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(B. Tech)

For the Period from: Name of Company & Address: Department/Branch/Section in which training going on: Training Timings: Lunch Break Training Manager's Name & Designation: Training Manager's Contact no.: Contact no. of the Student: 1) In the Company: 2) At Residence: Whether Training is for 5 days or 6 days a week: Off days: +919646704705 +919646704705 5 days 2 days (Saturday & Sunday) 1 March to 31 March, 2014 RTTC BSNL RAJPURA IP Addresses 10 a.m to 1 p.m 12 p.m to 12:15 p.m MANJIT SINGH CHAWLA +919417808545



Signature.............................. Name: Mr. MANJIT SINGH CHAWLA Designation: Training Manager (SDE) Department: DATA COMMUNICATION Seal................................

Name: POONAM CHOPRA Branch: ECE Univ. Roll no.: 100760419185 Contact no.: +919646704705 E- mail: Date of Submission: 4 April 2014


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4. 5.


Industrial Training plays an important role in enhancing our skills theoretically, practically and technically. It is an essential part of four year degree course in engineering. This project report shows the hard work and support of lot of people without whom this would not have been a success. This is known fact, a project can never be prepared by single efforts of the person to whom the project assigned it also demands the help and guardianship of some conversant people who helped passively in the completion of the project. All members of staff, technicians, engineers and training managers at RTTC BSNL Rajpura. Have been provided me with immense cooperation and support throughout the tough way to completion. This project would not have been achieved its present form without honorable Mr. MANJIT SINGH CHAWLA (SDE). it was his guidance, patience and crystal clear knowledge of subjects which motivated me to be focused and determined and work in a systematic manner. I would also like to show our gratitude to my parents and family members for standing by my side at every step and helped me whenever possible. Above all I would like to thank Almighty for giving me all that I have today and for bringing me in contact with all these people. I am thankful and indepted to my T.P.O ROHIT SHARMA & Ms. GURSHARAN KAUR for giving the useful information regarding training.

Poonam Chopra


The Regional Telecom Training Centre was established on 01-12-1975 in a rented building in Rajpura town and later shifted to departmental building on Patiala Bye Pass Road where it started functioning from 26-07-2004. This prestigious ISO 2001:2008 certified institute of BSNL caters to all training requirements of all five Northern States in particular and BSNL in general. The RTTC Complex is spread over 20 acres of land & houses Academic/Administrative Block, Staff Quarters, 3 Hostels (total capacity of 200), Guest House, and Student Centre etc. The campus is situated away from the towns hustle-bustle and has a beautiful ambience. There are 10 lecture halls, 1Seminar Hall & 1 Conference Hall all fitted with overhead/DLP Projectors. Fully equipped OFC/Transmission Labs, 3 Computer Labs, 1 Broadband/Multiplay Lab, 1 C-DOT-MBM Lab, 1 MLLN Lab, 1 GSM BTS, 1 Networking lab with Cisco Routers exist besides other smaller labs. The simultaneous batch capacity of RTTC is nine and the faculty of RTTC comprises of 35 staff members with the supporting staff strength numbering 25. Besides imparting all types of Telecom & Management related courses to the staff of BSNL, RTTC has also embarked upon to impart training to non-BSNL aspirants. This training centre is also organizing several seminars/ workshops on latest/upcoming technologies on regular basis. It is strongly felt that the collective endeavor of the faculty & the participants will result in the enhancement of the knowledge for all in the most effective manner.

3. Training Report 3.1. IP Addresses

An IP address is a number that represents a device like a network card uniquely on the Internet or on your company's intranet. This number is actually a binary one, but for convenience it's normally written as four decimal numbers. For instance, a typical IP address would be something like An IP address is a 32-bit address that uniquely and universally defines the connection of a device (for example, a computer or a router) to the Internet. IP Address Classes Class A: 1 126 (127 reserved for loop-back and diagnostic tests) Class B: 128 191 Class C: 192 223 Class D: 224 239 (reserved, used primarily for IP multicasting) Class E: 240 254 (reserved, experimental)

IPv4 Address Scheme

Two types of addressing schemes for IPv4 Classful Classless Original style of addressing based on first few bits of the address. Generally used in customer sites.

A new type of addressing that disregards the class bit of an address and applies a variable prefix (mask) to determine the network number.

IPv6 Features

Larger address space Efficient IP header and datagram Mandatory features From 32 bits to 128 bits addresses enables: End-to-end security can be used Flexibility Multiple levels of hierarchy in the address space Plug and play"

In an IP network, every machine on the same physical network sees all the data packets sent out on the network. As the number of computers on a network grows, network traffic will grow many fold, bringing down performance drastically. In such a situation, you would divide your network into different sub networks and minimize the traffic across the different sub networks. subnetting, in an IP Network can be done for a variety of reasons, including organization, use of different physical media (such as Ethernet, FDDI, WAN, etc.), preservation of address space, and security. The most common reason is to control network traffic. In subnetting, a network is divided into smaller sub networks with each subnet having its own subnet address IP address (32 bits) netid and hostid Means: there is a sense of hierarchy in IP addressing. To reach a host, we must first reach the network using netid, then using hostid to reach the host Default Subnet Masks: Class A Class B Class C

In terms of subnetting,

1 = /32 = 2 = /31 = 4 = /30 = 8 = /29 = 16 = /28 = 32 = /27 = 64 = /26 = 128 = /25 = 256 = /24 =

3.3 Router

Router is like a PC and has CPU Memory Ports & interfaces to hook peripherals May have a monitor to serve as a console Main difference is that a router is a diskless device and has different type of memories Cisco Router Memories Cisco routers have four types of memory RAM/DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) NVRAM (Non Volatile RAM) ROM (Read Only Memory) Flash

RAM/DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) Holds the working data and files of the router When in operation contains the image of IOS Can be increased If the power is turned off, its contents are lost

NVRAM (Non Volatile RAM) Stores startup configuration files If the power is turned off, its contents are not lost


Cisco Packet Tracer is a network simulation program that allows students to experiment with network behavior and ask what if questions

Packet Tracer supplements physical equipment in the classroom by allowing students to create a network with an almost unlimited number of devices, encouraging practice, discovery, and troubleshooting. The simulation-based learning environment helps students develop 21st century skills such as decision making, creative and critical thinking, and problem solving. Packet Tracer complements the Networking Academy curricula, allowing instructors to easily teach and demonstrate complex technical concepts and networking syste ms design. Adding a Switch Introduction to the Packet Tracer Interface using a Switch. Step 1: Start Packet Tracer and Enter Simulation Mode. Step 2: Choosing Devices and Connections We will begin building our network selecting devices and the media in which to connect them. Several types of devices and network connections can be used. For this lab we will keep it simple by using End Devices, Switches, Hubs, and Connections. Single click on each group of devices and connections to display the various choices. Step 3: Building the network Adding Hosts Single click on the End Devices. Single click on the Generic host. Move the cursor into network area. You will notice it turns into a plus + sign. Single click in the network area and it copies the device. Step 4: Building the Topology Connecting the Hosts to Switches Adding a switch: Select a switch, by clicking once on switch and once on a Generic hub..

Connect PC0 to Switch0 by first choosing Connections. Click once on the Copper Straight-through cable.

3.5 Network Address Translation (NAT)

NAT allows a single device, such as router, To act as agent between the Internet (Public Network) and a local (Private) Network



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