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2012

JSIS

Meeting

January

11,

2012

Dan Brancaccio

 

COMTRADE BRIEF

Using COMTRADE files as a Method for Exchanging Synchrophasor Data

CONTENTS

What is it good for?

 

2

Data

2

ASCII

2

Binary

3

Configuration

3

CFG file

3

INF File

4

HDR File

4

COMTRADE for Synchrophasors schema

4

What s Missing?

5

Appendix 1 Example INF file

6

Appendix

2

example

CFG file

7

Works Cited

 

8

COMTRADE BRIEF

WHAT IS IT GOOD FOR?

IEEE C37.111-1999 (Power Systems Relay Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society)

Originally intended as a standard way to share Transient information (COMTRADE COMmon format for TRansient Data Exchange for power systems) captured by signal samplers as point on wave scalar values (oscillography). Sample rates between 960 Hz and 7680 Hz were typical

DATA

Data comes in two flavors ASCII (CSV) and Binary

As an example a 5 minute data file with the data from 300 PMUs at 60 samples / sec (2100 phasors, 300 frequency, and 300 df/dt) in the binary format would be approximately 165MB. A file with the same data 1 hour long is approximately 2GB

ASCII is simply a CSV file with no header row (The header is effectively in the configuration file). ASCII data files are approximately 5 to 10 times larger than binary files

Each line is terminated with a carriage return line feed pair, Each line starts with a record number and the microsecond offset from the start Date Time value in the configuration file

ASCII

First columns are scalar values

0000000001,33333,60.004,60.01,773.4656,-103,774.8781,-103,174.797,-82,280.4568,93,220.2748,-93,110.8603,-68,206.3419,81

0000000002,66666,60.005,60,773.249,-102,774.6593,-103,174.797,-82,280.4568,93,220.2272,-93,110.8603,-68,206.3419,81

0000000003,99999,60.004,59.97,773.249,-102,774.4417,-103,174.797,-82,280.5156,93,220.2272,-93,110.8603,-68,206.1941,82

0000000004,133332,60.004,60.01,773.0336,-102,774.4417,-103,173.8074,-82,280.5156,93,220.2272,-93,110.8603,-68,206.1941,82

0000000005,166665,60.005,60,772.8195,-102,774.2254,-102,173.8074,-82,280.5156,93,220.2272,-93,111.234,-68,206.1941,82

0000000006,199998,60.004,59.99,772.6066,-102,774.9871,-102,173.8074,-82,280.5156,93,220.2272,-93,111.234,-68,206.1941,82

0000000007,233331,60.004,60,773.3725,-102,774.7735,-102,173.8074,-82,280.578,94,219.1849,-92,111.234,-68,206.051,82

0000000008,266664,60.004,59.98,773.3725,-102,774.7735,-102,173.954,-81,280.578,94,219.1849,-92,111.234,-68,206.051,82

0000000009,299997,60.004,60.02,773.1624,-102,774.5612,-102,173.954,-81,280.578,94,219.1849,-92,111.234,-68,206.051,82

0000000010,333330,60.004,60,772.9534,-102,774.35,-102,173.954,-81,280.578,94,219.1461,-92,111.234,-68,206.051,82

0000000011,366663,60.004,59.99,772.7457,-102,774.1402,-102,173.954,-81,280.6439,94,219.1461,-92,111.234,-68,206.051,82

0000000012,399996,60.005,60.06,772.5393,-102,774.9097,-102,173.954,-81,279.6462,94,219.1461,-92,111.234,-68,205.9126,82

0000000013,433329,60.005,59.98,773.5179,-102,774.9097,-102,174.1063,-81,279.6462,94,219.1461,-92,111.234,-68,205.9126,82

0000000014,466662,60.005,59.99,773.313,-102,774.7025,-102,174.1063,-81,279.7159,94,219.1461,-92,111.234,-68,205.9126,82

