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Write answers in 100 Words Que. What do you know about TEMPORA program? Ans=> TEMPORA program-- This petition demands a debate in Pa rliament to examine the implications of GCHQ's 'Tempora' progr amme. recent revelations about GCHQ's 'Tempora' programme U K citizens are facing the greatest threat to their civil liberties i n this country's history. Indiscriminate surveillance is being coll ected on the populace on a massive scale with no public mandate. if this system is allowed to exist at all at the very least it should have a mandate from both the public and parliament - with exte rnal accountability and auditing.

Que. What is Super Moon? Ans => Super Moon- A super full moon occurs when the moons cl osest approach to the Earth (lunar perigee) coincides with the p hase of full moon. When this happens the moon may seem bigger and brighter.The moon's position furthest away from Earth is ca lled apogee while its closest approach to Earth is referred to a s perigee.The technical name is the perigee-syzygy of the Eart h-Moon-Sun system.

Que. What is Smart Mine Field Application and how is it helpful? Ans => Smart Mine Field Application- Engineers from the Militar y College of Electronics and Mechanical Engineering (MCEME) ha ve developed a Smart Mine Field application.. Mines are usually p laced in several locations at a strategic site and left there for lo ng. Sometimes, owing to rain or for some other reason, their loca tion shift. With the help of this application which proposes to fi t all mines used by the Indian Army with radio frequency tags, t he detection of the friendly mines will become easier by using a computer or even a tablet. This will be easier than using a metal detector.

Que . What are Kupffer Cells? Ans=> liver kupffer cell- Kupffer cells are the major macrophage population of the body that has direct contact with the blood. T hey are found in the vascular sinuses, attached to the outer surf ace of endothelial cells and together with those cells and fat-for ming Ito cells, they form a major non-parenchymal component of the liver. The Kupffer cells would be exposed to toxic componen ts, including bacterial endotoxns, arriving in the portal blood.

Que. What is HEVC? Ans => - HEVC stands for High Efficiency Video video

codec will compress video files to half the size possible using th e most- efficient current encoding format, MPEG-4.. , HEVC will be used to compress video with 4K resolution and possibly eventu ally 8K resolution so it can be efficiently delivered.MPEG 2 code c that most cable-TV companies still employ.

Que. What is Tianhe-2? Ans => Tianhe-2-- world's fastest computer.. can perform 33,86 0 trillion calculations a second..Tianhe-2 was built by China's Nat ional University of Defence Technology in Guangzhou.. packed mo re than 3.1 billion Intel Xeon E5-2692 cores. It also leverages In tel's many-core Xeon Phi coprocessors to help speed up perform ance.

Que. What is Citrus Greening? Ans => Citrus Greening-- Citrus greening, also called Huanglongbi ng or yellow dragon disease, is one of the more serious diseases of citrus. This bacterial disease is thought to have originated in China in the early 1900s. The disease is primarily spread by two species of psyllid insects. The bacteria itself is not harmful to h umans but the disease has harmed trees in asia, africa, brazil et c

Que. Sochi Olympics is a feather in Putin's cap but it may lead t o increase in global tensions ...Discuss Ans => Deterioration of the relation between the world economic giants is the sign of further instilling of tensions in other count ries. In my view the grand success of Sochi Olympics really made a position of Russia on Global platform but because of the acces sion of Crimea, many other countries defended its presentation i n game events and further it lead to increase the tension. => G-8 countries have started sidelining Russia; they are not wor ried let it be the G-7 itself.They blame Russia for violation of th e European treaty and accession of Cremea is at least never bee n justified. Anti-Russian forces are seeking a high diplomatic ambitions by le t Russia down and being maligned in International platform.This act of malignation won't work out if it start getting even a petty of glory. => The worry of diplomacy here curtails the Sochi Olympic succe ss. Those nations aren't even favouring any kind of effort which highlights Russia in the acts like the meets and favours for an ef fective diplomacy. Hence, let the Russian Seclusion work-out,Soc hi Olympics may be called a part tension-probe diplomacy making the tensions and concerns grow deeper and deeper. => The main objective of Politics is to rule, while the main object ive of Olympics is to Strive together towards getting better. Af ter all, Sports and Politics never mix. Also, the country/venue fo r the winter Olympics was pre-determined, that has got nothing to do with diplomatic relations with the G-8 summit or the Crime

an issue.

Que. Indian Diaspora in Canada ? (5 marks ) Ans => They are the people belongings to Indian descent/culture. They nearly constitute 3.4 %(50% sikhs,30% Hindus and rest ot hers) of total Population of Canada. => Initial migrants were veteran british soldiers, went there in s earch of some easy life as it is difficut to survive in India due to heavy taxation system and Zamndari. => Now they are more developed as compared to localities, their average income is 20% more to national one, technology, mathem atics, engg. field are primarily represented by Indians in Univers ities. => Also the Govt.,Cabinet support them for their Linguistic,Cultu ral and Indian Sculptures market. => Upon attaining the Independence of India in 1947, the immigr ants also won the right to vote their, now among the few MP`s in their cabinet

Que. The only power that can stop the Chinese Juggernaut is Chi na itself ...Elaborate => china fastest and presently second bigest economy some say i t will surpass us in cming decade or so...but not true bcause it is getting internally torn due to corruption curtailing undamental ri

ghts, lack of chcks and balances on arbitrary use of power due t o one party rule....rural urban hiatus widening.... restricted frred om on land acquisition and child bearing...islamic fundamentalism.. .water and resource starved northern issues of governance r there which may prove serious hurdles in china becoming global hegemonic po wer

Que. International Criminal Court is White mans burden ....Do u a gree?? => the ICC has no supremacy since it has been established by a t reaty and the former tribunals have been ordained by the securi ty council of UN charter. the members of the UN are bound to c arry out the decisions of the security council relating to mainten ance of international peace and security. => under the rules of international law,states have to exercise ju risdiction over nationals of the states, if they r widin it territori al jurisdiction. but under the present statute, nationals of third states come wthin the jurisdiction of ICC when they are reffere d to it. => as the US have vehemently opposed ths provision because its nationals can be charged with crimes resulting from forcible inte rventions abroad or lawful peace keeping operations. we can consider a recent example i.e the commission of war crim es and human rights violations by the US forces in iraq. => ICC's working criticised by many countries including india and

some african countries....a careful look at history of ICC will tell that most of cases being investigated or prosecutions completed relate to africa which have been past colonies of european powe rs ...and now they want to still hav their influence by prosecuting heads of these states and install governments friendly to them Fr that u shud knw what is the so called White Mans burden ...nd is it working in this neo colonial era thru instrument like ICC ...n d put fwd ur point white man's burden - "The supposed or presumed responsibility o f white people to govern and impart their culture to non-white p eople..

Que. BRICS is a novel intiative but the seeds of failure lies in th e idea of BRICKS .....Do u agree ? Comment ! => BRICS is the global groupng of countries ,, brazil ,, russia ,, in dia , china and south africa ,, mainly economic... => BRICKS is a proposed inclusion by Goldman Sachs..which includ es South Korea as one component . => Korea wasn't added initially to the BRIC countries because at the time BRIC was formed Korea was considered already develop ed. => South Korea is one of the worlds most developed countries an d including it in a list of developing countries like BRICS cannot be justified. => It has very high Human Development Index than most other d eveloped countries. It has a significantly higher Growth Environ

ment Score (Goldman Sachs' way of measuring the long-term sus tainability of growth) than all of the BRICS nations => Also it has a small population size compared to the problems f aced due to overpopulation by the BRICS nations. So if South Ko rea is added to the list then it won't show much interest in the a ffairs of the functioning of BRICS because most of the problem s faced by BRICS countries are not a problem for it. => Also economists have put forth a new acronym MIST Mexico I ndonesia South Korea Turkey. As these countries have similar fi nancial conditions and developmental goals. => The members of BRICS have approx same economic backgroun d hence they understand problems faced by each other but intro duction of korea which is a highly developed country will lead to problems as it may try to come up as an elder brother in the gro up and the problema faced by the rest of the countries would no t be a problem for korea

# # North Korea remains an ENIGMA.... Elaborate. => history is a catalogue of mistakes and it is our duty to learn fr om is true for has often in past taken contradicto ry stands like earlier signing NPT later denouncing it...sometimes it comes to negotiating table for not using nuclear military prog ramne but later rejecting it...last year gave threat to fire agains t south korea but this year wanted to hav family meeting to unit e families of two it has no ideology...stand principles and a firward looking progressive leader...for them bullet and not

ballot is real source of power...china can play constructiv tole it i s ally and huge food grains giver so some sort of pressure applie d provided cold war rivalry between chinese communists and US capitalists can be overcome.. => basically korean peninsula has been the one of the faultline of cold war eta with communists supporting north and us and weste rn world supporting south...moreover north korea being in posses sion of nuke weapons hav influenxe over chinese policy makers an d chinese do not want a nuke enemy immediately in their neighbo urhood..also china using su basically korean peninsula has b een the one of the faultline of cold war eta with communists sup porting north and us and western world supporting south...moreo ver north korea being in possession of nuke weapons hav influenx e over chinese policy makers and chinese do not want a nuke ene my immediately in their neighbourhood..also china using sup ply nukes to its ally states like pak.. => also North Korea has faces droughts...this leads to hunger....m illions hv repprtedly died...since North Korea shares a border wit h China ...such drought situations can lead to rufugees into China which wud mean unrest in avoid this...China provides fo od aid to North korea As far as South Korea is concerned ....Seoul lies just 36 miles aw ay from North Korea...a few missiles fired into Seoul wud leave South Korea into economic woes nd stock mrkets might trumble.. a result South Korea nd North Korea alwayz try to bargain w it each other.

# # Naujawan Bharat Sabha and its objectives.. => The Naujawan Bharat Sabha was formed to channelise the mili tant nationalist movement on ideological lines in March 1926 by B hagat Singh. => In this task, he was ably assisted by Bhagwati Charan Vohra, Dhanwantri, Ehsan Elahi and others. => Ram Krishna and Bhagat Singh became its first president and secretary respectively. => Naujawan Bharat Sabha ( Youth Society of India )was an asso ciation of Indian youth that sought to foster revolution against t he British Raj by gathering together worker and peasant youth. The association was declared illegal under the Criminal Law Amen dment Act (1908) in September 1934. Objectives The Sabha had two-fold objectives: : - - > social and political. => The social objectives comprised the popularization of swades hi goods, plain living, physical fitness, inculcation of the sense of brotherhood and the stimulation of interest in Indian languages and civilization. => The Sabha also had a definite political programme which inclu ded the following: a) to establish a complete independent republic of the labourers and peasants of the whole of India; b) to infuse a spirit of patriotism into the hearts of the youths o f the country in order to establish a united Indian nation;

c) to express sympathy with and "to assist the economic, industr ial and social movements which, while being free from communal sentiment, are intended to take us nearer to our ideal, namely, t he establishment of a complete independent republic of labourer s and peasants"; d) to organise the labourers and peasants. It is significant that a long with British imperialism it wanted to see the end of other i mperialisms also. The Sabha movement had a wider perspective; i t believed in the freedom of other enslaved nations also. => Sabha also declared socialism as its objective.

# # what does "under his hand and seal" means? => ''under his hand and seal'' means in one's own hand-writing an d own name.. Ex. The President of India can submit his/her resig nation to the Vice President under his hand and seal. It means th at the resignation letter should be written by the President him self/herself in own hand-writing, & a seal must be put on..

# # The proxy war between Russia and West in Ukraine is takin g a heavy toll ..Comment ! (250 words ) => Ukraine crisis has now evidently become a battle for hegemon y between Russia and US-EU slamming ukraine with an either-or choice between itself and russia , and then US and EU backing t he undemocratic govt of oppositions pushed russia to move forwa

rd and militarily annex crimea after a refferndum . => But in all this ukraine is falling deeper into a pit of chaos , wit h a weak govt at helm , the almost bankrupt country is facing a f ear of default ,which once used to be the second most powerful economy in former soviet union . => With crimea annexed into russia ,other pro-russian region in u kraine could possibly be provoked to demand either greater powe r or complete secession from it and further disintegrate ukraine . => The unrest and anarchy in ukraine being fuelled by west will h amper their interest too as many EU member nations are heavily dependent on russia for their energy supplies ,, => the sanctions against russia by west though does not show any signifacnt impact at present .but will surely prove adverse for r ussian economy as well as global economy in long run . => With russia's sluggish GDP growth rate ,and in view of its excl usion from G8 , if west decides to further intensify the sanction s , the investment flowing to russia is bound to get affected ...

# # what are Geoids ? => this term is used to refer to objects whose shape is like that of the earth => The geoid is a model of global mean sea level that is used to m easure precise surface elevations.. => Geoids are lumpy because g ravity varies from place to place in response to local differences and variations in the density of materials in the Earth's interior

. a mathematical idealized representation of physical earth

# # Pakistan Day is celbrated on 23rd March ...why ? => Their republic day, commemorating the Lahore Resolution of 1 940 => It became the world's first Islamic republic on 23rd march 19 56.

# # what is the political situation right now in Thailand ..nd what r is the background of protests der ?> => At present the former PM yingluck shinawatra is actng as the caretaker PM in the country ,,and with feb general election rule d invalid by the constitutional court ,,puts thailand in a fix ... => Constitutionally still a monarch country ,, thailand became fre e from absolute monarchy in 1932 , with commencement of first constiution and first legislature in the country . => .following this were decades of military rule ,ending only in 19 80s ,,the first direct elections in thai history for the two houses of national assembly (parliament) was held in 1997 ,, ,,,.,,,, ,,, in 2 001 general election , Mr. thaksin shinawatra ,of rak thai party c ame to power ,,and was again re-elected with absolute majority i n 2005 general election ,, => but he was accused of abusing state powers and violating elec tion laws ......, in 2006 overthrowing thaksin govt , military rule w

as once again imposed over d country ...this was followed by mass ive protest for democracy in country ,... => In july 2011 general election ,,pheu thai party led by Ms yinglu ck shinawatra , younger sister of thaksin , came to power . Yinglu ck's govt through a bill ,providing amnesty for people in 2010 pro test , also cleared mr thaksin of all political crimes . => This led to protest and demand for removal of ms yingluck's g ovt and end of thaksin regime . The people now demand an unelec ted people's council which they believe would cleanse the thai po litics . => This led to dissolution of parliament , and call for fresh election ,but people and opposition protest against the election and this led to feb elections declared as invalid .. => All said , with limited experience of democracy ,, the country which prides in itself of never been subjected to colonialism und er any european country , the population here is divided on the q uestion of democracy itself in the country ...

