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GEOTECHNICAL REPORT STUDIU GEOTEHNIC

02 01 Rev. No.

15.04.14 12.03.14 Date Data

Issued for Approval/ Emis pentru aprobare Issued for Review/ Emis pentru verificare Description Descriere Client Doc. No.: Nr. Doc. Client Doc. No.: Nr. Doc. J.V. Project Title : (Titlul proiectului)

R.Marin R.Marin Prepared Intocmit

Gh.Momea Gh.Momea Checked Verificat

M.Radea M.Radea Approved Aprobat Phase Faza FEED DTAC Page no.: Pagina nr.

1 of 37

REVISIONS SHEET Details of revisions made to this document after approval shall be recorded on this sheet. / Modificarile aduse acestui document dupa aprobarea se inregistreaza pe aceasta foaie.

Rev.

Section

Description

Page

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 CHAPTER I: FOREWORD 4 1.1 WORK LOCATION 4 1.2 SCOPE OF PERFORMED SURVEY 4 1.3 VOLUME AND NATURE OF PERFORMED SURVEYS 5 2.0 CHAPTER 2: GENERAL DATA 6 2.1 GEOMORPHOLOGICAL DATA 6 2.2 REGION GEOLOGY 10 2.3 HYDROGRAPHIC AND HYDROGEOLOGICAL DATA 14 2.4 CLIMATIC DATA 16 2.5 SEISMIC DATA 19 3.0 CHAPTER 3 THE SITE DESCRIPTION, THE LITHOLOGY AND THE GEOTECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INTERCEPTED SOILS IN THE GEOTECHNICAL BOREHOLE, AND THE RESULTS INTERPRETATION OF THE DYNAMIC PENETRATION LIGHT TEST (DPL) 19 4.0 CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 32

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 CAPITOLUL I: INTRODUCERE 4 1.1. AMPLASAMENTUL LUCRARII 4 1.2. SCOPUL CERCETARILOR EFECTUATE 4 1.3. Volumul si natura cercetarilor efectuate 5 2.0 CAPITOLUL 2: DATE GENERALE 6 2.1. DATE GEOMORFOLOGICE 6 2.2. GEOLOGIA ZONEI 10 2.3. DATE HIDROLOGICE SI HIDROGEOLOGICE 14 2.4. DATE CLIMATICE 16 2.5. DATE SEISMICE 19 3.0 CAPITOLUL 3 DESCRIEREA ZONEI, ALCATUIREA LITOLOGICA, CARACTERIZAREA GEOTEHNICA A PAMANTURILOR INTERCEPTATE IN FORAJUL GEOTEHNIC SI INTERPRETAREA REZULTATELOR INCERCARII DE PENETRARE DINAMICA USOARA (PDU) 19 4.0 CAPITOLUL 4 CONCLUZII SI RECOMANDARI 32

1.0 1.1

CHAPTER I: FOREWORD WORK LOCATION

1.0

CAPITOLUL I: INTRODUCERE

1.1. AMPLASAMENTUL LUCRARII Prezenta documentatie a fost intocmita in conformitate cu prevederile si reglementarile din Normativ privind principiile, exigentele s i metodele cercetarii geotehnice a terenului de fundare NP 074/2007. Investigarea terenului de fundare s-a efectuat in conformitate cu SR EN 1997 2 (Eurocode 7: Proiectarea geotehnica Partea 2: Investigarea si incercarea pamantului) precum sI cu prevederile sectiunii 3 Date geotehnice din SR EN 1997 1: Proiectarea geotehnica: Partea 1: Reguli generale.

The present documentation was made in accordance with the provisions and the regulations from Normative regarding the principles, requirements and methods of geotechnical research of foundation soil NP 074/2007. The investigation of the foundation soil was made in accordance with SR EN 1997-2 (Eurocode 7 Geotechnical Design Part 2: The investigation and soil test), also with the provisions of the 3rd section Geotechnical Data of SR EN 1997 - 1: Geotechnical Design: Part 1: General rules.

Fragment with Bordei Verde area topographical plan scale1:100000, L35-104

Fragment cu zona Bordei Verde plan topografic scara 1:100000, L35-104

Tank Farm Bordei Verde (TFBL) and Park 6 Bordei Verde is located south of Bordei Verde locality, with acces from the county road 211, with a ramification to the Park 6 and Tank Farm Bordei Verde. 1.2 SCOPE OF PERFORMED SURVEY

Tank Farm Bordei Verde (TFBL) si Parcul 6 Bordei Verde se situeaza in sudul localitatii Bordei Verde, avand acces din drumul judetean 211, cu o ramificatie catre Parc 6 si Depozit Bordei Verde. 1.2. SCOPUL CERCETARILOR EFECTUATE Documentatia are ca scop determinarea conditiilor geomorfologice, geologice si geotehnice, din perimetrul de teren cercetat, in scopul furnizarii datelor necesare pentru proiectarea si executarea obiectivelor afarente proiectului TF Bordei Verde si Parc 6 Bordei Verde, in vederea exploatarii obiectivelor ce se proiecteaza in conditii de maxima siguranta. Datele care vor fi analizate se refera la urmatoarele aspecte:

The scope of this documentation is the determination of geological, hydrogeological and geotechnical conditions from the area, in order to supply the required data for the design and execution of the objectives modernization of the project TF Bordei Verde and Park 6 Bordei Verde, in order to be used in maximum security conditions. The data which will be analyzed refers to the following aspects:

establish the general morphological, geological and hydro-geological conditions from the area; framing the perimeter from the climatically and seismically grade perspective; determination of the lithological nature of the strata from the researched perimeter; specification of the local materials thickness and nature (soils, industrial waste and other filling materials); determination of the underground water level and eventual water seepages; determination of the physical mechanical parameters of the investigated soils; soil rezisitivity measurements; determination of some special natural conditions which may have a negative influence on the field stability and on the safety of the objectives exploitation. conclusions and general recommendations regarding the location of the objectives in the land; soils characteristics at digging, according with T.S 1995; The investigations in the perimeter indicated by the beneficiary together with the general designer were performed in February 2014 1.3 VOLUME AND NATURE OF PERFORMED SURVEYS For the determination of all the mentioned elements, geotechnical investigation works were performed, in field and office stage, as follows: field stage in which were performed: detailed geological mapping in the site perimeter and in the surrounding perimeter; execution of 3 geotechnical drilling (D1, D2, D3), in dry percussion system, with the mechanical installation Cobra, investigating the soils at the depth of 6.00 m; execution of three light dynamic penetration tests (DPL1, DPL2, DPL3) with the dynamic penetrometer Matest; soil resistivity measurements, prezented in the appendix of the geotechnical study; soils sampling from the drilling, which were analyzed in the specialized geotechnical laboratory (the analysis report/bulletin is presented as an appendix to the present geotechnical study) office stage in which were performed the followings: preliminary documentation regarding the geomorphologic and geological situation from the area preliminary documentation regarding the geotechnical works performed previously in

stabilirea conditiilor generale de morfologie, geologie si hidrogeologie din zona; incadrarea perimetrului din punct de vedere climatic si a gradului de seismicitate; determinarea naturii litologice a stratelor din perimetrul cercetat; precizarea naturii si grosimii materialelor locale (pamanturi, deseuri industriale si alte materiale de umplutura); determinarea nivelului apelor subterane si a eventualelor infiltratii de apa; determinarea parametrilor fizico-mecanici ai pamanturilor investigate; masuratori de rezistivitate a solului; determinarea unor conditii naturale speciale care ar putea avea o influenta negativa asupra stabilitatii terenului si sigurantei in exploatare a obiectivelor; concluzii si recomandari generale privind amplasarea obiectivelor in teren;

incadrarea pamanturilor la sapatura, conform T.S.1995; Cercetarile in perimetrul stabilit de beneficiar impreuna cu proiectantul general s-au efectuat in februarie 2014. 1.3. VOLUMUL SI NATURA CERCETARILOR EFECTUATE Pentru determinarea tuturor elementelor precizate mai sus s-au efectuat lucrari de cercetare geotehnica in faza de teren precum si in faza de birou dupa cum urmeaza: etapa de teren in care s-au executat: cartarea amplasamentului; executarea a trei foraje geotehnice (F1, F2, F3) in sistem percutant uscat cu instalatia mecanica Cobra, care a investigat terenul la adancimea de 6.00 m; executarea a trei incercari de penetrare dinamica (PDU1, PDU2, PDU3) cu penetrometrul dinamic usor Matest masuratori de determinare a rezistivitatii solului, prezentate in anexa studiului geotehnic; prelevari de probe netulburate si tulburate din forajul executat, care au fost analizate in laboratorul geotehnic (buletinul de analize fiind prezentat ca anexa a studiului geotehnic). etapa de birou, in care s-au executat urmatoarele: documentare privind situatia geomorfologica si gelogica din zona; documentare privind lucrari geotehnice efectuate anterior in zona studiata sau

the investigated or in the surrounding area; laboratory analysis interpretation; preparation of the geotechnical documentation;

limitrofa acesteia; interpretarea analizelor de laborator; intocmirea studiului geotehnic

2.0 2.1

CHAPTER 2: GENERAL DATA GEOMORPHOLOGICAL DATA

2.0

CAPITOLUL 2: DATE GENERALE

2.1. DATE GEOMORFOLOGICE Individualizarea unitatilor de relief s-a facut tinand seama de principalele elemente geomorfologice, morfologice si a constitutiei litologice. Se disting mai multe subregiuni, si anume: Baraganul Central (Campia Calmatuiului), Baraganul de Nord (Campia Brailei), Campia Ramnicului, Balta Brailei, Lunca Siretului, Lunca Buzaului si Lunca Calmatuiului.

The individualization of the relief unit was done taking into consideration the main geomorphological, morphological elements and the lithological composition. There are several subregions, namely: Central Baragan (Calmatui Plain), North Baragan (Braila Plain), Ramnic Plain, Braila Island, Siret Meadow, Buzau Meadow and Calmatui Meadow

Geomorphological classification of Romania area of Braila Plain

Regionarea geomorfologica a Romaniei Campia Brailei

From geomorphological point of view, Oprisenesti - Bordei Verde area belongs to the geomorphological unit Braila Plain, which is developed between Buzau river at north, Calmatui creek at south and Danube Meadow at east. Braila Plain is a plain unit with flat aspect with heights of 20 30 m. Characteristic for this plain is the presence of several abandoned watercourse, digressed riverbed (named ,,buzoele) and swampy fields, through which are set periodically connections with Buzau and Calmatui. This are the last watercourse of Buzau River. The watercourses from the plain surface have riverbeds on which were set watercourse belonging to Buzau river, and lakes with permanent or occasionally water. These were formed through the blocking with alluvial deposits of the valley watercourses, in the condition that the discharge slope being small, the watercourses of this valleys is meandered. North Baragan (Braila Plain) is located at south of Calmatui Meadow, at west by the lower digression area marked with the abandoned creeks of Buzau, in north west and north by Buzau and Siret meadows, and in east by the Danube Meadow. The height is higher in the western part between 35 40 m and lower in east between 2025 m.The relief is uniform, represented by plains, large, without superficial drainage. The only microforms of relief are formed by the compaction depression, reaching the most development from the entire Romanian Plain and some large valleys, without drainage. The compaction depression are transformed in lakes and are met in the central part of the plain, between Ianca and Comaneasca (Ianca, Plopu, Esna, Lutu Alb, Secu, Iazu etc.).

