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# PROJECT PHOTOGRAPHY

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION

In a poly poly-phase machine like a three-phase induction motor requires three phase power supply. If any of the phases get cut-off due to any error, a fault current produced due unbalancing of three phase supply which causes a harmful effect to the motor windings.

Single phasing preventer is a protective project, which prevents the machine from single phasing. It disconnects all the phases whenever any of the phases get cut-off. Three transformers of 12V are connected respectively with the phases R, Y & B with the neutral common.

The full wave rectifier circuit with each transformer provides supply for three 12V relays. Relay's pole & N/O terminals are connected in series to eachother with a phase supply (here we use R-phase) to a high capacity three pole relay. This high capacity relay is used to switch three-phase machines

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1.2 CAUSES OF FAULT:1.2.1 Phase loss:A total loss of one or more of the three phases. Also known as a single phasing Typically caused by a blown fuse, broken wire, or worn contact. This condition would result in a motor drawing locked rotor current during start-up. In addition, a three phase motor will continue to run after losing a phase, resulting in a possible motor burn-out.

1.2.2 under voltage:When voltage in all three lines of a three phase system drop simultaneously. On our unit, it is adjustable as a percentage of a nominal voltage. Unit trip when the average of all three lines is less then adjusted set point for a period longer then the adjustable time delay drop-out.

1.2.3 Over Voltage:When voltage in all three lines of a three phase system increases simultaneously. Unit trip when the average of all three lines is greater then a fixed set point for a period longer than the time delay drop-out.

1.2.4 Phase unbalanced :Unbalance of three phase system occur when single phase load are connected such that a one or two of the lines carry more or less of the load. This could cause motor to run at a temperature above publish rating. Unit trip any one of the three lines deviates from the average of all three lines by more than adjusted set point. There is also disable setting adjustment that will turn of the phase unbalanced protection if nuisance tripping is a problem.

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Supply Unit

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Unit

Supply

Rectifier

& Filter

Ckt.
Ckt. Switch

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2.2. DESCRIPTION OF BLOCKS:2.2.1 SupplyTo give the 230VAC to supply unit by transformer.

## 2.2.2 Supply unitSupply unit consist of step down transformer.

2.2.3 Rectifier and filter circuitRectifier circuit used for convert ac supply to dc supply and filter is used for filter the dc supply or remove the harmonic from dc.

2.2.4 Operating circuit It consists of biasing circuit and transistor it is used energized or de energized relay while occurring the fault and normal condition.

2.2.5 Electromagnetic switchIt is used the make and break the supply of load.

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## 3.2 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION

The Single Phasing preventer consists of the following blocks A) POWER CIRCUIT B) COMPARATOR CIRCUIT C) TRIPPING CIRCUIT

POWER CIRCUIT: It consists of step down Transformer, 4 no Diodes, Shunt Resistance, Zener Diode and Filter capacitor. During the positive half cycle of Secondary voltage Vi the circuit will appears diodes D2 and D3 are forward biased and conducting the current through load resistance. Whereas D1 and D4 are reverse biased and are in off state. It may be observed that D2 R1and D3 are in series. During the Negative half cycle of secondary voltage Vi the current will appears diodes D1 and D4 are forward biased and D2 D3 are reversed biased.

Therefore the forward biased diode conducts the current through load resistance. The most important result is that the polarity across the load resistance R1 is same i.e. current flowing through R1 is same direction. In this circuit the Zener diode reverse biased p-n junction and operates only in break down region. Sometimes called as voltage regulator diode because it maintains a fairly constant output voltage Zener diode must be reverse biased operation.

COMPARATOR:An op-amp used as a COMPARATOR. A fixed Reference voltage V ref of 3.3v is applied to the (pin-3) -input and the other varying signal V in is applied to the (pin-2) +input. Because of this arrangement the circuit is called the noninverting Comparator. When V in is less than V ref the output voltage Vo is at

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V sat (=NEE) because the voltage at the (-) input is higher than that at the (+)input on the other hand. When Vin is greater than V ref the (+) input becomes positive with respect to the (-) input and Vo goes to +V sat. Thus Vo changes from one saturation level to another. The Comparator is a type of analog-to-digital converter. At any given time the Vo wave form shows whether Vin is greater or less than V ref.