# # Myistone dam in news ..where is it ...nd what news it is maki ng ?? => Mytisone dam is a hydro-electric dam being built by China ove r the River Irrawady in Myanmar. Protests against it , as it is co nsidered hazardous for the is in Kachin State .. => It is on "Irawaddy River" in Burma...a protest march of 2400k m was arising there against is construction. => A large dam is still undr cnstrctn , if completed as planned wil l b 15th largest hydroelectric power station in world ,, dam's dim

ensions as planned - 1310 long and 139.6 m high .. Being built with china assistance ,, it will provide 3600 to 6000 mgwts electricit y to china primarily aftr completion ,, => Controversial issues are -dam's enormous flooding area ,, environmental impact , its locati on on fault line ,, and people also detest china's growing influenc e over burma .. 30th sept 2011 , president myanmar , Thein sein , announced suspension of the project ,, but speculations are that the construction still continues ,, but govt denies these reports ,, => On 23rd march over a dozen people started a 2400 km march , over demand to permanent cancellation of the dam project. . => The Kachins r a coalition of six tribes whose homeland encomp asses territory in Yunnan , China and Northeast India , in additio n to Kachin State in Burma. This is compartively backward area. => The kachin indepndenc army (KIA) formed in 1961 in response to a military coup in Burma led by General Ne Win , who attempt ed 2consolidate Burmese control ovr regions on d periphery of t he state whch were home 2 various ethnic groups. => Originally d KIA fought fr independence, but later, official KI A policy goal shifted to autonomy within a federal union of Burm a. in 2011, KIA ended d 1994's ceasefire wid d govt. in protest o f Myitsone Dam whch requires d submergence of dozens of villag es in Kachin state & renewed their struggl fr indepndnc... => KIA is military wing of KIO, kachin indepndc org. KIO maintai ns an extralegal bureaucracy in Kachin State & has exclusive con trol ovr d territory. it maintains a police dept., educatnl system, immigratn dept. & many other institutions of self-government.

# # Pravasi Bhartiya Diwas in 2014 (5 marks) ? => Pravasi Bhartiy Diwas is celebrated on 9th january every year to mark the contributionss of overseas indian community to the development of India.. It .is being conducted in memory of gandh iji return to india from SA on 9th jan. in 1915.... => The Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs (MOIA) looks aftr it s conduction.PBD 2014 was 12th edition of the celebration at ne w delhi with Rajkeswur Purryag, President of the Republic of Ma uritius as the Chief guest. => This year's theme was engaging diaspora : connecting across g enerations. This year also witnessed youth PBD held on the first day of the evnt..

# # Who are the boat people ? Why are they in news ? => Refuges who left country by sea.particularly vietnamese who f led to hongkong ,australia

# # What lessons can India learn from the present political imb rogolio in Thailand ? => The root cause behind thailand's political instability is the lac k of faith over democracy in the country . With a long history in

monarchy and decades of military rule , and hence a very limited experience in democracy , the elite opposition did not find it as o ne onerous task to arouse the people against democratic govt . ... . => The political set up in the two countries , india and thailand ,ar e different . India is known to b the largest democracy in world , the democracy in india is deeply rooted , and has a glorious histo ry behind its achievement . => The leaders of indian national movement had always maintaine d democracy in india as the cental issue , the success of democra cy in india largely owes to their effort before and after indepen dance .. => With democratic political parties , a strong and competent ele ction commission , and independent , unbiased and active judiciar y ,india cannot corelate itself with current thai scenario ,. => but yet , india is still young as a nation,and continues with the process of nationn building ,, and so it still can draw a few lesson s from it . .... Though india is largely democratic but its diversity still makes it vulnerable to the various divisive factors ,, commun alism , regionalism , diverse ethnicity being a few of

# # katchatheevu issue is more of a domestic political issue rat her than an international issue ...Discuss (so first explain what is the issue ,,,nd than giv ur expert opinion .. => Katchatheevu is an uninhabited island located about 10 miles

N-E of Rameswaram on the Indian side and 9 miles of south of D elft Island on the Sri Lankan side. It was handed over to Sri Lan ka through an agreement in 1974... => Fishermen of both side used to take rest there and dried thei r Jaals as per agrement but can not do fishing there. Many times Sri Lankan Navy interuppt there with our fishermen, claiming th at is Sri Lankan area. => last year in nov , in commonwealth summit, PM Manmohan Sing h refused to attent that in SL due to some reasons but actually i t was a political move to appease Tamils and Jayalalitha...and fro m its consequences, our foreingn relations with neighbour island getting more tensed. => regional areamatic/public issue are so dominating over stategi c and frontier ones that '' In Many Cases Our Foreign Policy run s by States". => In present scenerio katchatheevu is a minor problem as the pr esent foreign policy is being derieved by states any foreign matt er is difficult to solve by peaceful talks.... even tought tat island was given to SL ...but giving a way a part of India thru a executiv e decision is invalid ..nd hence Katchatheevu secession can b prov ed null and void in the court of law in INdia just like in Beri Beri case ... => .now SL has redrawn it maritime boundry & they r harasing ou r fishermen who enter this area ....some few years ago they used to shoot at sight but now they beat them & arrest them ....!! => the area around island is rich in marine resources & of great e conomic benefits to the fishermen .... now India has to solve this issue either by negotiating by Sri Lan

kan govt ...or it has to forget the island nd make constitutional a mendment nd give it to Sri Lanka for the mistake which Indira G andhi made ...or else forcibly take it up ! => It is not disputed that India must be bound by her internation al commitments, but the violations of international maritime and humanitarian laws by Sri Lanka and its navy have left India with no other choice but to review the agreements of 1974 and 1976. => If the Government chooses to do so, it would be well within th e purview of the Supreme Court to adjudicate the way forward... .so solving this issue by SC makes it a domestic issue rather than an international.

# # What do you understand by resource mobilization? How imp ortant is it for the Indian economy? (200 Words) => it means improving tax to GDP ratio which at present is disma l 11% while in developed countries 35-40% b done by not incr easing tax rate but by increasing tax base and giving minimum ex emptions bcause if rate increased laffer curve phenomena will oc cur.. => also it means promoting savings and consequently investments because in India, capital output ratio is at present is 4:1 means f or growth of 9pc => India require investment of 36% of GDP .but recently it has d ecreasd to improvment is needed....attracting foreig n investment in the form of FDI not FII...

# # Tsunami Warning System .............50 words => it is used to detect tsunami at initial stage so that early warni ng can be issued to prevent damage to life and property. it consi sts of two systems working in sync. => the first system detects earthquake and detects t-waves whi ch cause tsunamis along with rise in height of sea water with the help of height bouys. => the second system sends alert signals along the coastal area i n time to declare evacuation before tsunami hits the shore.

# # PSLV - C24 => will be launching IRNSS - 1b ...which is a series of 7 satellites to b launched => it is an indian version of Global Positioning System (GPS) => it would help in urban traffic management ..marine navigation... keeping track of doubtful activities over borders ...

# # Powell resigns as US ambassador to India...hw do u see this event ? => There are certain things which can be derived from actions w hen things happen at a diplomatic level.. => is believed that Nancy Powell had a good rapo with UPA.....b ut with Elections ahead the White house beleives tat der wl b ch

ange of gaurd at the centre ... => a Modi led govt to b precise....nd US believes tat der is a need to redefine nd restructure relations with the new govt ....nd hen ce a new man b posted to carry out the work.... => also recent crisis in khobragade case in which powell failed mi serably to handle is also reason for her removal...

# # SEBI Ordinance Securities Laws (Amendment) Bill 2013. in news ...what r the new features to it ? => The main purpose of the ordinance is to give SEBI more power s in order to crack down on Ponzi schemes. SEBI has been given powers of investigation and seizures and demand information rel ating to phone and data records during investigation => this bill is to amend the Securities and Exchange Board of Ind ia Act, 1992, the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 an d the Depositories--PROVISIONS NEWLY ADDED BY THE ORD INANCE 1. Under section 11AA of the SEBI Act, which details with the p arameters of a Collective Investment Schemes, it has now been stated that "pooling of funds under any scheme or arrangement" involving a corpus of Rs. 100 crores or more shall be deemed to be a Collective Investment Scheme irrespective of whether it is registered or not registered with SEBI. Hence, registration wit h SEBI is no longer a prerequisite for such a scheme to fall withi n the regulatory purview of SEBI. => Investigative Powers----SEBI has now been granted the right

to call for information and record information that is relevant in cluding the telephone call data records. => Further, the power to call for information has also been grant ed to SEBI wherein information may be called from international sources through regulators in other countries with whom it has entered into an agreement for the sharing of information. => These powers will prove to be extremely useful in case of For eign Direct Investment through entities such as the Foreign Ins titutional Investors (FIIs) where Know Your Customer (KYC) nor m may not have been implemented adequately by the entities inv olved. => Enforcement Methods / Remedies---Powers have been grante d to SEBI to attach the violator's property, bank accounts ect...

# # What were the Supreme Court directives issued in July 201 3 against Acid Attack => Supreme Court Directives were given on July 18, 2013. They a re as follows: 1. Acid retailers must maintain a register with buyer details to h elp keep tab on over the counter sales. 2. Buyer has to produce govt. issued photo id and specify purpos e of purchase 3. Buyer has to submit details of purchase to local police within 3 days after buying it. 4.In all educational institutions, research labs, govt. dept. and PS Us can buy acids by following certain guidelines

5. In all institutions, 1 person has to be in charge of monitoring s tock and sale of acid 6. People leaving laboratory must be thoroughly checked. 7. Details of acid stock must be given to local SDM within a fort night of its purchasing failing which it can be seized by authoriti es and fine upto 50,000 can be imposed. 8. Compensation to victims should be raised to 3 lakh ( 1 lakh to be given within fortnight of attack, 2 lakh within next 2 months. 9. states to frame rules before 31 march 2014 10. no acid can be sold to ny person under 18 n all stocks must b declared wid d local sub-divisional magistrate (SDM) in 15 days. 11. States must pay acid attack victims Rs. 3 lakh towards medic al treatment n aftercare rehabilitation 12. d institutions shld make a person accountable for possession n safe keeping of acid.

# # Panama disease => a plant disease of the roots of banana plants. It is a type of F usarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum . => The pathogen is resistant to fungicide and cannot be controlle d chemically. In the 1950s, Panama disease wiped out (except in Asia) the Gro s Michel banana , the dominant cultivar of bananas, inflicting eno rmous costs and forcing producers to switch to other, disease-r esistant cultivars. => However, new strains of Panama disease thr

eaten the production of today's most popular cultivar, Cavendish .

# # Das Kapital (Capital: Critique of Political Economy ), by Karl Marx , is a critic al analysis of political economy, meant to reveal the economic law s of the capitalist mode of production. => In Capital: Critique of Political Economy (1867), Karl Marx pro poses that the motivating force of capitalism is in the exploitati on of labour, whose unpaid work is the ultimate source of profit and surplus value . => The employer can claim right to the profits (new output value) , because he or she owns the productive capital assets (means of production), which are legally protected by the capitalist state through property rights . In producing capital (money) rather th an commodities (goods and services), the workers continually rep roduce the economic conditions by which they labour. => Capital proposes an explanation of the "laws of motion" of the capitalist economic system, from its origins throughout its futur e, by describing the dynamics of the accumulation of capital, the growth of wage labour, the transformation of the workplace, th e concentration of capital, commercial competition, the banking s ystem, the decline of the profit rate, land-rents.

# # University of Chicago in India ...what is the news ?

** opens centre in delhi..US Amabassador to India Nancy Powell inaugurated the centre. The centre will promote scholarship through three broad progra mmes, business, economics, law, and policy, science, energy, medi cine, and public health and culture, society, religion, and arts. ** The centre will also be an intellectual destination, enabling th e University of Chicago to better support research and scholars hip that will benefit faculty, students and society, said a statem ent. ** Located at Connaught Place, the 17,000-square-foot centre wi ll provide space for seminars and conferences as well as faculty offices and study areas. ** It will host Indian and South Asian students and scholars, ser ve as a base for University of Chicago students and faculty work ing in India and throughout the region, and engage alumni and par ents in India and South Asia. ** Delhi joins the University's centre in Beijing, opened in 2010, and the centre in Paris, opened in 2004, in bringing together res earchers and students to collaborate across the academic spectr um. ** The centre in Delhi is a wholly-owned foreign enterprise oper ating under the name of 'UChicago Center' in India Private Limit ed.

