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Modulul I – Engleza incepatori

Prezentul Simplu ( Present Simple )

I. Prezentul simplu se formeaza astfel:

1. Afirmativ:

Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv ( fara to ) + restul propozitiei neschimbata.

Atentie !

 La pers. a III a sg se adauga la infinitivul verbului OBLIGATORIU terminatia “ s “.


 Terminatia “ es “ se foloseste cand verbul se termina in s, x, z, sh, ch, tch,o: to watch - he watches.
 Verbele terminate in “ y “ precedat de o consoana schimba “ y “ in “ i “ si se adauga “ es “: to try –
he tries.

o I go to work by car. - Eu merg la servici cu masina.


o He often runs. – El alearga uneori.
o Every day he is a good person. – In fiecare zi el este o persoana buna.
o He usually has five books in his bookcase. - De obicei el are cinci carti in biblioteca.
o This Summer we can learn English. – In aceasta vara noi putem invata engleza.

2. Interogativ:

a) Daca verbul este fie TO BE, TO HAVE sau CAN interogativul se formeaza astfel:

Verbul la infinitiv scurt ( be, have sau can ) + Subiect + restul propozitiei neschimbata

o Is he every day a good person? – Este el in fiecare zi o persoana buna?


o Has he usually five books in his bookcase? – Are el de obicei cinci carti in biblioteca?
o Can we this Summer learn English? – Putem noi in aceasta vara sa invatam engleza?

b) Daca verbul nu este cel din lista de mai sus ( to be, to have sau can ), interogativul se formeaza astfel:

Do / Does + Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv ( fara to ) + restul propozitiei neschimbata

o Do I go to work by car? - Merg eu la servici cu masina?


o Does he run often? – Alearga el uneori?

Atentie!

 La pers. a III a sg la interogativ se pune “ does “ si nu se mai adauga la infinitivul verbului


NICIODATA terminatia “ s ”, care se adauga obligatoriu la afirmativ.

3. Negativ:

a) Daca verbul este fie TO BE, TO HAVE sau CAN negativul se formeaza astfel:

Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv ( be, have sau can ) + not + restul propozitiei neschimbata

 are + not = aren’t is + not = isn’t


 have + not = haven’t has + not = hasn’t
 can + not = can’t
o Every day he isn’t a good person. – In fiecare zi el nu este o persoana buna.
o He usually hasn’t five books in his bookcase. - De obicei el nu are cinci carti in biblioteca.
o This Summer we can’t learn English. – In aceasta vara noi nu putem invata engleza.
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Modulul I – Engleza incepatori

b) Daca verbul nu este cel din lista de mai sus ( to be, to have sau can ), negativul se formeaza astfel:

Subiect + Do / Does + not + Verbul la infinitiv + restul propozitiei neschimbata

 do + not = don’t does + not = doesn’t

o I don’t go to work by car. - Eu nu merg la serviciu cu masina.


o He often doesn’t run. – El adesea nu alearga.

Atentie!

 La pers. a III a sg la negativ se pune “doesn’t“ si nu se mai adauga la infinitivul verbului terminatia
“s”, care se adauga obligatoriu la afirmativ.

TO PLAY TO BE
Afirmativ I often play tennis. I am a good person every day.
You often play tennis . You are a good person every day.
He / She often plays tennis . He / She is a good person every day.
We often play tennis. We are a good person every day.
You often play tennis . You are a good person every day.
They often play tennis. They are a good person every day.

Interogativ Do I often play tennis? Am I a good person every day ?


Do you often play tennis? Are you a good person every day ?
Does he / she often play tennis? Is he / she a good person every day ?
Do we often play tennis? Are we a good person every day ?
Do you often play tennis? Are you a good person every day ?
Do they often play tennis? Are they a good person every day ?

Negativ I often don’t play tennis. I am not a good person every day.
You often don’t play tennis. You aren’t a good person every day.
He / she often doesn’t play tennis. He / she isn’t a good person every day.
We often don’t play tennis We aren’t a good person every day.
You often don’t play tennis. You aren’t a good person every day.
They often don’t play tennis. They aren’t a good person every day.

II. Prezentul simplu se foloseste pentru:

1. actiuni obisnuite, repetate fixate prin adverbe sau locutiuni adverbiale ca: every day, usually, rarely,
sometimes, once a week, often, every year etc.

o I usualy watch TV. – De obicei ma uit la TV.


o We play tennis every day. – Noi jucam tenis in fiecare zi.
o He doesn’t smoke but he drinks a lot. – El nu fumeaza dar bea mult.

2. actiuni generale care au loc intr-un moment nespecificat, dar care include si momentul vorbirii.
Adverbele folosite sunt: always, never, ever.

o Sun shines. – Soarele rasare.


o Birds fly. – Pasarile zboara.
o Wood always floats in the water. - Lemnul intotdeauna pluteste pe apa.
o Water freezes at 00 C and boils at 1000 C. – Apa ingheata la 00 C si fierbe la 1000 C.

3. viitorul pentru:

a) exprimarea datei:
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Modulul I – Engleza incepatori

o Tomorrow is Sunday.- Maine este duminica.

b) actiunie planificate, aranjamente de viitor folosite cu verbe de miscare ( go, come, leave ) sau verbe ca
begin, start, finish:

o The bus for Bucharest leaves at 12.15 on Monday.- Autobuzul pentru Bucuresti pleaca Luni la 12.15.

c) subordonate de timp ( introduse de after, before ) sau conditionale ( introduse de if, in case ):

o If it rains I will stay home. - Daca ploua, voi sta in casa.

4. o scuccesiune de evenimente scurte:

o We open de door, come in and turn on the light. – Noi deschidem usa, intram si aprindem lumina.

5. un trecut pentru povestiri sau cu verbele tell, learn, write

o One day the girl goes to the woods.- Intr-o zi fata mergea in padure.

Atentie!

 Daca in propozitie nu se regaseste nici una din situatiile de folosire a prezentului simplu se va
folosi INOTDEAUNA PREZENTUL CONTINUU.

