics LeonPinsker(Ukraine)Physician Askedforajewishstate PublishedapamphletcalledAutoEmancipation AnalyzedthesituationoftheJewsinEurope ConvincedpeoplethatJewscouldneverbeassimilatedintoEuropean culturenomatterhowmanydroppedtheirreligioninfavorofChristian ways LedsomejewstomigratetoPalestine Zionismby1914 85,000jewswereinpalestine
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