# # Critically examine the problems that are being faced in the implementation of the Right To Education (RTE) Act.

=> Right to Education was implemented under article 21A as an e xtension of right to life in Indian Constitution. => Since this ammendment this right has not shown the effect w hich was expected by it, mainly due to lack of awareness in India n masses especially in rural areas. => The provision of act which entiteld students of free education in any govt aided institute was also in controversy over lack of c ompassiin shown by some institutions in the country over certain cases. Also, the division of students faced in some places also acts as a deterent in some places for parents sending their wards to scho ol. => quality of teachers ..TET eligibity tests ,student - teacher ra tio., dropout problem, million primary teachers vacant seat s , proximity to educ insitutes , lack of proper monitorting , not s etting up of state advisory committess, resistance offered by pr ivate education institutes to provide 25 percent seats to EBCs , ASER report 2012 ...are some other problems being faced in the implementation of RTE... => Lack of political will for effective implementation,education b eing in concurrent list => Lack of Investment in education by Govt. => Lack of commitment from the private institutions(as these ins titutes discriminate students in- spite govt accepting to pay for their education) => Without providing basic amenities like drinking water,toilet. it will be far sighted dream to reach

=> Flexibility is lacking while implementation of law(one can't exp ect children from tribal area to completely adapt) depending on the local conditions. => .outcome of budget allocation is far less then expected

# # Is the blind implementation of social welfare schemes the o nly approach of governance in rural India, especially in Maoist-af fected areas? => rural india has lot of potential and growth and development ca n only happen when it is equitable and empowering welfar e schemes are well conceived but low on implementation and with changing needs reforms are called for.. => .merger of existing centrally sponsored schemes (at present 1 80 to about 50)...e technology in delivery of services...improved c onnectivity (the whole concept of PURA is based on connectivity. ..physical economic and information connectivity)...for maoist aff ected regions heavy hand in short term and a helping hand in long term should b the strategy => First of all the present maoist movement in India is very far f rom the maoist movement around 10 yrs back.... at that time the demand was for development. => maoists were intrested in peace talks they never used to blow up schools and public transport systems... but in present scenerio when they r blowing railway tracks schools with students inside it is evident that they r not seeking development be it social eco

nomical or any other so just implementation of social welfare sch emes wont help curbing maoist activities

# # Nehruvian Foreign policy was not just IDEALISTIC but also PRAGMATIC ....Critically examine ! => It was based on four pillars.... peace.. nuclear disarmament.. no n alignment..n opposition to colonialism... if evaluated on these fo ur aspect... peace through democratic process like india's stand on syria... india still follows non alignmnt.... opposition to neo colo nialism... again syrian eg... n nuclear disramamnt... nuclear energy should be use only for peaceful purposes... and nehru even said t hat if someone use nuclear weapon against india thn india will not hesitate also in self defence.. =>. so keeping these points it can be said that still nehrus vision i s reflected in indian foreign policy but it needs to be more strict and strategic in the current scenario. => nehru policy was a fine mix of two...he was a real politik...anne xation of junagarh and hyderabad and later goa r fine xamples p f ptotecting territorial integrity and peace ...forward policy towa rds china may b critucised by some but actuakky china attacked out of desperation and isolationism it was experiencing as agains t india which was getting apperciated due to its still con tinues to hav relevance .. => policy towards nuclear disarmament is getting global acknowle respect in todays world is an important compone nt of diplomacy and more so for india in south asia where it has t

o shun fears of smaller states that india is adopting big brotherl y attitude rather coperate with them benefitting mutual interes ts...

# # Revolutionaries from Afghanistan in Indian freedom struggl e? => Deobandi leaders- Ubaidullah Sindhi, They wre related wid po pular silk letter conspiracy => recently the govt of India in jan 2013 also released commemo rative stamps in this regard acknwledging the contributions of t he movement which tok place between 1913 -1920 ,, => But it went unsuccessful since Ubaidullah Sindhi was caught b y Punjab CID wit silk letters .. => other revolutionaries which could be included from Kabul inclu de Raja Mahendra Pratap and Barkatullah

# # Role of Dupleix in First Carnatic War => Dupleix, then the french governor general in India was the ma in strategist of battle of madras.... but his not keeping his words to return madras and fort st george made his allies of nawab of carnatic his enemies and losing trust of la bourdanais eventually l ed to his defeat in 1748 in pondicherry.

# # What was the Sangola Agreement ? => At sangola while celebrating the victory sadashiv rao bhau pre vailed upon the chhatrapati to sign a agreement with the peswa a pparently to regulate the senior appoinments to recognise the ad ministrative infrastructure at this agreement the age old astha pradhan was abolished and all the inherent power and f unction the different ministries were taken over by the peswa.. afterthat peswa began to take all the major decisions in direct c onsultation with the chhtrapati..

# # Which Bengal ruler paid chauth to Marathas ? => Nawab of Bengal Alivardi khan ceded territory up to the river Suvarnarekha to the Marathas, and agreeing to pay Rs. 20 lacs a s chauth for Bengal...

# # Public Debt Management Agency ? => Govt of india ready with the Public Debt Management Agency Bill and the proposed agency will established as a non-statutory body and is expected to begin work in the next fiscal. => its objective of further reducing the debt servicing risk and t o create fiscal space for developmental expenditure. principles a re there--

1. greater reliance on domestic borrowings over external debt 2. consolidation of the debt portfolio and 3. development of deep and wide market fro govt securities to i mprove liquidity in secondary market..

# # What is TEEB?disscuss importance of TEEB => The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) is a stu dy led by Pavan Sukhdev. It is an international initiative to draw attention to the global economic benefits of biodiversity. => Its objective is to highlight the growing cost of biodiversity l oss and ecosystem degradation and to draw together expertise f rom the fields of science, economics and policy to enable practic al actions. => TEEB aims to assess, communicate and mainstream the urgency of actions through its five deliverables D0: science and economic foundations, policy costs and costs of i naction, D1: policy opportunities for national and international policy-mak ers, D2: decision support for local administrators, D3: business risks, opportunities and metrics and D4: citizen and consumer ownership. => One motive for the study was to establish an objective global standard basis for natural capital accounting. Estimates establis h the cost of biodiversity and ecosystem damage expected to co st 18% of global economic output by 2050 and currently at over US$2T (for the largest 3000 companies according to Trucost),

with some estimates as high as US$6T/year . The World Bank in particular has led recent efforts to include the cost of biodiver sity and climate harm in national accounts .Its sponsors declare TEEB to be a "major international initiative to draw attention to the global economic benefits of biodiversity, to highlight the gro wing costs ..

# # new chromosome known as SynIII...wat is the news abt ? => It is the first ever fully functional eukaryotic cell (yeast) syn thetically designed. The credit goes to Dr. Jef boeke and his tea m from NYU Langone medical centre's Institute for system's ge netics => Importance of this is tht researchrs will be able to more quic kly develop synthetic strains of yeast that could be used in the manufacture of rare medicines, such as artemisinin for malaria, or in the production of certain vaccines, including the vaccine fo r hepatitis B, which is derived frm yeast. => Synthetic yeast cud also be used to bolster development of m ore efficient biofuels, such as alcohol, butanol, and biodiesel. It wil also help in an effort to understand how whole networks of g enes specify individual biological behaviors.

# # Vyasi Project in news ? => BHEL has been contracted by Uttarakhand Jal Vidyut Nigam L

imited (UJVNL) to deliver electro-mechanical equipment for the 120MW Vyasi hydroelectric project in Dehradun district, Uttara khand.The Vyasi project is a run-of-river scheme on the river Ya muna. its RS. 656 cr. project

# # coach of Indian women kabaddi team >? => Sunil dabbas

# # R A Mashelkar the Padma VIbhushan ...his contributi ons ? => is well known globally for his path breaking research in polyme r science and engineering....He has chaired 12 high powered natio nal level committees to look into diverse issues of higher educati on, national auto fuel policy and measures to deal with the menac e of spurious drugs. => In the post-liberalized India, Mashelkar has played an importa nt role in shaping India's science and technology policies. He was a member of the Scientific Advisory Council to the Prime Minist er and also of the Scientific Advisory Committee to the Cabinet set up by successive governments.

# # Mr. Jens Stoltenberg => He will be next NATO chief

=> He was prime minister of Norway for two times - from 2000 t o 2001, 2005-2013

# # " I loved my motherland dearly before I went to America an d England. After my return, every particle of dust of this land seems sacre d to me." kisne kisase kaha ? => swami vivekanand

# # Tat Tvam Asi !!: => This is among four prominent mahavakyas, taken from Chando gya Upanishad meaning That art thou or That you are.In actual w hen we came to know through assertion of someone (Guru): You a re the supreme brahman, is what tat tvam asi trying to say.

# # In India,despite having good savings rate,domestic investme nt is less....Why ? (200 Words) => The main reason people associate is the unclear and the compli cated tax structure that we have, the plethora of state and cent ral taxes creates havoc and confusion.

=> The administration and bureaucracy add to the difficulty in in vestment with investors running pillar to post for setting up thei r establishment. => Procurement of licenses, environmental clearances are not str eamlined thus hamper the investors from venturing into new terr itories => First of all savings in india are done in immovable assets like g old and property which in turn lead to generation of black money and blockage of money.... so we can say that in india every saving doesnt lead to investment rather it is more like blocking miney b usiness envionment is not good tapism bureaucratic delays... confusion over areas like land aquisition...recently macrofundame ntals like inflation widening cad fd bop hav been deterrence for i nvestors...also savings hav come down bcause of inflation leading to increased spending on health and food

# # Critically comment on the Rohingya issue in Myanmar. Does i t have any implications on India? Examine. => issue of muslim minority against buddhist majority in myanmar ...though a bilateral issue between bdesh and myanmar but its fal lout can b seen in india in form of bodh gaya attacks by islamic f undamentalists in retaliation.. => india is such a diverse country religiously culturally linguistical ly caste wise that any disturbance in neighbouthood poses a stro ng challenge to our law enforcement investigation and intelligenc e gathering agencies..

=> The Rohingya conflict is one of the longest conflicts between the majority Buddhist Burmese and the minority Muslims in Mya nmar. It has led to the displacement of large number of people a cross the Myanmar-Bangladesh border, especially from the Rakh ine state. => The tragic aspect of this issue is that about 800,000 Rohingy as in Myanmar are stateless people. They are not recognised as a n ethnic indigenous minority or citizens of Myanmar. => Many of these refugees are without jobs and could fall prey t o radical ideologies. They may join the Harkat-ul- Jihadi Islam ( HuJI) which has been accused of carrying out bomb blasts in As sam. => Another aspect could be the fear of a major spill over of the conflict into Indias north-east in terms of refugee flow from ac ross the porous Bangladesh-India border. => The north-east is a region plagued by armed ethnic conflicts b ased on issues of land and identity. Further inroads by a refugee population could exacerbate the situation in the north-east.

# # Write a critical note on the impact of globalization on the r ural industries of India, especially after 1990. => globalisation has in the past brought dividends to growth of co untries across globe but whether real human prosperity has occu rred or not is doubtful bcause of widening rich poor divide...india s policy of lpg suddenly in 1991 proved detrimental to micro indu stries bcause they were subjected to unhealthy competetion fro

m giant againnst china and east asian tigers followed gra dual policy ..first liberalise then privatise and finally allowing for eign the meantime domestic co. could expand and provide d strong competition to mnc...also indian policy of import subsitu tion as against export promotion was flawed which has oflate be en globalisation alone not to b blamed but regress ive and irrational policies which marred indian manufacturing sec tor.. => The early 1990's was when the policy LPG was started in India which essentially meant that the trade barriers, flow of capital and labour were relaxed to a great extent. One of the many and perhaps the most significant worry was if the small scale industr ies would be able to compete with the large MNC's. The formati on of WTO in 1995 also had a great impact on SSI's as India, be ing a member, had to relax its restrictions on import which meant that the SSI's had no option but to compete. The Annual Average Growth Rate of number of units in the pre-liberalisation period, from 1973-90 was 9.36 per cent and in post-liberalisation it was 4.07 percent. The annual av erage growth rate of Employment which was 7.25% in pre-LPG w ent down to 4.26 in post-LPG. This data shows that from the per spective of rural industries LPG did not have a favourable effect and neither could the Govt.'s Small Industrial Policy of 1991.

# # Trace briefly the history of the struggle between the Chalu kyas and the Pallavas. Analyze its causes and bring out its import ance. (200 words)

=> The Chalukya-Pallava war began with Pulkasin II and ended wit h the collapse of both the dynasties singnificantly, the power th at rose thereafter, the Rushtrakutas and the cholas, continued t he same sort of struggle. This was because the Chalukya-Pallava struggled was to a great extent determined by the geographical loation of the Chalukya and Pallava kingdoms. => After the first bout was over, the Pallavas agenged their defe at during the days of Narasimhavarman I. He captured the lost t erritories. In thie he was assisted by the king of Ceylon. He ente red the capital of Bademi in 642 A.D. and assumed the title of V atapikonda, that is, the conqueror or Vatapi. => After that, for the next tweleve years there was a respite; t he Pallavas were involved in naval wars while supporting the Ceylo nese kings, and the Chalukyas were troubledby their feudatories , Afther the Chalukyan house was set in order in 655, they re-oc cupied the terrirtories lost to the Pallavas. This was the third p hase. Soon thej tables were reversed. There was a rift in the Ch alukyan royal family. => Taking advantage of this, the Pallavas once again entered Bada mi. Details of relating to this compaign are to be found in the Pal lava grant found near Kanchi. This was th fourth phase. => The fifth phase started when the Chalukyas and the Gangas u nited in 731 to attack the Pallavas. The reigning Pallava king was killed and Kanchi was occupied. Later, the council of ministers ch ose Nandivarman II. => In the last phase the ball was in the the court of Pallavas. At this time, the neighbours of the Pallavas in the south, that is, th

e Pandays, Joined the conflict. The Pandyas of Madura were not well disposed towards the Pallavas. => In the meantime the Chalukyas wre threatened by the Arabs, the latter already being in occupation of Sing. While the Chaluky as were engrossed in the threat from the north, one of their feu datories Dantidurga, broke away from the but they, too, within a century ment their end, the last of the Pallavas was assassinate d by the son of a feudatory

# # Ahmeddiya Andolan originated at which place?? => kadia , gurdaspur ...punjab me hai

# # The Sattriya dance form (2 marker ) => Ritualistic dance form from Assam.Now recognized as one of t he 8 indian classical dance forms.Created by Vaishnavite saint Sr imanta Sankaradev in the 15th century. => Male monks performed on mythological themes to mark import ant occasions. Presently, both male and female dancers perform Sattriya and themes are not restricted to mythological stories.

# # Lai Haraoba (2 marker ) => A manipuri festival meaniing 'Merry making of the gods'. Cele

brated by Meitei people to please traditional dieties. Festival co nsists of plays depicting the origin of universe,evolution of plant s and animals. => The participants strictly follow celibacy during the festival. S everal sports like races are also held and prizes are awarded. => It is extended from one day to a month long celebration base d on the finances ...normally clebrate around april - may

# # Purandara Dasa => one of the most prominent composers of Carnatic music and i s widely regarded as the "Grandfather of Carnatic Music". => Purandara Dasa addressed social issues in addition to worship in his compositions, a practice emulated by his younger contempo rary, Kanakadasa. => Purandara Dasa's Carnatic music compositions are mostly in Ka nnada ; some are in Sanskrit . He signed his compositions with th e mudra (pen name), "Purandara Vittala" ( Vittala is one of the in carnations of the Hindu god Vishnu ). => He introduced the raga Mayamalavagowla as the basic scale fo r music instruction and fashioned series of graded lessons such a s swaravalis , janti swaras, alankaras , lakshana geetas, prabandh as , ugabhogas , daatu varase, geeta , sooladis and kritis . => Another of his important contributions was the fusion of bhav a, raga, and laya in his compositions.