Din punct de vedere geomorfologic zona Bordei Verde se incadreaza in unitatea geomorfologica Campia Brailei, care se dezvolta intre raul Buzau la nord, paraul Calmatui la sud si lunca Dunarii spre est. Campia Brailei este o unitate de campie cu aspect plat cu altitudini de 20 30 m. Caracteristic pentru aceasta campie este prezenta a numeroase cursuri parasite, albii divagante (denumite "buzoele") si de terenuri mlastinoase, prin care se stabilesc legaturi periodice intre Buzau si Calmatui. Acestea constituie penultimul curs al raului Buzau. Cursurile de pe suprafata campiei au albii pe care s-au instalat cursuri de ape tributare Buzaului si, respectiv, lacuri cu apa permanenta sau sezoniera. Acestea din urma s-au format prin bararea cu aluviuni a cursului vailor, in conditiile in care, panta de curgere fiind foarte mica, cursul acestor vai este unul lenes si meandrat. Baraganul de Nord (Campia Brailei) este delimitat la sud de Lunca Calmatuiului, la vest de zona joasa de divagare presarata cu bratele parasite ale Buzaului, in nord-vest si nord de lunca Buzaului si a Siretului, iar in est de Lunca Dunarii. Altitudinea este mai mare in partea vestica intre 35 40 m si mai mica in est intre 20 25 m. Relieful este relativ uniform, reprezentat prin campuri netede, intinse, nedrenate superficial. Singurele microforme de relief le formeaza depresiunile de tasare, care ating cea mai mare dezvoltare din toata Campia Romana si cateva vai largi, fara scurgere. Depresiunile de tasare sunt transformate in lacuri si se intalnesc in partea centrala a campiei, intre Ianca si Comaneasca (Ianca, Plopu, Esna, Lutu Alb, Secu, Iazu etc.).

Regarding the valleys, Ianca Valley is the biggest, with a direction south north and divides Braila Plain in almost two equal parts: Viziru Plain and Ianca Plain. The valley has a big width (sometimes 2 km) in relation with the length (30 40 km). Its depth is of 7 8 m and has the aspect of a lake, due to the small slope the water stagnates temporary, allowing the development of the aquatic vegetation. Viziru Plain comprises the space between Ianca Valley in west and the Danube in east, under the form of a strip from the Calmatui meadow in south to the Siret Meadow in north. It is the area where Braila Plain has the smallest height (20 21 m in south at Viziru and 13-16 m in north at Braila), excepting the northern part from the contact with Siret Meadow where the sand dunes laid over the loessoid deposits have higher heights of (28 31 m). Viziru Plain is flat, unaffected by the compaction processes. Ianca Plain located between Ianca Valley at east and Buzau Valley at west, divides in 3. In the central part is Ianca Plain, crossed by several large valleys, with small depths, with crove lakes: Ianca, Plopu, Lutu Alb, Esna, Movila Miresii. In the south west sector is located the Mircea Voda Plain with bigger heights (35 -40 m), which is framed at west by the Buzau Meadow and at south by Calmatui Meadow. It has a flat surface, without compaction depressions. On the northern side, near the Braila Plain, is located the Gemenele Plain which extends as a portion covered with sand dunes, with bigger thickness and heights up to 50 m between Constantinesti and Sutesti, fixed and used for agriculture.

In ceea ce priveste vaile, Valea Ianca este cea mai mare, cu o directie sud-nord si imparte Campia Brailei in doua parti aproape egale: Campia Viziru si Campia Iancai. Valea are o latime exagerat de mare (uneori 2 Km) in raport cu lungimea (30 40 Km). Adancimea ei este doar de 7 8 m si are mai degraba aspectul unui lac, deoarece datorita pantei mici a profilului longitudinal apa stagneaza temporar, permitand dezvoltarea unei vegetatii acvatice. Campul Viziru cuprinde spatiul dintre Valea Ianca in vest si Dunarea in est, sub forma unei benzi de la Lunca Calmatuiului in sud si pana la cea a Siretului in nord. Este zona in care Campia Brailei are cele mai mici inaltimi (20-21 m in sud la Viziru si 13-16 m in nord la Braila), exceptand muchia nordica de la contactul cu Lunca Siretului unde dunele de nisip care se astern peste depozitul loessoid au altitudini ceva mai ridicate (28-31 m). Campul Viziru este neted, neafectat de procese de tasare evidente. Campia Iancai situata intre Valea Ianca in est si Valea Buzaului in vest, se imparte in trei. In portiunea centrala este Campul Ianca, strabatut de numeroase vaiugi largi, putin adanci, presarata cu lacuri de crov: Ianca, Plopu, Lutu Alb, Esna, Movila Miresii. In sectorul de sud-vest se afla Campul Mircea Voda cu inaltimi mai mari (35-40 m), care este limitat la vest de Lunca Buzau iar in sud de Lunca Calmatui. Are suprafata neteda, fara depresiuni de tasare. Pe latura de nord, bordand fruntea Campiei Brailei, este Campul Gemenele care se intinde ca o fasie acoperita de nisipuri sub forma de dune, cu grosimi mari si altitudini care ajung pana la 50 m intre Constantinesti si Sutesti, fixate si folosite pentru culturi agricole.

The relief of Bordeiu Verde village, marked on a fragment of the geological map, scale 1:200.000

Relieful coumnei Bordeiu Verde, trasat pe un fragmente al hartii geologice, scara 1:200000

2.2

REGION GEOLOGY

2.2. GEOLOGIA ZONEI Din punct de vedere geologic structural, regiunea care incadreaza zona obiectivului cercetat apartine Platformei Moesice. Unitatea are un soclu cristalin puternic cutat si o cuvertura sedimentara ai carei primi termeni sunt dislocati, iar urmatorii in pozitie orizontala. Fundamentul moesic din aceasta parte orientala a Campiei Romane cuprinde la randul lui doua sectoare: la nord est un sector baikalian, cu sisturi verzi, corespunzator Dobrogei centrale

Geologically, the region within the investigated objective belongs to the Moesic Platform. The unit has a crystalline fundament, highly fragmented and a sedimentary layers of which the first terms are disrupted and the others are in a horizontal position. The Moesic basement from the eastside of Romanian Plain includes two sections: at north east a Baikalian sector, with green schists corresponding to the Central Dobogea; at south west a sector corresponding to the Meridional Dobrogea, with crystalline schists. The crystalline schists basement of this last sector was intercepted in drillings only in Dobrogea (Palazu) and based on the geophysical data, they extend with the same properties on Romanian Plain, at south of a diagonal line which corresponds to the Capidava Canara fault

The green schists from the Baikalian basement belongs to the Upper Proterosoic and the deposits of Moesic Platform belongs to Paleosoic, Mesosoic and Neosoic.The eastern part, with a Neozoic layer having a reduced thickness, represents the platform, the north west part where the Neozoic layer thickens fats to the Carpathian part belongs to the external flank of the Carpathian Foredeep. In the region it appears deposits of Quaternary

la sud vest un sector corespunzator Dobrogei meridionale, cu sisturi cristaline mai vechi, dislocate printr-o cutare putin acuzata spre sfarsitul Silurianului (faza ardenica). Fundamentul de sisturi cristaline al acestui din urma sector a fost interceptat prin foraje numai in Dobrogea (Palazu), dar dupa datele geofizice, el se prelungeste cu aceleasi caractere pe teritoriul Campiei Romane, la S de o linie diagonala ce corespunde aproximativ cu falia Capidava Canara. Sisturile verzi din fundamentul baikalian apartin Proterozoicului superior, iar formatiunile din cuvertura Platformei moesice Paleozoicului, Mezozoicului si Neozoicului. Partea de est a teritoriului, cu cuvertura neozoica de grosime mai redusa, reprezinta platforma propriu-zisa, partea de nord-vest unde cuvertura neozoica se ingroasa rapid spre teritoriul carpatic apartine de flancul extern, epiplatformic, al avanfosei carpatice. La zi in regiune apar depozite apartinand

age, with considerable thickness in the conditions of a active subsidence in that period of time. The newest tectonic genesis, Valahe tectonic genesis determined in the section of Moesian Platform between Intra -Moesian fault, at West and the extension of Peceneaga Camena fault, at North, tipping motion to North with the influence the continuous migration of Buzau river . The last route is observed on the lakes alignment Ianca, Plopu, Lutu Alb. The loessoid deposits on the Braila terrace have a sandy silty character, are macroporeous, with a yellowish color. In the northern part of Braila plain they become sandier. Their thickness if of 15 20 m. In the south east area of the Moesic Platform are highlighter and are in operation a series of oil and gas deposits on the structural line south west north-east Urziceni Garbova Braganeasa Padina Jugureanu Oprisenesti Plopu Bordei Verde Liscoteanca Stancuta - Bertesti. The gas deposits from the south east area of the Moesic Platform were evidentated and operated at Oprisenesti, Bordei Verde, Liscoteanca, Bertesti, Stancuta, Jugureanu, Padina, Gradistea, Balta Alba.

cuaternarului cu grosimi considerabile in conditiile unei subsidente active in aceasta perioada de timp. Cea mai noua tectogeneza, cea valaha a determinat in segmentul platformei Moesice cuprins intre falia intramoesica, la vest si prelungirea faliei Peceneaga Camena, la nord miscari de basculare catre nord care a provocat continua migrare in acest sens a cursului Buzaului. Penultimul traseu se urmareste pe aliniamentul lacurilor Ianca, Plopu, Lutu Alb. Depozitele loessoide de pe suprafata terasei Braila au un caracter prafos nisipos, sunt macroporice, de culoare galbuie. In partea de nord a campiei Brailei ele devin din ce in ce mai nisipoase. Grosimea lor este de 15 20 m. In cadrul zonei sud-estice a Platformei Moesice sunt puse in evidenta si se afla in exploatare o serie de zacaminte de titei si gaze pe aliniamentul structural orientat sud-vest nord-est Urziceni Garbova Braganeasa Padina Jugureanu Oprisenesti Plopu Bordei Verde Liscoteanca Stancuta - Bertesti. Zacamintele de gaze libere in zona de sud-est a Platformei Moesice au fost puse in evidenta si se afla in exploatare la Oprisenesti, Bordei Verde, Liscoteanca, Bertesti, Stancuta, Jugureanu, Padina, Gradistea, Balta Alba.

