Sunteți pe pagina 1din 46

Standby Diesel Generator Set

Instep

Standby Diesel Generator Set


Objectives
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. State the purpose/main function of standby generator installation. State, explain and identify the standby generator set assembly. State, explain and identify the main component of AC Generator. Describe the operation of Brushless Generator type. Describe the metering, protection and control system. State and explain the controlled parameters of Standby generator installation. 7. Read and interpret layout drawing/diagram of Standby generator installation. 8. Perform pre-start up inspection on Standby generator installation. 9. Perform Standby generator startup and shutdown according to standard procedure.

Instep

Standby Diesel Generator Set


Coverage
System function and Assembly Generator Principle and Components Brushless AC Generator Construction The Generator Excitation Generator Control Panel System Starting System and Component System Operation Start-up/Shutdown Start-up Procedure

Instep

Standby Diesel Generator Set


Function
to
deliver power automatically to essential and vital switchboards in the event of power failure in order to powered the critical equipment such as UPS systems, Plant shutdown system, DCS, instrumentation,main motors, DC battery chargers and emergency lighting.
Power Flow
Neutral Switch

/SYNCHRONIZING

Lightning Arrestor

Lightning Arrestor

Main Switch Board

Generator/ Synchronizing Switch Board

AMF BOARD

AMF Board

Instep

Sub Switch Board

- Overhead System - Street Lighting

Essential Switch Board

Lightning Arrestor

Vital Switch Board


Lightning Arrestor

VITAL SWITCH BOARD

- Overhead System - Street Lighting

- DCS - Fire and Gas Detection System

Standby Diesel Generator Set


Assembly
Generator Switch Board Prime Mover - Diesel Engine

Generator Control Panel Fuel Storage

Instep

AC Generator

Battery Bank and Starting System

AC Generator (Basic)
Function
converts mechanical energy to electrical energy.

Prime mover provides mechanical power in term of rotation.

Generator/Alternator converts mechanical power into electrical power

Instep

AC Generator (Basic)
Principle
"Whenever a conductor or coil cuts a magnetic field or vise-versa, an induced current will flow in a conductor or an induced voltage will exist across the conductor"

Instep

AC Generator (Basic)
Construction / Main components
AC Output

Armature Winding Stator


DC input from Exciter

Rotation

N
Rotor

N S
Frame of Yoke

Instep

Field Winding

AC Generator (Basic)
Requirements
1 Magnetic Fluxes produce by a copper conductors known as Field winding when receives a DC supply from exciter. 2 Conductor or Coil a copper conductors known as Armature winding, carry induced current when cutting process occurs. 3 Cutting Process is a process where a conductor cuts the magnetic field or a magnetic field cuts the conductor which results and induce current flow in the conductor.

Instep

AC Generator (Basic)
Performance
1. Generated Voltage or Output Voltage ( E ) E = B l v sin q in volt (V) Where , E B l v q = output voltage = Magnetic field strength = Length of conductor under magnetic flux = speed of generator = cutting angle

Instep

E Exciting Current and speed

AC Generator (Basic)
Performance
2. Frequency ( f ) f = pN 120 in Hertz ( Hz )

Where,

p = number of poles N = speed in rpm

f generator speed

Instep

AC Generator (Basic)
Performance
3. Generator Speed ( N ) 120f in Hertz ( Hz ) p

N =

Where,

p = number of poles f = frequency

Instep

AC Generator (Basic)
Performance
4. Output power ( P ) For a Single phase P P = = V I cos VI

q - Watt or Kilowatt ( kW ) or
- VA or Kilovoltamp ( kVA )

For a Three phase P P = =


3 V I cos q
3V I

- Watt or Kilowatt ( kW ) or - VA or Kilovoltamp ( kVA )

Instep

where cos

V = line voltage I = line current

q = power factor

AC Generator (Basic)
Performance
5. Generator Efficiency ( h )

Output Wattage
=

Input Wattage

x 100

Output Wattage = kVA x cos

q Input Wattage = kVA x cos q + Copper loss + Stray loss


Copper loss = P losses in the armature winding + P losses in the separately excited field winding