# # Are Anti -Defections laws in India rationalized ones ? nd W hy do u feel so ? ..Discuss ! => introduced in 1985 was need of the hour to prevent so called a aya ram gaya ram india where the era is of coalitio n the ruling govt. runs on water thin majority and thus this law p rovides some sort of stability ... => although anomalies like allowing mass defections and prohibiti ng minor ones was corrected in 2003 some still remain like those related to individual and nominated members ...also final decisio n rests with speaker or chairman as the case may b but speaker has himself expressed inability in this matter. => also issuing whips on petty issue make rights of members fett ered which should b corrected nd this whip thing ...applies not on ly to votes that affect the stability of the government, i.e., no-c onfidence motions and money Bills but they apply to all votes ... => They r applicable to even Rajya Sabha nd Legislative councils which hv no say in the Govt formation watsoever ....the effect is that the members r converted to mere numbers ..nd they hv to b ack the call of der party irrespective of what he thinks over a pa rticular matter or his electors thinks .. => this goes against the basis of a representative democracy in w hich the elected representative is expected to act in public inter est (as understood by him) which would usually be a combination of his ideology, political party membership and constituency inte rests. => Instead, the current system forces him to blindly obey the in structions of the party leadership.....The government can get any

of its policies and Bills approved by issuing a whip to its party m embers and through backroom deals with the leadership of othe r political parties. => It does not need to convince individual MPs of the merits of t he proposals. Thus, our system strips the incentive for a MP to u nderstand and think through any issue, as he has to finally just o bey the party. => For example, in December 2012, the government had to face a vote on permitting foreign direct investment in the retail sector . The members of all political parties voted (or abstained) on par ty lines.

# # Repealing obsolete laws is key to creating jobs in the manuf acturing sector .....Discuss ! => repealing of labour laws, factories act, acquisition alr eady done...environment protection act 1986.... multiplicity of law s relating to centre and states....labour laws land aquisition...envi onmental clearances..poorly worded laws giving wide discretion to implementors to twist law acc. to their need thus compromising accountability and transparency....reforms like gst and dtc....onlin e and single window clearances ...NeGP a good stepping stone tow ards SMART governance... Manufacturings gloomy performance i s explained by obsolete regulationswhich go to the extent of r equiring state sanction to shut down unprofitable operationsan d restrictive labour regulations that affect the entry, functionin g and exit of firms. Regressive labour laws that favour the entre

nched interests of rent-seeking labour unions have effectively s talled the economy from utilizing the countrys cheap labour pote ntial to build a competitive manufacturing sector. This, by the w ay, also largely explains the stagnation of much of the countrys workforce in the non-formal sector.

# # Write a note on Deccan Education Society => Deccan Education Society came into existence after Shri Vish nushastri Chiplunkar founded New English School along with Lok manya Bal Gangadhar Tilak, in year 1880 in its present location o f Tilak Road in Pune , India. => In 1884 the Deccan Education Society was formed with Shri V. S. Apte, Shri. Gopal Ganesh Agarkar, Shri V. B. Kelkar, Shri M. S. Gole, and Shri. N. K. Dharap joining them. At present DES runs 43 institutes in Maharashtra . => Some of the prominent institutes run by the Deccan Educatio n Society include: Fergusson College, Pune 1885, WILLINGDON COLLEGE, SANGL I 1919, BRIHAN MAHARASHTRA COLLEGE OF COMMERCE, PU NE 1943, KIRTI M. DOONGURSEE COLLEGE, MUMBAI 1954, C HINTAMANRAO COLLEGE OF COMMERCE, SANGLI 1960

# # India cannot hope for a non-inflationary economic recovery unless private sector investment revives .....Do u agree ...Criticall y analyse !

=> savings investment ouput growth is the reinfocing cycle in eco nomics like any biological cycle occurring in our body to maintain good health of the economy...private sector which is sitting on hu ge savings is reluctant fo invest ..their investment outside india i s huge which drives out any benefit brought in by fdi and fii... => when govt is giving huge tax exemptions to tune of 7 lac cr. to corporate sector they hav moral obligation to contribute to nati onal growth...more so when target of investment in infrastructur e is 1trilliin dollar in 12 fyp half of which from pvt. sector.... => govt is also to b blamed for not crrecting macroeconomic fund amentals proving detterence to these a strong case for reforms is made out.. economic recovery is a phase of busine ss cycle after recession...its includes high growth rate, employm ent, etc.....economic growthrecovery would lead to inflation dema nd will be more as that of for no inflationary economic recovery would only be possible if india wil increase its growth p otential.... => but this is almost impossible without the private sector ... the re are number of monetary policy such as increasing rate of loan and others....but this would directly impact with the revival of private sector it can be possible. => before examining it first we need to understand that it asking for non-inflationary economic recovery..not for economic develo pment.. there are various parameters responsible for economic r ecovery such as monetry policies as promulgated from time to ti me by RBI after a crisis of year 2010, investment both in public and private sector,general savings as it effects the investment a

nd international trade policies. => govt is taking a critical vigilance in terms of monetry and trad e policies.. but unless the production function is nt revised and s upervised in the above said direction, it is not easy to overcome the non-inflationary economic recovery. to give it a blow some ma jor incident has happened as USFDA(United states food and dru g administration) express her growing unease with d safety norm s taken by ranbaxy in manufacturing medicine. => as US is one of largest market for Indian medicines it gave a major blow to d medicine export. here not only investment which is imp, regulatory acts for d imp private sector manufacturing in dustry is equally imp Economic recovery is a multi dimensional ar ea... just going away with privatization is not the solution... manuf acturing sector is weak... and there needs many internal reforms also that affect investment and india faces supply side problems and inflation will keep building if investmnt is keep goin in unprod uctive areas... => a creeping inflation is always healthy for economy.. n yeah infl ation will be there but it should be controlled and private sector revival is essesntial but it should be concentrated in capital and asset creation

# # Write a note on Seva Sadan ? => Ramabai Ranade was an Indian social worker and one of the fir st women's rights activists in the 19th century..Inspired by her

husband Mahadev Govind Rande, Ramabai started 'Hindu Ladies Social Club' in Mumbai to develop public speaking among women.. she was also the president of the seva sadan which is the most s uccessful of all Indian women's institution and is attended by th ousands of women. => Ramabai's pioneering work in the field of nursing through Sev a Sadan deserves special praise many young girls and widows join ed the nursing class in seva sadan and they helpd people alot.. Ramabai vigorously worked for the next 25 years for women's e ducation, legal rights, equal status, and general awakening. She e ncouraged them to enter the nursing profession. => The first Indian nurse was the product of Seva Sadan and Ra mabai took great pain to win orthodox opinion in favor of nursing as a career for women and to encourage young girls and widows to join the nursing course in Seva Sadan.

# # The principle behind the Govt of India act 1919 was DECEN TRALISATION rather than FEDERALISM ...Critically examine ! => Decentralization is the process of redistributing or dispersing functions, powers, people or things away from a central location or authority.The Act provided a dual form of government (a "dya rchy") for the major provinces. In each such province, control of some areas of government, the "transferred list", were given to a Government of ministers answerable to the Provincial Council. The 'transferred list' included Agriculture, supervision of local government, Health and

Education. The Provincial Councils were enlarged. => At the same time, all other areas of government (the 'reserve d list') remained under the control of the Viceroy. The 'reserve d list' included Defence (the military), Foreign Affairs, and Com munication. => The Montague-Chemsford reforms (1919) brought local self-g overnment as a provincial transferred subject, under the domain of Indian ministers in the provinces. the most significant develo pment of this period was the 'establishment of village panchayat s in a number of provinces, that were no longer mere ad hoc judi cial tribunal, but representative institutions symbolising the corp orate character of the village and having a wide jurisdiction.. => britishers never wanted to give control of governance to local people bcause that would hav meant an end to their rule ..what t hey instad did was to hav provincial dyarchy but that took only o n paper and not on ground as governor had the power to veto any bill even related to transferred subjects...the most important c onstraint remained that of fiscal nature and a parallel can b dra wn in present day context also. => exactly at face value looked as if it was federation ....but c are was taken that it remains farly Unitary the most it can b termed as the first step towards acheving federalism ...Govern or General in council got the power and authority to decide whet her a particular subject was central or provincial was more of a executive federalism..

# # hukou migration system

=> Method of keeping family records in china. Originated in 2100 bc by xia dynasty. In this system, the name of person, spouse, ch ildren, place of birth residence etc are kept with the govt. => This system was used to track movement of ppl from one plac e to another and also kept record of taxes paid and was an effici ent methods of maintaining family tree. => Since the hukou was introduced it has been used by the Comm unist Party as a means of administering and organizing the Chine se population to support the Party's political, economic and social objectives. => Broadly speaking there have been three phases in its operation. 1. During the first, from the 1950s to the late 1970s, the Commu nist Party had the dual goals of the collective transformation of agriculture and the development of Soviet-style heavy industry. Therefore, the Party used the hukou to balance the rural and ur ban populations. Movement was controlled by limiting access to w ork, food and services to people's registration location. 2. During the second period, from the late 1970s to the mid 200 0s, the Party's priority was to exploit China's massive rural labo r surplus to support rapid economic expansion. To this end, restr ictions on movement and work were lifted but other rules, such a s those stopping rural hukou holders accessing urban services, w ere kept in place. The result was the creation of a large, mobile and crucially low-cost workforce that became the backbone of C hina's manufacturing and export orientated economy. 3. During the third and current period, as China's economy has m atured and started to move up the value

chain, it is generally agreed that the hukou system has lost its u seful purpose in supporting China's development. Instead there i s growing consensus that the 260 million migrant workers who no w exist actually present an obstacle to the new priority of rebal ancing the economy to be more consumption centric. An analysis of migrants' income, savings and home ownership rate illustrates this problem. => Recently, in June 2013, Chinas powerful National Developmen t and Reform Commission recommended for hukou system refor ms.

# # Competition Commission of India imposes Rs. 1 crore fine on Google....why ? => The Competition Commission has imposed a Rs 1 crore penalty on Google for failing to provide information related to an investi gation into the Internet majors alleged unfair trade practices in India. => inke khilaf Pvt Ltd and Consumer Unity & Trus t Society (CUTS) ne case file ki hai alleging that it was abusing market power in the online search and advertising markets.

# # The period between B.C. 600 and B.C. 200 is important not only for political unity of the country but also for cultural unity. Comment (200 Words).

=> The period between B.C 600 and B.C 200 witnessed the rise o f two religions the Jainism and the Buddhism which took a heavy toll on the orthodox and over-ritua listic Brahmanical culture. By the beginning of this period the Br ahmins had become greedy and claimed their superiority. => Due to their vested interests the rituals had become very co mplex and costly and beyond the means of a common man. The re forms led by the Kshatriyas for the poor masses led to the emer gence of Jainism and Buddhism. => Both these movements strongly opposed the orthodox proced ure of rituals performed by Brahmins. Instead they emphasized on good moral life and ethical values. => Hinduism underwent many changes, uniting the rich and the po or, the upper caste and the low caste, the male and the female. These religions conveyed a message of unity and rational approac h towards religion. => Buddhism and jainism spread to other parts of the country. T his served the dual purpose of political as well as cultural unifica tion of these regions. => Citing the above features, we can say that The period betwee n B.C. 600 and B.C. 200 is important not only for political unity o f the country but also for cultural unity.

# # What are the architectural traditions that inspired the arc hitects of Vijayanagara? How did they transform these tradition s? (200 Words).

=> Vijaynagara archt. can be classified in2 religious, courtly, civic architecture. Different architectures borrowed frm diff tradit ional styles like -- chalukyas ,hosyalas ,pandayas ,cholas & some f rom islamic infuences also. While the Vijayanagara rulers were in spired by these existing traditions of architecture, they added s everal new features to the temple architecture. * Royal visits to temples were now marked as important state oc casions and royal portraits were placed in the temple. * Concept of gopuram higher than the central shrine was develop ed. Thus, the temple was visible even from a distance. * Vijayanagar rulers also added mandapams or circular pathways around the shrine in the temple complex & chariot streets made of stone slabs. * These traditional as well as unique features of architecture of Vijayanagar period can be seen in the Vitthala & the Virupaksha temples.

# # Exercise KOMODO? => KOMODO is being conducted from 28 Mar-03 Apr 14 at Ind onesia. The exercise participants include India, Indonesia, USA, China, Russia, New Zealand, South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Mala ysia, Brunei, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines and Laos. Indian Navy is being represented by INS Sukanya with integral Chetak. => theme of the naval exercise is Multilateral Humanitarian Assis

tance / disaster relief (HA/DR) => The exercise is being conducted over a duration of six days in three phases viz. harbour Phase, Sea Phase and Civic Mission Pha se.

# # Indias solar power policy is now entering round two. And th ere is much that needs to be reviewed and reworked as the busin ess of solar energy has seen massive turbulence in India as well a s globally. Comment in the light of challenges Indian Solar missi on is facing. => The latest World Bank report on the the state of India's sola r power mission said that The report highlights several challenge s that could act as a barrier to India achieving its solar targets by 2022. These include lack of access to low cost financing; inad equate solarinfrastructure; lack of raw materials for several sol ar PV manufacturers; and an underdeveloped supply chain leading to high inventory costs. so the commercial banks need for active participation to scale up to investments in the solar power secto r coz huge money isrequired... => Viability gap funding, which has been introduced as financing mechanism to fund solar projects under phase 2 is also raising do ubts. => Analysts sy that it may lead to inefficient solar plants.Viabilit y gap funding is a capital subsidy that bridges the gap between t he project cost dictated by the prevailing electricity rate and th e price quoted by a developer.

