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Oamenii s-au nscut actori.

Capacitatea lor de a expune un rol, de a juca, nu este numai o parte din viaa lor, ci deasemenea o manifestare a efortului de a stpni lumea ce-i nconjoar. Toate fiinele umane i arat sentimentele i emoiile prin expunere, putnd chiar s le anticipe e i s le exterioritete voluntar. Conceptul de joc de rol se refer tocmai la comportamentele exprimate ca fiind re ultatul unei deci ii ale !prota"onistului#. $ocul de rol a fost asociat cu ncercrile indivi ilor de a se confrunta cu necunoscutul, datorit nevoilor lor de a controla sau de a influena existena lor. %n istoria umanitii, forme primare ale jocului de rol se "sesc n ritualuri reli"ioase pentru !m&ln irea# eilor sau n cele din cadrul unor ceremonii !iniiatice# precum naterea, cstoria sau decesul, unde indivi ii i exprimaru speranele i tririle le"ate de viitor. 'e asemenea, a fost folosit i n medicina primar, cu scopul de a crete receptivitatea pacienilor, de a-i pre"ti pentru tratament, de a-i ajuta s se adapte e la tratamente dureroase i de a le crea o su"esti&ilitate extrem. (xpunerea rolului este astfel o tradiie sociocultural. $ocul de rol a mai fost folosit i ca o metod de comunicare n interaciunile interpersonale. Ceea ce difer de formele descrise mai sus este faptul c, n interaciunea uman, jocul de rol nu mai apare n context instituionali at, ci ca o form de expresie. )ndivi ii recur" adesea la diferite povestiri sau anecdote, la idei sau la alte a&iliti, n locul folosirii unui limaj ver&al &anal, tocmai pentru c au impresia c prin expresii i demonstraii, mesajul va fi mult mai clar. *stfel de preferine pentru expresii s-au o&servat nu numai la culturi n care lim&ajul ver&al nu a fost suficient de voltat, ci i n societile moderne, unde se folosete un lim&aj a&stract i sofisiticat. $ocul de rol a fost asociat cu atenuarea strilor de neajutorare i incertitudine, prin reducerea discomfortului creat de fric, prin inculcarea ideii de speran, prin formarea unui sens coerent al conceptului de sine, prin vindecare i prin efortul de a crete empatia i asertivitatea printre indivi i. (ste puin pro&a&il ca imensa "ratificaie ce deriv din comportamentele specifice jocului de rol provin din a&ilitile individuale de a satisface nevoile psiholo"ice fundamentale i din caitile terapeutice inerente pe care jocul de rol le deine. %n mod cert, valoarea jocului de rol depinde de contextul n care acesta este

expus. %n unele instane, &eneficiile psiholo"ice acumulate prin jocul de rol sunt considera&ile, dac nu de nenlocuit. %n opinia lui +ipper, jocul de rol i-a pstrat funciile psiholo"ice de-a lun"ul timpului, chiar dac unele caracteristici de comportament i tipare nvechite au suferit schim&ri. ,anifestrile externe ale comportamentului din ilele noastre difer de cele din alte perioade din trecut, datorit schim&rilor de coduri ale comportamentelor i a "radului de reinere i a autocontrolului. 'e asemenea, s-au produs schim&ri i la nivelul credinelor, a ritualurilor i a importanei lor, precum i a lim&ajului, care a devenit mult mai sofisticat. (xist o relaie strns ntre nivelul de achi iii i lim&aj i jocul de rol. Tot +ipper o&serv c jocul de rol este stns le"at de evoluia fiinei umane i c apare cel mai frecvent la copii, fiind asociat cu imaturitatea i capacitatea sc ut de exprimare. -recevna expunerii unui rol n activitatea cotidian scade pe msur ce individul se de volt i se apropie de statutul de adult.

Therefore, it is hardl. surprisin" that role pla.in" exists /herever people exist. )t is also not surprisin" that role pla.in" &ecame aform of &ehavior that su&se0uentl. /as utili ed to increase the effectiveness of modem ps.chotherap.. Toda., the application of role pla.in" is /idespread, indeed. )t ma. &e found in almost ever. 1ind of professional service that falls /ithin the &oundaries of the /or1 of ps.cholo"ists. 2et there is no dou&t that the area /here it is used to its utmost capa&ilit., and /here it has the "reatest contri&ution, is ps.chotherap.. (xist trei orientri terapeutice care au contri&uit la apariia jocului de rol ca i form valid de psihoterapie. Cea mai important este considerat psihodrama, creat i de voltat de $aco& 3ev. ,oreno. Celelalte dou sunt !terapia prin rol fix#, de voltat de 4eor"e *. +ell. i !repetiia comportamentului# a lui $oseph 5olpe i *rnold 3a arus. Ceea ce e preocup n mod deose&it este ns psihodrama.

