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Aluminiul

Aluminiul este un element chimic, notat cu simbolul Al. Numrul atomic al aluminiului are valoarea 13, iar masa atomic este 26.97. Este un element chimic comun, ocupnd po iia a treia, dup o!i"en i siliciu, ca rspndire terestr, e!istnd #n procent de 7.$%. &ompuii aluminiului constituie '.13% din scoara terestr, (iind #ntlnii #n substanele minerale, precum i #n lumea ve"etal i animal. )n stare natural este #ntlnit sub (orma mineralelor, dintre care amintim silicaii, silicoaluminaii *(eldspat, mic, ar"ile+, criolitul *(luoaluminat de sodiu+, bau!ita, corindonul. ,up (ier, acesta a devenit metalul cu cea mai lar" #ntrebuinare. Aluminiul a (ost remarcat pentru (aptul c este un metal uor, cu o densitate de 2.7 "-cm3. Aceasta calitate #l (ace s (ie utili at #n cantiti mari #n industria naval i aeronautic.&apacitatea mare de re(le!ie este (olosit #n construirea o"lin ilor metalice. Este un bun conductor electric i termic, (iind (olosit #n industria electrochimic sub (orm de srm, #nlocuind conductoarele electrice din cupru, care sunt mai scumpe. Este un metal ductil i maleabil, (iind posibil obinerea unei (oie subiri de ..../ mm "rosime. 0otodat, aceast proprietate este utili at #n industria alimentar, aluminiul (iind (olosit la ambalarea produselor alimentare sau #n industria (armaceutic. 1 alt proprietate important a acestui metal este re istena la coro iune, care se datorea (ormrii unui strat protector de o!id. 2e ist la aciunea chimic a acidului a otic diluat sau concentrat, iar acest lucru se re(lect #n (abricarea canistrelor transportoare de acid a otic din aluminiu. 3re int o a(initate mare pentru o!i"en, (iind utili at #n obinerea altor metale precum &r, 4n, &o, 5 din o!i i.

Stare natural
&el mai abundent element metalic din scoara terestr i al treilea element chimic ca rspndire. Nu se "sete #n stare nativ, (iind #ntlnit doar #n combinaii sub (orm de minereuri, dintre care cei mai importani sunt6 silicaii i silicoaluminaii *7i128Al21389e2138:21 ar"ila, ;<Al7i31'= (eldspatul, Na<Al7i313=, albita, mica, etc.+ criolitul Na3<Al96= bau!ita Al1*1:+ o!idul de aluminiu6Al213. )n (uncie de impuritile coninute, o!idul de aluminiu poart urmtoarele denumiri6 corindon*incolor+, topa *"alben+, rubin*rou+, sa(ir*albastru+, ametist*violet+, smarald*verde+, mir"helul*ne"ru+. o!i i micti6 4"Al21$ spinel, >eAl21$ crisoberil >au!ita constituie minereul din care se e!tra"e peste 9/% din producia mondial de aluminiu. ,up coninutul lor #n aluminiu i (ier, bau!itele pot (i albe*(oarte bo"ate #n Al213, 6.-7.%+, roii *bo"ate #n 9e213, 2.-2/% i mai srace #n Al213, $.-6.%+ i cenuii *mai srace #n 9e213 i Al213 dect cele roii, dar mai bo"ate #n 7i12+. &ele mai mari cminte de bau!it se a(l #n 9rana.

Metode de obinere
Aluminiul poate (i ob?inut din Al213 sau din Al&l3 prin reducere cu metale. 2educerea nu se poate (ace cu carbon, deoarece s-ar (orma Al$&3. Al&l3 @ 3Na - Al @ 3Na&l

Andustrial, aluminiul poate (i ob?inut prin prelucrarea bau!itei, care poate avea loc #n 2 (a e6 3repararea aluminei *Al213+, proces prin care se separ alumina de celelalte impurit?i, precum 9e213, 7i12, 0i12, etc. Aceast preparare are loc prin procedeul >aBer, bau!ita (iind calcinata la temperatura de 7.. C& #ntr-un cuptor rotativ, #n scopul deshidratrii Di distru"erii materiilor or"anice. Are loc un proces de mcinare (in Di apoi o #ncl ire sub a"itare cu o solu?ie de Na1: concentrat #n autoclave a(late sub presiune de / atmos(ere Di temperaturi de 16.-1'. C&, timp de cteva ore. 1!idul de aluminiu trece #n solu?ie sub (orma aluminatului de sodiu, Na<Al*1:+$=. Amestecul se (iltrea , solu?ia de aluminat de sodiu (iind separat de noroaiele-roDii, bo"ate #n 9e213 Di aluminosilicatul de sodiu insolubil (ormat ca produs secundar, con(orm reac?iilor6 7i12@2Na1: E Na27i13@:21 2NaAl12 @ 2Na27i13 @ 2:21 E 3Na218Al213827i1282:21