Geological map of Romania, scale 1:200000, sheet no. 37 Braila;

Harta geologica a Romaniei, scara 1:200000, foaia 37 Braila;

STRATIGRAPHY Levantine (lv) With Levantine it ends the series of Pliocene deposits. The deposits of this level have a great development in the NW part of the territory, reaching at Balta Alba the thickness of 1000 m. Here, the Levantine deposits, intercepted under the depth of 500 m, are composed from a mix of clays, marls, sands, clayey sands, sometimes coaly. Lower Pleistocene (qp1) The villafranchian deposits (qp 11) Candesti strata - represented in the Carpathians bend through gravels and sand with intercalations of clays and marls, pass to E and SE, in Faurei Balta Alba area, in deposits finer, namely sands, clayey sands, clays, rarely meeting a coarse sands lens. In the Danube Meadow sector and at W of the Danube, the Lower Quaternary is represented by sands and gravels, composing the ,,Fratesti strata of which stratigraphy is upper than the Candesti strata, being reported to St. Prestian (qp21). At W of Romanu Viziru Victoria line, the deposits of Fratesti strata become more finer, being composed of fine sands, sandy clays and clays. The thickness of the Lower Pleistocene deposits is between 50 200 m. Medium Pleistocene (qp2) The Medium Pleistocene is represented by marls, clays and sand, composing the ,,marly complex with a thickness of 10 80 m. Medium Upper Pleistocene (qp2-qp3) To this range were reported the loessoid deposits from Harsova area, those from the erossion witness from E of Baraganul and Murgeanca towns, as well as the entire succession of deposits

STRATIGRAFIE Levantin (lv) Cu levantinul se incheie seria depozitelor pliocene. Depozitele acestui etaj au o puternica dezvoltare in partea de NW a teritoriului, atingand la Balta Alba o grosime in jur de 1000 m. Aici, depozitele levantine, interceptate sub adancimea de 500 m, sunt constituite dintr-o alternanta de argile, marne, nisipuri, nisipuri argiloase, uneori carbunoase. Pleistocen inferior (qp1) Depozitele villafranchiene (qp 11) strate de Candesti reprezentate in sectorul de curbura a Carpatilor prin pietrisuri si nisipuri cu intercalatii de argile si marne, trec lateral spre E si SE, in zona Faurei Balta Alba, la depozite din ce in ce mai fine si anume, la nisipuri si nisipuri argiloase, argile, rareori intalnindu-se si cate o lentila de nisipuri mai grosiere. In sectorul luncii Dunarii si imediat la W de Dunare, Cuaternarul inferior este reprezentat prin nisipuri si pietrisuri, alcatuind asa numitele strate de Fratesti, a caror pozitie stratigrafica este superioara fata de stratele de Candesti, fiind raportate la St. Prestian (qp 21). La W de linia Romanu Viziru Victoria, depozitele stratelor de Fratesti devin din ce in ce mai fine, fiind constituite din nisipuri fine, argile nisipoase si argile. Grosimea depozitelor pleistocen inferioare este apreciata a varia intre 50 200 m. Pleistocen mediu (qp2) Pleistocenul mediu este reprezentat printr-o alternanta de marne, argile si nisipuri, constituind compelxul marnos gros de 10 80 m. Pleistocenul mediu-superior (qp2-qp3) Au fost raportate acestui interval stratigrafic depozitele loessoide din zona Harsova, cele din martorul de eroziune de la E de localitatile Baraganul si Murgeanca, precum si intreaga

from Ramnic Plain, which lay directly on the Candesti strata and are covered by loessoid deposits. The loessoid deposits from Harsova and from the erosion witness have a sandy silty characters, are macroporeous and with calcareous concretions, as well in some points can be found clayey levels, with a reddish orange color which represent buried soils. The thickness of this deposits vary between 15 to 40 m. Upper Pleistocene (qp3) The Upper Pleistocene is represented by the sands of Mostistea (qp13), clayey sands with gravels intercalations (qp23), the loessoid deposits which covers the inter-river Ialomita Calmatui are sandy and with a reduces development at N. The quaternary cover in the region is composed of lower Holocene deposits represented by the alluvial deposits of the lower terrace of Danube river and by loessoid deposits belonging to Braila Plain. The deposits of the lower terrace of Danube are composed of sands and low clayey sands with a thickness of 5 10 m. The loessoid deposits which cover Braila Plain have a sandy silty character, are macroporeous with a yellowish color. In the north part of Braila Plain they become sandier. Their thickness is between 5 10 m. Upper Holocene (qh2) The loessoid deposits of the lower terrace, the alluvial deposits of the meadow as well as the aeolian sands from the region belong to the Upper Holocene. 2.3 HYDROGRAPHIC AND HYDROGEOLOGICAL DATA The main watercourses from the area are Buzau and Calmatui Rivers. Buzau River crossed Braila county of a distance of 126 km, between Jirlau and Voinesti. Buzau River present a great instability and it is as a torrential river during floods. Calmatui River crosses Braila county from west to east, on a distance of 84 km, between Jugureanu and Gura Calmatui towns. Calmatui River is the only permanent water stream on the territory of Bordei Verde locality, creating the limit with Zavoaia towns, on a distance of 5 km, near Liscoteanca village. Calmatui is a river of plain, with low depth and small water debit, which flows through a large meadow for its dimensions (5 7 km width near Lisoteanca Satnoieni), probably a former water bed of Buzau River. The river was damned on it entire length in 1970 1980. The main elements which defines the underground water regime are: the low relief energy, the low climatic regime and low value of the specific discharge, the depth hydro structures present continuity on large areas; the Candesti and Fratesti

succesiune de depozite din Campia Ramnicului, care sta direct peste stratele de Candesti si este acoperita de depozite loessoide. In general, depozitele loessoide de la Harsova si pe martorul de eroziune au un caracter prafos-nisipos, sunt macroporice si cu concretiuni calcaroase; de asemenea, in unele puncte se constata nivele mai argiloase de culoare caramiziu-roscata care ar reprezenta soluri ingropate. Grosimea acestor depozite variaza de la 15 la 40 m. Pleistocen superior (qp3) Pleistocenul superior este reprezentat prin nisipurile de Mostistea (qp13), nisipuri argiloase cu intercalatii de pietrisuri (qp23), depozitele loessoide care acopera interfluviul Ialomita Calmatui se prezinta predominant nisipoase si cu o dezvoltare redusa la N. Cuvertura cuaternara in regiune este constituita din depozite holocene inferioare reprezentate prin aluviunile terasei joase a Dunarii si prin depozitele loessoide apartinand campiei Brailei. Acumularile terasei joase a Dunarii sunt constituite din nisipuri si nisipuri slab argiloase, groase de 5 10 m. Depozitele loessoide care acopera campia Brailei, au un caracter prafos nisipos, sunt macroporice, de culoare galbuie. In partea de nord a campiei Brailei, ele devin din ce in ce mai nisipoase. Grosimea lor este de 5 10 m. Holocen superior (qh2) Depozitele loessoide ale terasei joase, acumularile aluvionare ale luncilor precum si nisipurile eoliene din regiune, au fost atribuite Holocenului superior. 2.3. DATE HIDROLOGICE SI HIDROGEOLOGICE Principalele cursuri de apa din zona de interes sunt raurile Buzau si Calmatui. Raul Buzau parcurge teritoriul judetului Braila pe o distanta de 126 km, intre Jirlau si Voinesti. Raul Buzau prezinta o mare instabilitate si se manifesta ca un rau torential la viituri. Raul Calmatui parcurge teritoriul judetului Braila, de la Vest la Est, pe o distanta de 84 km, intre localitatile Jugureanu si Gura Calmatui. Raul Calmatui este singura apa curgatoare permanenta de pe teritoriul comunei Bordei Verde, formand limita cu comuna Zavoaia, pe o distanta de circa 5 kilometri, in zona satului Liscoteanca. Calmatuiul este un rau de campie, putin adanc si cu debit mic, care curge printr-o lunca foarte lata pentru dimensiunile sale (5 7 km latime in zona Liscoteanca Satnoieni), probabil o fosta albie a raului Buzau. Raul a fost regularizat si indiguit pe toata lungimea sa in anii 1970 1980. Principalele elemente care definesc regimul apelor subterane sunt: energie de relief foarte slaba, regim climatologic deficitar si valori mici ale scurgerii specifice, hidrostructurile de adancime prezinta continuitate pe suprafete mari; pietrisurile

gravels have a great economic importance, the underground supply is done mainly by surface water seepages, the fluvial facies present an important hydrogeological interest ensuring big water debits, by introduction of irrigations, the hydrogeological regime was modified through the elevation of the underground water, in the periods with high precipitations, the low drained areas are flooded.

de Candesti si mai ales cele de Fratesti au importanta economica foarte mare, alimentarea in subteran se realizeaza in principal prin infiltratii din apele de suprafata, faciesurile fluviatile prezinta interes hidrogeologic deosebit, asigurand debite foarte mari, prin introducerea irigatiilor, regimul hidrogeologic regional s-a modificat prin ridicarea nivelului apelor subterane, in perioadele cu precipitatii abundente, zonele slab drenate sunt subinundate. Principalele acvifere de adancime sunt stratele de The main depth aquifer are the Candesti and Candesti si stratele de Fratesti. In bazinul inferior Fratesti strata. In the lower basin of Buzau river, al Buzaului, Stratele de Candesti au un caracter the Candesti strata have psamitic character, sands psamitic, nisipuri si nisipuri argiloase, cu grosimi and clayey sands with small thickness. The supply mici. Alimentarea acviferului se realizeaza dinspre of the aquifer is done from west and probably from vest si probabil din Siret. Cresterea presiunii de Siret River. The increase of the deposits pressure zacamant se produce spre sud, concomitent cu it done to south, in the same time with the afundarea structurala. Sectorul Luncii Dunarii structural immersion. The sector of Danube prezinta o mare importanta hidrogeologica prin Meadow present a hydrogeological importance Stratele de Fratesti, constituite din nisipuri fine, through the Fratesti strata, composed of fine medii si grosiere, cu grosimi de pana la 20 m. sands, medium and coarse with thickness up to 20 Apele se afla sub presiune, manifestand m. The water are under pressure, being elevated ascensional pana aproape de suprafata terenului. till the surface of the field. An important role have Un rol important il au lucrarile hidroameliorative, the hydro works, the seepages and water infiltratiile si evapotranspiratia. In analizarea evaporation. In the analysis of the hydrogeological conditiilor hidrogeologice ale acviferelor conditions of the quaternary aquifers, it must be cuaternare, trebuie sa se tina seama de taken into consideration the Aeolian formations. formatiunileeoliene The phreatic aquifer si composed from a complex Acviferul freatic este constituit dintr-un complex de of sands and silty sands from the loessoid nisipuri si nisipuri prafoase din baza formatiunilor formations, it granulation decreasing to east and loessoide, granulatia lor scazand spre est si sud. south. The conditions of the underground Conditiile scurgerii subterane permit separarea mai discharge allow the division of many more multor unitati hidrogeologice: hydrogeological units: the area of the divagation (ramble) plains zona campiilor de divagare regiunea de subsidence region contains an area subsidenta cuprinde o suprafata framed by Buzau and Calmatui River, till delimitata de raul Buzau si raul Calmatui, east of Faurei and from here to Lower pana la est de Faurei si de aici spre Siretul Siret, with low representation of the fluvial inferior, cu slaba reprezentare a teraselor terraces. The aquifer thickness is between fluviatile. Grosimea acviferelor este 2 and 20 m, with low values of the cuprinsa intre 2 si 20 m, cu valori foarte hydraulic gradients; mici ale gradientilor hidraulici; campia tabulara-lacustra regiunea lake plains loessoid region with plain loessoida cu suprafata aproape plana, cu surface, with dunes and depression areas dune si zone depresionare cu efect de with local drain effect. The thickness of the drenaj local. Grosimea depozitelor loessoid deposits is from 5 to 30 m, the loesoide este de 5 pana la 30 m, acviferul aquifer having thickness of 2 10 m, with avand grosimi de 2 10 m, cu drenajul the main drainage toward the Danube and principal spre Dunare si in secundar spre secondary to the main rivers which cross it. raurile principale care strabat. Gradientii The gradients are very small, its values sunt foarte mici, valoarea acestora increasing to the areas of natural drainage; crescand spre zonele de drenaj natural; the alluvial plains the fluvial plains and the sesurile aluvionare campiile fluviatile si de main ones - represent the meadow areas of baza reprezinta zonele de lunca ale Danube and Siret rivers. The aquifer is Dunarii si Siretului. Acviferul este constituit composed of coarse alluvial deposits with din aluviuni grosiere, cu grosimi peste 30 thickness of over 30 m, the underground m, regimul apelor subterane fiind sub water regime being under the direct influence influenta directa a regimului hidrologic al of the hydrological regime of the valleys vailor de-a lungul carora se dezvolta. where they develop.