6sihodrama ,oreno a considerat data de 7 *prilie 7897 ca fiind !data de natere# a psihodramei, dei au trecut mai muli ani pn cnd metoda s fie strucutrat ca i terapie. -ascinat de actul creator, ,oreno a devenit interesat de rolul lui 'umne eu, n sensul de Creator suprem :,oreno, 9;;<= . * cre ut tot timpul c a&ilitatea oamenilor de a crea este o calitate fundamental a fiinei umane, ceea ce i face puternici i responsa&ili pentru creativitatea lor, exact aa cum Creatorul suprem are putere i responsa&ilitate asupra muritorilor. Cu alte cuvinte, oamenii mpart o putere creativ cu 'umne eu, fiind (u-rile 3ui auxiliare. ,oreno considera c acolo unde exist spontaneitate i creativitate, se "sete i speran. >pontaneitatea este un concept fundamental n teoria morenian, dei n contextul psihodramei, are cu totul alt sens dect cel colocvial. 3im&ajul comun, spontaneitatea implic un act instinctiv al corpului sau al minii, ce nu se datorea contientului :un act necen urat, care s.a produs fr niciun stimul extern=. *ceast definiie su"erea c spontaneitatea ar fi caracteri at de o lips de control. 'up ,oreno, n sens psihodramatic, spontaneitatea este capa&il s se active e i s se !mite# spre direcii presta&ilite, deci conine un element de control. )at cteva caracteristici ale spontaneitii? (ste o form de ener"ie care nu poate fi perceput nemijlocit i concret. (ste o ener"ie care nu poate fi acumulat i !conservat#. >e consum instantaneu, imediat dup momentul apariiei. 6oate fi antrenat prin numeroase mijloace ale psihodramei

@e istena la conservare i produsul conservat au devenit un elemente-cheie ale filosofiei lui ,oreno. Concentrarea pe !aici i acum#, pe momentul trit este considerat ca fiind cea mai important unitate de timp n psihoterapie. 6entru ,oreno, ntre psihodram i sntate mintal exist o corelaie po itiv, &a at pe credina c, cu ct un individ este mai spontan, cu att este mai sntos mintal. -cnd apel la terminolo"ia de mai sus, putem spune c esena terapiei lui ,oreno const n !antrenarea# spontaneitii individului.

>pontaneitatea a fost considerat de ,oreno ca fiind un element ce nu aparine ereditii i nici mediului individului, ci unul existent n orice individ, dintodeauna, fr ai fi cunoscut ori"inea. %n mod interesant, spontaneitatea a mai fost caracteri at ca fiind un fenomen o&serva&il, la fel ca i dra"ostea sau ura, care sunt fenomene concrete, chiar dac sunt intan"i&ile, ele se pot o&serva prin expresivitatea unor comportamente specifice. 'up ,oreno, spontaneitatea are patru forme de expresie? 7. forma dramatic A unde sponaneitatea ofer vivacitate i noutate tririlor, emoiilor, aciunilor devenite rutin pentru individB 9. spontaneitate creativ A care crea noi forme de art, noi or"anisme, noi patternuriB C. spontaneitatea ori"inal A aceast form nu conine nicio contri&uie semnificativ care s fie considerat ca fiind creativitate. (ste o expansiune sau o variaie a unor elemente personale care deja exist n individB D. compati&ilitatea rspunsului A rspunsurile spontane tre&uie s fie &ine ncadrate n timp i cu o intensitate potrivit. Eoutatea i potrivirea rspunsului sunt dou elemente-cheie ale definiiei spontaneitii. >pontaneitatea este un rspuns adecvat la o situaie nou sau un rspuns nou la o situaie cunoscut. *ctul creator Tre&uie fcut o diferen ntre actul creator i produsul final al acestuia. *ctul creator repre int un mijloc prin care se manifest spontaneitatea n procesul tririi individului. O caracteristic a actului creator este relaia sa cu spontaneitatea, cu eli&erarea ener"iilor interioare i a calitii acesteia. *ctul creator conine elemente de surpri , deoarece nu poate fi pre is. 'up spusele lui ,oreno, !ceva prioritar iu superior realitii date este funcionareaFlucrul cu actul creator# :,oreno, 78GD apud +ipper, 788G=. 6rodusul actului creator sunt !conservele culturale#. *cestea conin acele produse culturale reinute, pstrate n forme finale. Crile, picturile, compo iiile mu icale i chiar i pattern-urile comportamentale &ine sedimentate ale indivi ilor. Orice produs al actului creator, fix i accesi&il altor indivi i dect propriului creator, ce poate fi utili at n

mod repetat, este considerat !conserv cultural#.

'eoarece !conservele culturale#

determin de voltarea continu a lumii civili ate, necesit s fie revitali ate, rennoite constant. %n conclu ie, avantajele conservelor culturale sunt? a. &. faptul c ofer "hidare i orientare n adaptarea la incertitudine sau la situaii necunoscute sau amenintoareB constituie un mijloc de perpetuare prin facilitarea continuitii motenirilorFtradiiilor culturale. %ncl irea este un concept relevant n a&orarea psihodramatic. ,oreno nu a fost preocupat s ela&ore e o teorie a motivaiei, ci mai de"ra& a o&servat la indivi i o for ndreptat spre !joac#, o !foame# de exprimare. *ceast dorin a oamenilor de a-i expune rolurile este amplificat de un proces care i pre"tete pe indivi i pentru a adopta comportamente spontane i creatoare, o for numit !ncl ire#. 6otenialul curativ al psihodramei 6rocesul curativ al psihodramei se &a ea pe antrenament i catharsis. Teoria spontaneitii pune un accent deose&it pe catharsis. %n "eneral, prin catharsis se nele"e eli&erare de tensiune. ,oreno a identificat dou tipuri de catharsis n terapie, ce pot fi atinse numai prin psihodram i joc de rol. Hna dintre forme este eli&erarea prin aciune, unde prota"onistul devine !productor# i particip activ la dinamic, la descrierea dramei. O alt form este catharsis-ul prin interaciune, care presupune identificarea pro&lemelor i a situaionrii individuale prin interaciune cu ceilali. Conceptul de catharsis prin interaciune este un proces de diad sau de "rup, ce implic i participarea altor mem&ri, mpreun cu rolurile i po iiile lor, n descoperirea sinelui. *ntrenamentul de rol n psihodram are dou marin o&iective, i anume antrenarea spontaneitii i lr"irea inventarului de roluri unui individ :poate cuprinde i !de varea# de unele roluri personale= prin jocul de rol. Tot prin antrenamentul de rol individul poate do&ndi unele a&iliti. -ixed-@ole Therap.