0000000015,499995,60.004,59.98,773.1093,-102,774.4966,-102,174.1063,-81,279.7159,94,219.1118,-92,111.6154,-67,205.9126,82

0000000016,533328,60.004,60,772.9069,-102,774.2919,-102,174.1063,-81,279.7159,94,219.1118,-92,111.6154,-67,206.9034,82

0000000017,566661,60.004,60.02,773.6854,-102,775.0677,-102,174.2642,-81,279.7892,94,219.1118,-92,111.6154,-67,206.7704,82

0000000018,599994,60.006,60.04,773.4856,-101,774.8658,-102,174.2642,-81,279.7892,94,219.1118,-92,110.6933,-67,206.7704,82

0000000019,633327,60.004,59.92,773.4856,-101,774.8658,-102,174.2642,-81,279.7892,94,219.1118,-92,110.6933,-67,206.7704,82

0000000020,666660,60.004,60.03,773.2871,-101,774.6651,-102,174.2642,-81,279.866,95,219.0822,-92,110.6933,-67,206.7704,82

0000000021,699993,60.005,60,773.0899,-101,774.4656,-101,174.2642,-81,279.866,95,219.0822,-92,110.6933,-67,206.6422,83

0000000022,733326,60.005,60,772.8939,-101,774.2674,-101,174.2642,-81,279.866,95,220.0818,-92,110.6933,-67,206.6422,83

0000000023,766659,60.006,60.04,772.6992,-101,774.0704,-101,174.2642,-81,279.866,95,220.0568,-91,111.0856,-67,206.6422,83

Followed by digital status values

0,1,0,0,0,1,1,0,1,1,0,1

0,1,0,0,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,1

0,1,0,0,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,1

BINARY

Fixed length records all values are 16-bit signed integers except for record number and microsecond offset which are 32-bit unsigned integers.

0x000000010x000082350x7FF70x35AD0x832A0x7FF70x35AD0x832A0x7FF70x35AD0x832A0x7FF70x35AD0x832A0x7FF70x35AD0x832A0x7FF7

0x000000020x0001046A0x7FF20x7FF70x35AD0x832A0x7FF70x35AD0x832A0x7FF70x35AD0x832A0x7FF70x35AD0x832A0x7FF70x35AD0x832A

CONFIGURATION

ASCII text in human readable format contains information required to reconstruct the data in the data file and is the same for both ASCII and binary data files.

CFG FILE

Line 1: Station Name, Recording Device ID, revision year (should always be 1999) Line 2: Total Channel count in the data file, Analog channel count, Digital count Line 3 through 3 + Analog channel count: A description of each analog channel Line 3 + Analog channel + 1 through 3 + Analog channel + 1 + Digital count: A description of each digital channel Followed by

Line X

Next Line: Number of Sample Rates (this will be 1) Next Line: Sample Rate in Hz, End Sample at this rate (this should equal total record count). Note: Having a sample rate removes the requirement for the second field in the data file to contain an offset in microseconds from the start Date Time Stamp. (This is important in binary data files where the largest value in microseconds would be 4,294,967,295 or a little over 1 hour)

Next Line: Data file start time dd/mm/yyyy,hh:mm:ss.ssssss Next Line: Data file trigger time dd/mm/yyyy,hh:mm:ss.ssssss (used typically for transient data, for synchrophasors will be the same as start time) Next Line: File Type (ASCII or BINARY) Last Line: Time Multiplier, this is another way around the 71 minute maximum duration when using the microsecond offset field. I suggest neither be used.