=> Also guidelines which have been issued by the ministry of New and renewable energy does not contain any safeguards for qualit y of production. Policy analysts say generation-based incentive(G BI) is a better mechanism to finance solar projects. GBI is an in centive given for every unit of energy generated. => For example, in case of wind energy, the government used to give 50 paisa ex tra for every unit of energy generated. GBI encourages the dev eloper to put efficient systems and sustain it till the end to avail benefits, => .the state of solar markets in US , China and EU nd those of d omestic markets in India needs to b taken into consideration ....i n every place der is sorry state of solar markets nd many r shutt ing down such kind of instance ..the best way to deal wit it is to DUMP ur products in foregin matters ..nd exctly that all r doi ng ...US nd EU hv imposed anti dumping duties on Chinese produc ts .....US is trying to dump in India nd has evn pulled India in WT O ....Indian domestic markets r in no good position ....also questio n talks of National Solar Mission first phase which had a tar get of 1000 - 2000 MW .....700 MW came frm Gujarat which was not a JNNSM state ...

# # Improving processes related to Question Hour , Debates on issues and Parliamentary Committees would go a long way in ensu ring better Governance .......Elaborate => question hour is the first hour of every parliamentary sitting where the MPs ask questions and the ministers usually give answ

ers. However, nowadays whenever any question is raised it gener ally leads to havoc in the parliament and disrupts its proceedings . the same in the case of debates.. instead of discussing and comi ng to a conclusion or acceptance of any bill or any issue...MPs are busy establishing their political motives and disrupting of parlia mentary proceedings...resulting in wastage of country's funds an d pendency of many important far as parliamentary com mittees are concerned they work as 'Postmortem" agencies... => .when the work is completed they will evaluate it and present t he report before the parliament...they do not have any power to act against the persons who are guilty nor can suit them in court. ...hence in order to improve the parliamentary proceedings.... => parliamentary committees should be given power to evaluate t he work when it is in process and submit reports from time to ti me about its performance before the parliament...and should hav e the powers to act against guilty persons by filing a suit against them in court.... => as far as question hour and debates are concerned time shoul d be made an important element to discuss the issue and reach t o a conclusion in peaceful way... => One can increase the opportunity to ask questions by increasin g the time available for questions every day and increasing the n umber of sitting days.Also, our Parliament does not have a prime ministers question hour, where one can raise issues that cut acr oss government departments. It may be useful to institute such a procedure. For example, the British Parliament blocks half an h our every Wednesday for this purpose. => Most of the debates lead to chaos..but they are not voted upo

n. It would be useful to have recorded voting on all such debates as this will allow citizens to track the views of their representa tives over time. => The effectiveness of the standing committees can be enhance d through a few steps. These committees donot have expert res earch staff to help them understand complex topics. This means that they are often unable to dig deep into technical issues and find whether the action taken was the most appropriate one. co mmittees should be given more power specially action taking pow er, merely advisory in nature make it more or less redundant and a proper time frame should be there for every committee for e very particular issue. => Recruiting specialist staff and regularly consulting with exter nal experts would improve the level of scrutiny. Further, if these committees were to regularly seek expert and stakeholder input s, they may be able to appreciate different perspectives on cont entious issues. Also the proceedings of standing committees sho uld be telecasted to ensure more transparency nd the electors c an see what der representatives r actually doing !

# # Rethinking AADHAAR is the need of the hour ...Critically ex amine ! => AADHAAR Card is a centralised database of Indian residents. UIDAI issue this card and have a unquie id numbers which is ess ensial and the most important part is that biometric information collected by the UIDAI would be used for policing purposes as w

ell as fingerprints are there so this card also helpful in any inves tigation process just like mobile phones. =>.There should be a serious rethink on the idea of a centralised database linked to biometrics.. issue of privacy to b addressed..s o that on one hand aadhar will create database and help in identi gying criminals easily but information can b misused by cyber cri minals to put the national security at get it a parliamen tary approval to make it more credible.... => decreasing costs involved in exercise....using aadhar for financ ial inclusion dbt etc. which would help in better targeting of subs idies and limit subsidies to within 1.75pc of gdp.... create data ba se and need parliamentry approval and should strt to get the sud sidies..and govt should annouce its mandatory.. => Der is a 0.057 percent changes of false identification... In cas e of UID ...but when v multiply them wit 60 crore residents ..tha n der r fair chances of an innocent man getting Bio metric use for criminal identification is flawed enuf !!! => Biometric Data can well b used by police personnel ,to show th em a direction towards investigation, ,,,but it should not stand as a evidence in court of law ..but der r certain issues like privacy .. .losing the trust of the people etc etc

# # Tax treatment of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) spe nds is still unclear & confusion persists on the appointment of in dependent directors.. Discuss ! => The Act mandates a disclosure regarding CSR, than the CSR s

pend per se. The 2013 Act follows a comply or explain approach . As per the provisions of section 135, a company with a turnover of Rs 1,000 crore or more or of a net-worth of R500 crore or m ore or reaping a net profit of Rs 5 crore shall constitute CSR co mmittee.. and 2013 act provide that comapny unable to spend 2% of their if they are unable to do it, they have to expl ain for not being able to do so. => Under section 467 of the Act, the government has invoked th e power to amend schedule VII significantly which empowered t he government to prescribe any other matters, has been remov ed. => there is a great deal of confusion on what is classified under CSR, any help done toward the families of the employees or the employees themselves is not counted as CSR schedule VII gives a list of activities which are listed under CSR like, protection of national heritage, art and culture, including restoration of buildin gs and sites for historical importance and works of art, setting u p of public libraries, promotion and development of traditional ar ts and handicrafts, measures for the benefit of the armed force s veterans, war widows and their dependants, rural development projects, training to promote sports, funds to technology incuba tors, etc. => Now companies are in the fray as they have to appoint people with the required understanding of ethics, biosafety issues , and all the clauses pertaining to CSR. => independent directors should not include nominee directors an d independent directors should not be having stock option of the co. in which employed....both these are potential areas of conflic

t of interest...thus to ensure good corporate governance SEBIha s recommended it....but the present law silent on this..

# # The World isn't Flat .......Comment 200 words => geographically .... incoming ship when observed the deck is see n first ....phenomenon of day and night is possible only bcause ear th is round....distance between longitudes goes on decreasing as we move from equator towards poles...this is the reason despite having approx. 30 degree both longitude and latitude extent the re is difference in indias north south and east west extent in kil ometres... => this is only possible bcause earth is not flat means there is no level playing field in doing commerce across globe...some countrie s hav advantage of natural resources while others hav demograp hic dividend while still others hav huge capital and industry...som e hav favorable enviornment while others hav geography which d uits their intersts and still others hsv knowledge power... => recently bcause of digital divide getting reduced and fruits of globalisation reaching remote corners world has slowly but surel y started its march towards bcoming flat...

# # What is Advance pricing agreement(APA).Examine the signi ficance of it. => An APA is a contract, usually for multiple years, between a ta

xpayer and at least one tax authority specifying the pricing met hod that the taxpayer will apply to its related-company transacti ons. => These programmes are designed to help taxpayers voluntarily resolve actual or potential transfer pricing disputes in a proactiv e, cooperative manner, as an alternative to the traditional exami nation process. => The APA scheme notifies three types of APA: unilateral, bilat eral and multilateral. The choice is on the applicant to choose a p articular type of APA at the time of making the application. * Unilateral APA is an agreement between the Board and the app licant and this process does not involve any agreement with the t reaty partner. * In bilateral and multilateral APA request, the applicant is requ ired to make an application with the Competent Authority of Ind ia as well as the Competent Authority of the other country. => The APA scheme has many advantages. It will provide tax cert ainty with regard to determination of arms length price of the i nternational transaction with respect to which the APA has been entered into, reduce the risk of potential double taxation throu gh bilateral or multilateral APA, reduce compliance cost by elimi nating the risk of transfer pricing audit and resolving long drawn and time consuming litigation and other dispute resolution proce ss and alleviate the burden of record keeping as the taxpayer kn ows in advance the required documentation to be maintained to s ubstantiate the agreed terms and conditions of the agreement.

# # What is Reverse Vaccine? Discuss its important application. (100 Words) => researchers of stanford university hv cum one step closer to a cure for type-1 diabetes with their reverse vaccine, which sh uts down parts of the immune system that attack these insulin-p roducing beta cells. => .Its a significant first step in showing that you can get a spec ific reduction of the pathological cells and leave the rest of the i mmune system intact. => The reverse vaccine uses an engineered plasmida small, circu lar piece of DNA that is separate from chromosomal DNA. The p lasmid expresses proinsulin, the precursor of the hormone insulin .

# # Reduce the powers government has to give licences, grant t ax breaks, etc and you fix cronyism ..... Discuss => Cronyism is partiality to long-standing friends, especially by a ppointing them to positions of authority, regardless of their qual ifications. Hence, cronyism is contrary in practice and principle t o meritocracy. structure of levers of power/ is impossible to do business without getting clearances from the govt whether at central lev el or state level/

# # Indias Nuclear Liability Law is flawed Critically comment. => signing if 123 agreement was a watershed in elevating india in the elite club of nuke powered nations... what followed was not v ery much in indian intetests bcause of weak liability law providin g for just 1500 cr. compensation by supplier..though it was an ac hievment that india managed to put onus of damage on supplier r ather than operator....nucler safety authority was not made aiton omous and govt interference was huge thus diluting essence of t ransparency and accountability and more importantly safety of t he people...

# # Gombeyaata (2 marker ) => Gombey in kannada means doll, it is a form of shadow puppetry , the dolls are made of deer or hide skin, mainly of leather, it is bleached with caustic soda and bright colors are added so as to make it illuminate. => The puppets are placed behind a curtain and bright light is em itted, thus causing a shadow. A lot plays such as mahabharatha a nd ramayana are depicted..

# # Countries should tackle climate change out of self-interest . ...Comment => climate change is giving some unsleepy nights to island nation g

roups because of threat to their very existence...developed worl d is some what playing divide and rule policy to put pressure on a nnex 2 countries (developing) to reduce emmissions but equal and differentiated responsibilities should b the principle... => .increased frequency of xtreme events floods draughts cyclon es etc cause threat to loss of life and insecurity. concerns bcause of increasibg risk of malaria and other tropical diseases including water borne....all these will cause soci al unrest affecting world peace along with transnational migratio n = so in short term may appear to developed countries that clima te change is innocous for them but in the long term no region will be spared from nature fury and thus a collective action required => The European Union and nine countriesled by China, the US, Russia, India and Brazilrelease 70% of the worlds greenhouse gases. If they alone could cooperate to reduce emissions, the wo rld could make enormous progress. => But these countries have tended to view climate-change polici es as if they were arms-reduction negotiations, with the major p layers saying, in effect: We wont act unless you do." => according to some credible reports offset from climate chang e is about 2-3% of global gdp loss also this year September the nations hv to tell UN what r they t hinking nd doing as far as der efforts relating to climate change is concernd ... => also a mention of the IPCC report recently released could also b made ...the World banks estimates suggest that it will cost $7 5 billion to $100 billion a year for adaptation measures in poor co

untries also due to this climate change ... => .it will contribute to greater levels of political instability arou nd the world, as traditional forms of subsistence are undermined and battles over resources wl intensify.

# # Discuss the recent achievements in the field of FGFA( Fift h Generation Fighter Aircraft). (150 Words) => India and Russia have crossed the first milestone towards the development of the fifth generation fighter aircraft (FGFA) an d they complted the primary design.. HAL signed the $295-millio n PDC contract in December 2010 with the Sukhoi company. => Four T-50 aircraft, the Russian prototype of the fifth genera tion fighter, have already performed more than 200 test flights. FGFA will differ in mission hardware and software, as well as weapons. => Sukhoi has also trained Indian engineers and provided HAL wi th the data and software needed to create a single working envir onment and this is the biggest ever defence project and as well as largest deal with russia..

# # What do you understand by DNA Bar-coding? Discuss its ap plications. (200 Words) => a taxonomic method dat uses a short genetic marker in an org anism's dna to identify it as belonging to a particular species...

Its aplications are ----> ** identifying plat leaves even when flowers or friuts are not ava ilable , ** identifying insect larvae, ** identifying diet of an animal, & ** identifyng products like herbal supplements...

# # China's 'Lehman moment' ? => There are solar cell makers missing interest payments on bond s, steel mills defaulting on bank loans and property developers go ing bust. => Anyone hearing this steady drumbeat of disaster could be for given for thinking that Chinas star is fading, and fading fast. => Business is getting much tougher for Chinese companies from banks to property developers, but it is facile to think that they are headed for a replay of the 2008 financial crisis.

# # Describe the salient features of RUSA along with issues of concern in its implementation? (150 Words) Improving the overall quality of existing state higher education al institutions by ensuring conformity to prescribed norms and st andards and adoption of accreditation as a mandatory quality ass urance framework. Correct regional imbalances in access to higher education throu

gh high quality institutions in rural and semi urban areas as well a s creating opportunities for students from rural areas to get acc ess to better quality institutions. Setting up of higher education institutions in unserved and und erserved areas. Improve equity in higher education by providing adequate oppor tunities to socially deprived communities; promote inclusion of w omen, minorities, SC/ST and OBCs as well as differently abled p ersons. Ensure adequate availability of quality faculty in all higher educ ational institutions and ensure capacity building at all levels. Create an enabling atmosphere in higher educational institution s to devote themselves to research and innovation. Integrate skill developments efforts of the government with t he conventional higher education system through optimum interv entions. ISSUES OF CONCERN=> 1.With State's involvement there is a danger on politicization of educational institutions 2.Strain on federal character as states would require central ap proval, staggered funding completely at the discretion of the ce nter. 3. one more challenge centers on the very concept of a research university versus a narrower conceptualisatn of research excelle nce at the level of academic departments & individual faculty. If globally outstanding faculty work in departments that r not exc eptional (remember that RUSA is more stringent, requiring that multiple departments be excellent), or if they work in teachingor

iented departments, their chances of procuring research suppor t under RUSA are slim. This may incentivise faculty to move to a n identified research university. This could have adverse implica tions..

