Sunteți pe pagina 1din 19

A DICTIONARY OF ORTHODOX TERMINOLOGY -AAbbess. (from masc. abbot; Gr. Hegoumeni).

The female superior of a community of nuns appointed by a bishop; Mother Superior. She has general authority over her community and nunnery under the supervision of a bishop. Abbot. (from Aram. abba, father; Gr. Hegoumenos, Sl. Nastoyatel). The head of a monastic community or monastery, appointed by a bishop or elected by the members of the community. e has ordinary !urisdiction and authority over his monastery, serving in particular as spiritual father and guiding the members of his community. Abstinence. (Gr. Nisteia). A penitential practice consisting of voluntary deprivation of certain foods for religious reasons. "n the #rthodo$ %hurch, days of abstinence are observed on &ednesdays and 'ridays, or other specific periods, such as the Great (ent (see fasting). Acolyte. The follo)er of a priest; a person assisting the priest in church ceremonies or services. "n the early %hurch, the acolytes )ere adults; today, ho)ever, his duties are performed by children (altar boys). Ar. (Sl. Vozdukh). The largest of the three veils used for covering the paten and the chalice during or after the *ucharist. "t represents the shroud of %hrist. &hen the creed is read, the priest sha+es it over the chalice, symboli,ing the descent of the oly Spirit. A inity. (Gr. Syngeneia). The spiritual relationship e$isting bet)een an individual and his spouse-s relatives, or most especially bet)een godparents and godchildren. The #rthodo$ %hurch considers affinity an impediment to marriage. A!"#e. (Gr. .(ove.). 'east of love; the common meal of fello)ship eaten in gatherings of the early %hristians (/ %or. //0 12345). Agape is also the name of the *aster 6espers Service held in the early afternoon on *aster day. The faithful e$press their brotherly love and e$change the +iss of love honouring the resurrected %hrist. A!e o Re"son. This is the time in life )hen an individual begins to distinguish bet)een right and )rong and becomes morally responsible for himself. "t is considered to begin at the age of seven or so, and no later than t)elve. A!nets. (see lamb). A!r"#$". (Gr. verbal )ords; not )ritten). Sayings or deeds of %hrist )hich )ere never )ritten or recorded in the Gospels (cf. 7ohn 1/018). A%"t$istos Hy&n. A hymn of praise comprised of t)enty3four stan,as and sung at the Salutation Services, dedicated to 6irgin Mary Theotokos. "t is divided into four parts, one part sung on each 'riday of the Great (ent. #n the fifth 'riday, the entire set is sung in commemoration of a miracle by the 6irgin in %onstantinople (919 A.:.). The hymn is also +no)n as .Salutations. (Gr. Heretismoi). Alb. ((at.; Gr. stichari[on]; Sl. Podriznik). The long )hite undergarment of the clergy, )ith close sleeves, )orn under the chasuble or the sakkos. All '"ints '(n)"y. (Gr. Agion Panton). A feast day of the #rthodo$ %hurch collectively commemorating all the Saints of the church )ho have remained anonymous. This feast day is celebrated on the Sunday follo)ing ;entecost. Al#$"-O&e!". The first and the last letters of the Gree+ alphabet, symboli,ing .the beginning and the end,. or the divinity and eternity of %hrist. (<ev. /0 =). These t)o letters also form the monogram of %hrist. Alt"r. ( ebr. .a place of sacrifice;. Gr. hieron; Sl. prestol). "n #rthodo$ architecture the term signifies the area of the sanctuary divided from the rest of the church by the iconostasis. Alt"r *re"). (see Prosphoro).

Alt"r T"ble. (Gr. Hagia Trapeza ; Sl. Prestol). The s>uare table in the middle of the altar, made of )ood or marble, on )hich the *ucharist is offered. "t is dressed )ith the .Altar %loth,. and contains the relics deposited there by the consecrating bishop. The centre of the table is occupied by the folded Antiminsion, on )hich the ceremonial gospel boo+ is placed, and behind it is the tabernacle )ith the .reserved gifts.. A&bon. (see pulpit). A&nos. (see lamb). An"lo!ion. (Gr.3Sl. analoy). A )ooden stand or podium placed on the right side of the soleas near the south door of the altar. ?sually )ith a sloped top, it is used as a stand for the gospel boo+ or icon. An"t$e&". (Gr. a curse, suspension). The spiritual suspension )ith )hich the church may e$pel a person from her community for various reasons, especially denial of the faith or other mortal sins. The church also may proclaim an anathema against the enemies of the faith, such as heretics and traitors, in a special service conducted on the Sunday of #rthodo$y (first Sunday of (ent). Anc$orite. (Gr. Anachoritis, .a departurer.). A solitary mon+ or hermit; an individual )ho )ithdra)s from society and lives a solitary life of silence and prayer. An!els. (Gr. Angelos, .messenger.). @odiless beings, purely spirits, created by God before man. They are superior in nature and intelligence to man; and, li+e man, they have understanding and free )ill. Some of them are appointed to guard the faithful (guardian angels). Angels are grouped in nine orders (tagmata) as follo)s0 Angels; Archangels; ;rincipalities; ;o)ers; 6irtues; :ominations; Thrones; %herubim; Seraphim. "n the #rthodo$ )orship, every Monday is dedicated to the angels. Ann(nci"tion. (Gr. E angelismos). A feast of the #rthodo$ %hurch (March 18) commemorating the visit of Archangel Gabriel to the 6irgin Mary .to announce. that she )as chosen to be the Mother of God ((u+e /0 19344). Anteri. (see cassoc+). Anti)oron. (Gr. .instead of the gift.). A small piece of the altar bread ( prosphoron) distributed to the faithful after the celebration of the *ucharist. #riginally it )as given to those )ho could not ta+e communion, but it became a practice for it to be offered to all the faithful. Anti&ens or Anti&insion. (Gr. and (at. compounds .in place of a table;. Sl. Antimins). "t is a rectangular piece of cloth, of linen or sil+, )ith representations of the entombment of %hrist, the four *vangelists, and scriptural passages related to the *ucharist. The antimens must be consecrated by the head of the church (a ;atriarch or Archbishop) and al)ays lie on the Altar Table. Ao sacrament, especially the :ivine (iturgy, can be performed )ithout a consecrated antimens. Anti#$on. (Gr. .alternate utterance or chanting.) /. A short verse from the scriptures, especially the psalms, sung or recited in the liturgy and other church services. 1. Any verse or hymn sung or recited by one part of the choir or chanters in response to another part. A#ocry#$". (Gr. .hidden or secret.). Some of the boo+s of the @ible not accepted by all denominations of %hristians as true and divinely inspired. Some of them )ere )ritten much later but attributed to important individuals of the apostolic times, thus bearing a misleading title ( pseudepigrapha). A#o)osis. (Gr., Sl. !tdani e). The .octave3day. of a feast day )hich lasts more than one day and usually occurs eight days after the actual feast day. The Apodosis of *aster occurs after forty days, on the eve of the Ascension. A#olo!etics. (Gr. .defenders.). /. The individuals and saints )ho defended the faith and the %hurch by their ability to present, e$plain, and !ustify their faith. 1. The theological science and art of presenting, e$plaining and !ustifying the reasonableness of the %hristian faith.