Prezentul Continuu ( Present Continuous )

I. Prezentul continuu se formeaza astfel:


1. Afirmativ:

Subiect + TO BE conjugat la prezent + Verbul la infinitiv ( fara to ) +vb in terminatia “ ing” + restul
propozitiei neschimbata

o I am going to work by car today. - Eu merg la serviciu cu masina azi.


o He is running. – El alearga.
o You are having a coffee now. – Tu bei cafea acum.

2. Interogativ:

TO BE conjugat la prezent + Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv ( fara to ) + terminatia “ ing” + restul propozitiei
neschimbata

o Am I going to work by car today?. - Merg eu la serviciu cu masina azi?


o Is he running? – Alearga el?
o Are you having a coffee now? – Bei o cafea acum?

3. Negativ:

Subiect + TO BE conjugat la prezent + not + Verbul la infinitiv ( fara to ) + terminatia “ ing” + restul
propozitiei neschimbata

 are + not = aren’t is + not = isn’t


 I + am = I’m

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o I’m not going to work by car today. - Eu nu merg la serviciu cu masina azi.
o He isn’t running. – El nu alearga.
o You aren’t having a coffee now. – Tu nu bei cafea acum.

Atentie !

 “ y “ final se pastreaza, chiar daca e precedat de consoana sau vocala: study - studying, play – playing
 “ ie “ final se transforma in “ y “ : die - dying ( a muri ) , lie - lying ( a minti )
 “ e “ final se pierde: have – having ; exceptii: see - seeing, be – being
 consoana finala se dubleaza daca vocala precedenta e scurta si accentuata: stop – stopping

  TO PLAY TO STOP
Afirmativ I’m playing tennis.  I’m stopping work. 
You are playing tennis. You are stopping work. .
He / she is playing tennis. He / she is stopping work. .
We are playing tennis. We are stopping work. .
You are playing tennis. You are stopping work. .
They are playing tennis. They are stopping work. .

Interogativ Am I playing tennis? Am I stopping work?


Are you playing tennis? Are you stopping work?
Is  he / she playing tennis? Is  he / she stopping work?
Are we playing tennis? Are we stopping work?
Are you playing tennis? Are you stopping work?
Are they playing tennis? Are they stopping work?

Negativ I’m not playing tennis. I‘m not stopping work.


You aren’t playing tennis. You aren’t stopping work.
He / she isn’t playing tennis. He / she isn’t stopping work.
We aren’t playing tennis. We aren’t stopping work.
You aren’t playing tennis. You aren’t stopping work.
They aren’t playing tennis. They aren’t stopping work.

2. Prezentul continuu se foloseste pentru:

1. a descrie o actiune in curs de desfasurare in momentul vorbirii fixata prin adverbe sau locutiuni
adverbiale cum ar fi: now, at the moment, these days, this week, today, tonight

o Look! He is washing his car now- Priveste! El isi spala masina acum.
o What are you doing there? - Ce faci acolo?

2. actiuni care se desfasoara pe o perioada mai mare de timp, incluzand si momentul vorbirii

John is studying Maths for his exam. – John studiaza matematica pentru examen.
My brother is writting a book. – Fratele meu scrie o carte.

3. o actiune viitoare, prevazuta sau programata:

o They are buying a new house in May. - Ei isi cumpara o casa noua in luna mai.
o What are you doing next Monday? - Ce faci lunea viitoare?

4. a exprima iritarea sau dezaprobarea impreuna cu always:

o She is always coming in when we talk something important. - Intotdeauna trebuie sa intre in camera fix
cand vorbim noi lucruri importante.

5. a descrie pozitiile corpului


o She is standing. - Ea sta in picioare.

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Trecutul Simplu ( Past Tense Simple )

Trecutul simplu se foloseste pentru a exprima actiuni incheiate in trecut. Exprima o actiune care a avut loc la un moment
dat in trecut, iar perioada de timp s-a incheiat.

Trecutul simplu se foloseste cu urmatoarele adverbe sau locutiuni adverbiale, care se aseaza la sfarsitul propozitiei:

 yesterday – ieri last year – anul trecut


 four days ago - acum 4 zile last week - saptamana trecuta
 last season – sezonul trecut last night – noaptea trecuta
 last month – luna trecuta last summer – vara trecuta
 etc

I. Trecutul simplu se formeaza astfel:

1. Afirmativ:

a) la verbele regulate:

Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv ( fara to ) + terminatia “ ed” + restul propozitiei neschimbata.

o We played in the park yesterday. – Noi ne-am jucat in parc ieri.


o They learned English last year. – Ei au invatat engleza anul trecut.

b) la verbele neregulate:

Subiect + forma a doua a verbului din tabel + restul propozitiei neschimbata.

o You were there four days ago. – Tu ai fost acolo acum patru zile
o He wrote a book last month. – El a scris o carte luna trecuta.
o You had five books in bookcase last night. Tu ai avut cinci carti in biblioteca seara trecuta.
o We could run faster then last time . – Noi am putut sa alergam mai repede decat data trecuta.

2. Interogativ:

a) Daca verbul este fie TO BE, TO HAVE sau CAN interogativul se formeaza astfel:

Verbul la trecutul simplu ( be, have sau can ) + Subiect + restul propozitiei neschimbata

o Were you there four days ago? – Ai fost acolo acum patru zile?
o Had you five books in bookcase last night? - A avut el cinci carti in biblioteca seara trecuta?
o Could we run faster last time? – Am putut noi sa alergam mai repede decat data trecuta?

b) Daca verbul nu este cel din lista de mai sus ( to be, to have sau can ), interogativul se formeaza astfel:

Did + Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv ( fara to ) + restul propozitiei neschimbata.

o Did we play in the park yesterday ? – Ne-am jucat in parc ieri?


o Did they learn English last year ? – Au invatat ei engleza anul trecut?