: Nominal Line Frequency

The analog description lines are where all the important information is contained describing each of the analog (scalar) channels (columns) in the data file

Each line contains the following fields:

Field 1: Analog channel index 1 through the number of analog channels. The actual column where the channel is located is this number plus 2. The first two columns are record number and offset. Field 2: Channel Name 64 characters. This is where the synchrophasor specification gets specific where the COMTRADE spec was open. From the PSRC H8:

This should be a combination of the station name and the channel names as given in C37.118. Those names are restricted to 16 bytes, so they will occupy 33 bytes (with colon) in the 64 byte field. They will be written as station name followed by channel

name connected with a colon. That is, station_name:channel_name. Note that the same name will be applied to two channels since each phasor has two number values that are recorded in different analog channels. The channel phase identification field (ph) is used to designate which component is represented in each channel. Channel names must be unique as they are used to link the two components of the phasor together. If other information is to be added to this name, it must be added after the channel name delimited by an underscore or other character. Since the colon delimits the station to channel name, it cannot be used in any channel name and should not be used in any other name. With this convention, phasor data names (ch_id) will always start with the station_name:channel_name.

Field 3: Phase Identification two characters e.g. Pm indicates Positive Sequence magnitude, Ai would be phase A imaginary component. Field 4: Circuit Component being monitored 64 characters. The PSRC H8 describes some keywords can be used in this 64 character space e.g. Vnom=345. The important keyword here is Vref=XXXX. This is how a current phasor will be linked to the correct voltage phasor to be used for watt and VAR calculations. Field 5: Channel units e.g. kV Field 6: Channel multiplier (a) Field 7: Channel offset (b) Field 6 and 7 are used together to calculate the value of a sample when using binary data files value = ax + b Field 8: Time skew, see COMTRADE spec most likely not needed for synchronized values Field 9: Minimum value in data file for this channel Field 10: Maximum value in data file for this channel Field 8: PT or CT ratio primary factor Field 8: PT or CT ratio secondary factor Field 8: P or S which scaling factor should be used

Example COMTRADE CFG file see appendix 2

INF FILE

Free form human readable text file that can contain information about the data file not contained in the CFG file

HDR FILE

Free form human readable text file that can contain information about the data file not contained in the CFG file

COMTRADE FOR SYNCHROPHASORS SCHEMA

Summary of document PSRC H8 Application of COMTRADE for Synchrophasor Data (Eric Allen, 2010) Approved by IEEE PSRC Subcommittee H on July 31, 2009 as a PSRC Report.

This schema is actually a detailed description of how to use the pre-existing COMTRADE CFG file with the specific application of synchrophasor data. As described in the C37.111-199 specification each analog (scalar) channel contained in the data files (ASCII or Binary) is described in detail by a single line in the configuration file in the analog section. Excerpts from this file are in the CFG file description. Presently the COMTRADE for Synchrophasors schema is intended for use with synchrophasor data compliant with the C37.118-2005 (Power Systems Relay Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society) specification it will work with any synchrophasor data, or any time sequenced data.

WHAT S MISSING?

The COMTRADE for synchrophasors schema has done what the original COMTRADE specification was unable to do. It has brought structure to the configuration file in a standardized way that will allow consumers to extract more useful information. However there is still the occasional use of the word optional in the specification, specifically in the field where keyword Vref is used.

While the schema goes a long way towards clarifying individual signals (channels) and signal pairs it does not contain any information about lines or paths. One suggestion would be to use the INF file that can accompany the CFG DAT file pair. A simple XML schema could be both human and machine readable for example see appendix 1.

APPENDIX 1 EXAMPLE INF FILE

<?xml version='1.0' standalone='yes'?> <paths> <path>

<ID>10</ID>

<lines>

<line>

<name>Broadview to Colstrip 500kV #1</name> <terms> <term> <name>Broadview</name>

<sigref>56</sigref>

<equipment> <vendor>SEL</vendor>

<model>451</model>

</equipment>

<asset>

<!-- this only has to reference the current synchrophasor -->

<type>transformer</type>

</asset>

</term>

</terms>

<term>

<name>Colstrip</name>

<sigref>59</sigref>

<!-- this only has to reference the current synchrophasor -->

</term> </terms> </line> <line> <name>Broadview to Colstrip 500kV #2</name> <terms> <term>