The second approach to &e descri&ed in the present chapter is fixed-role therap.. This form of role pla.in" /as devised &. 4eor"e *. +ell. and descri&ed in his &oo1, The 6s.cholo". of 6ersonal Constructs :78II=. )t represents a clinical application of his theor. of personalit.. *lthou"h in creatin" his therapeutic method +ell. /as inspired &. the /ritin"s of +or .&1. and ,oreno, fixed-role therap. itself is much simpler than ps.chodrama. )ncreasin"l., man. of +ell.Js ideas remind us of those that have &een expounded, .ears later, in modem &ehavior modification. )n that respect, fixed-role therap. ma. &e vie/ed as the precursor of &ehavior rehearsal. 3oo1in" at fixed-role therap. from a historical perspective, it appears that it contri&uted to the emer"ence of role pla.in" as a therapeutic modalit. in several /a.s. -irst, it demonstrated that the use of role pla.in" in therap. ma. &e rationali ed on the &asis of utilitarian considerations as seen &. means of direct o&servations of real-life &ehavior. >econd, it introduced the notion that role pla.in" is therapeuticall. meritorious, even /hen initiated and controlled &. the therapist rather than predicated on the clientJs spontaneit.. Third, it hi"hli"hted the advanta"es of the Kas ifK aspect of role pla.in". )t demonstrated the therapeutic po/er of &ehavin" under an assumed identit. rather than &ein" oneJs o/n true self. -inall., it /as instrumental in promotin" role pla.in" as a form of ps.chotherap.. >ince +ell. /as not associated /ith the ps.chodramatic movement, his interest in role pla.in" "ave it a /ider exposure amon" those /ho /ere not particularl. attracted to ,orenoJs ideas. )n practice, ho/ever, fixed-role therap. did not develop into a major form of therap.. )n fact, even durin" the mid- and late-78I;s, /hen fixed-role therap. &ecame pu&licl. 1no/n, it did not enjo. a /idespread popularit.. 3i1e ,oreno, +ell.Js ideas a&out ps.chotherap. /ere developed as a reaction to ps.choanal.sis. Le /as not impressed /ith the utilitarian value of ps.choanal.sis, /hich, accordin" to him, Khad never 0uite seemed to &e the ans/er to ps.cholo"ical pro&lems o&viousl. arisin" in a social, economic, or educational settin"K :+ell., 78II, p. CG7=. Lis startin" point /as 0uite different. The o&servations that led to the formulation of fixedrole therap. ma. &e summari ed as follo/s?

M 'ramatic experiences have lastin" effects. +ell. o&served that actors are influenced &. practicin" theatrical roles that involve ne/ &ehavior. >ometimes such practice chan"es their o/n &ehavior, often resultin" in lon"-lastin" effects. )n that respect, learnin" ne/ mannerisms late in life does not &ecome more of an artificialit. than learnin" them relativel. earl.. M 'ramatic roles ma. &ecome avenues for self-expression. )t appears that certain people are a&le to express themselves in certain parts of a pla. /ith a spontaneit. and vehemence that could not &e explained simpl. on the &asis of their understandin" of the pla./ri"htJs intent. )t is as if the. have discovered a ver&al vehicle ordinaril. not availa&le to them for expressin" ideas. This ne/ rehearsed &ehavior seems to result in a "eneral increase in fluenc., &oth ver&al and &ehavioral. M 6ro"ress ma. &e achieved throu"h explorations of enactment techni0ues. >ometimes a therapeutic pro"ress is attained--a deadloc1 is &ro1en--&. experimentin" /ith enactment techni0ues. The use of Kas ifK situations is a "ood example of this principle. M The importance of esta&lishin" a social function. Nehavior &ecomes more meanin"ful and, therefore, a lastin" one /hen it is perceived as servin" a useful function? K... there does appear to &e a sta&ili in" effect that accrues from seein" oneself in a functional relationship to oneJs surroundin"s, /hether those surroundin"s &e thin"s or peopleK :+ell., 78II, p. CGI=. M 3a&elin" facilitates correspondin" &ehavior. There is a tendenc. for people to adjust their &ehavior accordin" to the /a.s the. thin1 of, name, or la&el their predicament. >ometimes people develop real s.mptoms &ecause the. have read a&out them or have mana"ed to ascri&e a la&el to them. The same phenomenon is o&served /ith re"ard to chan"in" oneJs o/n name :or renamin" a "iven characteristic=. Chan"in" oneJs o/n name is not onl. a /a. of escapin" the social expectations in /hich one has &ecome enmeshed, &ut also a /a. of sta&ili in" the chan"e one has set for oneself.