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3. Negativ:

a) Daca verbul este fie TO BE, TO HAVE sau CAN negativul se formeaza astfel:

Subiect + Verbul la trecutul simplu ( be, have sau can ) + not + restul propozitiei neschimbata

 was + not = wasn’t were + not = weren’t


 had + not = hadn’t
 could + not = couldn’t

o You weren’t there four days ago. – Tu nu ai fost acolo acum patru zile
o He hadn’t five books in bookcase last night. – El nu a avut cinci carti in biblioteca seara trecuta.
o We couldn’t run faster last time. – Noi nu am putut sa alergam mai repede decat data trecuta.

b) Daca verbul nu este cel din lista de mai sus ( to be, to have sau can ), negativul se formeaza astfel:

Subiect + Did + not + Verbul la infinitiv ( fara to ) + restul propozitiei neschimbata.

 did + not = didn’t

o We didn’t play in the park yesterday. – Noi nu ne-am jucat in parc ieri.
o They didn’t learn English last year. – Ei nu au invatat engleza anul trecut.

Verbe regulate Verbe neregulate


TO PLAY TO BE

Afirmativ I played tennis last week. I was on vacantion last year .


You played tennis last week. You were on vacantion last year. 
He / she played tennis last week. He / she was on vacantion last year.
We played tennis last week. We were on vacantion last year.
You played tennis last week. You were on vacantion last year.
They played tennis last week. They were on vacantion last year.
   
Interogativ Did I play tennis last week? Was I on vacantion last year?
Did you play tennis last week? Were you on vacantion last year?
Did he / she play tennis last week? Was he / she on vacantion last year?
Did we play tennis last week? Were we on vacantion last year?
Did you play tennis last week? Were you on vacantion last year?
Did they play tennis last week? Were they on vacantion last year?
   
Negativ I didn’t play tennis last week. I wasn’t on vacantion last year.
You didn’t play tennis last week. You weren’t on vacantion last year.
He / she didn’t play tennis last week. He / she wasn’t on vacantion last year.
We didn’t play tennis last week. We weren’t on vacantion last year.
You didn’t play tennis last week. You weren’t on vacantion last year.
They didn’t play tennis last week. They weren’t on vacantion last year.
   

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Trecutul Continuu ( Past Continuous Tense )

Trecutul continuu este folosit pentru:

1. a exprima actiuni care au avut loc ( trecut simplu ) in timp ce o alta actiune era in desfasurare

o I was watching TV when my brother came in screaming. - Ma uitam la TV cand fratele meu a intrat tipand.

2. a indica o actiune in desfasurare care este intrerupta de o alta

o I was learning a book while you were sleeping. - Eu am citit o carte in timp ce tu dormeai.

Trecutul continuu se formeaza astfel:

1. Afirmativ:

Subiect + was / were + Verbul la infinitiv + terminatia "-ing"

o I was playing in the park. – Eu m-am jucat in parc.


o You were being there. – Tu ai fost acolo.
o He was writting a book. – El a scris o carte.

2. Interogativ:

Was / Were + Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv + terminatia "-ing"

o Was I playing in the park? – M-am jucat in parc?


o Were you being there? – Ai fost acolo?
o Was he writting a book? – A scris el o carte?

3. Negativ:

Subiect + was / were + not + Verbul la infinitiv + terminatia "-ing"

 was + not = wasn’t were + not = weren’t


o I wasn’t playing in the park. – Eu nu m-am jucat in parc.
o You weren’t being there. – Tu nu ai fost acolo.
o He wasn’t writting a book. – El nu a scris o carte.

  Verbe regulate Verbe neregulate


TO PLAY TO BE
Afirmativ I was playing tennis.  I was being there.
You were playing tennis. You were being there
He / she was playing tennis. He / she was being there.
We were playing tennis. We were being there.
You were playing tennis. You were being there.
They were playing tennis. They were being there.

Interogativ Was I playing tennis? Was I being there?


Were you playing tennis? Were you being there?
Was  he / she playing tennis? Was  he / she being there?
Were we playing tennis? Were we being there?
Were you playing tennis? Were you being there?
Were they playing tennis? Were they being there?

Negativ I wasn’t playing tennis.  I wasn’t being there.


You weren’t playing tennis. You weren’t being there.

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He / she wasn’t playing tennis. He/she wasn’t being there.


We weren’t playing tennis. We weren’t being there.
You weren’t playing tennis. You weren’t being there.
They weren’t playing tennis. They weren’t being there.

Viitorul ( Future )

Viitorul se foloseste cand urmeaza o actiune care o sa se petreaca.

I. Viitorul se formeaza astfel:

1. Afirmativ:

a) Viitor 1

Subiect + will + Verbul la infinitiv ( fara to ) + restul propozitiei neschimbata.

o We will play in the park. – Noi ne vom juca in parc.


o They will learn English. – Ei vor invata engleza.
o You will be there tomorrow. – Tu vei fi acolo maine.
o He will write a book. – El va scrie o carte.
o You will have five books in bookcase. - Tu vei avea cinci carti in biblioteca.

b) Viitor 2

Subiect + TO BE + going to + Verbul la infinitiv ( fara to ) + restul propozitiei neschimbata.

o going to - forma care se foloseste cu intelesul de “ intentionez sa “

o We are going to play in the park. – Noi intentionam sa ne jucam in parc.


o They are going to learn English. – Ei intentioneaza sa invete engleza.
o You are going to be there tomorrow. – Tu intentionezi sa fi acolo maine.
o He is going to write a book. – El intentioneaza sa scrie o carte.
o You are going to have five books in bookcase. - Tu intentionezi sa ai cinci carti in biblioteca.

2. Interogativ:

a) Viitor 1

Will + Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv ( fara to ) + restul propozitiei neschimbata.

o Will we play in the park? – Ne vom juca noi in parc?


o Will they learn English? – Vor invata ei engleza?
o Will you be there tomorrow? – Vei fi acolo maine?
o Will he write a book? – Va scrie el o carte?
o Will you have five books in bookcase? – Vei avea cinci carti in biblioteca?

b) Viitor 2

TO BE + Subiect + going to + Verbul la infinitiv ( fara to ) + restul propozitiei neschimbata.