Bibliografie 6
&himie anor"anic, 5.Aldea. Editura medical, >ucureti, 1999 A.Frecu, &himie anor"anic, Editura didactic i peda"o"ic, >ucureti, 196$

Aluminium
Aluminium *or aluminum+ is a chemical element in the boron "roup Gith sBmbol Al and atomic number 13. At is silverB Ghite, and it is not soluble in Gater under normal circumstances. Aluminium is the third most abundant element *a(ter o!B"en and silicon+, and the most abundant metal, in the EarthHs crust. At maIes up about '% bB Gei"ht o( the EarthHs solid sur(ace. Aluminium metal is so chemicallB reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to e!treme reducin" environments. Anstead, it is (ound combined in over 27. di((erent minerals. 0he chie( ore o( aluminium is bau!ite. Aluminium is remarIable (or the metalHs loG densitB and (or its abilitB to resist corrosion due to the phenomenon o( passivation. 7tructural components made (rom aluminium and its alloBs are vital to the aerospace industrB and are important in other areas o( transportation and structural materials. 0he most use(ul compounds o( aluminium, at least on a Gei"ht basis, are the o!ides and sul(ates.

,espite its prevalence in the environment, aluminium salts are not InoGn to be used bB anB (orm o( li(e. An Ieepin" Gith its pervasiveness, aluminium is Gell tolerated bB plants and animals. 1Gin" to their prevalence, potential bene(icial *or otherGise+ biolo"ical roles o( aluminium compounds are o( continuin" interest.

Natural occurrence
7table aluminium is created Ghen hBdro"en (uses Gith ma"nesium either in lar"e stars or in supernovae. An the EarthHs crust, aluminium is the most abundant *'.3% bB Gei"ht+ metallic element and the third most abundant o( all elements *a(ter o!B"en and silicon+. >ecause o( its stron" a((initB to o!B"en, it is almost never (ound in the elemental stateJ instead it is (ound in o!ides or silicates. 9eldspars, the most common "roup o( minerals in the EarthHs crust, are aluminosilicates. Native aluminium metal can onlB be (ound as a minor phase in loG o!B"en (u"acitB environments, such as the interiors o( certain volcanoes. Native aluminium has been reported in cold seeps in the northeastern continental slope o( the 7outh &hina 7ea and &hen et al. *2.11+ have proposed a theorB o( its ori"in as resultin" bB reduction (rom tetrahBdro!oaluminate Al*1:+$K to metallic aluminium bB bacteria. At also occurs in the minerals berBl, crBolite, "arnet, spinel and turLuoise. Ampurities in Al213, such as chromium or iron Bield the "emstones rubB and sapphire, respectivelB. Althou"h aluminium is an e!tremelB common and Gidespread element, the common aluminium minerals are not economic sources o( the metal. Almost all metallic aluminium is produced (rom the ore bau!ite *Al1!*1:+3K2!+. >au!ite occurs as a Geatherin" product o( loG iron and silica bedrocI in tropical climatic conditions. Mar"e deposits o( bau!ite occur in Australia, >ra il, Fuinea and Namaica and the primarB minin" areas (or the ore are in Australia, >ra il, &hina, Andia, Fuinea, Andonesia, Namaica, 2ussia and 7uriname.

3roduction
Aluminium (orms stron" chemical bonds Gith o!B"en. &ompared to most other metals, it is di((icult to e!tract (rom ore, such as bau!ite, due to the hi"h reactivitB o( aluminium and the hi"h meltin" point o( most o( its ores. 9or e!ample, direct reduction Gith carbon, as is used to produce iron, is not chemicallB possible because aluminium is a stron"er reducin" a"ent than carbon. Andirect carbothermic reduction can be carried out usin" carbon and Al213, Ghich (orms an intermediate Al$&3 and this can (urther Bield aluminium metal at a temperature o( 19..K2... C&. 0his process is still under developmentJ it reLuires less ener"B and Bields less &12 than the :all-:Oroult process, the maPor industrial process (or aluminium e!traction. ElectrolBtic smeltin" o( alumina Gas ori"inallB cost-prohibitive in part because o( the hi"h meltin" point o( alumina, or aluminium o!ide, *about 2,... C& *3,6.. C9++. 4anB minerals, hoGever, Gill dissolve into a second alreadB molten mineral, even i( the temperature o( the melt is si"ni(icantlB loGer than the meltin" point o( the (irst mineral. 4olten crBolite Gas discovered to dissolve alumina at temperatures si"ni(icantlB loGer than the meltin" point o( pure alumina Githout inter(erin" in the smeltin" process. An the :all-:Oroult process, alumina is (irst dissolved into molten crBolite Gith calcium (luoride and then electrolBticallB reduced to aluminium at a temperature betGeen 9/. and 9'. C& *1,7$. to 1,'.. C9+. &rBolite is a chemical compound o( aluminium and sodium