M 6eople see1 to chan"e their roles. 6eople are constantl. see1in" ne/ /a.s for readjustment. )n that process the. tend to sei e upon KartificialK roles and assume ne/ la&els for them. The search for ne/ roles has important implications for devisin" therapeutic strate"ies to help people chan"e. On the &asis of these o&servations and his "eneral theor. of personal constructs, +ell. developed his fixed-role therap.. )t is considered a role pla.in" approach &ecause the client is "iven a role, or a set of roles, accordin" to /hich he or she must &ehave :role pla.= in real life for a specified period. There are three major steps in fixed-role therap.. 7. 5ritin" the fixed-role s1etch. Composin" the fixed-role s1etch is an essential component of the therapeutic endeavor. )t is also the most difficult and complex part of it. The client is dia"nosed and then as1ed to prepare a self-characteri ation of himself or herself. This is done /ith cards, &earin" various descriptions of s1ills and attri&utes, /hich the client sorts alon" the O-sort techni0ue, or /ith the aid of other instruments :e."., the @otter )ncomplete >entence Nlan1=. Lavin" such a description, a panel of therapists prepare the fixed-role s1etch. )t is a detailed, /ritten personalit. profile /hich descri&es the &ehavior of a person /hose characteristics are sharpl. in contrast, &ut in the therapeuticall. desired direction, to those that characteri e the client. ,ost important, ho/ever, that s1etch is /ritten and presented as if it characteri es a different :i.e., an ima"inar.= person /ith a ne/ name, /hose identit. the client is as1ed to assume for the duration of the treatment. This Kas ifK component is crucial to the therapeutic procedure. +ell. emphasi es the importance of havin" a panel of therapists involved in /ritin" the s1etch &ecause the tas1 is too difficult for one person. The follo/in" excerpts are ta1en from a fixed-role s1etch prepared for a client named @onald Narrett. The s1etch descri&es the personalit. of an ima"inar. person named +enneth Eorton, and includes a ne/ set of &ehaviors to &e adopted &. the client under this ne/ identit.. The example is &orro/ed from +ell.Js &oo1 :78II=.

+enneth Eorton is the 1ind of a man /ho, after a fe/ minutes of conversation, someho/ ma1es .ou feel that he must have 1no/n .ou intimatel. for a lon" time. This comes a&out not &. an. particular 0uestions that he as1s, &ut &. the understandin" /a. in /hich he listens. )t is as if he had a 1nac1 of seein" the /orld throu"h .our e.es. The thin"s /hich .ou have come to see as &ein" important, he, too, soon seems to sense as similarl. important. Thus he catches not onl. .our /ords, &ut the punctuations of feelin" /ith /hich the. are formed and the little accents of meanin" /ith /hich the. are chosen .... 4irls he finds attractive for man. reasons, not the least of /hich is the excitin" opportunit. the. provide for his understandin" the feminine point of vie/. Hnli1e some men, he does not Kthro/ the ladies a lineK &ut, so s1illful a listener, soon he has them thro/in" him one--and he is thorou"hl. enjo.in" it. 5ith his o/n parents and in his o/n home he is some/hat more expressive of his o/n ideas and feelin"s. Thus his parents are "iven an opportunit. to share and supplement his ne/ enthusiasms and accomplishments. :pp. CPD-CPI= The remainin" t/o steps are conducted concurrentl., 9. )ntervie/in" and preparin" the rehearsal se0uence. Once the client has understood and accepted the s1etch, he or she visits the therapist ever. other da. for a period of t/o /ee1s. )n these visits the t/o discuss the clientJs role &ehavior :see the next step=. The. also discuss, and sometimes role pla. in the office, real-life situations as a preemptive measure :i.e., anticipatin" possi&le difficulties= or in order to demonstrate the appropriate role pla. &ehavior. The intervie/s cover the enactment of the role:s= in five areas? /or1, casual relationships /ith companions of the same sex, relationships involvin" the spouse or mem&ers of the opposite sex, parents, and "eneral life orientation. C. (nactin" the s1etch in real life. 'urin" the period of the treatment, usuall. t/o /ee1s, the client &ehaves accordin" to the s1etch and as if he or she /ere someone else. This must &e carried out re"ardless of the o&vious difficulties involved in operatin" pu&licl. under an assumed identit.. )n principle, therefore, the therapeutic practice ta1es place