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o Are we going to play in the park? – Intentionam noi sa ne jucam in parc?


o Are they going to learn English? – Intentioneaza ei sa invete engleza?
o Are you going to be there tomorrow? – Intentionezi sa fi acolo maine?
o Is he going to write a book? - Intentioneaza el sa scrie o carte?
o Are you going to have five books in bookcase? - Intentionezi sa ai cinci carti in biblioteca?

3. Negativ:

a) Viitor 1

Subiect + will + not + Verbul la infinitiv ( fara to ) + restul propozitiei neschimbata.

o will + not = won’t

o We won’t play in the park. – Noi nu ne vom juca in parc.


o They won’t learn English. – Ei nu vor invata engleza.
o You won’t be there tomorrow. – Tu nu vei fi acolo maine.
o He won’t write a book. – El nu va scrie o carte.
o You won’t have five books in bookcase. - Tu nu vei avea cinci carti in biblioteca.

b) Viitor 2

Subiect + TO BE + not + going to + Verbul la infinitiv ( fara to ) + restul propozitiei neschimbata

o are + not = aren’t is + not = isn’t

o We aren’t going to play in the park. – Noi nu intentionam sa ne jucam in parc.


o They aren’t going to learn English. – Ei nu intentioneaza sa invete engleza.
o You aren’t going to be there tomorrow. – Tu nu intentionezi sa fi acolo maine.
o He isn’t going to write a book. – El nu intentioneaza sa scrie o carte.
o You aren’t going to have five books in bookcase. – Tu nu intentionezi sa ai cinci carti in biblioteca.

II. Viitorul se foloseste pentru:

1. preziceri ale actiunilor viitoare.

o Computer technology will influence our future. – Tehnologia computerului va influenta viitorul nostru.

2. decizii care tocmai s-au luat si care nu au fost planuite.

o I will finish this report tomorrow. – Voi termina acest raport maine.

3. promisiuni

o I will phone you. – Te voi suna.

4. O invitatie la un eveniment, actiune

o Will you come to my house on Sunday? – Vii la mine acasa sambata?

De retinut !

Mai exista 2 tipuri de viitor:

Un present simplu care arata o actiune bine stabilita:


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o The train leaves at 7:30. – Trenul va pleca la 7:30. - trenul intotdeauna pleaca la ora respectiva.

Un prezent continuu:

o I am seeing my dentist tomorrow. – Ma vad cu dentistul meu maine.

Viitor 1 - Will Viitor 2 – To be + going to

Afirmativ I will play tennis next week. I’m going to go on vacantion .


You will play tennis next week. You are going to go on vacantion
He / she will play tennis next week. He / she is going to go on vacantion.
We will play tennis next week.. We are going to go on vacantion.
You will play tennis next week. You are going to go on vacantion.
They will play tennis next week.  They are going to go on vacantion
 
Interogativ Will I play tennis next week? Am I going to go on vacantion ?
Will you play tennis next week? Are you going to go on vacantion ?
Will he / she play tennis next week? Is she / he going to go on vacantion ?
Will we play tennis next week? Are we going to go on vacantion ?
Will you play tennis next week? Are you going to go on vacantion ?
Will they play tennis next week?  Are they going to go on vacantion ?
 
Negativ I won’t play tennis next week. I’m not going to go on vacantion.
You won’t play tennis next week. You aren’t going to go on vacantion.
He / she won’t play tennis next week. He / she isn’t going to go on vacantion.
We won’t play tennis next week. We aren’t going to go on vacantion.
You won’t play tennis next week. You aren’t going to go on vacantion.
They won’t play tennis next week. They aren’t going to go on vacantion.
   

Atentie !

Daca in prima parte a propozitiei avem verbul la TRECUT in partea a doua se va folosi intotdeauna VIITORUL
IN TRECUT – WOULD.

I promised that I would come tomorrow. – I-am promis ca voi veni maine.

Prepozitia ( The preposition )

Prepozitiile sunt in general asezate inaintea cuvintelor la care se refera.

Prepozitia Traducere
Explicatii
1. in jurul, in preajma, pe; prin; 1. este mult mai general decat “in” si “round”
About
2. pe la, in jurul, in preajma; 2. este mai putin decat “at”
3. cam de, cam la; 3. --------------
4. despre. 4. --------------

My woman - teacher told me about that exam. – Profesoara mi-a povestit despre acel examen.
I arrived home about nine o’clock. – Am ajuns acasa in jurul orei noua.

1. deasupre, peste; dincolo de; 1. Spre deosebire de “over”, nu presupune contactul cu o baza
Above 2. mai mult de, peste; 2. -------------
3. mai (pre)sus de. 3. Implica idea de superioritate

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The plane is above the clouds. – Avionul este deasupra norilor.


1. Peste Se foloseste pentru miscare, sa nu se confunde cu “opposite”
Across
folosit impreuna cu un verb static.

Andrei is running across the street. – Andrei trece peste strada alergand.

1. Printre; dintre. Exprima idea de apartenenta. Spre deosebire de “between” se


Amoung
foloseste in legatura cu mai mult de doua notiuni.

The house is among the trees. – Casa este printre copaci.

After 1. Dupa. Spre deosebire de “behind” arata succesiune si deseori scopul.

I am going to read for the exam after I am having dinner. – Eu intentionez sa citesc pentru examen dupa ce iau cina.

Around / round 1. In jurul, imprejurul Se foloseste numai cu verbele de stare.

They are running around / round the track. – Ei alearga in jurul pistei.

Along 1. De-a lungul ----------

Ana is walking along the street. – Ana merge de-a lungul strazii.

As far as 1. Pana la; la fel de. Are numai sens spatial sau figurat ( niciodata temporal ).

My office is as far as Laura’s office. – LBiroul meu este la fel de departe ca al Laurei.

Exprima de cele mai multe ori stare ape loc, spre deosebire de
“to”
At
1. La
Se foloseste in legatura cu localitatile mici spre deosebire de “in”

George is at the bus station. – George este la statia de autobus.