<name>Broadview</name>

<sigref>72</sigref>

<equipment> <vendor>SEL</vendor>

<model>451</model>

</equipment>

<asset>

<!-- this only has to reference the current synchrophasor -->

<type>transformer</type>

</asset>

</term> </terms> <term> <name>Colstrip</name>

<sigref>75</sigref>

<!-- this only has to reference the current synchrophasor -->

</term>

</terms>

</line>

<line>

<name>Hardin to Colstrip 230kV</name>

</line>

<line>

<name>Hardin to Colstrip 115kV</name>

</line>

</lines>

</path>

</paths>

APPENDIX 2 EXAMPLE CFG FILE

WISP,Loss of greater than 1000MW,1999

3548,1548A,2000D

1,W001.BPA.W001BIG_EDDY 01:L500JOHN_DAY_2V1,Pm,Vnom=540,kV,0.04,0,0,-32767,32767,1,1,P 2,W001.BPA.W001BIG_EDDY 01:L500JOHN_DAY_2V1,Pa,Vnom=540,Deg,0.006,0,0,-32767,32767,1,1,P 3,W001.BPA.W001BIG_EDDY 01:L500JOHN_DAY_2I1,Pm,Inom=1200Vref=1,A,0.4,0,0,-32767,32767,1,1,P 4,W001.BPA.W001BIG_EDDY 01:L500JOHN_DAY_2I1,Pa,Inom=1200Vref=2,Deg,0.006,0,0,-32767,32767,1,1,P 5,W001.BPA.W001BIG_EDDY 01:A JOHN_DAY_1FQ,F,,Hz,0.001,60,0,-32767,32767,1,1,P 6,W001.BPA.W001BIG_EDDY 01:A JOHN_DAY_1DF,df,,Hz/s,0.01,0,0,-32767,32767,1,1,P 7,W001.BPA.W001CAPTJACK 01:L500MALIN 4V1,Pm,Vnom=528,kV,0.04,0,0,-32767,32767,1,1,P 8,W001.BPA.W001CAPTJACK 01:L500MALIN 4V1,Pa,Vnom=528,Deg,0.006,0,0,-32767,32767,1,1,P 9,W001.BPA.W001CAPTJACK 01:L500MALIN 4I1,Pm,Inom=1200Vref=7,A,0.4,0,0,-32767,32767,1,1,P 10,W001.BPA.W001CAPTJACK 01:L500MALIN 4I1,Pa,Inom=1200Vref=8,Deg,0.006,0,0,-32767,32767,1,1,P 11,W001.BPA.W001CAPTJACK 01:A MALIN 1FQ,F,,Hz,0.001,60,0,-32767,32767,1,1,P 12,W001.BPA.W001CAPTJACK 01:A MALIN 1DF,df,,Hz/s,0.01,0,0,-32767,32767,1,1,P

1996,W001.BPA.W001CAPTJACK 01:PMUTR,SB,,0 1997,W001.BPA.W001CAPTJACK 01:SORT,SC,,0 1998,W001.BPA.W001CAPTJACK 01:SYNC,SD,,0 1999,W001.BPA.W001CAPTJACK 01:PMUERR,SE,,0 2000,W001.BPA.W001CAPTJACK 01:DTVLD,SF,,0

60

1

30,27000

16/05/2011,17:57:10.033333

16/05/2011,17:57:10.033333

BINARY

1

WORKS CITED

Eric

Allen,

J.

I.-P.

(2010,

May

13).

Retrieved

from

PES-PRC.ORG:

http://www.pes-

psrc.org/Reports/Schema_for_Phasor_Data_Using_the_COMTRADE_File_Standard.pdf

Power Systems Relay Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society. (n.d.). C37.111-1999. Retrieved from IEEE Store: http://webstore.ansi.org/RecordDetail.aspx?sku=C37.111-1999

Power Systems Relay Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society. (n.d.). C37.118-2005. Retrieved from IEEE Store: http://webstore.ansi.org/RecordDetail.aspx?sku=IEEE+Std+C37.118-2005