outside the therapistJs office, in vivo. Throu"h that time, the client is under close supervision, as descri&ed in step 9, a&ove. Nehavior @ehearsal Nehavior rehearsal is the last of the three approaches to &e descri&ed in connection /ith our historical surve.. This form of therapeutic intervention has &een, initiall., associated /ith 5olpe and 3a arus and /as descri&ed in their /ritin"s :e."., 5olpe, 78I<, 78G8B 5olpe Q 3a arus, 78GGB 3a arus, 78GG=. (ssentiall., &ehavior rehearsal represents the use of role pla.in" in &ehavior therap. and &ehavior modification throu"h the application of learnin" principles for treatment purposes. The formulation of &ehavior rehearsal /as the latest si"nificant push in the emer"ence of role pla.in" as a therapeutic modalit.. 'ue to the /idespread popularit. of modern &ehavior therap., its use of role pla.in" &ecame /idel. popular as /ell. )t should &e pointed out, ho/ever, that /ithin the frame/or1 of &ehavior therap., role pla.in" :or &ehavior rehearsal= /as considered as one of its man. techni0ues. )t /as not re"arded as a separate mode of therap., the /a. it /as conceived &. &oth ,oreno and +ell.. Nefore this techni0ue &ecame 1no/n as &ehavioral rehearsal, it /as referred to &. other names. 'urin" the late 78I;s and the earl. 78G;s it /as called &ehaviorodrama, &ehavioristic ps.chodrama, or simpl. role pla.in". These terms apparentl. caused some discomfort as the. su""ested an association /ith ,orenoJs method. 4iven the difference &et/een the theories underl.in" &ehavior therap. and ps.chodrama, a ne/ name, one that conve.ed a "reater affinit. to the principles of &ehaviorism, had to &e found. >ome :e."., +anfer Q 6hillips, 78G8= proposed the term Kreplication therap.,K &ut no/ada.s the application of role pla.in" in &ehavior therap. is commonl. 1no/n as &ehavior rehearsal. )n the &e"innin", 5olpe considered the techni0ue as one that is &ased on patientmediated cues in the context of his theor. of reciprocal inhi&ition. Lis understandin" of the use of &ehavior rehearsal is descri&ed in the follo/in" excerpt?

The therapist ta1es the role of a person to/ards /hom the patient has a neurotic anxiet. reaction and instructs him to express his ordinaril. inhi&ited feelin"s to/ard that person. 6articular attention is "iven to the emotion infused into the /ords. The voice must &e firm, and suita&l. modulated. The patient is made to repeat each statement a"ain and a"ain, &ein" constantl. corrected until the utterance is in ever. /a. satisfactor.. The aim of the rehearsal is, of course, to ma1e it possi&le for him to express himself /ith his real Kadversar.K so that the anxiet. the latter evo1es ma. &e reciprocall. inhi&ited, and the motor assertive ha&it esta&lished. :5olpe, 78G8, p. G<= >u&se0uentl., ho/ever, &ehavior rehearsal /as seen in a /ider perspective. This &roader vie/ is descri&ed, for example, &. +anfer and 6hillips :78G8= as follo/s? ... this techni0ue attempts to simulate or replicate si"nificant parts of the patientJs extratherap. environment for o&servation and manipulation in the therapistJs presence. )t provides the patient /ith an opportunit. to evaluate his pro&lematic &ehaviors and to tr. out ne/ responses /ithout fear of traumatic conse0uences. Contrived role pla.in" &. the therapist and others and the use of ver&al instructions and other props foster the replication. )n its &roadest form ... RitS ... ma. involve construction of an entire therapeutic communit., modeled not after a particular patientJs particular environment &ut after the "eneral social settin" of the communit.. :p. DI<= )n their s.stematic description of &ehavior rehearsal, 4oldfried and 'avison :78PG= rel. on the concept of role in order to explain the theoretical &asis for the use of this techni0ue. The. refer to role theor., as expounded &. >ar&in and *llen :78G<=, /here role is "enerall. understood as those sociall. defined &ehaviors associated /ith "iven positions :e."., hus&and, /ife, son, dau"hter=. 6ro&lems tend to arise /hen there is a discrepanc. &et/een role &ehaviors availa&le to a person and the expectations held &. others in the immediate environment. >uch discordance ma. &e attri&uted to a chan"e in role status, a shift in role definitions due to cultural chan"es or to an inappropriate social learnin" histor..

The main characteristics of the procedure &. /hich an actor learns his or her theatrical role /ere descri&ed &. >ar&in and *lien as follo/s. The actor receives information /hich he must learn in the form of a script, and he must practice in order to perfect his part. *nother feature of the dramatur"ical model of role learnin" is the presence of a coach. The coach, usin" >ar&in and *llenJs o/n /ords, Kcan "uide and advise the novice .... detects mista1es, ... su""ests re"ime of trainin", and in a variet. of other /a.s aids the actor in masterin" his roleK :p. ID<=. The function of the coach is Kto provide social reinforcement to the learner. 6raise and criticism provide incentives for the learner, and at the same time furnish feed&ac1 /hich can &e used to improve performanceK :p. ID<=. The coach offers an evaluation and criti0ue of the performance, and ma. serve Kas a model,K that is, Kenacts the role for the novice, explicitl. instructin" Jhim to imitateK :p. ID<=. *ccordin" to 4oldfried and 'avison :78PG= the similarit. &et/een this description and &ehavior rehearsal procedures is stri1in". )n fact, &. replacin" the /ords KclientK for KactorK and KtherapistK for KcoachK /e have an excellent overvie/ of the /a. in /hich &ehavior rehearsal is used in clinical practice. Nriefl., the &ehavior rehearsal treatment is said to &e divided into four "eneral sta"es. 7. 6reparin" the client. The client has to reco"ni e the need for learnin" a ne/ &ehavior pattern, accept that &ehavior rehearsal is an appropriate /a. to develop this ne/ social role, and overcome an initial uneasiness re"ardin" the idea of role pla.in" in the therapistJs office. 9. >electin" the tar"et situation. The client is as1ed to descri&e the specific situation in /hich the &ehavioral deficits manifest themselves. The therapist dra/s a hierarch. of items comprisin" components of the ne/ learnin" "oal. These are ran1ed &. the client accordin" to the complexit. of the &ehavioral s1ills re0uired. >ometimes, in order to arrive at a &eneficial treatment, a si"nificant other in the clientJs life :e."., a spouse, a relative, a friend= ma. &e consulted to offer his or her perspective re"ardin" the focus of the hierarch..

