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EFFECTS OF MINERAL AND ORGANIC FERTILISATION ON PRODUCTION AND FLORISTIC COMPOSITION IN A Festuca valesiaca L. GRASSLAND Ciobanu C.

1*, Vntu V.1, Samui C.1, Po!o"i#i I. C.1 an$ Sta"a%a#&' M.1
1

University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Iai, 700490, Iai, Ro ania * Corresponding author:ci!ryan"cio#anu$ya%oo&co

Abstract Mineral and organic fertilization of grasslands is the main way to increase the yield of dry matter and floristic diversity in Moldavia forest steppe. Fertilizarea cu ngraminte minerale i organice a pajitilor este principala cale de sporire a recoltei de substan uscat i a diversitaii floristice din silvostepa Moldovei. Application of organic and mineral fertilizers for a long time resulted in a high meadow biodiversity in the study area. Aplicarea ngrmintelor organice i minerale timp ndelungat a determinat o biodiversitate ridicat a pajitii din zona de studiu. !he objective of our wor" is to follow the effect of applying manure in combination with mineral fertilizers on productivity phytodiversity and Festuca valesiaca grasslands. #biectivul lucrrii noastre este de a urmrii efectul aplicrii gunoiului de grajd in asociere cu ngramintele minerale asupra fitodiversit$ii i productivit$ii pajitilor de 'estuca valesiaca& Monofactorial type e%perience is also a long&term e%perience is set by randomized bloc" method with ' variants ()* & unfertilized control )+ & *, t ha&* cattle manure annually - ./0 12, )/ & *, t ha&* cattle manure annually - 12,-2, .3+4 )5 & +, t ha&* cattle manure applied at + years - 12, ./0 )2 & +, t ha&* cattle manure applied at / years - 12,-2, .3+ )0 & /, t ha&* cattle manure applied at / years 12, ./0 )3 & /, t ha&* cattle manure applied at / years - 12,-2, .3+ )6 & 5, t ha&* cattle manure applied at / years - 12, ./0 )' & 5, t ha&* cattle manure applied at / years - 12,-2, .3+. 7%perien$a de tip monofactorial fiind deasemenea o e%perien de lung durat este amplasat dup metoda blocurilor randomizate cu ' variante ()* & unfertilized control )+ & *, t ha&* cattle manure annually - ./0 12, )/ & *, t ha&* cattle manure annually - 12,-2, .3+4 )5 & +, t ha&* cattle manure applied at + years - 12, ./0 )2 & +, t ha&* cattle manure applied at / years - 12,-2, .3+ )0 & /, t ha&* cattle manure applied at / years - 12, ./0 )3 & /, t ha&* cattle manure applied at / years - 12,-2, .3+ )6 & 5, t ha&* cattle manure applied at / years - 12, ./0 )' & 5, t ha&* cattle manure applied at / years - 12,-2, .3+. !he obtained results have shown the positive effects of fertilization on productivity foloristic diversity and canopy structure of the studied permanent grassland. Keywords( mineral fertilization manure productivity foloristic diversity canopy structure INTRODUCTION 8eyond their contributions to the production of meat and mil" permanent grassland offers a number of social and environmental benefits.

9incolo de contribu$iile lor la produc$ia de carne i lapte pajitile permanente ofer un numr de presta$ii sociale i de mediu. :ompared to arable land grassland helps to improved soil conservation against erosion reduce nutrient leaching to groundwater and surface ();1!< ). et Al. +,,5= and contribute to flood control.. :omparativ cu terenul arabil pajitea ajut la o mai bun conservare a solului mpotriva eroziunii reduce levigarea de nutrien$i n apele subterane i de suprafa$ ();1!< ). et Al. +,,5= i contribuie la controlul inunda$iilor. >n the debate on climate change caused by global warming meadows were classified as an important carbon sin" by storing it in greater ?uantity in comparison with arable land (>.:: +,,,=. ;n cadrul dezbaterilor privind schimbrile climatice cauzate de efectul de ser pajitile au fost clasificate ca un depozit de carbon important prin stocarea acestuia n cantitate mai mare n compara$ie cu terenurile arabile (>.:: +,,,=. Moreover the meadows are a characteristic element of the 7uropean cultural landscape playing an important role in maintaining semi&natural habitats using traditional agricultural practices vital for biodiversity protection (@9A1#A>:@ +,,2=. Mai mult pajitile constituie un element caracteristic al peisajelor cultural europene avBnd un rol important n ntre$inerea semi&habitatelor naturale prin utilizarea practicilor agricole tradi$ionale vitale pentru protec$ia biodiversit$ii (@9A1#A>:@ +,,2=. !he diminution of the productive potential of the permanent grasslands from north&eastern Comania which are found at a percent of over 3,D