A#olyti%ion. (Gr. .dismissal.). The dismissal hymn in honour of a saint, %hrist, or the 6irgin Mary on the occasion of their feast day, especially at the end of the 6espers Service. A#ostolic C"nons. A collection of eighty3five decrees of ecclesiastical importance, referring mainly to ordination and the discipline of the clergy. The church believes that they )ere originally )ritten by the Apostolic fathers. A#ostolic F"t$ers. Men )ho lived during the first century of %hristianity, for the most part the disciples of the Apostles; their teachings and )ritings are of great spiritual value to %hristians. Ma!or fathers are St. "gnatius of Antioch, St. ;olycarp of Smyrna, St. %lement of <ome and the un+no)n author of :idache. A#ostolic '(ccession. The direct, continuous, and unbro+en line of succession transmitted to the bishops of the %hurch by the Apostles. The bishops, )ho form a collective body (that is the leadership of the %hurch), are considered to be successors of the Apostles; and, conse>uently, the duties and po)ers given to the Apostles by %hrist are transmitted through .the laying3on3of3hands. to the bishops and priests )ho succeeded them by ordination (cheirotonia) to priesthood. Arc$"n!els. An Angelic order of angels of higher ran+. The names of t)o archangels, Michael and Gabriel, are +no)n (feast day on Aovember =); they are also +no)n as .leaders of the angelic armies. (ta"iarchai). Arc$bis$o#. A head bishop, usually in charge of a large ecclesiastical !urisdiction or archdiocese (see Metropolitan). Arc$)e"con. A senior deacon, usually serving )ith a bishop of higher ran+ (Archbishop or ;atriarch). Arc$)iocese. An ecclesiastical !urisdiction, usually a metropolis headed by an Archbishop. Arc$i&"n)rite. (Gr. .head of the floc+ or cloister.). A celibate presbyter of high ran+ assisting the bishop or appointed abbot in a monastery. "n the <ussian tradition some Archimandrites have the right to )ear the mitre and the mantle (mitrophoros). Ar&eni"n C$(rc$. A monophysite denomination )hich bro+e from the #rthodo$ %hurch in the fifth century (58/ A.:.). %ommunities )hich belong to the Armenian %hurch e$ist in the ?nited States and other parts of the )orld. Artocl"si". (see 6espers). Ascension. A movable feast day, forty days after *aster, commemorating the ascension of %hrist into eaven from the Mount of #lives (Acts, /0 /1). Ascetic. (Gr. .one )ho practices BspiritualC e$ercises.). Mon+s )ho have accepted a monastic life and intensively practice self discipline, meditation, and self3denial, motivated by love of God. Ascetic T$eolo!y. A theological field studying the teachings and the )ritings of the ascetics of the %hurch (see also mysticism). Ass(&#tion or Dor&ition. A feast day (August /8) commemorating the .falling asleep. ( koimisis) of the 6irgin Mary. Asteris%. (Gr. .little stars;. Sl. # ezditsa). A sacred vessel having t)o arched metal bands held together in such a fashion as to form the shape of a cross. "t is placed on the paten and serves to prevent the veil from touching the particles of the *ucharist. At$eis&. (Gr. .godlessness.). :enial of the e$istence of God. An atheist accepts only the material and physical )orld or )hat can be proven by reason. Atone&ent. (Gr. e"ilasmos). The redemptive activity of %hrist in reconciling man to God. The #rthodo$ believe that %hrist, through is death upon the cross, atoned or paid for human sins. A(toce#$"lo(s. (Gr. .appointing its o)n leader.). The status of an #rthodo$ church )hich is self3 governed and also has the authority to elect or appoint its o)n leader or head ( cephale).

A(tono&y. (Gr. .self3rule.). The status of an #rthodo$ %hurch that is self3ruled. An autonomous church is governed by its prelate, )ho is chosen by a superior !urisdiction, usually by a patriarchate). A+ios. (Gr. .)orthy.). An e$clamation made at ordination to signify the )orthiness of the individual chosen to become a clergyman.

-**"#tis&. (Gr. .immersion into )ater for purification).. A sacrament instituted by %hrist imself, this is the regeneration .of )ater and the spirit. (7ohn 408). An #rthodo$ baptism is administered by the priest (in case of absolute emergency, ho)ever, by a layman ( aerobaptismos)) through three complete immersions and by pronouncing the individual-s name along )ith the name of the Trinity, .the 'ather and the Son and the oly Spirit. Amen. %hrismation follo)s immediately after baptism. *"#tis&"l Font. (see kolymbethra). *"#tis&"l G"r&ents. (Gr. $otikia or baptisika; Sl. krizhma). The garments brought by the godparent to dress the infant immediately after the immersion in @aptism. "n #rthodo$y, these garments are considered sacred and must be either +ept safely or destroyed by fire. *"#tis&"l N"&e. (Gr. onoma). The individual-s name given in baptism, commonly the name of a saint, )ho becomes the individual-s ;atron Saint. The baptismal names of the first3born are usually those of their grandparents. *"#tistry. A special room or area in the form a pool for bapti,ing in the ancient %hurch. Gradually it )as replaced by the baptismal font (see kolymbethra). *e"tit()es. (Gr. %akarismoi ). /. @lessings promised to individuals for various reasons. 1. The eight blessings given by %hrist at his Sermon on the Mount (Matt. 80 43/1). 4. Salutation addressed to an #rthodo$ ;atriarch (.Dour @eatitude.). *ene)iction. ((at. .blessings to glorify God.). The closing blessing offered by a clergyman at the end of a service or other activity. *i!"&y. (Gr& 'igamia). The act of contracting a ne) marriage )hile a previous one is still binding, an act forbidden by the #rthodo$ %hurch. *is$o#. (Gr. Episkopos( Archiereas). A clergyman )ho has received the highest of the sacred orders. A bishop must be ordained by at least three other bishops and is considered a successor of the Apostles. *l"s#$e&y. *vil and reproachful language directed at God, the 6irgin, the Saints or sacred ob!ects. The blasphemy against the oly Spirit is a mortal and unforgivable sin, because it presumes that God-s saving action in this particular case is impossible. (cf. Matt. /10 4/). *(ri"l. (Gr. Taphe; Sl. Pogrebeniye). The act of interment of the dead body of one of the faithful in consecrated ground, according to the appropriate #rthodo$ rites and service of burial ( Nekrosimos). The %hurch may deny an #rthodo$ burial to those )ho have committed a mortal sin such as blasphemy, suicide, denial of faith, or acceptance of cremation. *y,"ntine. <eferring or attributed to @y,antium, the ancient Gree+ city on the @osporus, )hich later (44/ A.:.) became the capital of the *astern <oman *mpire, and then of the Medieval Gree+ *mpire of %onstantinople. "ts people are +no)n as @y,antines and its cultural heritage as @y,antine (i.e., @y,antine art, the *mpire, church, architecture, music, etc.). *y,"ntine rite. /. ;erforming church services according to the *astern #rthodo$ tradition.