Fragment of hydrogeological map of Romania scale 1:100.000 page 37b Braila

Fragment harta hidrogeologica a Romaniei scara 1:100.000 foaia 37b Braila

2.4

CLIMATIC DATA

2.4. DATE CLIMATICE Zona Oprisenesti Bordei Verde se incadreaza zona climatica temperata, cu aspecte continentale. Regimul temperaturii aerului prin valorile medii lunare si in special prin amplitudinea absoluta reflecta cel mai clar caracteristicile climatului temperat continental, cu nuante excesive. Verile

Oprisenesti Bordei Verde belongs to the climatic area - temperate, with continental aspects. The regime of the air temperature through monthly average values and in special by the absolute amplitude reflect the characteristics of the temperate- continental climate. The summers are

hot and dry due to the hot air transport from north of Africa and as well due to the high level of sun radiations) (125kcal/cm) due to 2.200h/year of sun shine (290 days/year). In this period the reduced precipitations, with long dry period of 1 3 weeks with torrential rain. The winters are cold and dry, influenced by the harsh winds from north of Russian Plain (the north wind). The annual average temperature is around 10C 11C. . July is the hottest month of the year, with annual average temperatures of 22-23C.

The lowest annual average temperatures are in January, the coldest month, when is air it is recorder the value of -3 0C(-2.10C Braila). The hottest month is July, when the annual average temperatures vary between 22.10 0C at Ion Sion and 23.10 0C at Braila. From the monthly average temperatures, the absolute extreme one are more distanced. The maximum absolute temperature of + 44.50C, a record for the country, was recorded at Ion Sion station on 10 August 1951. The absolute minim temperature was recorded at Ion Sion station, of -29.0 0C on 25 January 1942, under the influence of the polar air mass. The frost maximum depth of the area is 0.80 0.90m. The atmospheric precipitations sum up during one year under 500 mm. Like the thermic regime, the precipitations regime reflect the continental character of the clime, as these fall in variable quantities from one year to another and are unequal distributed during the year. In Braila Plain these vary between 400 490 mm/year. In Braila plain the water quantity resulted from snow is of 100 mm/ year, representing 20 23% of the annual total of precipitations. The dry climate is highlighted by the low quantities of precipitations (under 500 mm/year in average). The snow appears in the time range November March, the number of days with snow being low (15 20 days per year) and the snow stratum is thick (10 cm) and maintains around one month/year. A phenomena specific for the area is the snowstorm and the snowbound, especially in the northern limit of the villages. On the area of Bordei Verde town, near Filiu Liscoteanca, was recorder in 1910 the maximum historic of the precipitations quantity in Braila county, in one day 126 mm/ 24 hrs. On order to compensate the water deficit were executed in the last years of the 20th century great works of irrigations and land improvement. The wind is a climatic element with a great influence in the morphological conditions of eastern Romanian plain. The lack of the forest obstacles makes that the air mass circulation to be done easier, and the influence over the agriculture, the communication channels and localities to be

sunt caniculare si secetoase din cauza transporturilor de aer cald din nordul Africii precum si datorita nivelurilor ridicate ale radiatiei solare (125kcal/cm) ca urmare a 2.200h/an de stralucire a Soarelui (290 de zile/an). In aceasta perioada precipitatiile sunt scazute, alternand perioade lungi de seceta de 1 3 saptamani cu averse de ploaie torentiala. Iernile sunt in general reci, uscate, influentate de vanturile aspre provenite din nordul Campiei Ruse (Crivatul).Temperatura medie anuala este in jurul valorilor de 10 C 11C. Iulie este cea mai caniculara luna din an, cu temperaturi medii multianuale de 22-23C. Temperaturile medii lunare multianuale cele mai mici se realizeaza in ianuarie, luna cea mai rece, cand in aer se inregistreaza -3 0C (-2,10 0C Braila). Luna cea mai calda este iulie, cand temperaturile medii multianuale variaza intre 22,10 0C la Ion Sion si 23,10 0C la Braila. Fata de temperaturile medii lunare, cele extreme absolute sunt mult mai distantate. Temperatura maxima absoluta de +44,50 0C, omologata ca record pe tara, s-a inregistrat la statia Ion Sion la 10 august 1951. Temperatura minima absoluta s-a inregistrat tot la statia Ion Sion respectiv -290 C la data de 25 ianuarie 1942, sub influenta maselor de aer polar. Adancimea maxima de inghet in zona este de 0.80 0.90 m Precipitatiile atmosferice totalizeaza in cursul unui an sub 500 mm. Ca si regimul termic, si cel de precipitatiilor reflecta caracterul continental al climei, in sensul ca acestea cad in cantitati variabile de la un an la altul si sunt repartizate inegal in timpul anului.In Campia Brailei acestea variaza intre 400-490 mm/an. Se apreciaza ca in cadrul Campiei Brailei, cantitatea de apa rezultata din zapada este de circa 100 mm/an, reprezentand 20-23% din totalul anual al precipitatiilor. Climatul arid este evidentiat si de cantitatea mica de precipitatii (sub 500 mm/an in medie). Ninsorile apar, de regula, in intervalul noiembrie-martie, numarul de zile cu ninsoare fiind mic (15-20 zile pe an), iar stratul de zapada este subtire (10 cm) si se mentine in jur de o luna/an. Un fenomen specific zonei este viscolirea si troienirea zapezii, in special la marginea de nord a satelor. Pe teritoriul comunei Bordei Verde, in zona Filiu Liscoteanca, a fost inregistrat in anul 1910 maximul istoric al cantitatii de precipitatii cazute in judetul Braila, intr-o singura zi - 126 mm/24 de ore). Pentru a compensa deficitul de apa au fost executate in ultimii ani ai secolului al XX-lea mari lucrari de irigatii si imbunatatiri funciare. Vantul constituie un element climatic cu o mare influenta in conditiile morfografice ale Campiei Romane orientale. Lipsa obstacolelor orografice si forestiere face ca deplasarea maselor de aer sa se faca cu usurinta, iar influentele asupra culturilor, cailor de comunicatie si localitatilor sa fie mari. Din

high. From the statistics it seems that the winds from north, followed by those from north east and west have the highest frequency. The maximum speeds is recorded during the winter, when this can exceed 100 km/ hour. The most known are the winds from North Baragan and the north winds, a dry and cold wind, during the winter, determined by the Siberian anticyclone, with a direction north, north east and Suhoveiul, dry and warm winds , which is during the summer from the eastern part with a small frequency.

analiza datelor statistice se constata ca vanturile dinspre nord, urmate de cele din nord-est si vest au frecventa cea mai mare. Vitezele maxime se inregistreaza in timpul iernii, cand acestea pot depasi 100 Km/ora. Vanturile cele mai cunoscute in Baraganul de Nord sunt Crivatul, un vant rece si uscat, care bate in timpul iernii, determinat de anticiclonul siberian, cu o directie nord, nord-est si Suhoveiul, vant uscat si cald, care bate vara din partea estica cu o frecventa mai mica.

2.5

SEISMIC DATA

2.5. DATE SEISMICE Conform zonarii teritoriului Romaniei in termeni de perioada de control (colt) Tc a timpului de raspuns, perimetrul are coeficientul Tc = 1.0 s, iar conform zonarii teritoriului Romaniei in termeni de valori de varf ale acceleratiei terenului pentru proiectare ag pentru cutremure avand intervalul de recurenta IMR = 225 ani, perimetrul de fata are valoarea a g = 0.30 g. Incadrarea seismica a perimetrului este in conformitate cu Codul de proiectare seismica Partea I Prevederi de proiectare pentru cladiri, indicativ P 100 1/2013.

According to zoning of Romanian territory in terms of control period the perimeter has a coefficient Tc = 1.0 s, and according to zoning of Romanian territory in terms of top value of ground acceleration for design for earthquake having average recurrence interval IMR = 225 years, this perimeter has the value ag = 0,30 g. Seismically framing is according to seismic design code index P100-1/2013- Part I Design provisions for buildings.

3.0

CHAPTER 3 THE SITE DESCRIPTION, THE 3.0 LITHOLOGY AND THE GEOTECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INTERCEPTED SOILS IN THE GEOTECHNICAL BOREHOLE, AND THE RESULTS INTERPRETATION OF THE DYNAMIC PENETRATION LIGHT TEST (DPL)

CAPITOLUL 3 DESCRIEREA ZONEI, ALCATUIREA LITOLOGICA, CARACTERIZAREA GEOTEHNICA A PAMANTURILOR INTERCEPTATE IN FORAJUL GEOTEHNIC SI INTERPRETAREA REZULTATELOR INCERCARII DE PENETRARE DINAMICA USOARA (PDU)

The investigated area is located in Braila County, on the area of Bordei Verde. Geomorphologically, the area Oprisenesti Bordei Verde area is located in the geomorphological unit Braila Plain, a plain unit with flat aspect with heights 20 30 m, with flat plains, not drained superficially. The only microforms of relies are the compaction depressions. The loessoid deposits which cover Braila plain have a sandy silty characters, are macroporeous, with a yellowish color. In the north part of Braila plain they become sandier. Their thickness is of 5 10 m. On the site was executed three geotechnical boreholes (boreholes 1, 2, 3) in dry percussion mode with the mechanical installation Cobra, which have investigated soil till the depth of 6.00 m and three tests of light dynamic penetration (DPL1, DPL2, DPL3) with Matest device. PARK 6 AND TANK FARM BORDEI VERDE Borehole no. 1 intercepted: 0.00 0.80 m = fillings (gravel in silty clayey binder); 0.80 1.20 m = blackish clayey silt, contaminated with oil product (fillings); 1.20 1.70 m = grayish loessoid silty clay, with brick fragments, calcareous concretions, contaminated with oil product (possible filling soils from tthe proximity); 1.70 3.50 m = brownish loessoid clayey silt, with calcareous concretions, with oil smell, consistent plastic; 3.50 5.50 m = greyish clayey silt, with Mn oxides, consistent to soft plastic; 5.50 5.90 m = poorly argillaceous sand, greyish yellowish; 5.90 6.00 m = grayish medium sand. At the investigation date were met water seepages at the depth of 4.40 m. Due to the fact that the investigations were performed after a period with many precipitations (snow) and because of snow accelerated thaw, also the high porosity of the underground, specific to the loess soils of Bordei Verde area and the presence of the phreatic aquifer near to surface, the loessoid soils met in boreholes are wet and very wet, sometimes saturated. Also, due to the old plants which were functioned in the area of Park 6 and Tank Farm Bordei Verde, the underground is contaminated with oil. Borehole no. 2 intercepted: 0.00 0.70 m = fillings (gravel elements in clayey silty binder); 0.70 1.50 m = brownish silty clay, with calcareous concretions, consistent to compact plastic; 1.50 1.70 m = grayish brownish silty clay with intercalations of clayey silt, with Mn oxides and calcareous concretions, consistent to soft plastic,