Instep

Stray loss = Bearing and brushes friction losses + Windage losses + Iron losses ( eddy current + hysteresis losses )

AC Generator (Basic)
Overall Performance
Fuel (Chemical Energy)

KVA

h
Mechanical Energy Input (Engine Power)

p.fGen + Load

(Mechanical Energy Output)

KWinput

Instep

KWout

h
(Mechanical Energy Input) Motor Hp rating

Brushless AC Generator
Main Parts and Function
No slipring and carbon Brush required Less Maintenance has PMG for high KVA rating as
an additional components
AVR

Instep

AC Exciter Rotating Rectifier

Main Generator

Brushless AC Generator
Parts and Function
1 The Main Generator

4-pole, rotating field ac generator The field winding is wound to the salient pole of the rotor Speed at 1500 rpm 415VAC, 50Hz output is tap from the stationary
armature winding.
Pole Shoe

Inter-connector

Field Winding

Instep

Rotor Body

Salient Pole

Cylindrical Pole

Brushless AC Generator
Parts and Function
2 The AC Exciter > 8-pole brushless stationary field ac generator provide high armature output @ >100Hz frequency to be rectified and converted to DC voltage by a rotating rectifier for main generator field excitation.

Instep

Brushless AC Generator
Parts and Function
3 The Pilot Exciter an AC generator with rotating permanent magnets as its field. provides constant power to the AVR/MVR under all conditions regardless of the main generator output condition. For high KVA rating only >1MVA

Permanent Magnet

Instep

AC Exciter Armature

Brushless AC Generator
Parts and Function
4 Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) to control and regulate DC excitting current to the Exciter Field consist of Rectifier circuit, Voltage regulator/adjuster/comparator and Amplifier
Ac Exciter Armature Rotating rectifier

Ac Exciter Field

Main Generator winding

Instep

AVR Main Generator Field

Brushless AC Generator
Parts and Function
5 Rotating Rectifier a three-phase full-wave bridge, having six diode elements, mounted on a rotating steel plate, located at the exciter end for easy inspection, testing and replacement. output of ac exciter is rectified and converted to DC excitation voltage here for main generator field excitation.

Instep

Brushless AC Generator
Generator Excitation

Instep

Self excited,Brushless Rotating coil stationary field Three phase generator

Brushless AC Generator
Generator Excitation

Instep

Brushless AC Generator
Generator Excitation (with Pilot Exciter)

Instep

Self excited,Brushless Rotating coil stationary field Three phase generator

Brushless AC Generator
Generator Excitation (with Pilot Exciter)
Permanent Magnet Rotor Exciter Rotor Rotating rectifier Assembly Main field Shaft Axis

Main Stator Exciter Stator

Permanent Magnet Stator

Output Terminals

Instep

AVR

Local Control Panel


Function
start and stop the engine from the engine skid. provide general fault indicating lights. monitor engine speed

Instep

Generator Board
Function
for start and stop the generator set. continuous display and monitoring of the generated output. provide generator protection facilities with audible alarm signal
and fault indication lights. provide generator circuit breaker control . provide control engine speed, generator excitation/generator voltage. provide provide synchronization facilities.

Instep

Generator Board
Parts
A B D D A B C E

F G H

F G I J

A - Generator Metering Panel


B - Busbar Metering Panel

G - Circuit Breaker Control Panel


H - Synchronizing Panel I - Load Metering Panel J - Power Factor Correction Panel K - Generator Circuit Breaker L - Load Circuit Breaker

M - Neutral Contactor Panel


N - Engine DC Control Panel O - Lightning Arrestor Panel P - Battery Charger Panel Q - SpecialTool Compartment

Instep

C - Generator Protection Panel D - Synchronizing Metering Panel E - Power Factor Circuit Breaker F - Neutral Isolator Panel

Generator Board
The 3 Systems

VITAL in ensuring the integrity and continuity of a supply.