1. %hristians )ho belong to <oman %atholic !urisdictions and accept its beliefs, but follo) the customs of the Gree+ #rthodo$ %hurch, celebrating the liturgy in Gree+, Slavonic or in their native language, but in the #rthodo$ fashion. -CC"len)"r. (Gr. Hemerologion). The yearly system determining the #rthodo$ holidays and hours. The #rthodo$ year begins on September /. Since all feasts )ere arranged according to the 7ulian (old) %alendar, many #rthodo$ churches follo) it to the present day, )hile other #rthodo$ churches have adopted the Gregorian (ne)) %alendar (since /E15). See also the article on the %alendar of the #rthodo$ %hurch. C"n)les. (Gr. )eri[on]). %andles made of bees)a$ are used in the #rthodo$ %hurch as a form of sacrifice and devotion to God or Saints. They are used in various #rthodo$ services and ceremonies and are symbolic of %hrist, )ho is .the (ight of the &orld.. According to a different symbolism, the t)o elements of a candle represent the t)o natures of %hrist0 the :ivine (the burning )ic+) and the uman (the )a$ body). C"non. (Gr. .rule, measure, standard.). /. The %anon of the scriptures or the official list of boo+s recogni,ed by the church as genuine and inspired by God. 1. The %anon of Matins (a collection of hymns consisting of nine odes, the eirmos, and sung at the Matins Service, the #rthros). 4. The (iturgical %anon )hich refers to all liturgical material, including the %reed, used for the (iturgy and the consecration of the *ucharist. (see also kanon and Typikon). C"noni,"tion. The official declaration by the %hurch that a deceased %hristian of attested virtue is a saint, to be honoured as such, and )orth of imitation by the faithful. C"nons. -or C"non L"./. The la) of the church, containing the various rules, ecclesiastical decrees and definitions concerning the faith or the life style of #rthodo$ %hristians. The %anons generally provide for all administrative or disciplinary >uestions that might arise in the %hurch, and, conse>uently, are not infallible but can be changed or re3interpreted by an *cumenical %ouncil. See also the article on the %anon (a) of the #rthodo$ %hurch. C"#it"l 'in -or Mort"l or De")ly sin/. Great offences against God, or moral faults )hich, if habitual, could result in the spiritual death of the individual. The follo)ing sins are considered to be mortal0 pride, covetousness, lust, anger, gluttony, envy and sloth0 they are the .Seven :eadly Sins. of the phrase. C"ssoc%. (Gr. *aso; Sl. ryassa). The long blac+ garment )ith large sleeves )orn by the #rthodo$ clergy as their distinct attire. Another such cassoc+ )ith narro) sleeves (Gr. Anteri; Sl. Podrasnik) is )orn under the cassoc+. "t symboli,es the death of a clergyman to this )orld, and his burial and subse>uent dedication to God and his heavenly +ingdom. C"tec$is&. A summary of doctrine and instruction, teaching the #rthodo$ faith in the form of >uestions and ans)ers. The catechetical or Sunday school of each parish is responsible for such instruction of children or other faithful. C"tec$(&en. (Gr. .those )ho learn the faith.). A convert to %hristianity in the early church, )ho received instructions in %hristianity, but )as not yet baptised. %atechumens )ere permitted to attend the first part of the *ucharist ((iturgy of the %atechumens), but )ere dismissed before the %onsecration of the Gifts. C"t$e)r"l. (Gr. .the main chair.). The principal church of a bishop-s !urisdiction, the chief church in every diocese. C"t$olic. (Gr. .universal, concerning the )hole;. Sl. Sobomaya). A term describing the universality of the %hristian message, claimed to be e$clusively theirs by the #rthodo$ %hurch. o)ever, in the &est, it has come to mean the <oman %atholic church (v. *astern #rthodo$ %hurch). Celib"cy. The unmarried state of life. ?nli+e the <oman %hurch, #rthodo$y permits a clergyman to be married; ho)ever, his marriage must occur before the ordination to a deacon or presbyter. #rthodo$

bishops are only chosen from the celibate clergy, but )ido)ers, )ho have accepted monastic vo)s, may also be chosen. Censer. (Gr. Thymiato; Sl. kadillo). A metal vessel hung on chains, used in church ceremonies for burning incense. There are t)elve small bells attached to the chains, representing the message of the t)elve Apostles. C$"lice. (Gr. Potirion; Sl. Vozduh). A large cup of silver or gold, )ith a long3stemmed base, used for the *ucharist. "t is one of the most sacred vessels of the church and is handled only by the clergy. C$"ncellor. (Gr. Protosyngelos). The chief administrator and church notary in a diocese or archdiocese. e is the immediate administrative assistant to the bishop, and handles all records, certificates, and ecclesiastical documents of his !urisdiction. C$"nt. (Gr. echos; Sl. glas). The music proper to the #rthodo$ services. There are eight tones or modes in the #rthodo$ @y,antine chant, chanted by the chanters or cantors. C$"nter. (Gr. Psaltis). A lay person )ho assists the priest by chanting the responses and hymns in the services or sacraments of the church. Today chanters have been replaced to some e$tent by choirs. C$"#el. (Gr. Parekklisi[on]; Sl. +haso nya). A side altar attached to a larger church or a small building or room built e$clusively or arranged for the )orship of God. A chapel can belong either to an individual, an institution, or can be part of a parish church. C$"s(ble. (Gr. ,eloni[on]; Sl. ,elon). A sleeveless garment )orn by the presbyter in the celebration of the liturgy. Short in front, )ith an elongated bac+, and an opening for the head, it is one of the most ancient vestments of the %hurch, symboli,ing the seamless coat of %hrist. C$"t0is. (see Hat-is). C$er(bic Hy&n. (Gr. .the song of the angels.). (iturgical hymn sung after the Gospel3reading and during the Great *ntrance. "ts te$t in *nglish is as follo)s0 ./e( 0ho mystically represent the +herubim( And chant the thrice1holy hymn to the 2i,e1 gi ing Trinity( 2et us set aside the cares o, li,e That 0e may recei e the )ing o, all( /ho comes in isibly escorted by the 'i ine Hosts&. C$ris&. (Gr. %yrron). Sanctified oil composed of several ingredients and fragrances, used in the sacrament of %hrismation (after @aptism). The oly %hrism in the #rthodo$ %hurch is e$clusively prepared by the *cumenical ;atriarchate, blessed in a series of preparations and ceremonies. oly Thursday is customarily the day of its consecration. C$ris&"tion. (see @aptism and %hrism). C$riso&. (Gr. 2adopano; Sl. knzhma). A piece of )hite linen for the )rapping of the infant after @aptism. The #rthodo$ preserve it as a sacred ob!ect, since it signifies the purity and holiness of the baptised %hristian. C$ristolo!y. A sub!ect or field of dogmatic theology e$amining the belief of the church and the history of beliefs about %hrist. C$(rc$in!. (Gr. Sarantismos). A service of than+sgiving and blessing of )omen after childbirth. "n the #rthodo$ church, this rite is performed on the fortieth day after birth and is reminiscent of the #ld Testament ceremony of purification ((ev. /10 13=) and the presentation of 7esus at the Temple ((u+e 10 1131E). Co&&(nion . (Gr. koinonia). The receiving of the sacrament of the *ucharist after proper preparation, fasting, and confession. #rthodo$ %hristians are encouraged to receive communion as often as possible, even daily. Co&&(nion o '"ints. The #rthodo$ %hurch believes that all the people of God 3 members of the %hurch, either the living on earth or the departed in heaven, are in constant communion and fello)ship )ith each other in faith, grace and prayers, since they constitute one @ody in %hrist 3 the %hurch.

Co&#line. (Gr. Apodeipnon; Sl. Velikoye Po echeAye). A )oship service performed after dus+. "t is often combined )ith 6espers, to form an all3night vigil. There is a Great %ompline and its abridgement, +no)n as (ittle %ompline. Con ession. (Gr. E"omologisis). The act of confessing or ac+no)ledgment of sins by an individual before God in the presence of a priest, )ho serves as a spiritual guide and confessor ( pneumatikos) authori,ed to as+ for forgiveness and to administer a penance. Con essor. 1. Pneumatikos (see confession). 1. A person )ho defended and publicly confessed the 'aith, thereby e$posing himself to persecution (Homologetis). Consecr"tion. (Gr. Heirotonia). The ordination of an individual to priesthood through the sacrament of oly #rders. Consecr"tion o " C$(rc$. (see Engainia). Co#ts. (Gr. .cut off from the main body.). These are the #riental churches of the *ast )hich )ere separated from the #rthodo$ %hurch after the 'ourth *cumenical %ouncil of %halcedon (58/ A.:.) for follo)ing the false teachings of Monophysitism (belief in one nature ( physis) of %hrist). Co(ncil1 Ec(&enic"l. (Gr. Synodos; Sl. Sobor). Assembly of representatives from all church !urisdictions convo+ed for the settlement of ecclesiastical or doctrinal problems and disputes. The #rthodo$ %hurch recogni,es the follo)ing seven *cumenical %ouncils0 /. Aicaea, in 418. 'athers present, 4/=. %ondemned Arianism, defined divinity of %hrist, and composed first part of %reed. 1. %onstantinople, 4=/. 'athers, /=2. %ondemned Apollinarianism, defined divinity of oly Spirit, and completed the %reed. 4. *phesus, 54/. 'athers, 122. %ondemned Aestorianism and defined the term Theotokos. 5. %halcedon, 58/. 'athers, 942. %ondemned Monophysitism. 8. %onstantinople, 884. 'athers, /98. %ondemned heretics and pagans. 9. %onstantinople, 9=2. 'athers, 1=/. %ondemned Monothelitism. The so3called 3uinise"t or in Trullo )as held in %onstantinople. F. %onstantinople (Trullo), 9E1 and regulated disciplinary matters to complete the 'ifth and the Si$th *cumenical %ouncils. =. Aicaea, F=F (again in =54). 'athers, 482. %ondemned "conoclasm. Crosier. (Gr. *a dos or Pateritsa). The pastoral staff of a bishop, signifying his responsibilities and the authority by )hich he spiritually rules his floc+. Cro.ns. (Gr. Stephana). A metal cro)n or )reath made of cloth in the shape of lemon blossoms, )ith )hich the priest .cro)ns. the ne)ly)eds during the sacrament of Matrimony. The cro)ns are )hite, signifying purity, and represent the po)er that is given to the ne)ly)eds to become .+ing and >ueen. of their home. -DDe"con. (Gr. .assistant, servant.). The fist of the three orders of priesthood. A deacon is not permitted to perform the sacraments, but assists the bishop and the presbyter in the *ucharist and other services or ministries of the church. De"n. (Gr. Proistamenos). An honorary title given to a presbyter; meaning0 /. the senior priest in a cathedral of a diocese; 1. the senior priest in a large parish; 4. the head of the faculty in a theological seminary. De"coness. A pious lay )oman assisting in the church as a careta+er or charity )or+er. The practice of using deaconesses in the %hurch )as very ancient; ho)ever, it gradually disappeared. Di%irotri%er". (Gr. .set of t)o and three candles.). A set of t)o candleholders, one double3branched candlestic+ and another triple3branched, both used by the bishop in blessing at the liturgy. The 'ikeron