1. Inaintea; 1. Se foloseste in legatura cu persoanele


Before
2. Inainte de 2. ----------

I arrived home yestarday before my mother. – Eu am ajuns ieri acasa inaintea mamei.

1. In spatele, in urma Nu presupune scopul sau urmarirea ca “after”


Behind
The cuppboarb is behind the door. – Dulapul de bucatarie este in spatele usii.

1. Dedesubtul, sub, mai jos de Presupune un punct pe verticala, spre deosebire de “under”
Below - fig
Today the temperature is below zero degres. - Azi temperatura este sub zero grade.

1. Intre Se foloseste in legatura cu doua notiuni, spre deosebire de


Between “among”

My house is between the market and bank. – Casa mea este intre piata si banca.

1. La, langa, alaturi de, cu; 1. Arata vecinatatea nemijocita


2. Pe langa; 2. ------------
3. Prin; 3. ------------
By 4. Catre, cel mai tarziu (la); 4. Arata limita de timp pana la care ajunge actiunea
5. Fig. – de (catre) (neinceputa inca) pe care o exprima verbul
5. ------------

My uncle was leaving by the train to his son. – Unchiul meu a plecat cu trenul la fiul lui.
The table is by the bad. – Masa este pe langa pat.
That song was written by Mozart. – Cantecul acela a fost scris de Mozart.
Ana should be there by the time. – Ana trebuie sa fie acolo la timp.

1. In timpul, in vremea Sa nu se confunde prepozitia cu conjunctia “while” (in timp ce)


During

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Modulul I – Engleza incepatori

I fell tired during the meeting. – Ma simt obosit in timpul sedintei.

1. Timp de, de; 1. -----------


For 2. Pentru, dupa 2. -----------

I am staying home for two hours. – Eu stau acasa timp de doua ore.
What do you eat for Christamns? – Ce vei manca pentru craciun?
I am looking for my dog. – Ma uit dupa cainele meu.

1. De la, dinspre; 1. Exprima desprinderea si, mai rar, scoaterea


2. Din, de la, de, de pe; 2. Arata punctul de plecare
From
3. Din (cauza). 3. -----------

The letter which I receive is from Ana. – Scrisoarea pe care am primit-o este de la Ana.
He is running away from fire. – El alearga departe de foc.
Please take the folwers from the table. – Te rog ia florile de pe masa.

1. La; 1. Este de cele mai multe ori static


2. In, in cursul, in timpul; 2. -----------
In
3. Peste, dupa. 3. Poate arata depasirea unei limite de timp

Ana left in a few minute. Ana a plceat in cateva minute.

1. In. Arata patrunderea intr-un spatiu sau volum.


Into
The manager came into the office. – Asistentul a intrat in birou.

1. In fata -----------
In front of
The cyclist is in front of the bus. – Ciclistul este in fata autobuzului.

1. Langa Presupune a fi unul langa altul


Next to
Jessica is sitting next to Andrew. – Jesica sta langa Andrei.

Nu presupune contact
Near 1. Aproape de
The airport is near Baneasa. – Aeroporul este aproape de Baneasa.

1. De; 1. -----------
2. In urma, din cauza, de; 2. -----------
Of 3. Dintre; 3. -----------
4. Despre. 4. -----------

On top of 1. In varful -----------

The luggage are on top of the wardrobe. – Bagajele sunt in varful sifonierului.

1. Pe; 1. Arata locul sau directia.


2. In, la; 2. Este folosit inaintea zilelor saptamanii, a datelor.
On
3. Despre. 3. ----------

The glasess is on the table. – Ochelarii sunt pe masa.


Matei lives on the river Danube. - Matei locuieste pe Dunare.
I was born on June. – M-am nascut in Iunie.

1. Din. Arata extractia dintr-un volum.


Out of
Matei is getting out of the car. – Matei iese din masina.

1. Vis a vis, peste 1. Folosit cu verbele statice


Opposite
They live near by bank which is opposite the park. - Ei locuiesc aproape de banca care este vis a vis de park.

Page 12 of 25
Modulul I – Engleza incepatori

1.Deasupra, peste; 1 Implica un contact cu baza.


2. Peste, prin; 2. Implica raspandirea pe o suprafata.
Over
3. Fata de, asupra; 3. Poate presupune idea de autoritate.
4. Mai mult de. 4. -----------

There is a bridge over the river. – Este un pod peste rau.

1. Pe langa Se foloseste cu verbele de miscare


Past

The car is going past the house. – Masina trece pe langa casa.

Since 1. De la, de, din. Are sens temporal.

I play football since childhood. - Joc fotbal din copilarie.

1. Prin; 1. -----------
2. Tot, toata, in tot cursul; 2. -----------
Through
3. Cu ajutorul; 3. -----------
4. Din (cauza) 4. -----------

We were walking through the park. – Noi ne-am plimbat prin parc.

Till, until 1. Pana la. Are numai sensuri temporale.

She is watting me until seven o’clock. – Ea ma asteapata pana la ora sapte.

1. La, spre, inspre, catre, pana; 1. Implica idea de miscare, spre deosebire de “at”.
To
2. Temporal: pana la. 2. ----------

The plane fly to London. – Avionul zboara la Londra.

1. Spre, catre. Arata directia in mod aproximativ, spre deosebire de “to”.


Towards
Matei is walking towards the sun. – Matei merge spre soare.

1. Sub, dedesubtul. Presupune contactul nemijlocit cu baza.


Under Figurat – exprima supunerea, subordonarea.

The ball rolled under the chair. – Mingea s-a rostogolit sub scaun.
The employs always are under the boss. – Intotdeauna angajatii sunt sub sefi.

1. Pe. Este folosit cu verbele de miscare, spre deosebire de “on”.


Up
Matei is going up the stairs. – Matei urca pe scari.

1. Cu, impreuna cu; 1. -----------


2. La; 2. -----------
With
3. Din cauza, de. 3. -----------

I was shopping with my best friend. – Am fost la cumparaturi cu cea mai buna prietena.