AND GATE:

The AND gate is a basic digital logic gate that implements logical conjunction - it behaves according to the truth table to the right. A HIGH output (1) results only if both the inputs to the AND gate are HIGH (1). If neither or only one input to the AND gate is HIGH, a LOW output results. In another sense, the function of AND effectively finds the minimum between two binary digits, just as the OR function finds the maximum. Therefore, the output is always 0 except when all the inputs are 1s.

TRIPPING CIRCUIT: It consists of one n-p-n transistor, diode and relay. The AND Gate output is connected to base of BC 548 and emitter is ground. Relay and diode are connected in between collector (BC 548) and source +12 volt supply. Transistor BC 548 is used as switch. In a three phase supply the voltage is 120 degrees apart from each other. Thus the addition of three phases gives zero voltage. If anyone of the phases goes off voltage present at the summing point equals half the line voltage. In this circuit the three phases (R Y B) are connected to the line neutral, which in turn is connected to the ground of the circuit. When all three phases are present, voltage at point D is high. So potential at point 3 of IC LM358 is also high but voltage at point 2 is nearly 3.3v. Here IC LM 358 is
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used as comparator and the voltage at pin 6 is high. Hence the output of Gate is also high and relay operate. When phase goes out, voltage at point D goes up to about half the line voltage. This voltage is divided by resistors. The voltage at point B is about 2V when 10k potentiometer is properly adjusted. The voltage at point 6 is operating condition, so relay will off when any one of the phases goes out. This Relay when used in the control circuit of the three-phase motor, or with a circuit breaker will switch the power off on operation.

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4.1. COMPONENT LIST : Transformer Relay Capacitor Diode Zener diode LED Rectifier Filter Transistor Resistor Op-amp Voltage regulator AND gate

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## 4.2 DESCRIPTION OF COMPONENTS:-

4.2.1. TRANSFORMER

Step down transformers are designed to reduce electrical voltage. Their primary voltage is greater than their secondary voltage. This kind of transformer "steps down" the voltage applied to it. For instance, a step down transformer is needed to use a 110v product in a country with a 220v supply.

Step down transformers convert electrical voltage from one level or phase configuration usually down to a lower level. They can include features for electrical isolation, power distribution, and control and instrumentation applications. Step down transformers typically rely on the principle of magnetic induction between coils to convert voltage and/or current levels. Step down Transformer Specification Input Voltage -230v Output Voltage -12v Output current -500mA

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## 4.2.2 Relay Switch

A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to mechanically operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used, such as solid-state relays. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits as amplifiers: they repeated the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitted it on another circuit. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations.

A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor or other loads is called a contactor. Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching. Relays with calibrated operating characteristics and sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect electrical circuits from overload or faults; in modern electric power systems these functions are performed by digital instruments still called "protective relays"

Fig. Relay

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4.2.3 Capacitor

CAPACITORS: Capacitors are components, which can store electrical charge, when a voltage is applied across them and are discharged when a load is connected across them.

TYPES OF CAPACITORS

CERAMIC CAPACITORS: Ceramic feed through capacitors are available for de-coupling at very high frequencies (e.g. about 30 MHz) such components may be soldered directly onto a bulk head on screening enclosure and are typically rated at in farads 350V.

ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITORS: Electrolytic capacitors exhibits a wide tolerance and hence in the majority of smoothing and de-coupling applications. It is usually quite permissible to substitute one value for another. Providing the working voltage of the substitute capacitor is of the same or higher value. Electrolytic Capacitor used for filtering.

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4.2.4 DIODE

It is a semiconductor device formed by joining of p-type and n-type materials. It conducts only in one specific direction when conducted in forward direction. The symbolic representation of diode is Fig.

BIASING OF DIODE:Forward bias:When Anode of diode is connected to positive terminal and Cathode is connected to the Negative terminal of supply is called Forward bias. The diode conducts only in forward bias.

IN4007 DIODE: The Diode used as rectifier in rectifier circuit. Specification of Diode: Peak inverse voltage: 1000 V Current at forward voltage: 1 A Forward voltage: 1.1 V Maximum reverse current: 10 micro A

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## 4.2.5 ZENER DIODE

Zener diodes are also known as voltage reference diodes. They are named after C. A. Zener who analyzed the voltage break down of insulators. Zener diodes are designed for a specific reverse break down voltage, typically 3 to 200 volts. Series of Zener diodes can be used for a higher rating. A heavily doped p-n junction diode, which has a sharp break down voltage known as a Zener diode

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## 4.2.6 LIGHT EMITTING DIODE:-

When a p-n junction is forward biased, free electrons cross the junction and fall in holes. As the electrons fall from higher energy level to a lower energy level, they radiate energy. In typical p-n junction diode, this radiated energy goes off in the form of heat. However, in case if light emitting diode (LED), as name implies, the radiated energy gives of visible light. In Germanium and Silicon the great percentage of energy given up in the form of heat and some in the form of photon or emitted light which is insignificant? Where as is other materials made of Gallium compounds, such as Gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsp) or Gallium phospide (GaPo). The number of photons of light energy emitted will create a visible light.