Zona cercetata se situeaza in judetul Braila, pe teritoriul localitatii Bordei Verde. Din punct de vedere geomorfologic zona Bordei Verde se incadreaza in unitatea geomorfologica Campia Brailei, o unitate de campie cu aspect plat cu altitudini de 20 30 m., cu campuri netede, intinse, nedrenate superficial. Singurele microforme de relief le formeaza depresiunile de tasare. Depozitele loessoide care acopera campia Brailei au un caracter prafos nisipos, sunt macroporice, de culoare galbuie. In partea de nord a campiei Brailei, ele devin din ce in ce mai nisipoase. Grosimea lor este de 5 10 m. Pe amplasament s-au executat trei foraje geotehnice (F1, F2, F3) in sistem percutant uscat cu instalatia mecanica Cobra, care au investigat terenul la adancimea de 6.00 m si trei incercari de penetrare dinamica (PDU1, PDU2, PDU3), cu penetrometrul dinamic usor Matest. PARC 6 SI DEPOZIT BORDEI VERDE Forajul 1 a intalnit: 0.00 0.80 m = materiale de umplutura (pietris in liant prafos argilos, umed) 0.80 1.20 m = praf argilos cenusiu, infestat cu produs petrolier (material de umplutura); 1.20 1.70 m = argila prafoasa loessoida cenusie, cu fragmente de caramida, concretiuni calcaroase contaminata cu produs petrolier (posibil material de umplutura provenit din vecinatatea amplasamentului; 1.70 3.50 m = praf argilos loessoid cafeniu, cu concretiuni calcaroase, cu miros de titei, plastic consistent; 3.50 5.50 m = praf argilos cu oxizi de Mn, plastic consistent la moale; 5.50 5.90 m = nisip slab argilos cenusiu galbui; 5.90 6.00 m = nisip mediu cenusiu. La data cercetarilor s-au intalnit infiltratii de apa la adancimea de 4.40 m. Din cauza faptului ca cercetarile s-au efectuat dupa o perioada de precipitatii abundente (sub forma de ninsoare) si din cauza topirii accelerate a zapezii, la care a contribuit porozitatea mare a substratului, specifica loessurilor din zona Bordei Verde si prezenta freaticului relativ aproape de suprafata, pamanturile din gama loessurilor intalnite in foraje sunt in stare umeda si foarte umeda, uneori saturate cu apa. De asemenea, din cauza fostelor instalatii care au functionat in zona Parcului 6 si a Depozitului Bordei Verde, subteranul este poluat cu titei. Forajul 2 a intalnit: 0.00 0.70 m = materiale de umplutura (elemente de pietris in liant argilos prafos) 0.70 1.50 m = argila prafoasa cafenie, cu concretiuni calcaroase, plastic consistenta la vartoasa; 1.50 1.70 m = argila prafoasa cenusie cafenie, impregnata cu reziduu petrolier; 1.70 3.20 m = argila prafoasa cafenie cu

wet, with oil smell; 1.70 3.20 m = loess: yellowish brownish clayey silt, with calcareous concretions, consistent plastic to soft plastic, wet; 3.20 4.00 m = brown clayey silt, with Mn oxides, consistent to compact plastic; 4.00 4.50 m = brown clayey silt, consistent to compact plastic; 4.50 6.00 m = poorly clayey sandy silt, wet. At the investigation date, water seepages were met at 4.50 m depth. Borehole no. 3 intercepted: 0.00 1.00 m = fillings (gravel elements in clayey binder); 1.00 1.50 m = blackish silty clay, with calcareous concretions and rare gravel, contaminated with oil wastes, compact plastic; 1.50 2.40 m = grayish silty clay with Fe/Mn oxides, calcareous concretions, with oil smell; 2.40 3.50 m = brownish silt, very wet, soft plastic, contaminated with oil; 3.50 4.00 m = greyish clayey silt, with Mn oxides, consistent, with oil smell; 4.00 4.30 m = clayey silt, soft plastic; 4.30 5.40 m = sandy clayey silt, soft plastic to consistent. 5.40 6.00 m = greyish yellowish medium sand. At the investigations date, were met water seepages with oil waste at 4.10 m depth.

intercalatii de praf argilos, cu oxizi de Mn si concretiuni calcaroase, plastic consistente la moi, umede, cu miros de titei; 3.20 4.00 m = loess: praf argilos galben cafeniu, cu concretiuni calcaroase, plastic consistent la moale, umed; 4.00 4.50 m = praf argilos maroniu, plastic consistent la vartos; 4.50 6.00 m = praf nisipos slab argilos, umed. La data cercetarilor, s-au intalnit infiltratii de apa la adancimea de 4.50 m. Forajul 3 a intalnit: 0.00 1.00 m = materiale de umplutura (pietris in liant argilos maroniu) 1.00 1.50 m = argila prafoasa negricioasa, cu concretiuni calcaroase si rar pietris mic, infestata cu rezidii petroliere, plastic vartoasa; 1.50 2.40 m = argila prafoasa cenusie cu oxizi de Fe/Mn, concretiuni calcaroase si cu miros de titei; 2.40 3.50 m = praf cafeniu, foarte umed, plastic moale, infestat cu titei; 3.50 4.00 m = praf argilos cenusiu, plastic consistent, cu miros de titei; 4.00 4.30 m = praf argilos plastic moale; 4.30 5.40 m = praf argilos nisipos, plastic moale la consistent; 5.40 6.00 m = nisip mediu cenusiu galbui. La data cercetarilor, s-au intalnit infiltratii de apa infestata cu reziduu petrolier la adancimea de 4.10 m.

Vedere generala Parc 6 si Depozit Bordei Verde (general view of Park 6 and Tank Farm Bordei Verde)

Vedere de la F1 spre F2 (view from borehole 1 to borehole 2)

Vedere de la F3 catre F2 (view from borehole 3 to borehole 2)

Executia PDU 2 (execution of DPL 2)

Formaiunile litologice care apar la zi sunt argile The lithological formations which appear in the prafoase, prafuri, prafuri argiloase, prafuri area are silty clays, silts, clayey silts, clayey sandy argiloase slab nisipoase din categoria loessurilor silts from the loess (loessoid deposit) category, (depozitelor loessoide), nisipuri, cu grosimi de sands, with thickness till the depth of 6.00 m. pana la 6.00 m. For the completion of the data obtained from the Pentru completarea datelor obtinute prin recoltarea soils samples collection from the drilling and de probe de pamant din foraj si analizate in analysed in the geotechnical laboratory, on the site laboratorul geotehnic, pe amplasament s-au were executed three dynamic penetration tests, executat trei incercari de penetrare dinamica named DPL1, DPL2 and DPL3 which have usoara, named PDU1, PDU2 and PDU3, care s-au analysed the extrapolation of the lithological utilizat la extrapolarea identificarii litologice identification made by drillings, the verification of realizate prin foraje, verificarea uniformitatii the lithological uniformity on site, the different litologice pe amplasament si reperarea diferitelor horizons of soils. Thus, the data obtained from orizonturi litologice. Astfel, datele obtinute prin DPL allow to be reduced the time for the classic PDU permit reducerea cantitativa a lucrarilor investigations (drillings). In the case that the clasice de investigatie (foraje). In cazul in care diagrams are similar, the penetration performed in diagramele au alura asemanAtoare penetrarea a certain spot can replace the drilling, as the soil is efectuata intr-un anume loc poate inlocui forajul, even/uniform. terenul prezentand uniformitate. The normative stipulates that the dynamic Normativele prevad ca penetrometrul dinamic usor penetrometer can be used for the investigation of PDU (DPL) poate fi folosit pentru cercetarea the soils till the depth of 6-8 m, in sandy soils, poor terenului pe adancimi de pana la 6-8 m, in on big fragments and till the depth fo 5-6 m for pamanturi nisipoase, sarace in fragmente mari si clayey soils. pana la maxim 5 6 m in pamanturi argiloase. In the proximity of boreholes 1, 2 and 3, three light In zona forajelor F1, F2 si F3 s-au executat dynamic penetration tests were executed (DPL1, incercari de penetrare dinamica usoara (PDU1, DPL2 and DPL3), with the light dynamic PDU 2 si PDU3), cu ajutorul penetrometrului penetrometer (DPL or PDU, abbreviated in the dinamic usor (DPL sau PDU abreviat in limba Romanian language). The dynamic penetration romana). Incercarea de penetrare dinamica test uses a cone with 900 angle and the hammer foloseste un con cu unghi la varf de 90 0 si cu masa mass of 10 kg, without samples prelevation. The berbecului de 10 kg, fara prelevare de probe. test represents the soil penetration through beating Incercarea consta in patrunderea in teren, prin with a rod with cone, recording the beats number batere, a unei tubulaturi prevazuta cu con, for its penetration (in standard conditions) on inregistrandu-se numarul necesar de lovituri pentru equidistance of 10 cm. The efficiency of these tests patrunderea acesteia (in conditii standard) pe

is given by the near execution of a geotechnical drilling, for the correlation of penetration results with the stratification evidentiated by the drilling and with the laboratory tests results. The dynamic penetration tests were performed from the natural ground elevation till the depth of 6.00 m. The penetration tests were performed according with SR EN ISO 22476 2:2006 Geotechnical investigations and trials; Field tests; Part 2: Dynamic penetration trial, appendix B of the mentioned normative regarding the recording of the values and of the dynamic penetration test results. Starting from the N10 values for DPL (PDU) were determined the values Rd, Rp, n, e, Ic, M2-3, parameters which fills the laboratory tests done on the soils samples collected from the drilling. Thus, were prepared the field reports (Appendix A and B) and was presented the diagram with the number of hits N10 against the depth, the dynamic penetration resistance diagram Rd and static resistance on cone diagram (Rp). The dynamic penetration test no. 5 was done on the depth interval 0.00 6.00 m, in order to be determined the dynamic penetration resistence and the static resistence on cone, based on the number of hitting on a depth of 10 cm. It were recorded average values of the penetration resistence Rd and Rp for the cohesive soils (met till the depth of 5.40 6.00 m) and non-cohesive soils (under 5.40 m depth). INTERPRETATION OF PENETRATION DIAGRAMS These three boreholes and the light dynamic penetration tests have met an nonuniform soil, fillings with different thickness and consistency status of soils, represented by the hits number (mentioned in the files of penetration tests Appendix B the record of the measured values and the results of the dynamic penetration tests, according to SR EN ISO 22476 2:2006). Depending of the hits number for the soil penetration onm 10 cm intervals, we can separate the met soils, based on the consistency status, porosity, compressibility etc. DPL1 For the fillings, loessoid silty clays and clayey silts of the range 0.00 4.50 m were recorded medium values of 1.8 5.4 hits/10 cm and on the depth range 4.50 6.00 m were recorded medium values from 7.4 to 25.6 hits/10 cm. The small values of hits number at penetration correspond to the depth range with fillings and loessoid deposits 0.00 5.50 m and the higher values of hits number from the range 5.50 6.00 m evidentiated the presence of sandy deposits, compact. DPL2

echidistante de 10 cm. Eficienta acestor incercari in-situ este data de executia in imediata apropiere a unui foraj geotehnic, pentru corelarea rezultatelor penetrarii cu stratificatia pusa in evidenta de foraj si cu rezultatele determinarilor de laborator. Incercarile de penetrare s-au efectuat de la cota terenului natural pana la adancimea de 6.00 m. Rezultatele incercarii au fost notate, in confomitate cu SR EN ISO 22476 2: 2006 Cercetari si incercari geotehnice; Incercari pe teren; Partea 2: Incercare de penetrare dinamica, in anexa B a normativului amintit privind inregistrarea valorilor masurate si a rezultatelor incercarii de penetrare dinamica. Plecand de la valorile N10 pentru DPL (PDU) s-au determinat valorile Rd, Rp, n, e, Ic, M2-3, E, , parametri care au completat analizele de laborator efectuate de probe de pamant recoltate din forajele executate. Astfel, s-au intocmit rapoartele de teren (anexele A si B) si s-au reprezentat grafic diagrama cu numarul de lovituri N10 functie de adancime, diagrama rezistentei la penetrarea dinamica Rd si diagrama rezistentei statica pe con Rp. Incercarile de penetrare dinamice s-au efectuat pe intervalul de adancime 0.00 6.00 m, determinadu-se rezistenta la penetrarea dinamica si a rezistentei statice pe con, pe baza numarului de lovituri la inaintarea conului pe o adancime de 10 cm. S-au inregistrat valori medii ale rezistentei la penetrare Rd si Rp pentru pamanturile coezive (intalniate pana la -5.40 6.00 m) si necoezive (sub - 5.40 m). INTERPRETAREA DIAGRAMELOR DE PENETRARE Cele trei foraje si incercarile de penetrare dinamica usoara au intalnit un teren neuniform, cu umpluturi de grosimi diferite si diferite stari de consistenta ale pamanturilor, exprimate prin numarul de lovituri (precizate in fisele de teren ale penetrarilor Anexa B inregistrarea valorilor masurate si a rezultatelor incercarii de penetrare dinamica, conform SR EN ISO 22476 2:2006). In functie de numarul de lovituri necesar patrunderii penetrometrului pe intervale de 10 cm, putem separa pamanturile intalnite in functie de starea de consistenta, porozitate, compresibilitate etc. PDU1 Pentru umpluturile, argilele prafoase si prafurile argiloase loessoide de pe intervalul 0.00 4.50 m s-au inregistrat valori medii de la 1.8 la 5.4 lov./10 cm, iar pe intervalul 4.50 6.00 m s-au inregistrat valori medii de la 7.4 la 25.6 lov./10 cm. Valorile mici ale numarului de lovituri la inaintarea penetrometrului corespund intervalului cu umpluturi si depozite loessoide 0.00 5.50 m iar valorile mai mari ale numarului de lovituri de pe intervalul 5.50 6.00 m evidentiaza prezenta unor depozite nisipoase, compacte. PDU2