Page 13 of 25
Modulul I – Engleza incepatori

Pluralul substantivelor

Reguli:

1. Majoritatea substantivelor formeză pluralul adaugand la cuvantul de baza terminatia “s“

Singular Plural
dog - câine dogs - câini
book - carte books- cărţi
rose - trandafir roses - trandafiri

2. La substantivele care se termina in “ ch, sh, s, ss, x “ se va adauga la cuvantul de baza terminatia “es“

Singular Plural
box - cutie boxes - cutii
church - biserica churches - biserici
bus - autobuz buses - autobuze

3. La substantivele care se termina in “ y “ se va adauga la cuvantul de baza:

 terminatia “ies“ - daca avem o consoana inaintea terminatiei


o y se va transforma in I

Singular Plural
country - tara countries - tari
city - oras cities - orase
baby - copil babies - copii

 terminatia “s“ - daca avem o vocala inaintea terminatie


o se va pastra y

Singular Plural
boy - baiat boys - baieti
key - cheie keys - chei
toy - jucarie toys - jucarii

4. La substantivele care se termina in “ f, fe “ se va adauga la cuvantul de baza terminatia “ves“


 f se va transforma in v

Singular Plural
wife - sotie wives - sotii
life - viaţă lives - vieţi
wolf - lup wolves - lupi
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Modulul I – Engleza incepatori

Exceptie!

Roof – roofs - acoperis

5. La substantivele care se termina in “ o “ se va adauga la cuvantul de baza terminatia “es“ sau “s“

Singular Plural
potato - cartof potatoes - cartofi
tomato - rosie tomatoes - rosii
photo - fotografie photos - fotografii

6. Unele substantive au forme neregulate de plural

Singular Plural
woman - femeie women - femei
man - bărbat men - bărbaţi
child- copil children - copii
tooth - dinte teeth - dinţi
foot - picior feet - picioare
person - persoană people - oameni
mouse - soarece mice - soareci
ox - bou oxen - boi

7. Unele substantive nu au plural

Singular Plural
sheep - oaie 0
fish - peşte 0
species - specie 0
information - informatie 0
lugagge - bagaj 0
aircraft - avion 0
furniture - mobila 0

8. Unele substantive nu au singular

Singular Plural
0 news - stiri
0 glasses – ochelari
0 troussers - pantaloni
0 athletics - atletismul
0 linguistics - lingvistica

Exemple:
o The news is on at 6.30 p.m. - Ştirile se difuzează la 6.30 pm.
o Athletics is good for young people. - Atletismul este bun pentru tineri.
o Linguistics is the study of language. - Lingvistica reprezintă studierea limbii.
o Darts is a popular game in England. - Darts este un joc popular în Anglia.

Recapitulare pluralul substantivelor

Page 15 of 25
Modulul I – Engleza incepatori

Singular Plural
tooth - dinte teeth – dinti
man – barbat men – barbati
ox – bou oxen – boi
Forme neregulate mouse – soarece mice – soareci
child – copil children – copii
foot – picior feet – picioare
woman – femeie women - femei
glasses - ochelari 0
deer - caprioara 0
sheep - oaie 0
information - informatie 0
Substantive fara pural
lugagge - bagaj 0
aircraft - avion 0
furniture - mobila 0
fish - peşte 0
tomato - rosie tomatoes - rosii
photo - fotografie photos - fotografii
life - viaţă lives - vieţi
wolf - lup wolves - lupi
country - tara countries - tari
boy - baiat boys - baieti
box - cutie boxes - cutii
church - biserica churches - biserici
book - carte books- cărţi

Genurile substantivelor

Reguli:

1. Cand se face referire la meserii:

Masculin Feminin
policeman - politist policewoman - politista
teacherman - profesor woman teacher- profesoara
doctor - doctor woman doctor- doctore
judge - judecator woman judge - judecatoare
Atentie! Daca dupa meserie nu se precizeaza genul se deduce ca este de gen masculin!

2. Trecerea de la masculin la feminin se face adaugandu-se la cuvantul de baza terminatia “ess “

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Modulul I – Engleza incepatori

Masculin Feminin
actor - actor actress - actrita
prince - print princess - printesa
lion - leu lioness - leoaica
manager - administrator manageress - administratora

3. Substantive care au forme diferite de gen:

Masculin Feminin
boy - baiat girl - fata
father - tata mother - mama
brother - baiat sister - sora
horse - cal mare - iapa

Recapitulare genurile substantivelor

Masculin Feminin
horse – cal mare – iapa
bull - bou cow – vaca
son – fiu daughter – fiica
king – rege queen – regina
man – barbat woman – femeie
fox – vulpoi vixen – vulpe
gander – gascan goose – gasca
Masculin diferit de feminin
uncle – unchi aunt - matusa
father - tata mother - mama
dog – caine bitch – catea
nephew – nepot niece – nepoata
husband – sot wife – sotie
widower – vaduv widow – vaduva

actor – actor actress – actrita


manager – administrator manageress - administratora
Adaugarea la feminin a terminatiei “ess“
prince - print princess - printesa
lion - leu lioness - leoaica
Masculin = Feminin driver – sofer driver - soferita
elepfhant – elefant elepfhant – elefant
guide – ghid guide – ghida
camel – camila camel – camila
assistant - asistent assistant - asistenta
snake – sarpe snake – sarpe

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Modulul I – Engleza incepatori

cousin – verisor cousin – verisoara


player - jucator player - jucatoare

VERB – ADJECTIV – ADVERB

Atentie!

 Adjectivele se asaza in propozitie langa un substantiv, iar adverbele se regasesc in propozitie dupa
un verb.