# # Urjit Patel panel report is deeply flawed .........Critically exa mine.. 1. intro urjit patel panel=> it was formed to give effective roadm ap for the scourge of inflation targeting to b done in near future ... 2. bullet recomendations like, -a paradigm shift to move towards cpi as measure than is rational bcause cpi tells actual cost of burden on poor man right at bottom of also includes component of services like housing medical etc.. - interest rates will remain high by 2015, if RBI accepts the rec ommendations of the Urjit Patel committee, which has suggested that the central bank should target inflation. -Bring CPI inflation to 6% in 24 mnths -The panel also suggests that the government must bring down t he fiscal gap down to 3 percent by FY17. Further, it says that ad ministered setting of prices, wages and interest rate should be moved away from and everything should be market determined. -only flaw is covers less no. of items and india is at present not a developed economy so collecting data for cpi from different sou rces may b difficult and thus timeline suggested by committee o

f 2 years may not b pragmatic and should be more...otherwise th e committee report is progressive for economy.. - The Urjit Patel committees recommendations for a new monet ary policy framework are ill-founded , anti-democratic and incap able of controlling inflation. Itd make it easier for simple-minde d bond traders to guess which way the RBIs policy rates would move, though .Save for the section on improving monetary policy transmission, the report should be junked. if accepted by RBI, w ill mean a fundamental change in the way monetary policy is fram ed in India, could become controversial to set the inflation targe t. The government may not be comfortable with that.

# # Bad economics and poor politics invariably go hand in hand.... .Critically Examine ! => good politics and good economics are two sides of the same co in hv stability a balance should be struck between the too ... but the present form govt seems to hv not givn priority to this aspect .....the present finance minister has tken step by cutting down on govt allocation to socio economic schbemes....this create d a furore in inter politics of Congress as ahead of elections ...a question has arised where to win elections this might prove to b suicidal; ...but does that mean to make the nation bankrupt to wi n elections ? .....2011 the unemployment rate was 3.8 in 2012 it w as 3.10 but in 2014 it has went upto 6.8 nd in 2015 it is projecte d to go upto 7.60...this figures show tat if absurd discissions r t aken on the economic front it wl led to woes of economy on the i

nternational stage ...Indian business wont get loans at affordable interest rates ....present fiscal deficit is 5.2 and the aim is to g et it to this light the finance minister has cut down by atl east 2000 crores in each populist scheme like MNREGA ,Indira a was yojana and other such schemes ..since independence v hv be en on the path of welfare state till 1990 ..if v wud hv taken up th e nother approach which wud had been investor friendly the eco nomic prospects of the nation wud had been different today.. => Bad economic condition is a fruit of poor politics government u nable to take better decision to improve economic sector politica l deficient is now working if government pass a project then gree n tribunal stay that. Government doesn't has synchronisation wit h all approval body itzz replicatin d currnt scenario if non f d political praties hav shwn importance abt STEAM(science,te ch,education,agri & medicine) in d currnt manifesto f there's...w hic s again goin to lead a bad politics dividin vote on caste nd vuln erable harmony amng dem.... => The core objectives of 1991 reforms is still far away . One of the main cause is the moral degradation of politics which is used by capitalistd. This has lead to crony capitalism. Fdi in capital se ctor and asset creation is not on the agenda whereas consumer g oods and instant profit making activities are leading the market. The infamous commonwealth and spectrom scams portrays bad e conomics and poor politics go hand in hand.

# # Pollution in the Ganga remains a tough challenge.......Discuss

=> It has became a tough challenge due to human activities. if th e stream had maintained a particular velocity then the river has the capacity to clean itself and remain free from pollution. The Ganga action plan is focussing only on the cleansing work but the re is a need to rethink on the plan of dams which had been const ructed as well as which are on their way of construction. Accept that human activities , sewage disposal etc are other issues which needs an participatory appro ach.. => definitely its a big challenge......coz coliforms have increased s o much beyond the limit.....bod is increasing........and it is very cos tly to develop sewage treatment is unaffordable for small scale industries..........for pollution control dilution of water is required....for this excess water is required which can be sour ced from rain water but its difficult........there has to be alternat e sewage network i.e underground which will take many years........ there has innovative ways of checkin sewage discharge areness is very important among the farmers, and the people res iding there........there should be a check on the dead body flown i n to the river and the ashes.....but this would hurt the sentiment s of the hindus and may create innovative approach is required

# # How can India turn from a defence equipment buyer to a ma jor defence equipment seller ? Suggest ideas in this regard

=> by increasing public- private partnership, ....should be jointly d eveloped, produced and marketed with Indias strategic partners in conjunction with the private sector. => The development of technologies that are not critical should b e outsourced completely to the private sector. => Also, the armed forces should be given funding support to und ertake research geared towards the improvement of in-service e quipment with a view to enhancing operational performance and i ncreasing service life. => Gradually, the universities and the IITs should be involved in undertaking defence R&D. This five-pronged approach will help t o raise Indias technological threshold over the next two decade s by an order of magnitude . => While the need for confidentiality in defence matters is unde rstandable, defence acquisition decision making must be made fa r more transparent than it is at present, so that the temptation for supplier companies to bank on corrupt practices can be minim ised. Eg., tenders should be opened in front of the representativ es of the companies that have bid for the Contract. => using latest technology and knowledge DRDO can build designs which can b shared with countries which can develop for india ..r evenue earned from the process can b invested in building indige nous industry such that both designing and manufacturibg could b done within india in future.. => allocation to R n D should b incrased to 3% gdp....autonomy an d full govt. support to department with minimum govt interfere a s exemplified by isro.

# # Deep Sea Exploration is multi beneficial for Indias future prospects. Discuss.(200 Words) => Deep sea exploration is investigation of chemical and biologica l conditions on the sea bed for scientific and commercial purpose s. => The Central Indian Basin, for example, is rich in nickel, copper , cobalt and potentially rare-earth minerals, which are highly lucr ative and used widely in manufacturing electronics such as mobil e phone batteries. information from ocean exploration is importa nt to everyone. => Unlocking the mysteries of deep-sea ecosystems can reveal ne w sources for medical drugs, food, energy resources, and other p roducts. => Information from deep-ocean exploration can help predict ea rthquakes and tsunamis and help us understand how we are affec ting and being affected by changes in Earths climate and atmosp here. => Expeditions to the unexplored ocean can help focus rese arch into critical geographic and subject areas that are likely to produce tangible benefits. => Ocean exploration can improve ocean literacy and inspire new generations of youth to seek careers in science, technology, engi neering, and mathematics. => The challenges of exploring the deep ocean can provide the ba sis for problem-solving instruction in technology and engineering that can be applied in other situations.

=> Exploration leaves a legacy of new knowledge that can be used by those not yet born to answer questions not yet posed at the time of exploration.

# # The United Nations climate panel seems condemned to the s ame inescapable fate as Cassandra of Greek mythology was. Disc uss => The united nations climate panel is in a fix to maintain the bal ance between growth of world economy with the balance of ecos ystem of world. In same fate as of cassandra who had the gift o f prophecy but the curse of never being believed the un climate panel has forecasted the future of world if climate change is not considered as threat but still most developed countries refuse t o lend a ear to them. Failure of kyoto protocol is just an example of that.

# # activist Jawahar Lal Kaul in news ....his contributions ?? => received padma award...he is known for his voluntary services for the blind, had lost his eyesight due to smallpox at the age of five.

# # What is the Shoaling effect ?

=> waves entering shallower water increase in height. While ente ring a shallow waters, the transport speed decreases, and in ord er to maintain the constant energy flux, the height of the waves increases.

# # What is Shifting cultivation called in Western ghats ?? => Kumari-Western Ghat and Jhum in northeast india

# # Ruhr of India ? => The Damodar Valley Corporation , popularly known as DVC, is c alled the Ruhr of India came into being on July 7, 1948 as the first multipurpose river valley project of independent India. The Durgapur-Ranigunj-Asansol industrial belt wasalso included in it..

# # What r Edge waves in Tsunami ? => an edge wave is a surface gravity wave fixed by refraction aga inst a rigid boundary, often a shoaling beach . => Progressive edge waves travel along this boundary, varying sin usoidally along it and diminishing exponentially in the offshore di rection.

=> Waves which mainly exist shoreward of the breaker line, and propagate along the shore. => They are generated by incident waves, their amplitude is a ma ximum at the shoreline and diminishes rapidly in a seaward direc tion.

# # Refraction of Tsunami ? => The wave crest in deeper water catches up so that the wave c rest tends to become parallel to the shore. As the tsunami propa gates across the ocean , waves can undergo refraction ( bending) , which is caused by segments of the wave moving at different s peeds as the water depth along the wave front varies . This bend ing is in addition to the bedding due to the shape of the Earth . => Refraction is the bending of waves because of varying water d epths underneath. The part of a wave in shallow water moves slower than the part of a wave in deeper wa ter. So when the depth under a wave crest varies along the crest , the wave bends. => An example of refraction is when waves approach a straight s horeline at an angle. The part of the wave crest closer to shore i s in shallower water and moving slower than the part away from t he shore in deeper water.

# # The relations between the military and their civilian master s have reached a nadir discuss..

=> for any nation to b powerful hav global respect strong military is an essential prerequisite...recently problems hav cropped up w hich r weakening military internally like a cancer...these include f eeling of alienation among personnel ...lack of communication bet ween jawans and officers...poor and inhumane working conditions putting their mental and physical health in jeopardy...consequenc e is incidents of killings and firings among themselves...even constitutional right o f voting is not exercised effectively( proxy voting and postal ball ot hav proved to b failure) lack of modernised equipments puttin g life at participation of services in formulation of po licies ...just left to implement the orders of their bureucratic an d political bosses... indifferent attitude of civil administration to wards retired high tym anomalies be crrected othe rwise indian democracy is at peril.. => ministry of defence is paying hardly any attention for indigeni sation.........procurement from foreign agencies is also not proper. ....there are many scams for example augusta westland and other scams...........recently crash of super hercules aircraft...........MOD has done lil for the development of military for future......fewer states are enganged in activities which were used many years be fore.......

# # The governments disinvestment programme has been an out right failure...Critically Examine ...

=> the method of dissinvestment to cover defficit has been in pr actice for past 15 years. but in light of rexent activities it has b een a complete failure. this method is used to generate funds by selling share of govt to private holders and in public domain, but a recent case of buying shares of oil indian limited by lic and no bidders in hindustan copper limited bidding clearly shows people mistrust in govt PSUs. => Disinvestment mean if common people invest in a project and g ets stake but recently government issues indian oil share in over see and india also but they didn't get investor so ongc purchased indian oil share it's not disinvestment it's " iski topi uske sir" => disinvestment is vital for capital starved country like india but strategically important sectors like defence railway etc should n ot b brings in more efficiency...reduces fiscal defici t....govt can spend on social sector better...psu ptofit bcuse of go od management would increase...some economists believe that po or savings rate of psu( 2% gdp) and poor profits one of the most important causes of indias fiscal woes...but the problem remains like pricing of shares which r often undervalued causing loss to e xchequer...consensus not formed...mode of dsinvestment ( ipo or stategic sales) ... => the point is that watever disinvestment has taken place in last 23 yearsw ..has been soley for meeting the fiscal deficit of Indi a rather than asset building .....the proceeds obtained thru disinv

estment were channelised into the National Investment Fund an d 75 percent of the total was used for meeting the financial rea sons and socio economic spending asset buidling jus did not h appen ... .....also less than 5 per cent of the total disinvestment proceeds of around Rs 1.50 lakh crore came from the privatisation of PSUs. In other words, disinvestment did not lead to privatisation as was expected....! => lessons in this regard cud be learned from UK and Singapore n d Japan which too faced similar kinds of issues ..but the differe nce lied in managing the issues ....take for exmple Singapore ... al together created a separarte fund to look after the wrking of P SUs......... an investment company made out from that looks after the Singapore governments investment portfolio and its assets a nd is managed by a separate board responsible for taking strate gic investment decisions without sacrificing the national interest s, keeping intact the commercial and non-commercial considerati ons => The Indian government can also form a separate holding comp any on similar lines with an efficient board, independently respon sible for decisions but accountable to government, embracing co rporate governance practices and transparency. The entire asset s and investments the government holds in PSUs can be transfer red to the company, which shall switch in and out appropriately i n view of the national interests... .this can turn out to b a trillion -dollar enterprise in say 15 years if things happen as crafted

# # Todays Russia is Putins Russia ...Comment ! => Yea Russians definetly have stood behind Putin for every issue which he has taken up. His strong decisions are proof to the sup port which he has got from his countrymen. For every internatio nal issue ,Putin has a strong reasonable stand. May it be the Iran nuclear issue, Syria issue , snowden issue, Crimea issue etc. Russ ia today has become a direct challenge to the hegemony of USA. Through every issue , Russia is giving the message that the world is multipolar and not unipolar. USA has to accept and respect th e views of other nations as well. As one international view rightly says that the Cold War never ended. If Russia is able to solve it s economic problems then in next 20 to 30 years it will be a supe rpower. Putin has a very large role to play at the come back of T his powerful Russia from the disintegration of soviet, so it can b e rightly said that it's Putins Russia. => The Russians are just supporting the Patriotic Act of Putin , w hich is obviously his stern action in conceding Crimea into Russia n territory. There seems no solid evidence that other than this i ssue there is no firm support for Putin ampng Russians. Various s urveys taken befor the Ukraine Crisis revealed that Putin was un likely to come to a third term as Prez. of Russia. Whoever the le ader be, Whatever the country and its citizens be at this situati on, they support their leaders...The after-effects of this geopoli tical change will surely make a mark

=> Vladimir Putin was a virtual unknown when he arrived on the po litical stage in August 1999. And even after many years in the pu blic eye, Russia's president continues to be a man of many contra sts and layers, with US and Europe unable to decipher him. Coldw ar ended with the breakup of Soviet Russia after Mikhail Gorbac hev's glasnost and petroiska failed miserably. The breakaway par ts of former USSR had all the industries and the economy of Ru ssia was at shambles.After 16 years of service at KGB, Putin the n a Lt. Colonel, resigned from KGB after the abortive KGB suport ed putsch against Gorbachev. Putin was appoined as an advisor on international affairs in St.Petersburg Mayors office, became its head, then the mayor and finally one of the deputy prime minist ers. With the resignation of Boris yeltsin utin became the acting President and then elected as president for 2 terms from 2000 to 2008, as primeminister from 2008 to 2013 and again as Presid ent from 2012 afterthe Russian constitution amended laws relat ed to presidential election. It was during this period that real in comes increased by a factor of 2.5, real wages more than tripled ; unemployment and poverty more than halved, and the Russians' self- assessed life satisfaction rose significantly. => Putin's first presidency was marked by high economic growth: the Russian economy grew for eight straight years, seeing GDP i ncrease by 72% in PPP .His energy policy has affirmed Russia's p osition as an energy superpower. Putin supportAlso Putin dealt an y efforts to undermine Russia and bring Nato to its door steps w ith aggression and unwavering commitment. Be it chechenya, Geo rgia or the recent Ukraine crimea crisis, he has left the western powers fuming. Loss of Crimea means loss of all weather naval b

ase in Black sea and putin hit the bulls eye with determination an d exceptional dilomacy. Putin had made himself the undisputed le ader of Russia in the roles of President and Primeminister buildi ng russia and todays Russia is Putins Russia

# # Has the recent Kelkar report (petroleum exploration and pr oduction ) sufficiently stressed on innovation in the hydrocarbon licensing regime? Discuss => An expert committee report on petroleum exploration and pro duction has called for a paradigm shift in the fiscal, tax and reg ulatory regime to attract investment, and step up output of crud e oil and natural gas in India's sedimentary basins our annual oil i mport bill is $150 billion and rising, there are designed to limit u pfront commitment decisions of potential field operators, such a s drilling of wells and work programme, pending the availability o f better geological data, prospectivity and indeed materiality on the ground.More importantly, the Kelkar report calls for continui ng with the upfront provision for cost recovery in production-sh aring contracts (PSC), no "profit petroleum" the revenue rema ining after cost recovery and payaable to govt... => NELP Xth round is to b auctioned in recent future...methodolo gy accepted is to hav corporates share their revenues right fro m initial production and govt. would not wait till costs of co r rec overed..would help in increasind revenues and in case of new disc overy any windfall gain would b shared( revenue sharing as agains

t production sharing)...another feature is that it will allow co. alr edy having contract for say gas can now share machines and othe r equipments for exploration of lets say petrol..that is arbitrary distinction and prohibition betwen oil and gas removed which wou ld cut down costs for company..also there is recommendation to convert NELP to that round the year bids can b made f or blocks...