For the loessoid silty clays and clayey silts of the range 0.70 4.00 m were recorded medium values of 1.2 6.2 hits/10 cm and on the depth range 4.00 6.00 m were recorded medium values from 8.0 to 9.8 hits/10 cm. The small values of hits number at penetration correspond to the depth range with loessoid deposits 0.70 4.00 m and the higher values of hits number from the range 4.00 6.00 m evidentiated the presence of clayey silts, more consistent. DPL3 For the fillings, loessoid silty clays, silts and clayey silts of the range 0.00 4.50 m were recorded medium values of 2.6 8.2 hits/10 cm and on the depth range 4.50 6.00 m were recorded medium values from 11.8 to 39.8 hits/10 cm. The small values of hits number at penetration correspond to the depth range with fillings and loessoid deposits 0.00 4.50 m and the higher values of hits number from the range 4.50 6.00 m evidentiated the presence of sandy clayey silts mor consistent tull the depth of 5.50 m and sandy deposits on the range 5.50 6.00 m (rammed sands). The results of the light dynamic penetration tests and the penetration dyagram, as well as the laboratory analisys results performed on soils samples are presented in the appendix of the present geotechnical study. The results of the dynamic penetration tests were used in order to establish the soil profile/type together with the results obtained from the drillings.The interpretation of this results is done below, resulting geotechnical parameters which will fill the laboraty analysis performed on the soil samples collected from the borehole. The geotechnical parameters resulted from the laboratory test for the collected soil samples from the performed boreholes: At the project ,Park 6 and Tank Farm Bordei Verde, from the geotechnical borehole were collected the following samples: BOREHOLE 1 Sample 1: 1.50 1.70 m; Sample 2: 2.00 2.50 m; Sample 3: 2.75 3.00 m; BOREHOLE 2 Sample 1: 1.20 1.50 m; Sample 2: 1.70 2.00 m; Sample 3: 2.50 3.00 m; Sample 4: 3.50 4.00 m. BOREHOLE 3 Sample 1: 1.00 1.50 m; Sample 2: 1.50 2.00 m; Sample 3: 3.00 3.50 m; The laboratory analysis performed on the collected samples from the boreholes have identified some physical mechanical

Pentru argilele prafoase si prafurile argiloase loessoide de pe intervalul 0.70 4.00 m s-au inregistrat valori medii de la 1.2 la 6.2 lov./10 cm, iar pe intervalul 4.00 6.00 m s-au inregistrat valori medii de la 8.0 la 9.8 lov./10 cm. Valorile mici ale numarului de lovituri la inaintarea penetrometrului corespund intervalului cu depozite loessoide 0.70 4.00 m iar valorile mai mari ale numarului de lovituri de pe intervalul 4.00 6.00 m evidentiaza prezenta unor prafuri argiloase mai consistente. PDU3 Pentru umpluturile, argilele prafoase, prafurile si prafurile argiloase loessoide de pe intervalul 0.00 4.50 m s-au inregistrat valori medii de la 2.6 la 8.2 lov./10 cm, iar pe intervalul 4.50 6.00 m s-au inregistrat valori medii de la 11.8 la 39.8 lov./10 cm. Valorile mici ale numarului de lovituri la inaintarea penetrometrului corespund intervalului cu umpluturi si depozite loessoide 0.00 4.50 m iar valorile mai mari ale numarului de lovituri de pe intervalul 4.50 6.00 m evidentiaza prezenta unor prafuri argiloase nisipoase mai consistente pana la adancimea de cca 5.50 m si a unor depozite nisipoase pe intervalul 5.50 6.00 m (nisipuri indesate). Rezultatele incercarilor de penetrare dinamica usoara si diagrama de penetrare, precum si rezultatele analizelor de laborator efectuate pe probe de pamant sunt prezentate in anexa prezentului studiu geotehnic. Rezultatele incercarilor de penetrare dinamica au fost utilizate pentru determinarea profilului pamantului impreuna cu rezultatele obtinute prin prelevare prin forare. Interpretarea acestor rezultate din teren se face mai jos, rezultand paramteri geotehnici care vor completa analizele de laborator efectuate pe probe de pamant recoltate din foraj. Prezentarea parametrilor geotehnici rezultati din analiza in laborator a probelor de pamant recoltate din forajele executate: La proiectul Parc 6 si Depozit Bordei Verde, din forajele geotehnice executate au fost recoltate urmatoarele probe: FORAJ 1 Proba 1: 1.50 1.70 m; Proba 2: 2.00 2.50 m; Proba 3: 2.75 3.00 m; FORAJ 2 Proba 1: 1.20 1.50 m; Proba 2: 1.70 2.00 m; Proba 3: 2.50 3.00 m; Proba 4: 3.50 4.00 m. FORAJ 3 Proba 1: 1.00 1.50 m; Proba 2: 1.50 2.00 m; Proba 3: 3.00 3.50 m; Analizele de laborator efectuate pe probele recoltate din foraje au identificat o serie de parametri fizico mecanici ai pamanturilor

characteristics of the investigated soils, presented in the reports with the analysis results attached to the present geotechnical study. Laboratory investigations geotechnical characteristics of the intercepted soils: From boreholes were collected undisturbed and disturbed samples which were analyzed in the geotechnical laboratory, according with the standards and normative in force. From the analysis results and from the laboratory tests can be done a summary of the physical mechanical parameters, as follows: BOREHOLE 1 - granulometric distribution (granulozity); o clay 27.7 30.9%; o silt 62.7 69.0%; o sand 2.0 5.6%; o gravel 0 0.8%. According with SR EN ISO 14688-1:2004 /AC:2006, the investigated soils from drillings are from the group of silty clays and clayey silts (silty fraction mostly). - natural humidity, determined in the laboratory, w = 23.71 25.15 %; - plasticity index has values between 19.5 si 22.3; According with SR EN ISO 14688-1:2004 /AC:2006, the investigated soils have reduced and medium plasiticity. - consistency index Ic = 0.54 0.67; According with SR EN ISO 14688-1:2004 /AC:2006, the investigated soils are consistent to soft plastic (Ic = 0.51 0.75); - porosity n = 42.40 45.89 and pores index e = 0.73 0.84; volumetric weight in natural status has values between 17.903 and 18.909 kN/m3. The volumetric weight in dry status has values between 14.285 and 15.142 kN/m3.

saturation degree has values between 0.78 and 0.90 (78 90 %); According with SR EN ISO 14688-1:2004 /AC:2006, the analysed soils are very wet to saturated. - The compressibility modulus M2-3 = 4348 kPa. Based on the compressibility modulus M2-3, the interceped soils are with very high compresibility (< 5000 kPa) - Specific compaction coefficient = 7.45 %. BOREHOLE 2 - granulometric distribution (granulozity); o clay 25.6 32.9%; o silt 65.7 70.6%; o sand 1.4 3.9%; o gravel 0%. According with SR EN ISO 14688-1:2004 /AC:2006, the investigated soils are from the group

investigate, prezentate in buletinele cu rezultatele analizelor si incercarilor anexate prezentului studiu geotehnic. Investigatii de laborator caracterizarea geotehnica a pamanturilor interceptate: Din forajele geotehnice executate s-au recoltat probe tulburate si netulburate, care au fost analizate in laboratorul geotehnic de specialitate, in conformitate cu standardele si normativele in vigoare. Din rezultatele analizelor si incercarilor de laborator se poate face o sinteza a parametrilor fizico mecanici, astfel: FORAJUL 1 - distributia granulometrica (granulozitatea): o argila 27.7 30.9%; o praf 62.7 69.0%; o nisip 2.0 5.6%; o pietris 0 0.8%. Conform SR EN ISO 14688-1:2004 /AC:2006, pamanturile cercetate prin foraje fac parte din gama argilelor prafoase si prafurilor argiloase (predomina fractiunea prafoasa). - umiditatea naturala, determinata in laborator, w = 23.71 25.15 %; - indicele de plasticitate are valori cuprinse intre 19.5 and 22.3; Conform SR EN ISO 14688-1:2004 /AC:2006, pamanturile cercetate prin foraje au plasticitate redusa si medie. - indicele de consistenta, Ic = 0.54 0.67; Conform SR EN ISO 14688-1:2004 /AC:2006, pamanturile cercetate prin foraje sunt plastic consistente spre plastic moi (Ic = 0.51 0.75); - porozitatea n = 42.40 45.89 si indicele porilor e = 0.73 0.84; - greutatea volumetrica in stare naturala are valori cuprinse intre 17.903 si 18.909 kN/m3. Greutatea volumetrica in stare uscata are valori cuprinse intre 14.285 si 15.142 kN/m3. - gradul de umiditate are valori cupinse intre 0.78 si 0.90 (78 90 %); Conform SR EN ISO 14688-1:2004 /AC:2006, pamanturile analizate sunt foarte umede la saturate. - modulul de compresibilitate M2-3 = 4348 kPa. Astfel in functie de modulul de compresibilitate M23, pamanturile interceptate sunt pamanturi cu compresibilitate foarte mare (< 5000 kPa). - coeficientul de tasare specifica = 7.45 %. FORAJUL 2 - distributia granulometrica (granulozitatea): o argila 25.6 32.9%; o praf 65.7 70.6%; o nisip 1.4 3.9%; o pietris 0%. Conform SR EN ISO 14688-1:2004 /AC:2006, pamanturile intalnite fac parte din gama argilelor

of silty clays and clayey silts (silty fraction mostly). natural humidity, determined in the laboratory, w = 21.39 27.73 %; - plasticity index has values between 16.9 and 23.7; According with SR EN ISO 14688-1:2004 /AC:2006, the investigated soils have reduced and medium plasiticity. - consistency index Ic = 0.55 0.79; According with SR EN ISO 14688-1:2004 /AC:2006, the investigated soils are consistent plastic and consistent plastic to soft plastic (Ic = 0.51 0.75); - porosity n = 40.47 44.28 and pores index e = 0.68 0.79; volumetric weight in natural status has values between 18.679 and 19.075 kN/m3. The volumetric weight in dry status has values between 14.647 and 15.649 kN/m3. -