Verb Adjectiv – “ ing “ Adverb – “ ed “


to amuse – a amuza amusing - amuzant amused - amuzant
interesting - interesant interested – interesat

to interest – a interesa
Obligatoriu se va pune dupa acest adverb

prepozitia “ in “
to accuse – a acuza accusing - acuzator accused - acuzat
to bore – a se plictisi boring - plictisitor bored - plictisit
to love – a iubi loving - iubitor loved - iubit
to scare – a speria scaring - inspaimantator scared – speriat
to excite – a incanta exciting - incantator excited – incantat
to disappoint – a dezamagi disappointing - dezamagitor disappointed – dezamagit
------------ tiring - obositor tired - obosit

Exemple:

o I wasn’t very amused by this amusing joke – Eu nu am fost foarte amuzat de aceasta gluma amuzanta.
o He is very interested in History and he finds this book interesting. – El este foarte interesat de istorie si
gaseste aceasta carte interesanta.
o They are accusing people because they were wrongly accused. – Ei sunt oameni acuzatori pentru ca au
fost acuzati pe nedrept.
o I think that you are more and more bored because your job is boring. – Cred ca tu esti din ce in ce mai
plictisit pentru ca serviciul tau este plictisitor.
o She was loved by everybody because she was a loving person. – Ea a fost iubita de toata lumea pentru
ca era o persoana iubitoare.
o Stop being so scared, it isn’t a scaring movie. – Nu mai fi atat de speriat, nu este un film inspaimantator.
o They were as excited as me by the exciting surprise which I prepared myself. – Ei au fost la fel de
incantati ca mine de surpriza incantatoare pe care am pregatit-o eu insumi.

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Modulul I – Engleza incepatori

o You are less disappointed than your friends by disappointing exam. – Tu esti mai putin dezamagit decat
prietenii tai de examenul dezamagitor.
o He said that this was the most tiring day and tomorrow he would be tired. – El a spus ca aceasta a fost
cea mai obositoare zi si ca maine va fi obosit.

Gradele de comparatie

1. Comparatia adjectivelor monosilabice, se formeaza astfel:


La comparativ: adjectiv + “er“ + “than”
La superlativ: “ the “ + adjectiv + “est”

 Consoana finala a unui adjectiv monosilabic se dubleaza la comparativ si superlativ daca e precedata
de o consoana scurta - ex: red – redder – reddest.
 Adjectivele terminate in “e” primesc la comparativ numai “r” si “st” la superlativ.ex: - large – larger -
largest.
 Adjectivele terminate in “y” precedat de consoana il transform ape acesta in “I” la comparativ si
superlativ – ex: dry – drier – driest.

Pozitiv Comparativ – Superlativ –


forma dictionar “ er “ … + “ than “ “ the “ …. + “est “

big - mare Bigger... than - mai mare decat the biggest - cel mai mare

clever - destept Cleverer… than – mai destept decat the cleverest - cel mai destept

dry - uscat Drier… than - mai uscat decat the driest - cel mai uscat

fat - gras Fatter… than - mai gras decat the fattest - cel mai gras

fast - rapid Faster… than - mai rapid decat the fastest- cel mai rapid

happy – fericit Happier… than – mai fericit decat the happiest – cel mai fericit

long - lung Longer… than - mai lung decat the longest - cel mai lung

large - mare Larger… than – mai mare decat the largest – cel mai mare

nice - frumos Nicer… than - mai frumos decat the nicest - cel mai frumos

thick - gros Thicker… than – mai gros decat the thickest – cel mai gros

tall - inalt Taller… than - mai inalt decat the tallest - cel mai inalt

thin - subtire Thiner… than - mai subtire decat the thinest - cel mai subtire

red - rosu Reder… than – mai rosu decat the redest – cel mai rosu

sad - trist Sadder… than - mai trist decat the saddest - cel mai trist
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Modulul I – Engleza incepatori

short - scund Shorter… than - mai scund decat the shortest - cel mai scund

smart - destept smarter …than - mai destept decat the smartest - cel mai destept

ugly - urat Uglier… than - mai urat decat the ugliest - cel mai urat

2. Comparatia adjectivelor de doua si mai julte silabe:

La comparativ: “more” + adjectiv


La superlativ: “the“ + “most” + adjectiv

Pozitiv Comparativ – Superlativ –


forma dictionar “ more “ “ the most “

Beautiful - frumos More beautiful – mai frumos The most beautiful – cel mai frumos

Atractiv - atractiv More attractive – mai atragator The most atractiv – cel mai atragator

Bored - plictisit More bored – mai plictisit The most bored – cel mai plictisit

Important - important More important – mai important The most important – cel mai important

Interesting - interesant More interesting – mai interesant The most interesting – cel mai interesant

Romantic - romantic More romantic – mai romantic The most romantic – cel mai romantic

3. Comparatia adjectivelor neregulate:

La superlativ: in cele mai multe cazuri se formeaza astfel: “the“ + adjectivul de la comparativ + “st”

Pozitiv Comparativ – Superlativ –


forma dictionar “ the” … “st “

Bad - rau Worse – mai rau The worst – cel mai rau

Good - bun Better – mai bun The best – cel mai bun

Much - mult More – mai mult The most – cel mai mult

Many - multe More – mai multe The most – cele mai multe

Little - mic Less – mai putin The least – cel putin

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Modulul I – Engleza incepatori

The last - ultimul

Farther – mai departe – sens geografic The farthest – cel mai departe
Far - departe
Further – mai departe – sens negeografic The furthest – cel mai departe

Older – mai batran


The oldest – cel mai batran
Old - batran
Elder – mai batran – folosit numai pentru
The eldest– cel mai batran
frate si sora

4. Constructii speciale:

 comparativ ( adjectivul 1 ) + and + comparativ ( adjectivul 2 ) – se traduce prin “ din ce in ce mai “

o He is getting better and better. - El devine din ce in ce mai bun.

 The + comparativ …….. The + comparativ – se traduce prin “ cu cat mai …. Cu atat mai “

o The younger he is, the less he knows. – Cu cat e mai tanar, cu atat stie mai putin.

 As + adjectiv + as – se traduce prin “ la fel de “

o She is as tall as her brother. – Ea este la fel de inalta ca fratele ei.