# # The distinction between what the Kasturirangan report call ed cultural landscape and natural landscape was deliberate ........... ... Discuss !! => cultural landscape defined geographic area, including both cult ural and natural resources and the wildlife or domestic animals a ssociated with historic event, culture, event.. natural landscape i s a landscape that is unaffected by human activity. natural lands cape is intact when all living and nonliving elements are free to m ove and change.. => Economic exploitation of the resources of the Western Ghats has received maximum consideration while conservation and sust ainable development have been totally sidelined and neglected, n otwithstanding the various pretentious statements on conservati on or sweet- coated words on conservation. => The methodology adopted by HLWG declares this agenda unmi stakably clear and loud. 37% of the Western Ghats, named as na tural landscape, needs to be considered for conservation while t he rest of the area, referred to as cultural landscape. and it is i

ncluded National Parks, Sanctuaries, Reserve Forests etc.

# # The Indian Navy has had its own share of modernisation pro blems....Critically Examine ! => india is a unique country placed geostrategically at the crossro ads of worlds most important sea lines of communication. => this presents an oppurtunity as well as challenges not only mili tarily but also climatically. => to counter these threats importance of navy was realised afte r 1971 war which called for introspection and need to strenghten navy. => .though efforts hav been made but still remain creasing expenditure to gdp ratio..especially on R & D...defence p rocurement procedures r mired in bureacratic delays and politica l insensitivity.. => .old and aged equipment need to b modernised to prevent acci dents as happened recently and to restore faith of people and pe rsonnel in navy... => better training facilities, effective communication between se rvices and MOD rather bureaucracy acting as bridge between 2.. .DPP should be streamlined and made simple

# # Viet Cong.....50 WORDS => A political organization & army in South Vietnam & Cambodia t

hat fought the U Ss & South Vietnamese govts during the Vietna m War (19591975), & emerged on the winning side. ** It had both guerrilla & regular army units, as well as a networ k of cadres who organized peasants in the territory it controlled . ** American soldiers referred to the Viet Cong as Victor Charlie or V-C. ** other names of dis gpr r the Liberation Army of South Vietna m or the National Liberation Front for South Vietnam. ** Today's Vietnamese media most frequently refers to the gro up as the "Liberation Army" .. ** The Viet Cong's best-known action was the Tet Offensive , a massive assault on more than 100 South Vietnamese urban cente rs in 1968, including an attack on the US embassy in Saigon.The offen sive riveted the attention of the world's media for weeks, but al so overextended the Viet Cong. ** The organisation was dissolved in 1976 when North & South V ietnam were officially unified under a communist govt. some pro minent leaders were Trng Chinh, L Dun.

# # What is Culturable waste ? => This includes lands available for cultivation, whether not taken

up for cultivation or taken up for cultivation once but not cultiva ted during the current year and the last five years or more in su ccession for one reason or other . => Such lands may be either fallow or covered with shrubs and ju ngles which are not put to any use. => They may be assessed or unassessed and may lie in isolated bl ocks or within cultivated holdings. => Land once cultivated but not cultivated for five years in succe ssion is also included in this category at the end of the five year s.

# # What are the important features of the British architectur e in India? => The architectural contribution of the British began after the 'great mutiny' of 1857 when their political power was firmly est ablished. It took the form mostly of country-houses, travellers' bungalows, churches, office buildings, etc which stand all over th e country. => Their style represents a mixture of the ideas evolved by the British military engineers and civil architects. The architectural styles of these structures include the Greco-Roman, Scottish, G othic, etc. combined with Indian styles. => European colonialism bought with it a wide array of influences to further shape Indian architecture.Imperial power was stress ed by using grand buildings. Local craftsmen incorporated new sk ills and added them to their trade.

=> Colonial architecture became assimilated into India's diverse traditions. Other innovations made during the European Industri al Revolution came with the British Raj to India. => The European involvement in India through the 1920s and the 1930s bought architect Le Corbusier and the Art Deco movemen t to India. Fusion has been a consistent feature of modern India n architecture-for example Indian elements of chhajja (wide roo f overhangs), jaali (circular stone apertures) and chhatri (free-s tanding pavilions) were intermixed with European architecture d uring the construction of the Rastrapati bhavan . => This neoclassical project-which also contained a stupa like do me-was overseen by Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens and the Indian Institute of Architects . => Garden houses were originally used as weekend houses for rec reational use by the upper class British. Nonetheless, the garden house became ideal a full-time dwelling, deserting the fort in th e 19th Century. => Esplanade-row is fronts the fort with lined palaces. => Indian villages in these areas consisted of clay and straw hous es, later transformed into a metropolis of brick and stone. => There was much extravagance and some sacrifice of comfort to outward grandeur, some pretentious borrowings of Islamic pavilions and Buddhist ra ilings, some imitation of Hindu ornaments and brackets. Lutyens added the refinement of ancient Indian architecture to the ostentation and magnificence expressive of the imperial maj esty and power. => The outstanding examples are victoria memorial, Rashtrapati

bhavan, Christian churches in Goa, Madras, Shimla, the St. Paul' s Cathedral at Calcutta ect...

# # Marshall Plan ......50 WORDS => this marshall plan also known as european recovery programe..i n the year 1948 nd 1951, $10 billion finace fr the recovery after that in the yr 1947 marshall annouced this plan and after tht ac cording to revisionists it allowed the US to reconstruct the euro pean economy as an contrast of american economy. => Marshall plan was an american initiative to aid europe in which united state gave economic support to help rebuild europian econ omy after world war 2 => .The main aim was to rebuild war devastated region,modernize industry and make europe prosperous again. => It was named after the secretary of state george marshall an d was established on june 5 1947.It was later replaced by mutual security plan.

# # Hampi..........20 wrds => Hampi is one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India it s a village in karnataka state..lots of visitors visit here in every y ear.. beautiful temple, ancient mark street etc etc all r there.. o verall its a nice place

=> ashoka rock edict, part of vijaynagar empire of Karnataka and present vijaynagar, situated on the banks of Tungabhadra river

# # JVP Committee..................50 words => committee consisting of nehru ,, patel nd pattabhi sitarammay a ,, to reconsider the ques of linguistic reorganization of states , after dhar commission recommend against it ,, the comm. submit ted its report in april 1949 .. This comm. too rejected language a s the basis for reorganization. => no one was chairman in this committee and they said tht time nt ripe to consider fr linguistic reorganisation but they ll do so if public pressure arises

# # The concept of Sarva Dharma Sambhava is somewhat diffe rent from European secularism.........Comment => concept of serva dharma sambhav that india has adopted focu ses on development of all religion.state will work for all religion without any discriminatio.while european secularism is separation of religion frm politics . => India has different religions so for equal development of all st ate has to intervene otherwise it will bring dissatisfaction among people. => The periods of development starting from the Aryans and the further assimilation of Indian culture to the various sects is 'Sa

rva Dharma Sambhava'. Relations of Buddhism, Jainism and othe r several ideas,indigenous or external, had never been rejected. = Human value was always prevalent as the idea stated "one shou ld act in the act one deserves for oneself".So,the individual subj ectivity had been formed into a socially and comprehensively coll ective belief system. => When it became a part of Indian culture, it is alive with respir atory India.So, The religion has been an impregnable element of the society;differing with the case of Europe where religion had been separated as the different element, especially after the p eriod of renaissance. => We find that 'Dharma' is a philosophy leading to the social en richment and its evolution.If this part is removed,then the proce ss of 'feedback' will stop and the religion and social system will not develop. => Hence,the European Secularism of segregating the church and removing the element of social suggestion makes the secularism itself a stagnant non-evolutionary one. => "Sarva Dharma Samabhav" is a system much superior to the p erceived Secular notion,which is not an innovative one and is rati onally indistinct in itself.

# # Gulabi Gang....50 words => group of women activists from bundelkhand led by sampat pal devi against patriarchal culture,rigid caste divisions,female illite racy,domestic violence,child labour,child marriages and dowry de

mand.they wear bright pink saris and weild bamboo sticks.they cl aim their gang as "gang for justice" => gulabi gang is a women empowermnt movement formed in 2006 by sampat devi in benda district of up.purpose of this gang is to protect women from atrocities which was dominant in that distri more than thousand womn are associated with it.

# # A copy paste job from west will have the effect of jumping from one evil to another for INDIA ......Critically Analyze ....!!! => Copy and paste approach is good till the adaptation and absorp tion is at a high level within the social political and economic bac kground of any country, Here the ecological aspects meaning the social and political background greatly matters. in western count ries there is endogenous as well as exogenous changes in the soci ety after the two wars while in India only exogenous changes ha d taken place. => This approach may have bad effects in india for eg the econo mic reforms of 1991 had not achieved the desire results till now. Hence there is need to adopt the good job of west according to our requirement instead of just blindly following them.

# # Sarda Act ....20 words => Child Marriage Restraint Act 1929 popularly kwown as the Sar da Act and this act was passed on 28 September 1929, that impl

ies fixed age of marriage fr grls at14 and boys at 18yrs

# # Tagore and Nationalism......50 WORDS => His ideas on nationalism were one of the most radical. He was one of Indias greatest philosophers and thinker of his time, Tag ores work on nationalism divided in 3 essays outlined his idea of nationalism.... => Tagore education work and his own nationalism were rooted in an original vision of Indias history amounting to deviation from b oth colonist historiography and the nationalist ideology of that ti meshis reasoning was based on his historical understanding of h is countrys formation as a social civilization founded on a continu al social adjustment..... => He totally rejected nationalism as understood in the western sense... he defined nationalism in the WEST as a combination of politics and commerce whose end goal is to achieve success....In his writing on nationalism for Japan and the same equally relevan t for India Tagore said you cannot with a light heart accept the modern civilization with all its tendencies, methods and structur es, and dream that they are inevitable. => Tagore opposed imperialism and supported Indian nationalists. Evidence produced during the HinduGerman Conspiracy Trial an d latter accounts affirm his awareness of the Ghadarites, and st ated that he sought the support of Japanese Prime Minister Ter auchi Masatake and former Premier kuma Shigenobu . => Yet he lampooned the Swadeshi movement ; he rebuked it in "

The Cult of the Charka ", an acrid 1925 essay. => he saw the pres ence of British administration as a "political symptom of our soci al disease". => .In 1915, the British Crown granted Tagore a knighthood. He r enounced it after the 1919 Jallianwala Bagh massacre. This show ed his utmost devotion towards the motherland...

# # Describe the effect of Climate Change on the behavior of g lobal tropical cyclones. => on the behavior of global tropical cyclones overall climate r ch anges Sea level is rising and will continue to rise as oceans warm and glaciers melt. Rising sea level means higher storm surges, ev en from relatively minor storms, which increases coastal flooding and subsequent storm damage along costal.. => Future projections based on theory and high-resolution dynam ical models consistently indicate that greenhouse warming(basica lly change in climate) will cause the globally averaged intensity(s peed) of tropical cyclones to shift towards stronger storms, wit h intensity increases of 211% by 2100. => Rainfall also likely to increase by 20% within the 100km of ori ginating area Sea surface temperatures in most regions of tropi cal cyclone formation have increased.

# # Margaret Noble .............20 words..

=> popularly known as sister nivedita,she was scotish-Irish social worker,author,teacher and a disciple of Swami vivekanad .she wa s closely associated with Ramakrishan mission and worked towar ds educating deprived section girls.actively contributed to indian nationalism as well.