saturation degree has values between 0.84 and 0.93 (84 93 %); According with SR EN ISO 14688-1:2004 /AC:2006, the analysed soils are very wet to saturated. - The compressibility modulus M2-3 = 5714 7692 kPa. Based on the compressibility modulus M2-3, the interceped soils are with very high compresibility (5000 10000 kPa). - Specific compaction coefficient has valueso of 4.05 6.30 %. BOREHOLE 3 - granulometric distribution (granulozity); o clay 10.5 37.7%; o silt 56.5 79.1%; o sand 5.8 10.4%; o gravel 0%. According with SR EN ISO 14688-1:2004 /AC:2006, the investigated soils are from the group of silty clays and clayey silts (silty fraction mostly). natural humidity, determined in the laboratory, w = 23.64 26.61 %; - plasticity index has values between 23.6 and 26.4; According with SR EN ISO 14688-1:2004 /AC:2006, the investigated soils have medium plasiticity. - consistency index Ic = 0.71 0.79; According with SR EN ISO 14688-1:2004 /AC:2006, the investigated soils are consistent plastic (Ic = 0.51 0.75); - porosity n = 42.19 44.28 and pores index e = 0.73 0.79; - volumetric weight in natural status has values between 18.530 and 18.791 kN/m3. The volumetric weight in dry status has values between 14.647 and 15.198 kN/m3. -

prafoase si prafurilor argiloase (predomina fractiunea prafoasa). - umiditatea naturala, determinata in laborator, w = 21.39 27.73 %; - indicele de plasticitate are valori cuprinse intre 16.9 and 23.7; Conform SR EN ISO 14688-1:2004 /AC:2006, pamanturile cercetate prin foraje au plasticitate redusa si medie. - indicele de consistenta Ic = 0.55 0.79; Conform SR EN ISO 14688-1:2004 /AC:2006, pamanturile cercetate prin foraje sunt plastic consistente si plastic consistente spre plastic moi (Ic = 0.51 0.75); - porozitatea n = 40.47 44.28 si indicele porilor e = 0.68 0.79; - greutatea volumetrica in stare naturala are valori cuprinse intre 18.679 si 19.075 kN/m3. Greutatea volumetrica in stare uscata are valori cuprinse intre 14.647 si 15.649 kN/m3. - gradul de umiditate are valori cupinse intre 0.84 si 0.93 (84 93 %); Conform SR EN ISO 14688-1:2004 /AC:2006, pamanturile analizate sunt foarte umede la saturate. - modulul de compresibilitate M2-3 = 5714 7692 kPa. Astfel in functie de modulul de compresibilitate M23, pamanturile interceptate sunt pamanturi cu compresibilitate mare (5000 10000 kPa). - coeficientul de tasare specifica are valori de 4.05 6.30 %. FORAJUL 3 - distributia granulometrica (granulozitatea): o argila 10.5 37.7%; o praf 56.5 79.1%; o nisip 5.8 10.4%; o pietris 0%. Conform SR EN ISO 14688-1:2004 /AC:2006, pamanturile intalnite fac parte din gama argilelor prafoase si prafurilor argiloase (predomina fractiunea prafoasa). - umiditatea naturala, determinata in laborator, w = 23.64 26.61 %; - indicele de plasticitate are valori cuprinse intre 23.6 si 26.4; Conform SR EN ISO 14688-1:2004 /AC:2006, pamanturile cercetate prin foraje au plasticitate medie. - indicele de consistenta Ic = 0.71 0.79; Conform SR EN ISO 14688-1:2004 /AC:2006, pamanturile cercetate prin foraje sunt plastic consistente (Ic = 0.51 0.75); - porozitatea n = 42.19 44.28 si indicele porilor e = 0.73 0.79; - greutatea volumetrica in stare naturala are valori cuprinse intre 18.530 si 18.791 kN/m3. Greutatea volumetrica in stare uscata are valori cuprinse intre 14.647 si

saturation degree has values between 0.86 and 0.89 (86 89 %); According with SR EN ISO 14688-1:2004 /AC:2006, the analysed soils are very wet to saturated. - The compressibility modulus M2-3 = 5063 5479 kPa. Based on the compressibility modulus M2-3, the interceped soils are with very high compresibility (5000 10000 kPa). - Specific compaction coefficient has values of 5.10 6.15 %. The specific compaction at flooding is not happening, because the soils have high humidity, are flooded and during flooding in the geotechnical laboratory there arent any additional compactions. Thus im3 was not computed. The presentation of the geotechnical parameters resulted from the dynamic penetration test (DPL) To obtain the geotechnical parameters specific for the soils investigated by the penetration test the dynamic resistance values were transformed (Rd ) in static resistance on cone (Rp), then determination through calculation of the values of the physical mechanical parameters, presented in the synthesis bellow in this chapter and in the appendix of the geotechnical study, as a table, in the completion of the diagrams N10, Rd si Rp. Based on Rd and Rp determination, the results interpretation was performed, obtaining the geotechnical parameters values n, e, Ic, M2-3, E, which have completed the laboratory tests on soil samples DPL1 In the DPL1 survey it were evidentiated on the depth range 0.00 5.50 m an loessoid complex, composed by silty clays and clayey silts, characterized by values of N10 of 1 15 hits, which correspond to values of dynamic resistance Rd of 4.62 21.82 daN/cm2. On the depth range 5.50 6.00 m it were evidentiated an sandy non-cohesive complex, characterized by values of N10 of 15 30 hits, which correspond to value of dynamic resistance Rd of 40.88 daN/cm2. For the cohesive soils crossed by drilling on the interval 0.00 5.50 m, based on dynamic penetration test it were determined the following geotechnical parameters: Following the performing of the light dynamic penetration test DPL1 the values of the consistency index are 0.51 0.77; based on the consistency index, the soils are consistent to soft

15.198 kN/m3. - gradul de umiditate are valori cupinse intre 0.86 si 0.89 (86 89 %); Conform SR EN ISO 14688-1:2004 /AC:2006, pamanturile analizate sunt foarte umede la saturate. - modulul de compresibilitate M2-3 = 5063 5479 kPa. Astfel in functie de modulul de compresibilitate M23, pamanturile interceptate sunt pamanturi cu compresibilitate mare (5000 10000 kPa). - coeficientul de tasare specifica are valori de 5.10 6.15 %. Tasarea specifica la inundare nu se produce deoarece pamanturile au umiditate mare, sunt inundate, iar la inundarea in laboratorul geotehnic nu se produc tasari suplimentare. Astfel, nu s-a calculat im3. Prezentarea parametrilor geotehnici rezultati din incercarea de penetrare dinamica (DPL): Pentru obtinerea parametrilor geotehnici specifici pamanturilor investigate prin penetrare s-a efectuat transformarea valorilor rezistentei dinamice (Rd) n rezistenta statica pe con (Rp), apoi determinanduse prin calcule valori ale unor parametri fizico mecanici, prezentati in sinteza mai jos in cadrul prezentului capitol si in anexa studiului geotehnic, sub forma de tabel, in completarea diagramelor N10, Rd si Rp. Ca urmare a determinarii Rd si Rp, s-a efectuat interpretarea rezultatelor, obtinandu-se valorile parametrilor geotehnici n, e, Ic, ID, M2-3, E, parametri care au completat analizele de laborator efectuate de probe de pamant. PDU 1 In sondajul PDU1 s-a delimitat pe intervalul 0.00 5.50 m un complex loessoid alactuit din argile prafoase si prafuri argiloase, caracterizat de valori ale N10 de 1 15 lovituri, care corespund unor valori ale rezistentei dinamice Rd de 4.62 21.82 daN/cm2. Pe intervalul 5.50 6.00 m s-a evidentiat un complex nisipos, necoeziv, caracterizat de valori ale N10 de 15 30 lovituri, care corespund unei valori ale rezistentei dinamice Rd de 40.88 daN/cm2. Pentru pamanturile coezive traversate pe intervalul de adancime 0.00 5.50 m, pe baza incercarii de penetrare dinamica usoara s-au determinat urmatorii parametri geotehnici: In urma executarii sondajului PDU1 au rezultat valori ale indicelui de consistenta Ic de 0.51 0.77; In functie de indicele de consistenta, pamanturile sunt plastic consistente spre plastic

plastic, compact plastic under the depth of 5.00 m. Porosity (n), determined by the penetration test DPL1 has values of 47.8 53.6. Pores index e has values between 0.91 and 1.16. The compressibility modulus M2-3 has values of de 5100 7119 kPa (51.00 71.19 daN/cm2).. By this values, based on compressibility modulus M2-3, the soils investigated by DPL test are soils with high compressibility (50 100 daN/cm2 or 5000 10000 kPa). The linear deformation modulus E has values between 56.10 and 78.31 daN/cm2. For the non-cohesive deposits of the depth range 5.50 6.00 m: Based on the DPL1 survey, it were resulted values of compaction degree ID de 0.58; Thus, the intercepted non-cohesive soils are with medium ramming (ID = 0.58);

moi, plastic vartoase sub adancimea de 5.00 m Porozitatea (n) determinata prin incercarea de penetrare PDU1 are valori de 47.8 53.6. Indicele porilor e are valori intre 0.91 1.16. Modulul de compresibilitate M2-3 are valori de 5100 7119 kPa (51.00 71.19 daN/cm2). Din aceste date, in functie de modulul de compresibilitate M2-3, pamanturile strabatute prin penetrare dinamica sunt pamanturi cu 2 compresibilitate mare (50 100 daN/cm sau 5000 10000 kPa). Modulul de deformatie liniara E are valori cuprinse intre 56.10 si 78.31 daN/cm2. Pentru pamanturile ncoezive de pe intervalul de adancime 5.50 6.00 m: In urma executarii sondajului PDU1 au rezultat valori ale gradului de indesare ID de 0.58; Astfel, pamanturile necoezive intalnite sunt cu indesare medie (ID = 0.58);

Porosity (n), determined by the penetration test Porozitatea (n) determinata prin incercarea de DPL1 has the value of 44.9. Pores index e has penetrare PDU1 are valorea de 44.9. Indicele value 0.91. porilor e are valoarea de 0.91. The compressibility modulus M2-3 has values of de 8264 kPa (82.64 daN/cm2). Based on compressibility modulus M2-3, the soils investigated by DPL test are soils with high compressibility (50 100 daN/cm2 or 5000 10000 kPa). The linear deformation modulus E = 107.43 daN/cm2. DPL2 In the DPL2 survey it were evidentiated on the depth range 0.00 6.00 m an loessoid complex, composed by silty clays, clayey silts, clayey sandy silts, characterized by values of N10 of 1 13 hits, which correspond to values of dynamic resistance Rd of 2.41 17.27 daN/cm2. Modulul de compresibilitate M2-3 are valorea de 8264 kPa (82.64 daN/cm2). In functie de modulul de compresibilitate M2-3, pamanturile strabatute prin penetrare dinamica sunt pamanturi cu compresibilitate mare (50 100 daN/cm2 sau 5000 10000 kPa). Modulul de deformatie liniara E are valoarea de 107.43 daN/cm2. PDU2 In sondajul PDU2 s-a delimitat pe intervalul 0.00 6.00 m un complex loessoid alactuit din argile prafoase, prafuri argiloase, prafuri argiloase nisipoase caracterizat de valori ale N10 de 1 13 lovituri, care corespund unor valori ale rezistentei dinamice Rd de 2.41 17.27 daN/cm2.