Protection System Busbar

PM

G
Metering System

Control System

Instep

Generator Board
1. Metering System
to monitor system performance
line voltage, line current, power factor,reactive power , true power , frequency and power consumption rate.

tap to the main line through Potential transformer (P.T)


or/and through Current transformer (C.T).

links together with indication devices: indicating lights

Instep

Generator Board
1. Metering System Connection

Instep

Generator Board
2. Control System
to control the generator operation and performance
smooth start-up (auto and manual) regulates the speed and voltage output (Governor and AVR) synchronizing if possible

Instep

Generator Board
2. Control System (Electronic Governor)
provides two functions, indicate exact engine speed and
kilowatt load sharing when synchronised
Input from Auto Synchronizer

Input from manual Speed Trimmer

Electronic Processor and Amplifier

Actuator
Fuel Control Valve

Magnetic Pickup

Engine

Generator
Engine Flywheel

Instep

Fuel line

Generator Board
2. Protection System
protects the generator against system problems/faults
overload, loss of load, unbalanced loading, under/over frequency and under/over voltage, Insulation failure, mechanical failure, excitation system failure reverse power

Instep

Generator Board
2. Protection System Connection

Instep

Generator Board
2. Protection System (Alarm & Shutoff)
DC CONTROL SWITCH EMERGENCY STOP MANUAL START P/B

to warn the operator that an unsafe operating condition is occurring.


Remote switches deenergise FC relay cause the engine shutdown Alarm Bell continually sound until reset button is pressed.

AFR-3

SR
SR-4

AST
FSM-4 SDT-1

FSM
FC-4 AFR-4

OPT
FSR-1 EFR-1 OCR-1 RPTR-1 LOP-1 HWT-1 OSR-1

FC
ALARM CANCEL P/B

ACR
ACR-1

FC-2

ACR-2

AR
FSR-2 FST-1 RESET P/B

FSR
EFR-2

EF-1

EFR
OCR-2

OC-1

OCR
RPTR-2

Instep

RPR-1

RPTR
LOP-2 OPT-1 Alt-Relay No Contact

LOP
HWT-2

ive

HWT
OSR-2

OSR

Charger and Battery Bank


Function
provide a DC supply to Starter Motor for engine cranking.
Starter Motor
Governor Actuator

Rotary Charger

Static Charger

Instep

Battery Bank

Fuel Storage
Function (Bulk Storage)
to ensure continuous and clean supply of diesel fuel.

intake line

Instep

Auto Main Failure Board (AMF)


Function
provide permissive to start signal to the generator set via undervoltage relay to do 'supply to the load' switching either from mains or from generator. connect/disconnect the generator to/from the essential/vital switchboard. From
From MSB

Board

Generator

Instep

To Ups and Vital Switch Board

Standby Diesel Generator Set


Sequences of Operation
Under Voltage Relay (set at 80-90% of rated voltage) detects loss (or abnormal reduction) of voltage. Permissive to start signal activates the starting of the engine (after 2-3 sec delay to confirm real power lost ). Energising of the starter motor system (take about 1-2 second intervals for the starter pinion to engage). Full power cranking, an engine speed detection circuit indicates when the engine has fired and has started to run up to speed and at this point the starter motor is de-energised and locked out. Acceleration of the engine/stable generator output. A few seconds is needed for the generating set is deemed ready for load transfer. (Synchronized if possible the system can take-up the loads.) Energising of Neutral Contactor and closing of generator CB.

Instep

In Auto-mode, it normally take 20 sec to complete the whole process.

Standby Diesel Generator Set


to AMF Board

Overall Interconnection

P.F Correction Unit

CB1

CB1 Control Unit

Synchronizer & Load Sharing Module

CB2 Control Unit

CB2

Metering & Protection

Metering & Protection

Gen.1

AVR

AVR

Gen.2

Governor & Speed Sensor Starter Motor Prime Mover Rotary Charger Battery Bank Gen.1 Static Charger