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## 4.2.7. RECTIFIER 4.2.7.1. BRIDG E RECTIFIER

A bridge rectifier is an arrangement of four or more diodes in a bridge circuit configuration which provides the same output polarity for either input polarity. It is used for converting an alternating current (AC) input into a direct current (DC) output. A bridge rectifier provides full-wave rectification from a two-wire AC input, therefore resulting in lower weight and cost when compared to a rectifier with a 3-wire input from a transformer with a center-tapped secondary winding.

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## 4.2.7.2. FULL WAVE RECTIFIER

In the previous Power Diodes tutorial we discussed ways of reducing the ripple or voltage variations on a direct DC voltage by connecting capacitors across the load resistance. While this method may be suitable for low power applications it is unsuitable to applications which need a steady and smooth DC supply voltage. One method to improve on this is to use every half-cycle of the input voltage instead of every other half-cycle. The circuit which allows us to do this is called a Full Wave Rectifier.

Like the half wave circuit, a full wave rectifier circuit produces an output voltage or current which is purely DC or has some specified DC component. Full wave rectifiers have some fundamental advantages over their half wave rectifier counterparts. The average (DC) output voltage is higher than for half

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wave, the output of the full wave rectifier has much less ripple than that of the half wave rectifier producing a smoother output waveform. In a Full Wave Rectifier circuit two diodes are now used, one for each half of the cycle. A multiple winding transformer is used whose secondary winding is split equally into two halves with a common centre tapped connection, (C). This configuration results in each diode conducting in turn when its anode terminal is positive with respect to the transformer centre point C producing an output during both half-cycles, twice that for the half wave rectifier so it is 100% .

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4.2.8 FILTER

The smoothing capacitor converts the full-wave rippled output of the rectifier into a smooth DC output voltage. Generally for DC power supply circuits the smoothing capacitor is an Aluminium Electrolytic type that has a capacitance value of 100uF or more with repeated DC voltage pulses from the rectifier charging up the capacitor to peak voltage.

However, their are two important parameters to consider when choosing a suitable smoothing capacitor and these are its Working Voltage, which must be higher than the no-load output value of the rectifier and its Capacitance Value, which determines the amount of ripple that will appear superimposed on top of the DC voltage.

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4.2.9Transistor

NPN is one of the two types of bipolar transistors, consisting of a layer of Pdoped semiconductor (the "base") between two N-doped layers. A small current entering the base is amplified to produce a large collector and emitter current. That is, when there is a positive potential difference measured from the emitter of an NPN transistor to its base (i.e., when the base is high relative to the emitter) as well as positive potential difference measured from the base to the collector, the transistor becomes active. In this "on" state, current flows between the collector and emitter of the transistor. Most of the current is carried by electrons moving from emitter to collector as minority carriers in the P-type base region. To allow for greater current and faster operation, most bipolar transistors used today are NPN because electron mobility is higher than hole mobility.

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4.2.10. RESISTOR

We use fixed resistor for oppose the flow of electric current. A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. Resistors act to reduce current flow, and, at the same time, act to lower voltage levels within circuits. Resistors may have fixed resistances or variable resistances, such as those found in thermistors, varistors, trimmers, photo resistors and potentiometers. The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor's terminals. This relationship is represented by Ohm's law:

where I is the current through the conductor in units of amperes, V is the potential difference measured across the conductor in units of volts, and R is the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms (symbol: ). The ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor's terminals to the intensity of current in the circuit is called its resistance, and this can be assumed to be a constant (independent of the voltage) for ordinary resistors working within their ratings.

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## 4.2.11 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

An op-amp used as a COMPARATOR. A fixed Reference voltage V ref of 3.3v is applied to the (pin-3) -input and the other varying signal V in is applied to the (pin-2) +input. Because of this arrangement the circuit is called the non-inverting Comparator. When V in is less than V ref the output voltage Vo is at V sat (=NEE) because the voltage at the (-) input is higher than that at the (+)input on the other hand. When Vin is greater than V ref the (+) input becomes positive with respect to the (-) input and Vo goes to +V sat. Thus Vo changes from one saturation level to another. The Comparator is a type of analog-to-digital converter. At any given time the Vo wave form shows whether Vin is greater or less than V ref.