C. The &ehavior rehearsal procedure. Nehavior rehearsal ma. &e construed as a "radual shapin" process not onl. &ecause of the use of a hierarch., &ut also &ecause complex social interactions entail a num&er of s1ills. 'urin" the enactment of each item in the hierarch., attention is paid RtoS ver&al &ehavior :e."., the tone of voice, the pace of speech=, as /ell as nonver&al &ehavior :e."., "estures, e.e contact, "eneral posture=. The role pla.in" proper uses modelin" and direct coachin" techni0ues, and sometimes also role reversals. D. 6racticin" the ne/ roles in real-life situations. The client has to understand that transferrin" the learnin" attained in the therapistJs office into real-life situations is part and parcel of the therapeutic procedure. The in-vivo application must &e accompanied &. /ritten self-o&servations, /hich are then discussed in su&se0uent sessions. There are various techni0ues for the use of these home assi"nments. Nehavior rehearsal is emplo.ed in learnin" specific as /ell as more "eneral social s1ills. )t is used in co"nitive therap. for chan"in" d.sfunctional thin1in" and for attitude chan"e. ,an. self-control procedures are tau"ht via &ehavior rehearsal. )t is used in assertive trainin" and for preparin" individuals for certain novel situations /here it ma. &e impossi&le or inadvisa&le to ac0uire Kon-the-jo&K experience. TL( E((' -O@ * 4(E(@*3 @O3( 63*2)E4 ,O'(3 The precedin" surve. has illustrated ho/, and perhaps also /h., role pla.in" developed to &ecome a modem therapeutic procedure. 4iven its current status it appears that, as far as conceptual models are concerned, those /ho appl. role pla.in" in clinical practice are faced /ith t/o alternatives. One is to thin1 of the application of role pla.in" in the context of a theoretical orientation. )n that re"ard, the choice is &et/een one of the t/o presentl. most dominant orientations. Therapists can adhere to either the model that constitutes the &asis of ps.chodrama, or that /hich is associated /ith &ehavior therap.. The other alternative is to use role pla.in" purel. on the &asis of its utilitarian value.

Earro/in" the choice to these t/o alternatives raises several issues that hi"hli"ht the void created &. the a&sence of a "enerall. accepted role pla.in" model. 3et us &e"in /ith the first alternative. )t is /idel. ac1no/led"ed that the principles underl.in" ps.chodrama and &ehavior rehearsal are, to sa. the least, ver. different. The 0uestion is, are the differences irreconcila&leT 4oldfried and 'avison :78PG= echoed the conventional vie/ that certain points of similarit. &et/een these t/o approaches not/ithstandin", the disparit. is still too "reat. The ps.chodramatic model stems from the notion that therapeutic outcomes are attained &. uncoverin" the individualJs &loc1ed affect and throu"h tracin" current pro&lems &ac1 to their historical ori"in. The &ehavior rehearsal model, ho/ever, is &ased on the notion that ps.chotherap. must focus on helpin" the individual learn ne/ /a.s of respondin" to specific situations. To &e more specific, the disparit. &et/een these t/o approaches ma. &ecome clearer in the li"ht of our previous discussion of ,orenoJs theor.. * point /as made there that, accordin" to ,oreno, the t/o most important curative processes in ps.chotherap. are catharsis and trainin". )n emphasi in" the importance of catharsis, ps.chodrama has put itself in a sharp conflict /ith &ehavior therap., /hich refutes the therapeutic si"nificance attached to catharsis. The similarit., then, appears to &e attri&uted to the mutual a"reement /ith re"ard to the value of trainin". Nut even here, a close examination of the t/o approaches, &e.ond the "eneral principle, reveals a considera&le difference. Nehavior rehearsal is more s.stematic, controlled, and "overned &. learnin" principles. *s a result, it constitutes a Kmicro-approachK to role pla.in". 6s.chodrama, on the other hand, is "overned &. the principles of spontaneit., the facilitation of self-expression throu"h action explorations, and the process of self-discover.. Therefore, it ma. &e descri&ed as a Kmacro-approachK to role pla.in". Eo /onder that to ps.chodramatists, &ehavior rehearsal represents a reductionistic approach, that is, a limited form of ps.chodrama. Nehavior therapists, on the other hand, consider ps.chodrama to &e an uns.stematic and an inexpedient trainin" procedure.