on slope fields is caused by erosion at which unfavourable climatic conditions and their wrong management may be added (Eamuil :. et al. +,*,=. MATERIALS AND MET)ODS !his e%periment set on a meadow of 'estuca valesiaca F. of the forest steppe of Moldavia is situated on a slightly sloping ground with 17 orientation chernozem soil type wea" leachate loam&clay te%ture humus content of 5.+ to 5.6D medium supplied with mobile phosphorus (/,&/3 ppm= and very well supplied with mobile potassium (+/2&/+, ppm.= pG 0.2 to 0.' in ,&+, cm soil layer. !he e%periment is monofactorial set up by the method of randomized bloc"s in three replicates with the objective of studying the role of organic and mineral fertilizers combined in different doses in increasing forage production and improving floristic composition. Ae used the following fertilization ratesH )* & unfertilized control )+ & *, t ha&* cattle manure annually - ./0 12, )/ & *, t ha&* cattle manure annually 12,-2, .3+4 )5 & +, t ha&* cattle manure applied at + years - 12, ./0 )2 & +, t ha&* cattle manure applied at / years - 12,-2, .3+ )0 & /, t ha&* cattle manure applied at / years - 12, ./0 )3 & /, t ha&* cattle manure applied at / years - 12,-2, .3+ )6 & 5, t ha&* cattle manure applied at / years - 12, ./0 )' & 5, t ha&* cattle manure applied at / years 12,-2, .3+. :attle manure was applied in the fall annually *, t ha&* at + years (+, t ha&*= and at / years (/,&5, t ha&*= nitrogen fertilizers were applied in spring at the start of

vegetation and the phosphorus in the fall. :attle manure used had the following compositionH 1&, 552 D .+#2&, +*+ D i I+#&, 0'2 D. Eampling and vegetation studies were done in earing&flowering of dominant grasses the results were interpreted statistically by analysis of variance and limit differences. Floristic studies were carried out with 8raun& 8lan?uet method.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fertilizarea pajitii permanente slab productive cu ngrminte organice i minerale a avut un efect favorabil asupra sporirii fitomasei i mbunt$irii

compozi$iei floristice. 1ivelul produc$iilor a fost diferen$iat n func$ie de dozele folosite i de combina$iile acestora. Fow productive permanent meadow fertilization organic and mineral fertilizers had a positive effect on increasing and improving fitomasei floristic composition. .roduction level was different depending on the doses used and combinations thereof. Fa fertilizarea pajitii cu *, tJha gunoi de grajd n asociere cu 12, ./0 s&a nregistrat o produc$ie ridicat (/.00 tJha= reprezentBnd o cretere de 3' D fa$ de martor (ta#le 1=. .asture fertilization with *, t J ha manure in combination with 12, ./0 was a high yield (/.00 t J ha= representing an increase of 3' D compared to the control (table *=.

!able * !he influence of organic and mineral fertilization rates on dry matter (9M= yield in +,*+
P%o$u#tion Di++'%'n#' DM t F'%ti i*ation "a%iant &a-1 . t &a-1 <nfertilized plot (control plot= +.,2 *,, & &* *, t ha manure every year - 12, ./0 /.00 *3' *.0* *, t ha&* manure every year - 12, - 2, .3+ /.'* *', *.60 +, t ha&* manure every + years - 1/0 .12 +.35 *// ,.0' &* +, t ha manure every + years - 1/0 3 /0 .45 /.,, *50 ,.'2 /, t ha&* manure every / years - 1/0 .124 /.22 *3/ *.2, &* /, t ha manure every / years - 1/0 3 /0 .45 5.*+ +,, +.,3 5, t ha&* manure every / years - 1/0 .12 +.66 *5* ,.6/ 5, t ha&* manure every / years - 1/0 3 /0 .45 +.'' *50 ,.'5 () *+ , 0&*0 t-%a. () 1+ , 0&/9 t-%a. () 0,1+ , 0&9* t-%a