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## 4.2.12. Voltage Regulator

The maximum value for input to the voltage regulator is 35V. It can provide a constant steady voltage flow of 5V for higher voltage input till the threshold limit of 35V. If the voltage is near to 7.5V then it does not produce any heat and hence no need for heatsink. If the voltage input is more, then excess electricity is liberated as heat from 7805. It regulates a steady output of 5V if the input voltage is in rage of 7.2V to 35V. Hence to avoid power loss try to maintain the input to 7.2V. In some circuitry voltage fluctuation is fatal (for e.g. Microcontroller), for such situation to ensure constant voltage IC 7805 Voltage Regulator is used. For more information on specifications of 7805 Voltage Regulator please refer the data sheet here (IC 7805 Voltage Regulator Data Sheet). IC 7805 is a series of 78XX voltage regulators. Its a standard, from the name the last two digits 05 denotes the amount of voltage that it regulates. Hence a 7805 would regulate 5v and 7806 would regulate 6V and so on. The schematic given below shows how to use a 7805 IC, there are 3 pins in IC 7805, pin 1 takes the input voltage and pin 3 produces the output voltage. The GND of both input and out are given to pin 2 Voltage Regulator is one of the most important and commonly used electrical components. Voltage Regulators are responsible for maintaining a steady

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voltage across an Electronic system. Voltage fluctuations may result in undesirable effect on an electronic system, so to maintaining a steady constant voltage is necessary according to the voltage requirement of a system. Let us assume a condition when a simple light emitting diode can take a max of 3V to the max, what happens if the voltage input exceeds 3V ?, ofcourse the diode will burn out. This is also common with all electronic components like, leds, capacitors, diodes etc. The slightest increase in voltage may result in the failure of entire system by damaging the other components too. For avoiding Damage in such situations voltage regulator are used for regulated power supply.

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4.2.13. AND GATE The AND gate is a basic digital logic gate that implements logical conjunction it behaves according to the truth table to the right. A HIGH output (1) results only if both the inputs to the AND gate are HIGH (1). If neither or only one input to the AND gate is HIGH, a LOW output results. In another sense, the function of AND effectively finds the minimum between two binary digits, just as the OR function finds the maximum. Therefore, the output is always 0 except when all the inputs are 1s.

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5. SALIENT FEATURES

5.1 Salient feature : Suitable for the protection of motors of any H.P. Protection against single phasing, reverse phasing, reverse phasing, unbalance supply, under/over voltage. Variable trip voltage setting for under/over voltage protection . Fixed unbalance trip setting at 12 volts.

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6.1 ADVANTAGES: Suitable for the protetiions of motors of any H.P. Protection against single phasing, reverse phasing, unbalance supply, under/over voltage. Protected to winding from damage. It helps in maintaining the continuity of power supply. It helps in maintaining system stability. It helps in protect precious equipments.

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7.1 FUTURE SCOPE:In future this circuit can be reduced and can be controlled by a computeraided programming for automatic fault sensing and eliminating that fault.

7.2 CONCLUSION:Here, by making this project we conclude that it is more useful to prevent 3 phase equipment from the absent of single phase. By this project we protect loss, save time. It is easy to make and there is no complicated wiring.

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CHAPTER 8 RATING

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8 RATING :RELAY CAPACITOR AND GATE VOLTAGE REGULATOR 7805IC,12V T1 -230/12V,750mA T2 -230/12V,500 Ma RESISTOR TRANSISTOR 1 5V & 10 k 12V,7AMP C1-25V,470 F C2-16V,220 F 5V, 7408IC

TRANSFORMER -

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CHAPTER 9 COSTING

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9 COSTING:SR.NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 PARTICULAR RELAY CAPACITOR RESISTOR TRANSISTOR TRANSFORMER LED SUPPLY CHORD INTEGRATED CIRCUIT QUANTITY 3 5 18 3 4 7 4 3 PRICE (IN RS) 15 10 18 15 100 7 50 30

9 10

20 1 =

20 150 437

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10.1 BIBLIOGRAPHY: Electrical Technology--- B.L.Theraja. Linear Integrated Circuits---Ramakant Gyakwad. Electronics For You----Das Gupta, Delhi.