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NCCI: Practical analytical models for portal frames (plastic analysis)

NCCI: Practical analytical models for portal frames (plastic analysis) SN039a-EN-EU

NCCI: Practical analytical models for portal frames (plastic analysis)


This NCCI gives guidance on preparing structural models for portal frames designed using plastic analysis.

Contents
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Created on Wednesday, March 27, 2013 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

General Frame idealisation for analysis Cross-section Requirements Initial choice of sections Accounting for second-order effects References

2 2 3 3 3 5

6.

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NCCI: Practical analytical models for portal frames (plastic analysis)

NCCI: Practical analytical models for portal frames (plastic analysis) SN039a-EN-EU

1.

General

Portal frames verified by plastic design are commonly fabricated from hot-rolled I-sections. It is generally most economic to have haunches to deepen the rafters at the columns as shown in Figure 1.1 below. It is essential that the section classification is Class 1 at all plastic hinge positions and so it is most common to use Class 1 sections throughout the columns and rafters. It is common to use Class 3 webs and Class 1 flanges for the haunches, provided that in the Class 3 portion of the web either the stress distribution remains elastic or the requirements of EN 1993-1-1 6.2.2.4 are satisfied and no plastic hinge occurs.

L/10

L/10

3 2
Created on Wednesday, March 27, 2013 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

5 4
L

Key: 1 = rafter 2 = column

3 = eaves haunch 4 = base 5 = apex haunch

Figure 1.1

General arrangement of frame

2.
2.1

Frame idealisation for analysis


Initial imperfections

Sway imperfections should be applied as EN 1993-1-1 5.3.2(3)(a). It is generally simplest to calculate the equivalent horizontal forces as 5.3.2(7). In some frames, initial bow imperfections might need to be included in the analysis, see SN033.

2.2

Frame geometry

The frame geometry in the analysis model is commonly the centre-line of the columns and the rafters, neglecting the haunches.

2.3

Base conditions

2.3.1 Pinned, nominally or truly


It is rare for bases to be truly pinned. Most bases are nominally pinned, comprising, for example, a simple end plate that is relatively thin with four holding down bolts (for safety during erection of the frame). Nominally pinned bases are commonly assumed to be pinned for response to vertical loading. When calculating cr, they are commonly assumed to have Page 2

NCCI: Practical analytical models for portal frames (plastic analysis)

NCCI: Practical analytical models for portal frames (plastic analysis) SN039a-EN-EU

some small rotational stiffness, often assumed to be not less than 0,4EIc/Lc, where Ic is the second moment of area of the column in the plane of the frame and Lc is the height of the column, see [1] and [2]. When calculating deflections for the Serviceability Limit State, they are commonly assumed to have a slightly greater rotational stiffness, often assumed to be not less than 0,8EIc/Lc.

2.3.2 Fixed, nominally or truly


In practice, it is unlikely for bases to be truly fixed. Fixed bases are commonly assumed to be slightly flexible for analysis to find the ULS bending moments and forces. In the absence of more detailed information, this is often assumed to be 4EIc/Lc, where Ic is the second moment of area of the column in the plane of the frame and Lc is the height of the column, both for analysis to find the ULS bending moments and forces and for calculating cr, see [1] and [2]. However, when calculating deflections for the Serviceability Limit State, the bases are commonly assumed to be truly rigid.

3.
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Cross-section Requirements

The cross-section requirements for plastic global analysis are given in EN 1993-1-1 5.6.

4.

Initial choice of sections

Good approximations to member sizes for portals with low roof slopes can be calculated as follows. This approach includes some allowance for second order effects. Columns and haunches Rafters where L W Mpl choose sections with Mpl = WL/10 choose sections with Mpl = WL/20

is the span of the frame between columns (or valley beams) is the total load on the span at Ultimate Limit State is the plastic moment of resistance of the cross section

5.
5.1

Accounting for second-order effects


General

EN 1993-1-1 5.2.1(2) requires that the effects of deformed geometry (second-order effects) should be considered if they increase the action effects significantly or modify significantly the structural behaviour. Almost all competitive designs of portals will have cr less than 10 and so second-order effects will need to be considered. There are numerous methods which may be applied. All the methods must include checks of the cross-sectional resistance to ensure that the plastic hinges form and rotate where the moment reaches the moment of resistance Mc,Rd at loading less than 100% ULS and that the rotation at each hinge is consistent with the rotation capacity of the cross-section. It should be noted that Mc,Rd, defined in EN 1993-1-1 6.2.5, may be reduced by coexistent shear and/or axial forces as given in EN 1993-1-1 6.2.8, 6.2.9 and 6.2.10, but this is very unusual in portal frames. Page 3

NCCI: Practical analytical models for portal frames (plastic analysis)

NCCI: Practical analytical models for portal frames (plastic analysis) SN039a-EN-EU

5.2

Second-order analysis routines

Analysis methods include stiffness matrix methods in which the second-order effects may be considered by reforming the geometry matrix, modifying the stiffness matrix, by energy methods or by a combination of these methods.