Si,ni+i#an#' KKK KKK KK KKK KKK KKK KK KK

Fa aplicarea suplimentar a nc unei doze de 12, dup prima recoltare produc$ia nu a nregistrat o cretere azotul neputBnd fi utilizat de ctre plante din cauza

secetei. Eporul de produc$ie a fost n acest caz de numai 0/ +& Ahen applying additional dose of 12, yet after the first harvest production has not increased the nitrogen can not be

used by plants due to drought. .roduction growth in this case was only 60 D. Fa fertilizarea cu +, t gunoi de grajd i 12, ./0 sporul de produc$ie a fost de numai // D iar la asocierea cu 12, - 2, .3+ sporul a fost de 50D. Fertilization with +, t farmyard manure and ./0 12, production growth was only //D and the association with 12, - 2, .3+ the increase was50D. Aplicarea a /, t gunoi de grajd mpreun cu cele dou doze de ngraminte minerale sporurile de produc$ie au fost de 3/&*,,D iar la fertilizarea cu 5, t gunoi de grajd mpreun cu cele dou doze de ngrimintele minerale sporurile de produc$ie au fost de 5*&50D. Application of /, t manure with two doses of fertilizers production increases were 3/&*,,D and fertilization with 5, t manure with two doses of mineral fertilisers production increases were 5*&50D. 9e remarcat faptul c sporurile de produc$ie la aplicarea /,&5, tJha gunoi de grajd s&au datorat mai ales gunoiului ngrmintele minerale avBnd o influen$ mic deoarece din lipsa precipita$iilor azotul i fosforul nu au intrat n circuitul nutritiv al plantelor. 1ote that production increases in application /,&5, t J ha manure were due mostly garbage mineral fertilizers with little influence because of lac" of nitrogen and phosphorus precipitation did not enter the plant nutrient cycle.

Etructura floristic a avut mici modificri ca efect al fertilizrii. E&a constatat c cea mai mare pondere n structura floristic o au gramineele (2*L 6,D= astfel cele mai mari valoari au fost la nregistrate la variantele fertilizate cu /, t gunoi combinat cu 1/0 3 /0 .45 (35&6,D= (figure 1=. Floristic structure was slightly modified as a result of fertilization. >t was found that the largest share of floristic structure have grasses (2*&6,D= as the highest value were recorded in the variant fertilized with /, t manure combined with .3+ 12, - 2, (35&6,D= (Figure *=. Epeciile diverse sunt reprezentate de un procent destul de mic (**&+/D= aceasta artBnd o valoare furajer bun a pajitii din acest punct de vedere. .onderea speciilor de leguminoase a fost de 6&+3D mai ridicat la variantele )' (+5D= )2 (+0D= i )6 (+3D= i cea mai sczut la )3 (6D= i )/ )5 (**D=. # botanical families are represented by a small percentage (**&+*.2D= it showing an improved pasture forage value from this point of view. Ehare legume species was 6& +3D higher in variants )' (+5D= )2 (+0D= and )6 (+3D= and lowest in )3 (6D= and )/ )5 (**D =.

Figure * >nfluence of organic and mineral fertilization on floristic composition

;n compozi$ia floristic au fost determinate ' specii de graminee perene *5 specii de leguminoase i /2 specii din alte familii botanice (ta#le 1=. Mradul de acoperire cu vegeta$ie al pajitii este foarte bun ('6& *,,D=. >n floristic composition were
determined ' species of perennial grasses *5 species of legumes and /2 species from other

botanical families (table +=. :overage of meadow vegetation is very good ('6&*,,D=.

!able + >nfluence of organic and mineral fertilization on floristic composition


S!'#i'6 Agropyron repens Arrhenatherum elatius 8romus inermis 9actylis glomerata Festuca pratensis Festuca valesiaca Folium perenne .oa pratensis Ioeleria macrantha %oaceae :oronilla varia Fathyrus touberosus Fotus corniculatus Medicago falcata V1 * *5 , *2 , *0.2 + +* , !$& ,.2 * ,.2 * V2 V3 , * +, /, / , *3 +, , * *, *6 +.2 ,.2 *+ , , , !4& "'& , , , , , * + / G%oun$ #o"'% 7.8 V4 V V! V" ,.2 / , 2 5, */ 6 ' , , , , *6 *' +2 +5 ,.2 ,.2 0 + ' 6 ' *2 , 2.2 , , 2 + +0 +2 , , , , "3 1 "4 #' , ,.2 ,.2 * , , , , * / ,.2 ,.2 / 5 + ,.2 V# ,.2 *5 , *5 ,.2 *+ ,.2 *2 + #& , , , / V$ 6 , ,.2 2 , *6 0 ++ ,.2 !' , ,.2 , 6