(double candleholder) signifies the t)o natures of %hrist, )hile the Trikeron (triple candleholder) signifies the oly Trinity. Diocese. (Gr. Episkopi). A to)n or fully organi,ed church district under the ecclesiastical !urisdiction and pastoral direction of a bishop. Di#tyc$s. (Gr. .folding boards.). /. (ists of names for living and dead, )ritten on cardboard for their commemoration in the liturgy. 1. An official roster of the names of the heads of #rthodo$ !urisdictions read during the liturgy by concelebrating bishops, or the head of an ecclesiastical !urisdiction. Dis&iss"l. (Gr. Apolysis; Sl. !tpust). The closing prayers and benediction, including the dismissal hymn (Apolytikion) in church service. Do!&". @asic beliefs and truths contained in the @ible and the oly Tradition of the %hurch as defined by the *cumenical %ouncils and the 'athers of the %hurch. :ogma is studied by the field of dogmatic theology. Dor&ition (see assumption). -EE"!le. (Gr. 'ikephalos aitos; Sl. !rletz). Small circular rug or permanent design on the church-s floor, presenting a double headed eagle )ith outstretched )ings soaring over a city. "t signifies the )atchfulness and authority of the bishop over his diocese. The double3headed eagle )as also the symbol of the @y,antine *mpire. E"ster. (Gr.Pascha or 2ambri). The feast day of the resurrection of %hrist, +no)n also as .the 'east of 'easts.. "t is the greatest #rthodo$ festival, celebrated the Sunday follo)ing the first full moon after the Spring e>uino$. "t is a movable feast and the dates of the other movable feasts of the #rthodo$ %hurch are calculated from it. Ecclesi". (Gr. .the gathering of the people.). /. The gathering of the faithful at the church for )orship and fello)ship; 1. the church )here the liturgy is celebrated; 4. the %hurch as the @ody of %hrist. Ecclesi"stic"l. &hatever deals or pertains to %hurch and its life. Ecclesiolo!y. The branch of theology studying the nature, constitution, function, and membership of the %hurch. Ec(&enic"l Co(ncil. (see council). Ec(&enic"l 2"tri"rc$"te . The .'irst Among *>uals. of all the #rthodo$ autocephalous churches and )as founded by St. Andre) the Apostle. 6isit the *cumenical ;atriarchate of %onstantinople home page for more information, historical notes, encyclicals, official documents, and photo and video galleries. Ec(&enis&. The movement of %hristian %hurches to)ard a mutual understanding of their problems and the concept of unity and love )illed by %hrist. E%teni"l. (Gr. -long. or .elongated.). ;etitions or litanies used in #rthodo$ services, particularly in the liturgy. They refer to the )orld in general, peace, leadership and those in need. The response to an e+tenial petition is0 .(ord have mercy. Encyclic"l. (Gr. .moving in a circle.; .circulating.). A letter by the head of an #rthodo$ !urisdiction (Archbishop or ;atriarch) to those under his spiritual authority. The content of such a letter may vary but it must refer to specific administrative or spiritual topics concerning the faithful. En!"ini". (Gr. .blessing for rene)al.). The ceremony of consecration of a ne) church, conducted only by a bishop. "t is performed before the *ucharist, and it mainly consists of the )ashing of the oly Table of the altar, the depositing of relics in it, and the blessing of the church icons.

En!ol#ion. (Gr. .upon the chest.). The bishop-s medallion, usually of enamel and richly decorated )ith precious stones, hanging upon his chest and signifying his episcopal office. Entr"nce. (Gr. Eisodos). The solemn procession of the celebrating clergy carrying the Gospel at the liturgy, after the antiphons (Small *ntrance), and carrying the oly Gifts during the chanting of the cherubic hymn (Great *ntrance). E#"no%"ly&" %o. The monastic blac+ veil hanging over the bac+ of the kalyma,ki of a celibate #rthodo$ clergyman, especially the prelate of a church (see kalyma,ki). Some #rthodo$ prelates of Slavic bac+ground )ear )hite epanokalyma,ko. E#"rc$y. (Gr. .province, region.). An ecclesiastical !urisdiction headed by a bishop, metropolitan, or archbishop. E#i!on"tion. (Gr. .on the +nee;. Sl. Palitsa or Nabedrennik). An oblong or rhomboidal vestment (appro$. /1 $ /1 inches) suspended from the belt and hung over the right side above the +nee of a clergyman of higher ran+. "t signifies the cloth used by %hrist to )ipe his disciples- feet before the (ast Supper and also the s)ord of the Spirit, )hich is the &ord of God. E#i%lesis. (Gr. Epiklesis) Special prayer or petition by the ;riest to .invo+e. or to call upon the Spirit, in order that God-s Grace )ill descend for the consecration of the oly Gifts at the *ucharist. oly

E#i#$"ny. (Gr. Theophania; Sl. 4ogoya leniye). The feast commemorating the baptism of %hrist in the #rthodo$ %hurch (7anuary 9), and celebrating the --manifestation-- of God in the oly Trinity. E#is%o#os. (see bishop).

E#it"#$ios. (Gr. .on the tomb;. Sl. Plaschanitsa). /. The )inding sheet on )hich the dead body of %hrist is se)n or painted, representing his shroud. 1. An ornamented bier representing the tomb of %hrist. #n God 'riday the *pitaphios is placed on the bier, )hich is adorned )ith flo)ers, and is carried in a procession representing the funeral of %hrist. 4. The special service on Good 'riday evening commemorating the burial of %hrist. E#itr"c$elion. (Gr. .about the nec+.). #ne of the most important vestments hanging from the nec+ do)n to the feet. An #rthodo$ priest must )ear this particular vestment to perform a sacrament. E3("l to t$e A#ostles. (Gr. 5sapostolos). An honorary title given to saints such as St. %onstantine and Sts. %yril and Methodios for their missionary )or+ in the %hurch. Esc$"tolo!y. (Gr. .the last things to happen). The theological field concerned )ith life after death, especially the -last things,. i.e., the state of the dead, the Second %oming of %hrist, and the 'inal 7udgment. E(c$"rist. (see %ommunion) E(c$olo!ion. (Gr. .the boo+ of prayers;. Sl. Sluzhebnik). A liturgical boo+ used by the clergy, containing the various services, sacraments and prayers re>uired for the administration of sacraments and other ceremonies and services of the %hurch. E4"n!elists. The authors of the Gospels (E angelia) )ho, according to %hurch belief, )ere inspired by God in the )riting of the @ible. The *vangelists are Matthe), Mar+, (u+e, and 7ohn. "n the #rthodo$ %hurch they are symbolically represented by a man, a lion, an o$, and an eagle respectively. E+"#osteil"rion. (Gr. .dispatching-). A special hymn sung at Matins after the %anon. "t refers to %hrist-s activity after the <esurrection, particularly is dispatching of the disciples to preach to the )orld. E+"#tery!". (Gr. .si$3)inged angels.). Metallic banners adorned )ith representations of angels carried at various processions of church services.