)t is fittin" here to cite 5achtelJs comment on his attempt to &rin" the ps.chod.namic and the &ehavioristic vie/s close to"ether. )ronicall., this comment /as made in connection /ith a discussion of the issue of resistance in ps.chotherap.. )n deplorin" therapistJs resistance to open themselves to vie/s that differ from their o/n, he /rote, 6art of the difficult. in "ettin" therapists to loo1 &e.ond their o/n paradi"ms lies in the stron" identifications held &. therapists /ith a particular tradition and its o/n particular lan"ua"e and philosoph. .... *dd to that the centralit. of their o/n personal therap. in the trainin" of man. therapists and .ou have a formula for almost unsha1a&le commitment not onl. to a particular approach &ut to a particular /a. of tal1in" a&out /hat one does. :5achtel, 78<9, p. xviii= Nut havin" to choose &et/een one of these t/o different approaches not onl. ma1es the first alternative undeservedl. restrictiveB for man. therapists it is also unappealin". *fter all, a lar"e num&er, if not the majorit., of clinicians su&scri&e to therapeutic approaches other than ps.chodrama or &ehavior therap.. @eco"ni in" the effectiveness of role pla.in", ho/ever, the. appl. this form of therap. /ithout a model. This void calls- for the formulation of a different 1ind of a "eneral paradi"m for the use of role pla.in". )n contrast /ith previous attempts, /hich offered separate theor.&ound models, the ne/ proposed venture must &e "overned &. a rule that mi"ht &e la&eled Ka conceptual neutralit..K This rule rests on t/o interrelated propositions. One is the reco"nition that it is possi&le to formulate a set of principles that do not interfere /ith existin" theoretical vie/s. >econd is the acceptance of a le"itimate coexistence of several, even opposin", theoretical approaches to ps.chotherap.. The last proposition hi"hli"hts the difference &et/een a Kconceptual neutralit.K and a Ks.nthesis.K The former accepts, even /elcomes, the existence of intellectual conflicts. The latter, on the other hand, represents an inte"rative effort and intentionall. strives to eliminate areas of theoretical frictions and to reconcile &et/een opposin" vie/s. Hsin" a literar. analo"., a model &ased on Kconceptual neutralit.K serves as the text for /hich various theoretical

approaches provide the commentaries. The next t/o chapters /ill descri&e an attempt to provide such a model for the application of role pla.in".

,ead emplo.ed the concept of role ta1in", alon" /ith such related ideas as the "enerali ed other, the self, the ) and me, and audience in examinin" the pro&lems of interaction, the self, and sociali ation. ,oreno discussed the term KroleK and pointed out that the "enesis of roles "oes throu"h t/o sta"es? role perception and role enactment. 5ith re"ard to the latter he introduced the concept of role pla.in". 3inton proposed a distinction &et/een t/o concepts? status :a sociall. assi"ned position= and role. This distinctionimplied that :a= positions and attendin" roles are elements of societies, and :&=

the &ehavior of an individual can &e construed as role performance, that role is the lin1 &et/een individual &ehavior and social structure. )n the follo/in" decades, these ideas /ere further developed and investi"ated &. other scientists, mostl. sociolo"ists and social ps.cholo"ists. Listoricall., ho/ever, the notion of role did not evolve from sociolo". nor from ps.cholo".. )ts ori"in is 0uite different. The follo/in" excerpt from ,oreno :78G;= descri&es the development of the concept of role throu"hout the a"es. K@ole,K ori"inall. a -rench /ord /hich penetrated into (n"lish, is derived from the 3atin rotula :the little /heel, or round lo", the diminutive of rota-/heel=. )n anti0uit. it /as used, ori"inall., onl. to desi"nate a round :/ooden= role on /hich sheets of parchment /ere fastened so as to smoothl. roll :K/heelK= them around it since other/ise the sheets /ould &rea1 or crum&le. -rom this came the /ord for an assem&la"e of such leaves into a scroll or &oo1-li1e composite. This /as used, su&se0uentl., to mean an. official volume of papers pertainin" to la/ courts, as in -rance, or to "overnment, as for instance in (n"land? rolls of 6arliament-the minutes or proceedin"s. 5hereas in 4reece and also in ancient @ome the parts in the theater /ere /ritten on the a&ove mentioned KrollsK and read &. the prompters to the actors :/ho tried to memori e their parts=, the fixation of the /ord appears to have &een lost in more illiterate periods of the earl. and middle centuries of the 'ar1 *"es, for their pu&lic presentation of church pla.s &. la.men. Onl. to/ards the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, /ith the emer"ence of the modem sta"e, the parts of the theatrical characters are read from Kroles,K paper fascicles. 5hence each scenic KpartK &ecomes a role. :p. <;= Thus the /ord KroleK /as a part of (n"lish and various (uropean lan"ua"es for man. .ears. 5hen, then, did it start to &e used in the &ehavioral and social sciences as a technical conceptT The first si"n of this is &elieved to have &een evident in the earl. 789;s. T/o sources--one &. >immel :789;=, pu&lished in 4erman., and one &. 6ar1 and Nur"ess :7897=, pu&lished in the Hnited >tates--refer to role in a manner reminiscent of

its modem connotations. Nut it /as not until the decade of the 78C;s in *merica that the term /as emplo.ed technicall. in /ritin" on role pro&lems. )t /as not until after 5orld 5ar )), ho/ever, that extensive use of role-related terms appeared in the title of empirical studies. (vidence for this ma. &e found &. examinin" the major index cate"ories of 6s.cholo"ical *&stracts. *lthou"h this journal first appeared in 789P, it /as not until 78DD that Krole pla.in"K appeared as a major index cate"or.? KroleK itself did not appear as such a cate"or. until 78DI. :Niddle Q Thomas, 78GG, p. P=