Medicago lupulina #nonis arvensis #nobrychis viciifolia !rifolium campestre !rifolium pratense !rifolium repens !rifolium montanum !rigonella caerulea )icia cracca )icia sativa Fabaceae Ajuga genevensis Agrimonia euptoria Achillea millefolium Alium rotundum :ardaria draba :are% distans :are% hirta :are% preco% :onvolvulus arvensis :entaurea jacea :erastium glomeratum :haerophyllum bulbosa :ichorium intybus :uscuta trifolii :repis bienns :repis setosa 9aucus carota 9ianthus caryophyllus 7ryngium campestre 7uphorbia agraria Fragaria viridis Filipendula vulgaris Malium verum Mlechoma hederacea Gieracium bauhinii Myosotis micrantna .otentilla argentea .otentilla recta Canunculus polynanthemos Cume% crispus Ealvia nemorosa !ara%acum officinale !ragopogon pratensis )eronica arvensis )eronica chamaedrys (ther botanical )a*ilies +round cover ,-. +apes ,-.

, * ,.2 ,.2 * ,.2 ,.2 , + *+ + , , , ,.2 , ,.2 , * * 11 1" ,.2 , ,.2 ,.2 * + , ,.2 , , , , ,.2 ,.2 ,.2 , , ,.2 2 0 ,.2 , ,.2 ,.2 , , , ,.2 / , , / ,.2 ,.2 , , , , , , , ,.2 , ,.2 ,.2 , ,.2 ,.2 , , , , , , ,.2 ,.2 + * ,.2 , , , ,.2 ,.2 ,.2 , ,.2 , ,.2 ,.2 1#& 1#& $$ 1'' 1 '

, , , * 5 , , , * * 11 , , , ,.2 , , * , , *+ , , , , , , , , , , ,.2 ,.2 * , , * ,.2 ,.2 * , * , , , , 21& 1'' '

, , * ,.2 / , , , *.2 * 11 ,.2 , * , , ,.2 , , ,.2 3 + , ,.2 ,.2 , , , ,.2 , , ,.2 * * , , , , , ,.2 , , , , , , 1! 1'' '

, ,.2 , , */ , + , , / 2! , , , ,.2 , *.2 ,.2 ,.2 * 0 , , ,.2 , , , , , , 5 * ,.2 / , , , * , + , , , * , , 23 1'' '

, * ,.2 ,.2 6 , * ,.2 , ,.2 1 , , + , , , , , , / ,.2 , , , , , ,.2 , , , ,.2 ,.2 + , , , ,.2 ,.2 ,.2 , , , ,.2 , , 11 1'' '

, * , , 2 , , , ,.2 * # , ,.2 / ,.2 , ,.2 , , ,.2 /.2 , , ,.2 , ,.2 , ,.2 ,.2 , , ,.2 , ,.2 , , , , , ,.2 , , , , , , 12 1'' '

, ,.2 , ,.2 +* , , , * * 2" , ,.2 * , , , , , * 5 , , ,.2 , , , , ,.2 , , ,.2 ,.2 / , , , ,.2 , * , , , , , , 13 $#& 1&

, , , , */ , ,.2 , * * 24 , ,.2 + , * , , , , 5 , , ,.2 , , , , ,.2 * , + ,.2 , , ,.2 , ,.2 ,.2 , , , ,.2 , , , 14 $# 2

/otal ,-. 0u*ber o) species 0ew species 1ost species

1'' 1'' 1'' 1'' 1'' 1'' 1'' 1'' 1'' 3" 2$ 23 2! 2# 2! 2! 2 2! ' # " # 1' " # 11 ' 1! 21 11 1$ 1! 1! 2' 21

;n figura + este redat gradul de acoperire al principalelor specii din pajite cele mai raspBndite plante din cele trei grupe. Astfel 'estuca valesiaca F. are o pondere relativ constant n toate variantele (6&*6D= (actylis glo erata F. cu o pondere mare la variantele de fertilizare )3 )0 (+5&+2D= Arr%enat%eru elatius F. cu pondere foarte mare la variantele )/ )5 (/,&5,D= i 2oa !ratensis F. la variantele )3 )0 (+2&+0D=.