E+"rc$. (Gr. .representative )ith full authority.). The head of an ecclesiastical !urisdiction, usually an Archbishop, representing the head of the %hurch (i.e., ;atriarch) in the administration of a national %hurch. E+co&&(nic"tion. (Gr. Aphorismos). A penalty or censure by )hich a baptised individual is e$cluded from the communion and fello)ship of the %hurch, for committing and remaining obstinate in certain mortal sins. %hurch members may e$communicate themselves by absence from the sacraments and by actions contrary to %hurch la). E+orcis&5 See the article on e$orcism in the #rthodo$ %hurch. -FF"n"r. The Gree+ neighbourhood of %onstantinople ("stanbul) )here the *cumenical ;atriarchate is situated. F"stin!. (see abstinence). F"t$ers o t$e C$(rc$. (Gr. Pateres). ;ious and educated individuals, most of them bishops, )ho lived during the first eight centuries of %hristianity. They )rote e$tensively, taught, e$plained, and defended the faith of the %hurch. The most important #rthodo$ 'athers are0 St. @asil the Great, St. Gregory of Aa,ian,us, St. Gregory of Ayssa, St. 7ohn %hrysostom, St. Athanasius the Great, St. %yril of Ale$andria, and St. 7ohn of :amascus. Filio3(e. ((at. .and from the Son.). Theological term referring to the procession of the oly Spirit. "ts insertion in the %reed by the <oman %hurch (/22E A.:.) became one of the main causes for the schism bet)een the #rthodo$ and %atholic %hurches. -GG("r)i"n An!el. (Gr. Phylakas Angelos). The #rthodo$ believe that certain angels are appointed by God at baptism to guide and protect each faithful. A prayer of the #rthodo$ (iturgy as+s for .an angel of ;eace, a faithful guide and guardian of our soul and bodies.. Go)-#"rents. (Godfather, Gr. Nounos; Godmother, Gr. Nouna).Sponsors at @aptism and %hrismation ta+ing the responsibility for the faith and spiritual development of the ne)ly3born %hristian. The #rthodo$ people highly regard the spiritual bond and relationship bet)een godparents and their godchildren, and marriage bet)een them is prohibited. (see affinity). -HH"!i" 'o#$i" . (Gr. Agia Sophia) The %athedral of %onstantinople in )hich the *cumenical ;atriarchs and @y,antine *mperors )ere enthroned. "t is the greatest #rthodo$ church, dedicated to the oly &isdom of God. "t )as built by the emperor 7ustinian in the year 841 A.:.; its architecture is an outstanding e$ample of the so3called @y,antine #rthodo$ order. H"!io!r"#$y. (Gr. Hagiologia) The )ritings of the %hurch 'athers and the study of the lives of the saints. The #rthodo$ %hurch is a reservoir of such )ritings, )hich the faithful are urged to read for their spiritual gro)th and development. H"t0is. (or +hatzis; fem. Hat-ina; Ar. .pilgrim.). A title or name given to those )ho made a pilgrimage to the oly (and and )ere .baptised. in the 7ordan <iver. Such a pilgrim may assume the title of at!is for the rest of his or her life. #ne also may attach this )ord before the baptismal name to produce a variation such as Hat-i16iorgis or Hat-i16iannis. Such names often become surnames, especially common among Gree+s. He!o(&enos. (see abbot).

Heresy. (Gr. .ne) and personal belief or idea.). The denial or re!ection of a revealed dogma or belief accepted and professed by the %hurch. An individual )ho begins a heresy is a heretic and is e$communicated. Heretis&oi. (see Akathistos hymn). Her&it. (see Anchorite). Hesyc$"s&. spiritual movement in the @y,antine *mpire (fourteenth century) developed on Mount Athos, Greece. The term means .to be >uiet. and signifies the system of spiritual development through meditation, contemplation and perfection to the degree of absolute union )ith God ( theosis). "t is one of the forms of #rthodo$ Mysticism and is still practiced in the #rthodo$ )orld. Hetero)o+y. :ifferent, alien, and presumably false belief or teaching. The #rthodo$ %hurch describes as such all other %hristian denominations. Hier"rc$y. The higher clergy or %ollege of bishops )ho are assigned to rule over spiritual matters of the church. Holy 6"ter. (Gr. Agiasmos). &ater blessed at the service of the .Great @lessing. on the feast day of *piphany (7an. 9) or on other occasions (Small @lessing). "t is used for the blessing of people, as at oly communion or for the blessing of things for their )ell being. Holy 6is)o&. (see Hagia Sophia). Horolo!ion. (Gr. .@oo+ of the ours;. Sl. +hasoslo ). The (iturgical boo+ containing the services and prayers of the different hours of the day, i.e., %ompline, Matins, 6espers and the #ffice of the ours (see hours). Ho(rs. "n #rthodo$ monasteries, mon+s maintain special services for the main hours of the day. *ach hour commemorates a special event, as follo)s0 /. 'irst hour (9022 A.M.)0 Than+sgiving for the ne) morning and prayer for a sinless day. 1. Third hour (E022 A.M.)0 the descent of the oly Spirit on ;entecost. 4. Si$th hour (/1022 noon)0 the nailing of %hrist to the %ross. 5. Ainth hour (4022 ;.M.)0 the death of %hrist.

-IIcon. (Gr. image). A @y,antine3style painting in oil on )ood, canvas, paper or a )all (fresco) representing %hrist, the 6irgin Mary, or other Saints and scenes from the @ible. The #rthodo$ %hurch uses icons for veneration )ith the understanding that the respect is paid not to the material icon but to the person represented .in spirit and truth. (cf. 7ohn 50 15). Iconocl"s&. (Gr. .the brea+ing of icons.). "t refers to the conflict in the @y,antine *mpire bet)een F1F and =54 aver the use of icons in the church. The Seventh *cumenical %ouncil (F=F and =54) decreed the use of icons, follo)ing in the main the teaching of St. 7ohn of :amascus. Icono!r"#$y. The study and the art of painting of icons. "n the #rthodo$ %hurch, iconography )as developed mainly in the monasteries, )hich became the centers of its study and development. Iconost"sis. (Gr. .an icon3stand.). "n the #rthodo$ %hurch the term signifies0 /. The stand on )hich the main icon of the ;atron Saint of the church is placed for veneration. 1. The screen separating the sanctuary or altar from the church proper and adorned )ith various icons. There may be t)o or three tiers of icons in an iconostasis, but the main tier must follo) a certain iconographic form as follo)ing (from north or left side, to south)0 the icon of the ;atron Saint of the church; of the 6irgin Mary, of %hrist, and of St. 7ohn the @aptist.

