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The Legal Rights of Mother Nature:

The Birth of Environmentalism
Sayan Dutta

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Annotated Bibliography
Primary Sources
Books / Print Documents
"American Antiquities Act of 1906." American Antiquities Act of 1906 (16USC431 433). National Park Service, n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2014. <>. This website has a record of the Antiquities Act of 1906, which gave executive power to restrict use of public land owned by the government.

Faraday, Michael. "Faraday's Letter to The Times." Faraday's Letter to The Times. N.p., 7 Jul. 1855. Web. 31 Mar. 2014. <>. This source was obtained from a website, but it was used for its reuse of Prof. Farady's original letter to "The Times" newspaper. This letter describes the "Filth" of the Thames river, describing it as "opaque pale brown fluid," as well as giving the river a foul smell and eerie feel. The letter, written by a notable chemist of the time period, shows the level of pollution from the Industrial revolution in England at the time.

Leopold, Aldo, and Charles Walsh Schwartz. A Sand County Almanac: With Other Essays on Conservation from Round River. 1949. Reprint. New York: Random House LLC, 1966. Print. Aldo Leopold was a renowned environmentalist from his time period and one of his most famous works, A Sand County Almanac, includes many memoirs or short stories relating to the environment, as well as aphorisms and thoughts that describe the thought of conservation from his time period, the early Progressive Era.

Thoreau, Henry David. The Writings of Henry David Thoreau. 3. Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1899. eBook. This eBook from the University of Michigan provided several letters and writings from Thoreau that helped to reflect on his philosophy. Thoreau wrote on many of his travels in the wilderness in the northwest during the industrial revolution. Thoreau was a pioneer of transcendentalism and believed man as part of the environment rather than above it.

Thoreau, Henry David. Walden (Or Life in the Woods). Princeton: Princeton UP, 1971. Print.

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Thoreau truly has an interesting philosophy and Walden, one of his most famed books, really expresses that philosophy. It was helpful for me in affecting my point of understanding on environmental issues and for thought on his type of thinking.

LeBlanc Works. < >. This was an image of a LeBlanc works, which caused massive air pollution in the early Industrial Revolution in the 19th century.

"Mother of the Forest." <>. This image shows the famous picture from the stripping down of the biggest tree in what would become the Sierra Nevada. The bark was sripped off the tree for carnival sideshows, and the tree was left to burn and fall to the ground.

Theodore Roosevelt and John Muir.<>. Theodore Roosevelt and John Muir standing on the Yosemite mountains. Both Roosevelt and Muir were devout environmentalists who worked for the Yosemite National Park. The image comes from the official Sierra Club website, which was an organization developed by John Muir for preservation of environmental scenery.

Theodore Roosevelt's Conservation Policies. <>. This is a very popular image showing Theodore Roosevelt and his recognition of the environment. Theodore Roosevelt is well known for supporting conservationism, or that humans can use their resources sustainably such that resources will not run out and life can meet its needs.

Rachel Carson. <> Rachel Carson is renowned in environmental history for discovering the side effects of DDT as a pesticide. Carson's famous book, Silent Spring, is considered one of the greatest pieces in the environmental movement in the modern world.

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Secondary Sources
Books / Print Documents
Miller, G. Tyler. "Environmental History: An Overview." Living in the Environment. 13 ed. New York: Brooks Cole, 2002. n.p.. Print. This source comes from our Advanced Placement Environmental Science Textbook, which contains a chapter on environmental history. The chapter was useful and contained graphics, key events, and notable people during each time period since hunter gatherers and slash and burn agriculture to the 1960s to 1970s when environmentalism gains public fame.

Web Documents
"Environmental history timeline."Environmental history timeline. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Mar. 2014. <>. Although not enough information was found to cite the context properly, this source proved to be very important in research for environmentalism in historical times. This source had information on environmentalism before Christ to events occurring within the last decade. But what was really useful about this website was that it had links to other sources I probably would not have ever gotten to otherwise, which provided a plethora of other sources.

Fleming, James R., and Bethany R. Knorr. "History of the Clean Air Act." Clean Air Act. American Meteorological Society, n.d. Web. 23 Mar 2014. <>. This brief description of the origin of the clean air act dating back to the 14th century in Europe. This source was used especially to identify events in England that were the first signs of any legislature dealing with the environment, such as with Kind Edward I and the ban on sea coal or the Alkali Acts of 1863 to 1864.

"FOR248Class Page." FOR248Class Page. NC State University, n.d. Web. 31 Mar. 2014. <>. This source created for a university Forestry class depicts the history of forestry related acts in all of American history. It provides only brief descriptions of each act and was useful for my research in figuring out what each act's purpose was.

Kasa, Sjur. "Industrial Revolutions and Environmental Problems." Centre for Advanced Study. Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2013. <>. This source provided figures and data on the different industrial revolutions and how the environment and health of the people that were affected. It was useful in that it showed how different statistics on pollution and quality changed through the industrial revolution in western Europe.

Dutta 5 "Conservation in the Progressive Era - American Memory Timeline- Classroom Presentation | Teacher Resources - Library of Congress." Conservation in the Progressive Era - American Memory Timeline- Classroom Presentation | Teacher Resources - Library of Congress. US Congress, n.d. Web. 1 Apr. 2014. < ss/conserve/>. This source from the Library of Congress was created for viewers to understand the use of conservation in the environment during the Progressive Era around the late 19th century and early 20th century. It was useful in that I was able to obtain some quick facts from researching the topic.

United States. National Park Service. "History: Theodore Roosevelt: The Father of Conservation."National Parks Service. U.S. Department of the Interior, n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2014. <>. This source provided information on how Theodore Roosevelt contributed to conservationism during his term in office. It was useful and reliable considering it came from the national website of the National Parks Service. The webpage lists all the things Roosevelt has done for conservation during his time period and their effects.

United States. National Park Service. "National Park Service History: National Park System Timeline."National Parks Service. U.S. Department of the Interior, n.d. Web. 31 Mar. 2014. <>. This source lists all of the acts issued for the National Parks which created new parks or diminished old ones. A whole timeline is available of all of federal land which was a National Park or is a National Park.

United States. National Park Service. "Theodore Roosevelt and Conservation." National Parks Service. U.S. Department of the Interior, 6 Mar. 2014. Web. 29 Mar. 2014. <>. This source from the official website of the National Parks Service provided information on how Theodore Roosevelt contributed to the environment as president in the early Progressive Era.

APESinaBOX. "APES in a BOX Environmental History." YouTube. YouTube, 4 Sept. 2013. Web. 30 Mar. 2014. <>. This source briefly goes over the history of man and the environment since hunter gatherers as in the AP Environmental Science curriculum. This source was useful as I was able to understand how men have changed through history in different time periods characterized by the affect on the environment.

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PBSAmerica. "The National Parks: America's Best Idea | PBS America." YouTube. YouTube, 21 Mar. 2012. Web. 30 Mar. 2014. <>. This video is a commercial for the series, The National Parks: Americas Best Idea, from Ken Burns, which illustrates the history of the national parks and prominent figures from the time period. I found the source to be valuable as it was posted by the official PBSAmerica channel and it comes from a whole series about the national parks.