# # P.K. Veeresalingam ..........20 words => Veeresalingam was a social reformer of Andhra Pradesh. => he was a grt scholar & considered as the father of renaissanc e in andhra.was a telgu activists awakened people against superst itions.he was first to write a telgu novel,telgu drama,books on na tural sciences,history in telgu and telgu praise for women => telugu social reformer who awakened the people from the me dieval orthodox customer and superstitions, he tried to spread t his by his literary works, was influenced by brahmo samaj and Be ngali social reformers

# # Right from the honeymoon period of 1950s, to the turbule nt 1960s, to the angry 1970s, to the tumultuous 80s leading in t o the aspirational 90s and early 2000s, India has been through a series of highs and lows. Elucidate !! => Overwhelmed with the joy of freedom , the spirit of hope and enthusiasm was spilling in every indian .with the onset of india's journey towards the nation building the positive attitude and dre

am of bright future resided in every indian heart. => The first blow and break in the indian honeymoon came as the sino-indian war, 1962.with tough and embarrising defeat befor i ndians could find solace in nehru's leadership,his death in 1964 c ame as another emotional blow . => The second india-pak war in 1965 ,, acute food crisis nd almost stagnant economy further worsened india's situation ...during 70 s india witnessed straining india-us relationship ,, breakaway fro m non-alignment , and then the third indo-pak war in 1971 over b angladesh liberation , => India was having rough times internationally which was soon fo llowed by the internal unrest as the national emergency was proc laimed in 1975 ,furious with gross atrocities the indians ,poured their anger over the general election in 1977 ,,creating the first non-congress govt at centre. ... => The 80s started with series of unfortunate events which left india struggling at every front . The operation blue star with kha listan ,in golden temple ,,leading to indira gandhi's assasination ,, followed by massive anti-sikh riots in 1984 created a political un rest . The bhopal disaster 1984, the siachen conflict 1984, the p aralyzed north-east due to ulfa clashes ,, the looming economic crisis ,, the bofors sc andal, india almost choked ...... => But the 90's came like a new dawn ,,with economic liberalizati on and reforms india's gdp almost trippled ,,though there was di couraging instances like assasination of rajeev gandhi 1991 , dem olition of babri masjid 1992, and bombay blast,1993 ,but india wa s determined to move ahead. It made its presence felt internati

onally and declared itself as a nuclear powered state in 1998 , by undertaking the second pokhran test as the operation shakti .th e kargil war,1999, though painful did not deter mr vajpayee to ca rry forward the peace talks with pakistan ., => the visit of us president mr bill clinton ,in march 2000 , kick s tarted a new strategic relationship , between india and us ..the 2 1st century also witnessed three complete full terms of the lok s abha ,giving india its much needed political stability , after a long time..

# # What are the implications of gender disparities in India? (2 00 Words) => the issue of gender disparity in india is a binging alarming topi c.the sex ratio being 940 nd tht of age grp of 0-6 being 914 as p er 2011 census shud be considered as a phase of watershed whch invariably has varied implications. => it can be divided as a) cultural b) social c) economical d) health a) cultural: lowest level of sex ratio recorded in daman nd diu nd tht of 0-6 age recorded in haryana provides the cultural accept ance of gender inequality. => besides female foetocide cases the state of haryana also acco rds the misnomer concept of khap panchayat whch in certain inst ances incurs death penalty to females acting against the culture norms b) social...the social implication is quite relevant in the very being of women as recessive nd not equal whch itself paints a blemish

to status of women in society c) economical..since being socially deprived as second in order nd furthr deprivation of education hits the economical status of wo an agrarian country.. her economic status is labelled as di sguised unemployment. that inturns makes her troll to be econom ically dependent d) health...the worst implication of disparity faced is health wis e...who inspite of being at fertility levels of 2.53 faces severe he alth problems as repeatd miscarriages...poor health service...high mortality rate at time of pregnancy and as well droppin nutrition indices shuns it all the measures adopted to curb disparity... => the recognition of her being by alloting 33%reservation, gend er empowerment indices surveyed,gender budgeting, schemes nd scholarships... e gSabla ,swayamsiddha, swawlamban....In indira aa was yojna the name of house is registerd by name of the female spouse,in food security bill...the monthly ration to be provided by the name of female spouse, health conditions to be improvd by guidin females for institutional deliveries under A SHA,, asistance provided by schemes such as indira gandhi.matri tva sahyog yojna etc

# # Do you think Mahatma Gandhis support to Khilafat Moveme nt had diluted his secular credentials? Give your argument based on the assessment of events. (200wrds) => Gandhi was one of the few Indians that correctly estimated t he might of British rule.He was aware that British may repress a

ny violent act of Indians. In the khilafat movement and then non cooperation , there were two aims of gandhi- mass participation and hindu-muslim unity. and he was successful in these two aim. => To say his secular credentials had diluted , then it should be n oted that the movement was non violent except chauri chaura inc ident and the he was successful in getting alltogether hindu musl ims extremists or moderates. => even the khilafat committee was headed by him and he gave t he successful leadership to the secular khilafat and non coopera tion movement => the issue of khilafat tht upsurged back in 1919 provides a tran scedental phase to the secular credential cards was a ma jor landmark since prior to this time secular content was not voic ed nationally bt vid the acceptance of mahatma gandhi to suppor t the muslims who were in tranquil minds ovr the issue tht their religious head "khalifa" taken away. => gandhis acceptance to provide leadership to khilafat movemen t had a foresight unfolding ambition.thus, he nodded a yes to be the chairman of All india khilafat committee.the unfolding ambition ws to further take support of muslim in the nationwide non-cooperation movement as well to ma ke consensus ovr demands tht were to be tablesd before the bri tish parliament. => this reflected his diluted secular credentials.though he later repent saying tht his support to khilafat movement ws "a blunder as big as himalayas" bt sumwhr the seeds of secularism were fa r ripen in stage.

# # The freedom of speech available to the members on the fl oor of the House is different from that available to the citizens under article 19(2). Comment. (200 Words) ** => Article19(2) of indian constitution (ICN) , grants the freed om of speech and expression as a fundamental right(FR) to its ci tizen . The ICN also endows this FR on the members of parliame nt and state legislature (SL) , but going two step forward in thei r case , it expresses explicitly , u/a 105 for the MPs and u/a 194 for the members of SL ,that they shall not be liable to'ANY' pr oceeding in 'ANY' court in respect of 'ANYTHING' said by him/ her on the floor of the house or in any committee . => Well they are citizen's representative ,the freedom is justifi ed . But the same very citizen's freedoms are not absolute . The ICN says the state can impose 'reasonable ' restriction on the e xercise of this right over certain grounds such as sovereignty an d integrity of india ,security of state , public disorder , decency ,morality ,contempt of court ,defamation , incitement to an offe nce ,and some others . => No doubt the intentions of our constitution makers behind the se restrictions were noble and it was the very demand of the tim e then . But what we see ,is the serious abuse of these restrictio ns ,which no longer seems to b reasonable .as the ICN does not p rovide any elaborate explanation or interpretation as to what ex actly can b seen as offencive or a threat to peace of the society ,, it gives an arbitrary right to everyone to take offensive of any

thing they 'FEEL' as offencive ' to them' , and then drag the pe rson to court , and slap them with long legal proceedings , for eg the case of wendy doniger 's book .And then the state with legislations like s ection 66a of the it act , legalises the unjustified curb on our FR ... ** => constitution of India confers fundamental rights to all the citizens of India. they are contained in Part III Article 12 to 35 of constitution of India. though these rights are justicable they are not absolute. At present there are 6 fundamental rights. mo st important among them is Freedom of Speech and Expression c ontained n Article 19(2). this freedom is available to all the citiz ens unbiased. however there is difference between the freedom of speech available to members of the house and that available t o a citizen under Article 19(2). => Members have freedom of speech in the house & enjoy immuni ty for proceedings in any court in respect of anything said or any vote given by them in parliament or in any committee thereof. m embers of the house are given this immunity coz of the fact tha t it is essential pre-requisite for the efficient discharge of thei r parliamentary duties, in the absence of which they may not be able to speak out their mind &express their views in the house wi thout any fear. they enjoy the complete protection even though the words uttered by them are malicious and false to their knowl edge. => even courts have no jurisdiction to take action against a memb er for his speech in the house even if it amounts to contempt of court. on the other hand reasonable restrictions are imposed by

the court on the freedom of speech of the citizen available unde r Article 19(2). they can be prosecuted for any speech which acc ording to the court is against the security

# # Nana Phadnavis and Treaty of Bassein => After being victorious over the Nizam at Kharda, Nana Phadna vis' influence in Poona was enhanced. But soon the Marathas indu lged in internal quarrels. Tired of Nana Phadnavis' dictatorship, Peshwa Madhavrao Narayan committed suicide on October 25, 17 95. => After various plots and counter-plots on December 4, 1796, B aji Rao II, son of Raghoba, became the Peshwa and Nana Phadnav is as his chief minister. Taking advantage of the instable situatio n among the Marathas, the Nizam recovered the territories which were take n by the Marathas after his defeat at Kharda. => Matters among the Marathas were becoming worse by the Pes hwa's own intrigues. It worsened more when the Peshwa murder ed Vithuji Holkar, brother of Jaswant Rao Holkar in April 1801. This made Holkar rise in rebellion with a huge army and on Octob er 23, he defeated the combined armies of Sindhias and the Pes hwas at Poona and captured the city. => Jaswant Rao Holkar made Amrit Rao's son Vinayak Rao the Pe shwa and on the other hand Baji Rao took refuge in Bassein. And in this helpless situation, Baji Rao had no hesitation to accept th e Subsidiary Alliance and signed with the East India Company th

e Treaty of Bassein on December 31, 1802.

# # National College in Calcutta during swadeshi movement ...De scribe Background=>> => It was 1905 -1906. Bengal stood divided. The times were feve rish. The hegemony of the British establishment had to be challe nged. Education had to play a new role in this changed scenario. I t had to become a new form of resistance through which the em ergent nationalist spirit could be propagated. => With this in mind the National Council of Education (NCE) cam e into being.This Council was established during a meeting held in Calcutta on November, 1905. On 14 August, 1906, National Colle ge and School of Bengal was established. => Aravindo Ghosh was its first Principal. Objective==> => Its primary aim was to impart education - literary, scientific & technical on national lines exclusively under national control. T o achieve self-reliance, through education. => The foundation of the NCE was made possible by the munifice nce - scholarly as well as monetary - of the likes of Raja Subodh Chandra Mallik , Brajendra Kishore Roychowdhury of Gouripur as well as Sir Rash Behari Ghosh (first President of NCE), poet Ra bindranath Tagore and Sri Aurobindo ghosh..

# # Sachindra Nath Sanyal... 2 marker.. => Sachindra Nath Sanyal was an Indian revolutionary and the fo under of Hindustan Republican Association that was created to c arry out armed resistance against the British Empire in India . => Under this association he set up Hindustan Republic Army in 1 924. => He was the mentor for revolutionaries like Chandrashekhar A zad and Bhagat Singh . => Sanyal was extensively involved in the plans for the Ghadar co nspiracy. => He was sentenced for the Kakori train robbery and was tried and sentenced to life for the same.He was sent to the dreaded C ellular Jail in the Andamans and in jail he wote the famous book " Bandi Jeevan" (A Life of Captivity). This book would become the bible for a generation of revolutionaries fighting British rule.

# # Anushilan Samiti of Bengal => "Self-Culture Association" was an armed anti-British organis ation in Bengal and the principal secret revolutionary organisatio n operating in the region in the opening years of the 20th centur y. => This association, like its offshoot the Jugantar, operated und er the guise of suburban fitness club. The members were commit ted towards the path of armed revolution for independence of I ndia from British rule.

=> Kolkata and, later, Dhaka were the two major strongholds of the association. However, the group succeeded in penetrating ru ral Bengal and had branches all over Bengal and also other parts of India . => Its activities included making of bombs, arms training and ass assination of British officials and Indians who they viewed as "tr aitors".

# # Dhaka Anushilan Samiti => Dhaka Anushilan Samiti was a branch of the Anushilan Samiti founded in the city of Dhaka in November 1905. Initially a group of eighty under the leadership of Pulin Behari Das , it "spread lik e wildfire" throughout the province of East Bengal. => More than 500 branches were opened, linked by a "close and d etailed organization" to Pulins headquarters at Dhaka. It absorb ed smaller groups in the province and soon overshadowed its par ent organisation in Calcutta. => Within another two years, Dhaka Anushilan would devolve its a ims from the Swadeshi to the dedicated aim of political terroris m. => The Dhaka Anushilan Samiti embarked on a radical program of political terrorism. => The Dhaka group saw this as slow and insufficient, and sought immediate action and result. It was responsible for a number of political assassinations,

Questions for SELF- STUDY

Nationalism is Spiritualism ......Comment (200 words) # # SC uphold the age of juvenile to 18 years.....recently ...what is the rationale the SC has given for this ? # " Indian students with foreign degrees returning home"........W hat lessons can India learn in this regard from China ? Bumps ahead on Indo-Pak road ....Discuss Advanced pricing agreements (APAs) will provide an effecti ve tool to enable the government to protect the tax base ... .............Discuss What is Whitleyism ? 5 marks The only power that can stop the Chinese Juggernaut is Chi na itself ...Elaborate The most fundamental key to the rise of the western civili zation has been the dedication of its most brilliant minds t o the pursuit of knowledge. Critically examine !! Taoism, Confucianism and Buddhism dissolve in vague mysti cism...Do u agree ...Give arguments supporting ur stand !

" Quit While You're Ahead " ..... Comment Explain the rare earth metal diplomacy and its importance i n India-Japan-China triad. (200 Words) Sri Lankas future hinges on whether Sinhalese leaders will draw the right lessons from history. .... Comment Although there is a tendency for poor monsoons to be asso ciated with an El-Nino , there is no one-to-one corresponde nce..,Comment !! Explain the role played by USA and UN in the Korean War. Nehru had again shown that given the will, non-alignment c ould work and there was not just space but also the need f or the non-aligned to assert themselves on the side of newl y emerging nations. Examine the role of post Independence India in becoming the voice of colonized nations in their struggle for freedo m from imperialist powers. Examine the causes and nature of extremism in Indian polit ics in the early part of the present century. The policies of the British Indian Government during 1858 1905 were aimed at preventing another revolt of the mas ses. Elucidate.

Critically assess the democratic transition process that is taking place in Myanmar. Critically assess the democratic transition process that is taking place in Myanmar. What is biosafety? How has Indian government addressed this issue? # # Which were the two places where Hyder Ali was defeated b y General Smith ...nd during same time what was Tipu Sultan doin g and in end what happened ? # # Annexation of Sindh was criticized by the British officials i tself...Elaborate in this regard # # How did Haider Ali become the sultan of Mysore...giv a back ground? # # What kind of political instability led the English and French interfere in the Carnatic region ? # # Egypt has to learn a lot from Tunisia ....Discuss ..!! (Mains An swer writing )