Iliton. (or Eiliton, Gr.) The sil+ cloth used to )rap the corporal (or antiminsion). -77es(s 2r"yer. A short prayer that the #rthodo$ constantly repeat to practice devotion to God; the tradition of repeating this distinctive prayer )as developed in #rthodo$ monasteries. The te$t of 7esus ;rayer is0 .2ord 7esus +hrist( Son o, 8od( ha e mercy on me&. 7()!e&ent. The (ast or 'inal 7udgment, )hich according to the %hurch-s belief )ill occur at the end of the )orld and the second coming of %hrist. The !udgment that ta+es place immediately after an individual-s death is called particular !udgement. 7(ris)iction. (Gr. 'ikaiodosia). The right and the authority of a bishop to rule over his diocese as a spiritual overseer. "t includes legislative, !udicial and e$ecutive authority, )hich can be e$ercised only by individuals )ho have been canonically ordained and appointed to rule aver the !urisdiction in >uestion. -88"ly&"(%i or %"&il" %i. (Sl. kamila ka). The blac+ cylindrical hat )orn by #rthodo$ clergy. The blac+ monastic veil (epanokalyna,kon) )orn by the celibate clergy at various services or ceremonies is attached to the kalymauki (see Epanokalyma,kon). 8"non. /. Short hymns consisting of nine odes, sung at the service of Matins. 1. The special service +no)n as the Great Ganon sung on the evening of the &ednesday of the fifth )ee+ of the Great (ent. 8"t$is&". (iturgical hymn. /. The t)enty stan,as into )hich the #rthodo$ ;salter is divided. 1. The second +anon of the Matins. 8eri. (see candles). 8ery!&". (Gr. .message; preaching.). ;roclaiming or preaching the )ord of God in the manner of the Apostles. "t is a method of church instruction centred mainly on %hrist and the concept of salvation. 8oi&issis (see :ormition) 8oly&bet$r". A large, often movable, circular basin on a stand, containing the )ater for immersion in @aptism. "t symboli,es the 7ordan <iver or the pool of Siloam. 8ont"%ion. A liturgical hymn that gives an abbreviated form of the meaning or history of the feast of a given day. The kontakion is sung after the si$th ode of the %anon in the liturgy and the Service of the ours. St. <omanos the Melodist is considered to be the most important hymnographer of the )ontakion. 8o(&b"ros - e&. %o(&b"r"/. /. The .best man. in )edding. 1. The sponsor in a baptism. 4. The address that Gree+ #rthodo$ use for their best man or their child-s sponsor. -LL"ity. (Gr. 2aikos; Sl. %iryane). Members of the %hurch )ho are not ordained to the priesthood. L"&b. (Gr. Amnos). The symbol for the sacrifice of %hrist on the %ross (cf. 7ohn /0 1E). "n the #rthoda$ liturgy the amnos is the first s>uare piece from the altar bread ( prosphoro), inscnbed )ith the letters "%H%A"GA (an abbreviated form for .7esus %hrist con>uers.). This particular piece is to be consecrated during the *ucharist.

L"&ent"tions ser4ice. (Gr. Epitaphios threnos). Special hymns referring to the sacrifice of %hrist on the cross and is burial (see Epitaphios). L"nce or s#e"r. (Gr. 2onche). A small, lance3shaped, double3edged +nife used by the priest for the cutting of the altar bread in the service of the ;reparation of the oly Gifts (see Proskomide). L"n!("!e. According to the #rthodo$ tradition, the %hurch adopts and uses the language of any particular country or ethnic group that she serves. The main liturgical languages in the #rthodo$ %hurch are Gree+, the various descendants of old %hurch Slavonic, and Arabic. L"st '(##er. (Gr. %ystikos 'eipnos; Sl. Taynya Vercherya). The (ast meal of %hrist )ith is disciples in the -?pper <oom- before his arrest. &ith this supper he instituted the Sacrament of the oly *ucharist. Le"4ene) *re"). (Gr. artos). @read made )ith yeast (enzyma); and used for altar bread for the #rthodo$ *ucharist (as opposed to the unleavened bread used by the (atin %hurch). (eavened bread is also acceptable for the purpose in the more liberal ;rotestant churches. Lent. (Gr. Sarakosti) The fifty3days fast preceeding *aster for the spiritual preparation of the faithful to observe the feast of the <essurection. @esides (ent, the #rthodo$ %hurch has assigned a number of other fasting periods (see abstinence). Lit(r!ics . The theological field that studies the liturgies and the various services and rituals of the %hurch. Lit(r!y . (Gr. .a public duty or )or+.). The main form of )orship for the celebration of the The #rthodo$ %hurch celebrates four different versions of the liturgy0 /. The (iturgy of St. 7ames, 1. The (iturgy of St. @asil, 4. The (iturgy of St. 7ohn %hrysostom, )hich is the most common, and 5. The (iturgy of the ;resanctified Gifts performed only during the period of Great (ent oly *ucharist.

Lo!os. (Gr. .)ord.). A symbol for %hrist, the )ord incarnate, or .)ord made 'lesh0- )hich is also called .the &ord of God. (cf. 7ohn, /0/35). Lor)9s 2r"yer. The prayer taught by %hrist in the Sermon on the Mount (cf. Matt. 90 E344 and (u+e //0 13 5). "t begins )ith the phrase .#ur father. . .. and is the most common #rthodo$ prayer. -MM"!ni ic"t. ((at. .My soul doth magnify the (ord.; Gr. %egalynalion). A hymn of praise in honour of the Mother of God (Theotokos). "ts verses follo) Mary-s o)n )ords beginning )ith the phrase .my soul doth magnify the (ord. (cf. (u+e /0 59388). "t is sung after the eighth #de of the %anon at Matins. M"ntle. (Gr. %andias). A distinctive and elaborate garment, purple or blue in colour, )orn by the bishop in various church ceremonies and services, such as 6espers, but not during the liturgy. M"rtyr. (Gr. .)itness.). #ne )ho )illingly suffered death for the faith. M"rtyri%". (Gr. .a sign of )itnessing.). Small decorative icons or crosses passed out to the guests )ho )itness an #rthodo$ @aptism. M"rtyrolo!y. A catalogue of martyrs and other saints arranged according to the calendar. M"tins. (Gr. !rthos). The Morning Service, )hich is combined )ith the liturgy. "t begins )ith the reading of si$ psalms (E"apsalmos), the reading of the Gospel, the chanting of the %anon, and the Great :o$ology. Me&ori"l. (Gr. %nymosyno). A special service held in the #rthodo$ %hurch for the repose of the souls of the dead. Memorial services are held on the third, ninth and fortieth day; after si$ months, and after one or three years after death. @oiled )heat is used as a symbol of the resurrection of everyone at the Second %oming of %hrist.

Men"ion. A liturgical boo+ containing the lives of the saints and the special hymns ( stichera) for the feast3days of the #rthodo$ Saints. "t is divided into t)elve volumes, one for each month. Metro#olit"n. The prelate of the largest or most important city ( %etropolis) or province )ith primacy of !urisdiction. Mitre. (Gr. %itra). The official headdress or .cro)n. of a bishop. "n Slavic churches some archimandrites are allo)ed to )ear the mitre as a recognition of their service to the church ( mitrate or mitrophoros). The mitre derives from the cro)n of the @y,antine emperor. Mon"stery. The d)elling place and the community thereof, of mon+s or nuns living together in a communal life (cenobites) in a convent, and practicing the rules of prayer and vo)s. The members of some monasteries live alone in solitude (anchorites). Mon%. (Gr. %onachos; fem. %onache). An individual )ho denies the )orld in order to live a religious life under the monastic vo)s of poverty, chastity, and obedience. Mono#$ysitis&. A heresy )hich arose in the fifth century concerning the t)o Aatures of %hrist. The monophysites accepted only the :ivine Aature of %hrist, and )ere condemned as heretics by the 'ourth *cumenical %ouncil, at Aicaea (58/ A.:.) (see also %opts). Monot$elitis&. A heresy of the seventh century, )hich developed in an attempt to reconcile the monophysites )ith the #rthodo$. The monothelites accept the t)o Aatures of %hrist, but deny is human )ill (Thelesis), accepting thereby only his :ivine Mort"l 'ins. (see capital sins). Mot$er C$(rc$. The %hurch of 7erusalem, as being the first %hristian %hurch. %ommonly, the #rthodo$ consider as Mother %hurch the *cumenical ;atriarchate as being the senior %hurch of the #rthodo$ &orld. Mo(nt At$os. The centre of #rthodo$ monasticism, situated on a conical mountain on the %ha+idi ;eninsula, Greece. Mysticis&. The search through various prayers and practices to achieve unity )ith God in life ( theosis) (see hesychasm). -NN"&e-)"y. (Gr. !nomastiria or !nomastiki eorti). The tradition of the #rthodo$ people to celebrate one-s name3day instead of a birthday. Since the #rthodo$ people are usually named after a saint-s name, all those having the same name celebrate together. %elebration of the name3day is considered to be spiritually important, and the celebrating individual develops special spiritual ties )ith his ;atron Saint and, conse>uently, )ith God. N"rt$e+. The vestibule area of the church, leading to the church proper or the nave. "n the early %hurch this area )as as signed for penitents and those )ho )ere not yet baptised (catechumens). N"4e. The centre, the church proper of an #rthodo$ %hurch, )here the faithful remain to observe the liturgy and other services. Neo#$yte. (Gr. Neophotistos). A ne)ly baptised individual or convert of the early %hurch. No(nos. (see godparents). No4ice. (Gr. 'okimos). An individual )ho accepted the monastic life, undergoing a period of probation in preparation for ta+ing his vo)s. N(n. (Gr. %onachi (fem), or )alogria). A )oman follo)ing the monastic life, living in a convent and leading a strict contemplative life.