Gen.1 Local Control Unit

Gen.1 Remote Control Unit

Auto Start & Synch

Gen.2 Remote Control Unit

Governor & Speed Sensor

Built-in Rectifier Main Healthy

Built-in Rectifier

Gen.2 Local Control Unit

Starter Prime Motor Mover Prime Mover

Instep

Gen.1 Static Charger

Battery Bank

Rotary Charger

MUVR@AMF

240V Supply from MSB

Standby Diesel Generator Set


Manual Start-up/Shutdown
DC CONTROL SWITCH AT
AT-1 AUTO SCR-1 NC GR1a-1 AFR-2

EMERGENCY STOP
NO

ATR

SDT

FST
TEST AFR-4 AST-1 SR-3

ST
ST-1 SR-4 SYNCHRONIZING MODE SELECTOR SWITCH S7 MASTER STOP P/B MASTER START P/B

START P/B MANUAL

AUTO MAN OFF AFR-3

MSR SR
MSR-1

SR-4

AST
FSM-4 SDT-1

MUVR-1

ASR FSM

FC-4

AFR-4

OPT
FSR-1 EFR-1 OCR-1 RPTR-1 LOP-1 HWT-1 OSR-1

GENSET START_UP SELECTOR SWITCH S9 MSR GEN.1 GEN.2 OFF ASR

FC
ALARM CANCEL P/B

SCR1

ACR
ACR-1

GR1a FC-2 ACR-2

CON2

AR
FSR-2 FST-1 RESET P/B

GR2a

CON1

SNC2

FSR
EFR-2

SNC1

SCR2
EF-1

GR1b GR1a

EFR
OCR-2

OC-1

GR2a GR2b
GR1a

OCR

Instep

RPTR-2

RPR-1

RPTR
LOP-2 OPT-1 Alt-Relay No Contact

GR2a

OPT1 ive RR RY RY

LOP
HWT-2

DBT1
OPT2 AR1

DBT2 HWT
OSR-2 AR2

OSR

Standby Diesel Generator Set


Manual Start-up Procedure
A) Entering the Generator Room. wear complete safety gears; coverall, hard hat, boot, ear plug/ear guard and goggle. ensure that the room is safe to enter by referring to the room condition indicating light (Green), open the main door, let the door open for a while to ensure all the gas inside the room is purge out. ensure the light is enough, the availability of fire extinguisher, single line drawing and rubber mate inside the room.

Instep

sign and record the intended activities in the record/log book.

Standby Diesel Generator Set


Manual Start-up Procedure
B) Before operating the generator ensure fuel for diesel engine is at operating level and both valves for fuel inlet and return line are in open position. do inspect on Diesel Engine Battery bank voltage at minimum of 24VDC Radiator water level at operating level Lub oil at operating level and no leaking Any loose items on top of the engine C) Before operating the panel, ensure all breakers and switches are in OFF position.

Instep

Standby Diesel Generator Set


Manual Start-up Procedure
D) Follow the procedure and refer to attach DC Control single line drawing. Put DC Control switch to ON position and DC Selector Switch to manual position . Release the Emergency Stop button. Press START button .................. Prime Mover will start. Monitor generator metering panel. - Adjust voltage and frequency using voltage trimmer and speed trimmer to a required Value ( V= 415V, f= 50 Hz ). Put a circuit breaker switch to manual mode. Release circuit breaker Emergency Trip button. ON Neutral Contactor or Close Neutral Knife Switch. Press circuit breaker ON Push Button...........Circuit breaker will close.

Instep

Standby Diesel Generator Set


Manual Shutdown Procedure
E) Follow the procedure and refer to attach DC Control single line drawing. Open generator circuit breaker by pressing 'OFF' push button Press generator circuit breaker Emergency Trip Push Button to disable closing of the circuit breaker electrically Switch 'OFF' generator Neutral Contactor Switch of 'Open' Neutral Knife switch Turn the generator circuit breaker Mode Switch to 'OFF' Press 'Emergency Stop' push button to disable starting the generator prime mover electrically Turn Duty Selector Switch to 'OFF' Turn DC Control Switch to 'OFF'

Instep

In general, shut down procedure is reverse the start-up procedures unless emergency shutdown required by pushing the emergency push button