Pronumele

Adjectivul posesiv –
Pronumele personal Pronumele personal Pronumele posesiv
determina un Pronumele reflexiv
nominativ acuzativ – determina un verb
substantiv
I – eu Me - pe mine , ma Mine – al meu My – al meu Myself – eu insumi

You – tu You – pe tine, tie Yours – al tau Your – al tau Yourself – tu insuti

He – el Him – pe el, lui His – al lui His – al lui Himself – el insusi

She – ea Her – pe ea, ei Hers – al ei Her – al ei Herself – ea insasi

It – el / ea It – pe el, ea Its – al lui / al ei Its – al lui / al ei Itself – el insusi / ea insasi

We - noi Us – pe noi, noua Ours – al nostru Our – al nostru Ourselves – noi insine

You - voi You – pe voi, voua Yours – al vostru Your – al vostru Yourselves – voi insiva

They – ei, ele Themselves – ei insisi /


Them – pe ei, lor Theirs – al lor Their – al lor
ele insele

Atentie!

 Pronumele posesiv se aseaza langa un verb si arata posesia.

o This interesting book is mine. – Aceasta carte interesanta este a mea.


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Modulul I – Engleza incepatori

o The biggest house is theirs. - Cea mai mare casa este a lor.

 Adjectivul posesiv se aseaza intotdeauna langa un substantiv.


o That is our car. – Aceea este masina noastra.
o My sister borrow me her pen. – Sora mea mi-a imprumutat penarul ei.

Pronumele
Pronumele interogativ Pronumele relativ
demonstrativ
This – acesta, aceasta Who? – cine? Who – care, cine

These – acestia, acestea Whose? – al, a. ai, ale cui? Whose – al, a, ai, ale carui, cui

That – acela, aceea (to) whom? – cui? (to) whom – carui (a), cui

Those – aceia, acelea Whom? – pe cine? Whom – pe care, pe cine

----- What? – ce, care? (neselectiv) -----

----- Which? – care, pe care? (selectiv) -----

Pronumele nehotarat

Pronume nehotarat Compus din pronumele nehotarat

Thing – ceva
Some
Body – cineva
– niste, unele, cateva –
One – cineva ( anume )
Se foloseste in propozitii afirmative si
interogative
Where - undeva

Thing – orice
Any
Body – oricine
– niste, unele –
One – oricare
Se foloseste pentru negatie si interogatie
Where - oriunde

No Thing – nimic

– nici o, nici un – Body – nimeni

Se foloseste pentru negatie One – nicunul

Where - nicaieri

Every Thing – orice, totul

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Modulul I – Engleza incepatori

– fiecare – Body – toti, toata lumea

Se foloseste numai pentru afirmativ One – fiecare ( in parte )

Where – pretutindeni, peste tot

Folosirea infinitivului

1. Infinitivul se foloseste intodeauna dupa urmatoarele verbe:

Verbe dupa care se foloseste infinitivul

agree - a fi de acord manage – a administra


allow – a permite mean – a insemna
can afford – a-si permite need – a avea nevoie
can’t afford – a nu-si permite offer – a oferi
choose – a alege pretend – a pretinde
decide – a decide promise – a promite
encourage – a incuraja recommend – a recomanda
expect – a spera refuse – a refuza
forget – a uita teach - a preda
help – a ajuta train – a antrena
hope – a spera want – a dori
learn – a invata would like – a dori

Exemple:

o I forgot to close the window – Am uitat sa inchid fereastra.


o Mary needs to leave early. – Mary trebuie sa plece devreme.
o We can’t afford to take a long holiday. – Nu ne permitem sa ne luam o vacanta lunga.

2. Infinitivul se foloseste dupa urmatoarele adjective:

Adjective dupa care se foloseste


infinitivul
disappointed - dezamagit
glad – bucuros
happy – fericit
pleased – incantat
relieved – eliberat
sad – trist
surprised – surprins

Exemple:

o I was happy to help them – Am fost fericit sa-i ajut.

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Modulul I – Engleza incepatori

o She will be delighted to see you. – Va fi incantata sa te cunoasca.

3. Infinitivul se foloseste atunci cand avem “too” + adjectiv

Exemple:

o The water was too cold to swim in. – Apa a fost prea rece sa inotam in ea.
o She will be delighted to see you. – Va fi incantata sa te cunoasca.

4. Infinitivul se foloseste atunci cand avem adjectiv + “enough”

Exemple:

o He was strong enough to lift in. – El era prea puternic sa-l ridic.
o She is reach enough to buy two cars. – Ea este suficient de bogata sa cumpere doua masini.

Folosirea “ ing”- ul

1. “Ing”-ul se foloseste cand cuvantul este subiect:

Exemple:

o Swimming is good exercise. – Inotatul este un bun exercitiu.


o Doctors say that smoking is bad for you. – Doctorii spun ca fumatul ester au pentru tine.

2. “Ing”-ul se foloseste dupa urmatoarele prepozitii:

 to
 in
 with
 without

Exemple:

o I look forward to meeting you. – Ma uit in spate sa te intalnesc.


o They left without saying “Good bye”. – Ei au plecat fara sa spuna “La revedere”.

3. “Ing”-ul se foloseste dupa urmatoarele verbe:

Verbe dupa care se foloseste “ ing “- ul

avoid - a evita give up – a renunta


deny – a nega imagine – a-si imagina
dislike – a displacea mind – a deranja
discuss – a discuta not mind – a nu deranja
engjoy – a face placere practise – a practica
finish – a termina remember – a-si aminti
suggest – a sugera

Exemple:

o I dislike getting up early. – Imi displace sa ma trezesc devreme.


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Modulul I – Engleza incepatori

o Woul you mind opening the window? – Te deranjeaza sa deschizi fereastra?

De retinut !

Verbul “continue” suporta dupa el atat infinitivul cat si “ ing “ –ul.

o It continues to rain since last night. – Continua sa ploua de noaptea trecuta.


o It continues raining since last night. – Continua sa ploua de noaptea trecuta.

Page 25 of 25