-OObl"tion. (see Proskomide). O ertory. (see Proskomide). O%toec$os. (Gr. .eight modes. or Paraklitiki). Service boo+ containing the canons and hymns of the eight tones or modes of @y,antine music. They are used in all services, arranged every eight )ee+s, one for each tone, and are attributed to St. 7ohn of :amascus (eighth century), one of the greatest #rthodo$ hymnographers and theologians. O&o#$or. (see ;all). Or"rion. ((at.) #ne of the deacon-s vestments, made of a long band of brocade and )orn over the left shoulder and under the right arm. "t signifies the )ings of the angels. Or)in"tion. (Gr. cheirotonia). The sacrament of the hands upon the candidate for the priesthood. oly #rders, imparted through the laying on of

Ort$o)o+ . (Gr. .correct or true belief.). The common and official name used by the Gree+ %hristians and *astern %hristian %hurch. The #rthodo$ %hurch maintains her belief that she alone has +ept the true %hristian faith, complete and unaltered. Ort$o)o+ '(n)"y. The first Sunday of (ent, commemorating the restoration of icons in the church (see "conoclasm). Ort$ros. (see Matins) -22"!"nis&. @elief in religions other than %hristianity, especially ancient Gree+ polytheism, )hich )as a non3revealed religion. 2"ll. (Gr. !mophorion). #ne of the bishop-s vestments, made of a band of brocade )orn about the nec+ and around the shoulders. "t signifies the Good Shepherd and the spiritual authority of a bishop. 2"l& '(n)"y. (Gr. )yriaki ton Vaion; Sl. Verbnoye Voskresenye). The Sunday before *aster, commemorating the triumphal entrance of %hrist into 7erusalem. The #rthodo$ use palms or )illo) branches in the shape of a cross, )hich the priest distributes to the faithful after the liturgy. 2"n"!i". (Gr. .All oly.). #ne of the #rthodo$ names used to address the Mother of God. "n #rthodo$ art, the term ;anagia denotes an icon depicting the 6irgin Mary )ith the %hrist %hild, or the bishop-s medallion (Encolpion) )hich usually is decorated )ith an icon of the ;anagia (especially in the <ussian %hurch). (See also0 Theotokos) 2"ntocr"tor. (Gr. . e )ho reigns over all; almighty.). #ne of the appellations of God. "n #rthodo$ art, ;antocrator is the name of the fresco decorating the centre of the dome, depicting %hrist as the almighty God and (ord of the ?niverse. 2"r"%liti%i. (see !ktoechos). 2"sc$". (see *aster). 2"sc$"l .ee%. (Gr. 'iakaimsimos or .bright )ee+.). The )ee+ follo)ing the Sunday of *aster ( Pascha), signifying the spiritual rene)al and !oy brought to the )orld by the resurrected %hrist. 2"sc$"lion. The table of dates for *aster and all movable feasts of the year. 2"stor"l t$eolo!y. The theological field that studies the )ays and methods to be used by the clergy for carrying through their duties as ;astors of the %hurch.

2"ten. (Gr. 'iskos). A small round and flat plate made of gold or silver on )hich the priest places the particles of bread at the celebration of the *ucharist. 2"tri"rc$. (Gr. .in charge of the family.). The highest prelate in the #rthodo$ %hurch. Today there are eight #rthodo$ prelates called patriarchs (see ;atriarchate). 2"tri"rc$"te . An ecclesiastical !urisdiction governed by a patriarch. There are eight such !urisdictions today in the #rthodo$ %hurch, the four ancient ;atriarchates of the *ast, and the four Slavic patriarchates. 2"tristics. The theological field that studies the lives and the )ritings of the 'athers of the %hurch. 2"tron s"int. (Gr. Poliouchos; Sl. Nebesny Pokro itel). A saint chosen by a group, nation, or organi,ation to be their special advocate, guardian and protector. The ;atron Saint of an individual is usually the saint after )hom the individual is named. See also the article on Saints in the #rthodo$ %hurch. 2e)"lion. (see <udder). 2entecost. (Gr. .fiftieth :ay.). A feast celebrated fifty days after *aster commemorating the descent of the oly Spirit onto the disciples of %hrist. "t is considered to be the birthday of %hristianity. 2entecost"rion. A liturgical boo+ (containing all the prayers, hymns and services performed during the period of fifty days bet)een the feasts of *aster and ;entecost. 2olyc$ronion. (Gr. .for many years.). A prayer sung by the chanter or choir in honour of the celebrant bishop or presbyter. "ts full version is0 .for many years of life. (Gr. Eis Polla Eti 'espota; Sl. %nogaya5yeta). 2olyeleos. (Gr. .oil candelabrum.; .abundance of oil and grace.). /. special hymns sung during the Service of Matins. 1. the great candelabra hanging from the ceiling of an #rthodo$ church. 4. a descriptive ad!ective used to describe %hrist as the God of Mercy. 2resbyter. (Gr. .elder.). A priest in charge of a parish. A protopresbyter is an honorary title granted by a bishop in ac+no)ledgement of service to the church. 2res4yter". (Gr.; Sl. %atushka). A honorary title for the priest-s )ife or mother. 2ro%ei&enon. (Gr. .gradual introduction.). A liturgical verse or scriptural passage sung or read before the reading of the *pistle. "t serves as an introduction to the theme of this particular reading. 2ros%o&i)e. (Gr. gathering of gifts or preparing to receive the gifts; Sl. Shert ennik). The Service of the preparation of the elements of bread and )ine before the (iturgy. "t ta+es place on the Table of #blation (Prothesis), )hich is situated at the left (north) side of the altar. 2ros#$oro. (Gr. .offering gift, an item dedicated to God and offered as a votive,. also prosphora). The altar bread )hich is leavened and prepared )ith pure )heat flour to be used for the *ucharist. "t is round and stamped on the top )ith a special seal ( sphragis or Panagiari). Sometimes it is made in t)o layers symboli,ing the t)o natures of %hrist ( uman and :ivine). The inscribed parts of the top are used for the *ucharist and the rest of it is cut into small pieces to be distributed to the faithful ( antidoron). 2(l#it. (Gr.; Sl. Am on, .an elevated place, podium.). A small raised platform or elaborate podium at the left (north) side of the soleas and in the front of the iconostasis& :ecorated )ith representations of the four *vangelists, it is the place on )hich the deacon or priest reads the Gospel and delivers his sermon. -RR"so. (see cassoc+).