(luorides6 *Na3Al96+. Althou"h crBolite is (ound as a mineral in Freenland, its sBnthetic (orm is used in the industrB. 0he aluminium o!ide itsel( is obtained bB re(inin" bau!ite in the >aBer process. 0he electrolBtic process replaced the QRhler process, Ghich involved the reduction o( anhBdrous aluminium chloride Gith potassium. >oth o( the electrodes used in the electrolBsis o( aluminium o!ide are carbon. 1nce the re(ined alumina is dissolved in the electrolBte, it disassociates and its ions are (ree to move around. 0he reaction at the cathode is6 Al3@ @ 3 eS T Al :ere the aluminium ion is bein" reduced. 0he aluminium metal then sinIs to the bottom and is tapped o((, usuallB cast into lar"e blocIs called aluminium billets (or (urther processin". At the anode, o!B"en is (ormed6 2 12S T 12 @ $ eS 0o some e!tent, the carbon anode is consumed bB subseLuent reaction Gith o!B"en to (orm carbon dio!ide. 0he anodes in a reduction cell must there(ore be replaced re"ularlB, since theB are consumed in the process. 0he cathodes do erode, mainlB due to electrochemical processes and metal movement. A(ter (ive to ten Bears, dependin" on the current used in the electrolBsis, a cell has to be rebuilt because o( cathode Gear. Aluminium electrolBsis Gith the :all-:Oroult process consumes a lot o( ener"B, but alternative processes Gere alGaBs (ound to be less viable economicallB andUor ecolo"icallB. 0he GorldGide avera"e speci(ic ener"B consumption is appro!imatelB 1/V../ IiloGatt-hours per Iilo"ram o( aluminium produced */2 to /6 4NUI"+. 0he most modern smelters achieve appro!imatelB 12.' IQWhUI" *$6.1 4NUI"+. *&ompare this to the heat o( reaction, 31 4NUI", and the Fibbs (ree ener"B o( reaction, 29 4NUI".+ 2eduction line currents (or older technolo"ies are tBpicallB 1.. to 2.. IiloamperesJ stateo(-the-art smelters operate at about 3/. IA. 0rials have been reported Gith /.. IA cells . 0he :all-:eroult process produces aluminium Gith a puritB o( above 99%. 9urther puri(ication can be done bB the :oope process. 0he process involves the electrolBsis o( molten aluminium Gith a sodium, barium and aluminium (luoride electrolBte. 0he resultin" aluminium has a puritB o( 99.99%. Electric poGer represents about 2.% to $.% o( the cost o( producin" aluminium, dependin" on the location o( the smelter. Aluminium production consumes rou"hlB /% o( electricitB "enerated in the X.7. 7melters tend to be situated Ghere electric poGer is both plenti(ul and ine!pensive, such as the Xnited Arab Emirates Gith e!cess natural "as supplies and Aceland and NorGaB Gith ener"B "enerated (rom reneGable sources. 0he GorldHs lar"est smelters o( alumina are 3eopleHs 2epublic o( &hina, 2ussia, and Yuebec and >ritish &olumbia in &anada.

2e(erences 6
Altenpohl, ,ietrich. Aluminum 5ieGed (rom Qithin6 An Antroduction into the 4etallur"B o( Aluminum 9abrication *En"lish translation+. ,usseldor(6 Aluminium-5erla", 19'2. Mide, ,. 2. *2...+. Z4a"netic susceptibilitB o( the elements and inor"anic compoundsZ. &2& :andbooI o( &hemistrB and 3hBsics *'1st ed.+. &2& 3ress. A7>N .'$93.$'1$.

:elmboldt, 1. *2..7+. ZAluminum &ompounds, Anor"anicZ. XllmannHs EncBclopedia o( Andustrial &hemistrB. QileB-5&:. Elschenbroich, &. *2..6+. 1r"anometallics. QileB-5&:. A7>N 97'-3-/27-2939.-2.