>n Figure + is shown the coverage of main species of meadow plants most widespread of the three groups. !hus Festuca valesiaca F. is a relatively constant in all variants (6&*6D= 9actylis glomerata F. with a high percentage of fertilization variants )3 )0 (+5&+2D= Arrhenatherum elatius F. with high share the variants )/ )5 (/,&5,D= and .oa pratensis F. to variations )3 )0 (+2&+0D=.

Figure + >nfluence of organic and mineral fertilization on the main species coverage in the vegetal canopy

9intre leguminoase o pondere mai mare a de$inut&o specia Medicago falcata F. n variantele )2 )' (5&6D= i specia 3rifoliu !ratense F. n variant )' +*D. 9intre speciile diverse dominant a fost 4entaurea 5acea F. cu pondere de /&*+D

urmat de Ac%illea illefoliu F. cu *&/D la )5 )6. #f pulses a higher proportion of Medicago falcata held a variant F. )2 )' (5&6D= and species !rifolium pratense F. variant )' +*D. #f different dominant

species was :entaurea F. Nace with /&*+D

share followed by Achillea millefolium F. with *&/D in )5 )6.

Figure / Epecies evolution

>n ceea ce priveste evolu$ia numrului de specii rezultatele obtinute in urma observatiilor pe vegetatie nu sunt incurajatoare daca ar fi sa privim din prisma diversitatii floristice deoarece numarul de specii ce au intrat componenta covorului vegetal este foarte scazut comparativ cu numarul de specii ce au iesit din componenta acestuia. >nsa din punct de vedere al calitatii pajistii si ma refer aici la compozitia floristica speciile nevaloroase au inlocuite de specii cu valoare ridicata. CONCLUSIONS !he obtained 9M yields were influenced by climatic conditions type and level of organic and mineral fertilization. !he highest yields were obtained at the fertilization with 5, t ha&* cattle manure

Cegarding the evolution number of species (figure 6= the results obtained from observations on vegetation are not encouraging if you were to loo" in terms of floristic diversity as the number of species that have entered the vegetation component is very low compared to the number of species that emerged of its composition. 8ut in terms of ?uality pasture and > refer to floristic composition species have replaced worthless high value species.

applied every / years- 12, - 2, "g ha& * -.3+ "g ha&*. !he obtained results have shown the positive effects of fertilization on productivity foloristic diversity and canopy structure of the studied permanent grassland.

!he permanent grasslands of 'estuca valesiaca F. from Comania react very well to the fertilization which may be an important measure of recovering permanent grasslands. From the obtained data we observed that considering the climate conditions the fertilization can induce relatively high

productions related to the applied fertilizersO doses and types. !he fertilization and way of control has a high influence on phytocoenotic diversity on rate of species in the structure of vegetation and dominant species in the canopy.

A#9no: '$,m'nt6 !his wor" was published during the project P9#:!#CAF E:G##F #F AMC>:<F!<C7 A19 )7!7C>1ACQ M79>:>17R .#E9C<J:..*,3J9M>*.2JEJ33+++ co&financed by the 7uropean Eocial Fund through the Eectorial #perational .rogramme for the Guman Cesources 9evelopment +,,3&+,*/.

REFERENCES * + / 5 >.::& >ntergovernamental .anel on :limate :hange +,,, Epecial Ceport 7missions Ecenarios >E81H'+&'*0'&**/&2. EAM<>F :. et al. +,*, & I !rove ent of !er anent grasslands in t%e 78 Ro ania& .roceeding of the *2st Eymposium of the 7uropean Mrassland Federation 8rno pp +/5& +/3. );1!< ). AF. M#>E<: MG. M#!:S >. C#!AC. +,,5. :ultura pajitilor i a plantelor furajere 7ditura T>on >onescu de la 8rad U >ai @9A1#A>:@ AMA!A. +,,2. Fand Abandonment 8iodiversity and the :A. 7d. Eervice for Fand and Aater Management