The notion of role pla.in" as a therapeutic mode of intervention is also an invention of the t/entieth centur.. 3i1e role, it pro&a&l. emer"ed as a technical concept a&out I; .ears a"o. There is some evidence, ho/ever, that the idea of actin" out roles has &een entertained &efore. One of the earliest accounts pertainin" to the use of role pla.in" in ps.chotherap. is cited in Uil&oor" and Lenr. :78D7=. These authors mentioned that in the earl. 7<;;s @eil reco"ni ed the therapeutic si"nificance of havin" mental patients Kact outK their interpersonal difficulties :see 4oldfried Q 'avison, 78PG=. ,oreno :78GDa= descri&ed the use of spontaneous role pla.in" /ith children in the "ardens of Vienna at the turn of the centur.. Eonetheless, such ideas and initial experimentations /ith enactment procedures /ere not translated into a clearl. defined ps.chotherapeutic format until the decade of the 78C;s. One of the fe/ examples of the use of role pla.in" prior to 5orld 5ar )) that /as not directl. connected /ith the development of ps.chodrama is descri&ed &. >ha/, Corsini, Nla1e, and ,outon :78<;= as follo/s? )n 78CC the 4erman arm., limited to 7;;,;;; men &. the terms of the Versailles Treat., &e"an to develop a corps of officers. -or the selection of militar. personnel, >imoneit .... a 4erman ps.cholo"ist, devised a num&er of action procedures ver. similar to current role pla.in" &. /hich officers could estimate the 0ualities of arm. recruits. :p. P=

The "reatest penetration of role pla.in" procedures into applied ps.cholo". &e"an in the earl. 78D;s. )t has &een reported, for instance, that after the fall of 'un1ir1, the Nritish *rm. incorporated procedures that mi"ht &e considered as role pla.in" applications in its officer-selection pro"ram. @ole pla.in" procedures /ere also used &. the H.>. office of >trate"ic >ervices *ssessment >taff in the selection of people for secret /artime /or1. Nut it /as not until after 5orld 5ar )) that role pla.in" &ecame /idel. 1no/n as a "enuine form of ps.cholo"ical intervention. *t that time the earl. formulation of ps.chodramatic principles and techni0ues /as disseminated. -urthermore, it /as also the period durin" /hich the earl. experimentations /ith role pla.in" techni0ues, &oth in ps.chotherap. and in industrial trainin", too1 place. *s of the mid-78I;s, the application of role pla.in" in the Hnited >tates proceeded in t/o directions. One /as in the area of ps.chotherap., /hich also includes the self-"ro/th "roups. Lere one finds the use of role pla.in" in treatment modalities that Eichols and (fran :78<I= referred to as Kmodem cathartic therapies.K These include, of course, the classic example of role-pla.in"-&ased therap. :i.e., ,orenoJs method of sociometr. and ps.chodrama= and the esta&lishment of the ps.chodramatic movement. The. also include the development of "estalt therap. and su&se0uentl. the emer"ence of the man. varieties of sensitivit. trainin" :e."., 6erls, 78G8B >chut , 78GPB >iro1a, >iro1a, Q >chloss, 78P7= and of the encounter "roups :4old&er", 78P;=. Other therapeutic methods that ma. &e classified in this cate"or. are? >.nanon :see 2a&lons1., 78PG=, primal therap. :$anov, 78P;=, realit. therap. :4lasser, 78GI=, and, to some extent, transactional anal.sis :Nerne, 78G7=, to mention a fe/. The inclusion of role pla.in" in ps.chotherap. /as also evident in &ehaviorall. oriented treatments, namel. those approaches that disclaimed the importance of catharsis in therap.. Lere one finds +ell.Js fixed-role therap. :+ell., 78II= and &ehavior rehearsal :5olpe, 78I<, 78G8=. )n fact, ps.chodrama ma. &e positioned &et/een the modem cathartic therapies and the &ehavior therapies, &ecause althou"h it emphasi ed the

importance of catharsis, it also stressed the need for retrainin". The same position seems to characteri e a num&er of contemporar. famil. therap. approaches. * second area in /hich role pla.in" &ecame a prominent mode of intervention /as trainin" in "roup d.namics. This area &ecame differentiated from the one mentioned a&ove &ecause its declared aim /as self-improvement and self-development rather than ps.chotherap.. )t /as primaril. desi"ned to train people in various s1ills related to issues such as leadership, the mana"ement of small and lar"e "roups, dealin" /ith conflicts in "roups, cooperation, the formation of accurate perceptions of oneJs o/n self and of others, to mention a fe/. These s1ills /ere tau"ht /ith an extensive use of role pla.in" techni0ues or exercises &. nonclinicians, and for their educational value. T.picall., the learnin" "leaned from such trainin" experiences /as meant to improve the &ehavior of leaders in the militar., in &usiness, in educational institutions, in .outh or"ani ations, in communit. centers, in reli"ious or"ani ations, and so forth. The t/o classic examples of developments in this direction /ere the esta&lishment of the T-"roup /or1shops, and the creation of assessment centers for evaluatin" vocational and leadership potentials.

N. '*V)' *. +)66(@ Chapter ) from 6s.cholo". Throu"h Clinical @ole 6la.in" &. 'avid *. +ipper is reprinted /ith the permission of the author. RCop.ri"htS 78<G &. 'avid *. +ipper. Cop.ri"ht of $ournal of 4roup 6s.chotherap., 6s.chodrama Q >ociometr. is the propert. of Leldref 6u&lications and its content ma. not &e copied /ithout the cop.ri"ht holderJs express /ritten permission except for the print or do/nload capa&ilities of the retrieval soft/are used for access. This content is intended solel. for the use of the individual user. >ource? $ournal of 4roup 6s.chotherap., 6s.chodrama Q >ociometr., -all8G, Vol. D8 )ssue C, p88, 97p, 7 dia"ram. )tem Eum&er? 8P;D7I;IGG @esult 7;7

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