Re")er. (Gr. Anagnostis, Sl. +htets). The individual assigned to read, chant, and give responses in church services. ?sually such a person )ill be blessed by the bishop )ith special prayers and in a special ceremony. Relics. (Gr. 2eipsana Agia). The remains from the body of Saint or even a Saint-s possessions, such as clothes or vestments. The relics are honored and venerated by all #rthodo$. ?pon the consecration of a ne) church, the consecrating bishop embeds holy relics in the Altar Table, follo)ing the ancient traditions of the church in performing the *ucharist on the tombs of Martyrs ( %artyria). Rite. (Gr. Telete, Sl. Tchin). The performance of a religious ceremony follo)ing a prescribed order of )ords and actions (typikon). R())er. (Gr. Pedalion). The boo+ containing the rules and regulations prescribed by the *cumenical Synods and the 'athers. "t is the %onstitution of the #rthodo$ %hurch. -''"cr"&ent. (Gr. %ysterion9 Sl. Tainst o). The out)ard and visible part of religion consisting of various ceremonies, )ords and symbolisms, producing an invisible action by the oly Spirit that confers grace on an individual. All Sacraments )ere instituted by %hrist for the salvation of the believer (see separate sections on the Sacraments and the Sacramental (ife in the #rthodo$ %hurch). '"cri ice. (Gr. Thysia; Sl. #hert a). The bloodless offering to God, )hich is the the (iturgy. "t signifies the sacrifice of %hrist on the cross for man-s salvation. oly *ucharist offered at

'"cristy. (Gr. Ske ophylakion; Sl. *iznitsa). A utility room at the right side (south) of the altar, )here vestments and sacred vessels are +ept and )here the clergy vest for services. Saints. (Gr. Agios). All holy men, )omen, and angels, )ho, through a pure and holy life on earth or through martyrdom and confession of faith in )ord and deeds, have merited the canoni,ation of the %hurch. The saints and the other pious people )ho are in glory )ith God constitute the .Triumphant %hurch. '"ints5 See the article on0 Saints in the #rthodo$ %hurch. '"%%os or D"l&"tic. The main vestment )orn by the bishop during the (iturgy. "t originates from the vestments of the @y,antine emperor. '"l(t"tions. (see Akathistos hymn). 'c$is&. 'ormal separation from the unity of the one true %hurch. Although the %hristian %hurch has )itnessed several schisms, the most disastrous )as the separation of the Gree+ *astern and the <oman &estern %hurch in /285, dividing %hristendom into t)o parts (see separate section on church history). 'ee. (Gr. Hedra or Thronos). The official .seat. or city capital )here a bishop resides (esp. for a large !urisdiction); hence, the territory of his entire !urisdiction may be called his See. 'er4ice boo%s. They are special boo+s containing the hymns or the services of the #rthodo$ %hurch. There are eight as follo)s0 Gospel (E angelion), @oo+ of *pistles (Apostolos), ;salter (!ctoechos or paraklitiki), Triodion, Pentecostarion, T)elve %enaia, Horologion, and Service or (iturgy boo+ (Euchologio or 5eratiko). 'er4ice *oo% or Ier"ti%on or Lito(r!i%on or E(c$olo!io. (Sl. Sluzhebnik). The liturgical boo+ containing the prayers and ceremonial order of the various church services including the (iturgy.

'i!n o t$e Cross. The #rthodo$ ma+e the Sign of the %ross to signify their belief in the sacrifice of %hrist upon the cross for man-s salvation. "t is made by the right hand in a cruciform gesture touching the forehead, chest, right and left shoulders )ith the tips of fingers (the thumb, inde$ and middle finger !oined together as a symbol of the oly Trinity, the ring and little finger touching the palm as a symbol of the t)o Aatures of %hrist).

'ole". An area )ith elevated floor in front of the iconostasis of the church, )here the various rites and church ceremonies are held. 'oteriolo!y. Theological field studying the mission and )or+ of %hrist as <edeemer ( Soter). Also, refer to the article on the :ogmatic Tradition of the #rthodo$ %hurch. '#$r"!is. (see prosphoro). '#irit("l rel"tions$i#. (see affinity). 't"4ro#e!ion. Monastery or monastic community directly under the !urisdiction of the *cumenical ;atriarchate. 'tic$"r. (see Alb) '(b)e"con. (Gr. hypodiakonos). A laymen )ho has received a special blessing by the bishop to serve in the church, assisting in the services and ceremonies. 'yn"+"rion. /. A brief biography of a saint read in the church on occasions of his feast day. 1. @oo+ or boo+s containing lives of the saints. 4. 'yn"+is. (Gr. .assembly;. Sl. Sobor). A gathering of the faithful in honour of a saint or for reading passages from his biography (syna"arion). 'yno). (see *cumenical %ouncil). -TT"bern"cle. (Gr. Artophorion; Sl. 'arochranitelnitsa). An elaborate ar+ or receptacle +ept on the Altar Table, in )hich the oly Gifts of the *ucharist are preserved for the communion of the sic+, or for the (iturgy of the ;resanctified Gifts during (ent. T$"(&"to(r!os. (Gr. .miracle3)or+er;. Sl. +hudot orets). A title given to some saints distinguished among the faithful for their miracles. T$eoto%os. A theological term commonly used by the #rthodo$ to indicate the doctrinal significance of 6irgin Mary as Mother of God. T$eoto%ion. (Gr. .referring toTheotokos;. Sl. 4ogorodichey). A hymn )hich refers to or praises Theotokos, the Mother of God. T$ree $ier"rc$s. The #rthodo$ %hurch considers in particular three bishops (hierarchs) of the %hurch as er most important Teachers and 'athers, )ho contributed to the development and the spiritual gro)th of the %hurch. They are St. @asil the Great, St. Gregory the Theologian, and St. 7ohn %hrysostom. Their feast day is observed on 7anuary 42, a day also dedicated to ellenic letters since the three hierarchs contributed to the development of Gree+ %hristian education and literature. Tit(l"r bis$o#. An au$iliary bishop )ithout his o)n territorial or residential diocese, )ho is usually assisting a senior bishop )ith a large !urisdiction (Archbishop or ;atriarch). The episcopal title of a titular bishop is ta+en from an ancient diocese )hich once flourished but no) e$ists only in name, and, therefore, a titular bishop does not have his o)n !urisdiction. Tr")ition1 Ort$o)o+. (Gr. Paradosis). The transmission of the doctrine or the customs of the #rthodo$ %hurch through the centuries, basically by )ord of mouth from generation to generation. Tr"ns i!(r"tion. (Gr. %etamorphosis). The transfiguration of %hrist is a ma!or feast day (August 9) commemorating the appearance of %hrist in divine glory along )ith Moses and the prophet *lias on Mount Tabor (cf. Matt. 60 /3F). Trio)ion. (Gr. three odes or modes).

/. The period bet)een the Sunday of the ;harisee and the ;ublican, and %heese3'are Sunday. 1. A (iturgical boo+ containing the hymns, prayers and services of the movable feast before *aster, beginning )ith the Sunday of the ;harisee and the ;ublican until *aster Sunday. Tris"!ion. (Gr. thrice3holy). /. #ne of the most ancient hymns of the church used by the #rthodo$ in every prayer or service0 . oly God, oly Mighty, oly "mmortal, have mercy upon us.. 1. Memorial Service performed by the graveside or in church for the repose of the soul. Ty#i%on. (Gr. follo)ing the order; Sl. Sluzhebnik). (iturgical boo+ )hich contains instructions about the order of the various church services and ceremonies in the form of a perpetual calendar. -::nle"4ene) bre"). (see prosphoro). :nction. (see %hrism). :ni"ts. (see @y,antine <ite). -;;es#ers. (Gr. Esperinos; Sl. 2itiya). An important service of the #rthodo$ %hurch, held in the evening, )hich is mainly a Than+sgiving prayer for the closing day and a )elcome of the ne) one to come the follo)ing morning. #n the eve of an important holiday, the 6esper Service includes Artoclasia or the blessing of the five loaves (Gr. artos; Sl. 2itiya) for health and the )ell3being of the faithful. ;est&ents. (Gr. Amphia). The distinctive garments )orn by the clergy in the liturgy and the other church services See also: *pigonation *pitrachelion #mophorion #rarion <ason Sa++os Sticharion Ione ;i!il. (Gr. olonychtia). Spiritual e$ercises during the night preceding the feast day of a saint or another ma!or feast, observed by various spiritual preparations, prayers and services. -YYe"r o t$e C$(rc$. (see calendar). -<<eon. (Gr. .boiling.). The hot )ater used by the priest for the *ucharist. "t is added to the chalice during the %ommunion hymn in commemoration of the )ater that flo)ed out of the side of the crucified %hrist )hen he )as pierced )ith the spear. <one. The belt or girdle )orn by the priests on his stichar. "t signifies the po)er of faith.