5.3

First-order analysis with amplified loads

Analyses methods include elastic-plastic software, the graphical method and virtual work assuming rigid plastic behaviour. These methods are shown in terms of application with ENV 1993-1-1 in refs [1] and [2]. Where cr is less than the limit set in the relevant National Annex for EN 1993-1-1 5.2.1(3), recommended value = 15, second-order effects must be considered. This can be done using first-order analysis with amplified loads. The amplification of the loads must be appropriate to the geometry of the frames considered. SN033 gives suitable amplification factors and limits of application. The factors are derived from the second-order effects derived by the method known in many countries as Merchant-Rankine and have been verified for by elasticplastic second-order analysis for the range of geometries given in SN033. This method has been used since its development in the 1950s, refs [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10] & [11].
Created on Wednesday, March 27, 2013 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

5.4

Tied portals

Portal frames in which the rafters are inclined to the horizontal and there is a tie at or near the level of the rafters from one side of the span to the other are commonly called tied portals. The rafters and the tie act almost like a truss, so where the rafter inclination is small, the axial forces in the rafters and the tie are high and the effects of deformed geometry can be very severe. For these frames, it is recommended that analysis should only be undertaken with software that can consider both second-order effects and the special tendency of rafters to snap-through.

Figure 5.1

General arrangement of a typical tied portal

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NCCI: Practical analytical models for portal frames (plastic analysis)

NCCI: Practical analytical models for portal frames (plastic analysis) SN039a-EN-EU

6.
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]
Created on Wednesday, March 27, 2013 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

References
King, C., Plastic Design of Single-Storey Pitched-Roof Portal Frames to Eurocode 3, The Steel Construction Institute, SCI-P147, 1995 King, C., Design of Steel Portal Frames for Europe, The Steel Construction Institute, SCI-P164, 2001 Merchant, W., The failure load of rigid jointed frameworks as influenced by stability, The Structural Engineer, Vol 32, July 1954 Merchant, W., Rashid, C.A., Bolton, A., and Salem, A., The behavior of unclad frames, Proc Fiftieth Anniversary Conference, Institution of Structural Engineers, 1958 Horne, M.R., & Morris, L.S., Plastic Design of Low Rise Frames (SCI-P054), Constrado Monograph, Granada Publishing, 1981 Davies, J.M., In-plane stability of portal frames, The Structural Engineer, No 8, Vol 68, April 1990 Kirby, P.A., and Nethercot, D.A., Design for Structural Stability (SCI-P052), Constrado Monograph, Crosby Lockwood Staples, 1979, Revised 1985 DTU P 22-701 Rgles CM Rgles de calcul des constructions en acier Additif Dcembre 1966 80 (juin 1980) 12e dition, 1996, CTICM BS 5950-1: 2000, Structural use of steelwork in building, Part 1: Code of practice for design Rolled and welded sections, BSI, 2001

[8] [9]

[10] ENV 1993-1-1, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures Part 1.1: General rules and rules for buildings CEN, 1992 [11] King, C., In-plane Stability of Portal Frames, The Steel Construction Institute, SCI-P292, 2001

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NCCI: Practical analytical models for portal frames (plastic analysis)

NCCI: Practical analytical models for portal frames (plastic analysis) SN039a-EN-EU

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RESOURCE TITLE Reference(s) ORIGINAL DOCUMENT Name Created by Technical content checked by Editorial content checked by Technical content endorsed by the following STEEL Partners: 1. UK 2. France
Created on Wednesday, March 27, 2013 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

NCCI: Practical analytical models for portal frames (plastic analysis)

Company SCI SCI

Date

Charles King A S Malik

G Owens A Bureau A Olsson C Mller J Chica G Owens

SCI CTICM SBI RWTH Labein SCI

10/3/06 10/3/06 10/3/06 10/3/06 10/3/06 12/7/06

3. Sweden 4. Germany 5. Spain Resource approved by Technical Coordinator TRANSLATED DOCUMENT This Translation made and checked by: Translated resource approved by:

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