La interpretarea diagramei de penetrare nu s-a The interpretation of the penetration diagram takes tinut cont de umpluturile intalnite pana la no account of the fillings met until 0.70 m depth. adancimea de 0.70 m. For the cohesive soils crossed by drilling on the interval 0.00 6.00 m, based on dynamic penetration test it were determined the following geotechnical parameters: Following the performing of the light dynamic penetration test DPL2 the values of the consistency index are 0.50 0.69; based on the consistency index, the soils are consistent to soft plastic. Porosity (n), determined by the penetration test DPL1 has values of 48.7 54.8. Pores index e has values between 0.95 and 1.21. The compressibility modulus M2-3 has values of de Pentru pamanturile coezive traversate pe intervalul de adancime 0.00 6.00 m, pe baza incercarii de penetrare dinamica usoara s-au determinat urmatorii parametri geotehnici: In urma executarii incercarii de penetrare dinamica usoara PDU2 au rezultat valori ale indicelui de consistenta Ic de 0.50 0.69; In functie de indicele de consistenta, pamanturile sunt plastic consistente spre plastic moi. Porozitatea (n) determinata prin incercarea de penetrare PDU1 are valori de 48.7 54.8. Indicele porilor e are valori intre 0.95 1.21. Modulul de compresibilitate M2-3 are valori de

5100 6692 kPa (51.00 66.92 daN/cm2. By this values, based on compressibility modulus M2-3, the soils investigated by DPL test are soils with high compressibility (50 100 daN/cm2 or 5000 10000 kPa). The linear deformation modulus E has values between 56.10 and 73.61 daN/cm2. DPL3 In the DPL3 survey it were evidentiated on the depth range 0.00 5.40 m an loessoid complex, composed by silty clays, silts and clayey silts, characterized by values of N10 of 1 16 hits, which correspond to values of dynamic resistance Rd of 2.6 24.4 daN/cm2 On the depth range 5.40 6.00 m it were evidentiated an sandy non-cohesive complex, characterized by values of N10 of 20 45 hits, which correspond to value of dynamic resistance Rd of 63.60 daN/cm2. For the cohesive soils crossed by drilling on the interval 0.00 5.40 m, based on dynamic penetration test it were determined the following geotechnical parameters: Following the performing of the light dynamic penetration test DPL3 the values of the consistency index are 0.53 0.73; based on the consistency index, the soils are consistent plastic, sometimes consistent to soft plastic, hard under the depth of 5.00 m. Porosity (n), determined by the penetration test DPL3 has values of 45.1 53.2.. Pores index e has values between 0.82 1.14.. The compressibility modulus M2-3 has values of de 5100 7027 kPa (51.00 70.27 daN/cm2).).. By this values, based on compressibility modulus M2-3, the soils investigated by DPL test are soils with high compressibility (50 100 daN/cm2 or 5000 10000 kPa). The linear deformation modulus E has values between 56.10 and 77.30 daN/cm2. For the non-cohesive deposits of the depth range 5.40 6.00 m: Based on the DPL3 survey, it were resulted values of compaction degree ID de 0.74. Thus, the intercepted non-cohesive soils are rammed (ID = 0.74);

5100 6692 kPa (51.00 66.92 daN/cm2). aceste date, in functie de modulul compresibilitate M2-3, pamanturile strabatute penetrare dinamica sunt pamanturi compresibilitate mare (50 100 daN/cm2 5000 10000 kPa).

Din de prin cu sau

Modulul de deformatie liniara E are valori cuprinse intre 56.10 si 73.61 daN/cm2. PDU3 In sondajul PDU3 s-a delimitat pe intervalul 0.00 5.40 m un complex loessoid alactuit din argile prafoase, prafuri si prafuri argiloase, caracterizat de valori ale N10 de 1 16 lovituri, care corespund unor valori ale rezistentei dinamice Rd de 2.6 24.4 daN/cm2. Pe intervalul 5.40 6.00 m s-a evidentiat un complex nisipos, necoeziv, caracterizat de valori ale N10 de 20 45 lovituri, care corespund unei valori ale rezistentei dinamice Rd de 63.60 daN/cm2. Pentru pamanturile coezive traversate pe intervalul de adancime 0.00 5.40 m, pe baza incercarii de penetrare dinamica usoara s-au determinat urmatorii parametri geotehnici: In urma executarii sondajului PDU3 au rezultat valori ale indicelui de consistenta Ic de 0.53 0.73; In functie de indicele de consistenta, pamanturile sunt plastic consistente, uneori plastic consistente la plastic moi, tari sub adancimea de 5.00 m Porozitatea (n) determinata prin incercarea de penetrare PDU3 are valori de 45.1 53.2. Indicele porilor e are valori intre 0.82 1.14. Modulul de compresibilitate M2-3 are valori de 5100 7027 kPa (51.00 70.27 daN/cm2). Din aceste date, in functie de modulul de compresibilitate M2-3, pamanturile strabatute prin penetrare dinamica sunt pamanturi cu 2 compresibilitate mare (50 100 daN/cm sau 5000 10000 kPa). Modulul de deformatie liniara E are valori cuprinse intre 56.10 si 77.30 daN/cm2. Pentru pamanturile ncoezive de pe intervalul de adancime 5.40 6.00 m: In urma executarii sondajului PDU3 au rezultat valori ale gradului de indesare ID de 0.74. Astfel, pamanturile necoezive intalnite sunt indesate (ID = 0.74);

Porosity (n), determined by the penetration test Porozitatea (n) determinata prin incercarea de DPL3 has the value of 42.8. Pores index e has penetrare PDU3 are valorea de 42.8. Indicele value 0.75. porilor e are valoarea de 0.75. The compressibility modulus M2-3 has values of de 9070 kPa (90.70 daN/cm2). Based on compressibility modulus M2-3, the soils investigated Modulul de compresibilitate M2-3 are valorea de 9070 kPa (90.70 daN/cm2). In functie de modulul de compresibilitate M2-3, pamanturile strabatute

by DPL test are soils with high compressibility (50 100 daN/cm2 or 5000 10000 kPa). The linear deformation modulus E = 154.18 daN/cm2. According with the special literature and having the experience of some previous works in the area, as well as the laboratory test results interpretation performed on disturbed and non disturbed soil samples collected from the drillings and the light dynamic penetration tests, we mention that in Park 6 Bordei Verde have been intercepted loessoid soils as silty clays and clayey silts, generally consistent palsatic, palstic consistent to soft plastic till the depth of 4 5 m. The analyzed soils are very wet to water saturated. Under this depth the soils become consistent plastic to compact plastic and in the boreholes 1 and 3, under the depth of 5.40 5.50 m were met sanndy soils, with medium ramming and rammed. It weer met water seepages at depth of 4.10 4.50 m. The fillings thickness varies from 0.70 (borehole 3) to 1.70 m (borehole 1).

prin penetrare dinamica sunt pamanturi cu compresibilitate mare (50 100 daN/cm2 sau 5000 10000 kPa). Modulul de deformatie liniara E are valoarea de 154.18 daN/cm2. In conformitate cu literatura de specialitate si avand in vedere experienta unor lucrari efectuate anterior in zona, precum si interpretarea rezultatelor si incercarilor de laborator efectuate pe probe netulburate si tulburate de pamant recoltate din forajul geotehnic executat si incercarile de penetrare dinamica usoara, specificam ca pe amplasamentul Parc 6 Bordei Verde s au intalnit pamanturi loessoide din gama argilelor prafoase si prafurilor argiloase, in general plastic consistente, plastic consistente la palstic moi, pana la adancimea de cca 4 5 m. Pamanturile analizate sunt foarte umede si saturate Sub aceasta adancime pamanturile devin plastic consistente la plastic vartoase iar in F1 si F3 sub adancimea de 5.40 5.50 m s-au intalnit depozite nisipoase, cu indesare medie si indesate. Infiltratii de apa au fost intalnite la adancimi de 4.10 4.50 m. Grosimea umpluturilor variaza de la grosimi de 0.70 (F3) pana la 1.70 m (F1).

4.0

CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

4.0

CAPITOLUL 4 CONCLUZII SI RECOMANDARI

The foundation soil investigation was done according with SR EN 1997 2 (Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design Part 2: Soils tests and investigation) as well as with the provisions of section no. 3: Geotechnical data from SR EN 1997 1: Geotechnical design: Part 1: General rules. At the foundation soils investigation it were respected the provisions of SR EN 22475 1 Geotechnical investigations and tests. The collections and piezometric method Part 1: Technical principles for execution. Although the soils were before wetting loess type (moisture sensitive), in the present, at the investigation date, being wet, very wet or flooded, under the depth of 3.00 m the soils have lost the moisture sensitivity, remaining with a reduced bearing capacity. According with table no. 1 from TS 1995 (including the soils classification and other disaggregated rocks, by their nature, the cohesive properties and by the digging characteristics), in the geotechnical drilling it were intercepted soils of loess type silty clays, clayey silts, sandy clayey silts, pt. 3, 6 16, 21. The lithological classification is as follows:
Manual Nr. Crt 1 3 Denumirea pamanturilor Proprietati coezive Cu lopata, cazma, tarnacop, ranga 4 Usor Excavator cu lingura sau echipament de draglina 5 I

Investigarea terenului de fundare s-a efectuat in conformitate cu SR EN 1997 2 (Eurocode 7: Proiectarea geotehnica Partea 2: Investigarea si incercarea pamantului) precum is cu prevederile sectiunii 3 Date geotehnice din SR EN 1997 1: Proiectarea geotehnica: Partea 1: Regului generale. La investigarea terenului de fundare s-au respectat prevederile SR EN 22475 1 Investigatii si incercari geotehnice. Metoda de prelevare si masurari piezometrice. Partea 1: Principii tehnice pentru executie. Desi pamanturile traversate au fost initial de tip loess (sensibile la umezire), in prezent, la data cercetarilor geotehnice, fiind umede, foarte umede sau inundate, si-au pierdut sensibilitatea la umezire, ramanand cu o capacitate portanta scazuta. Conform tabelului nr. 1 din TS 1995 (cuprinzand clasificarea pamanturllor si a altor roci dezagregate, dupa natura lor, dupa proprietatile lor coezive si dupa modul de comportare la sapat), in forajul geotehnic executat s-au interceptat pamanturi de tip loess argile prafoase, prafuri argiloase, prafuri nisipoase argiloase, pct. 3, 6, 16, 21. Incadrarea litologiei este dupa cum urmeaza:
Mecanizat Buldozer, autogreder, greder cu tractor 6 I Motoscreper cu tractor 7 I Greutatea medie in situ (in sapatura) kg/m3 8 1200 1400

Categoria de teren dupa modul de comportare la sapat Afanarea dupa executarea sapaturii

2 Pamant vegetal de suprafata pana la 0.30 m adancime Praf argilos nisipos Praf argilos (loess) Argila prafoasa

3 Slab coeziv

9 14 20%

6 16 21

Slab coeziv Slab coeziv Coeziune nijlocie

Mijlociu Mijlociu Tare

I II II

I II II

I II II

1700 1850 1600 1700 1800 2000

14 28% 8 17% 24 30%

Soil category based on the digging characteristics Manual No. Soils classification Cohesive properties With shovel, pickaxe, crowbar 4 Easy Medium Dredger or dragline equipment 5 I I Mechanical Bulldozer, tractor auto grader, grader with tractor 6 I I Motoscreper with tractor Medium weight in site (in excavation) kg/m3 8 1200 1400 1700 1850 1600 1700 Aeration after the excavation

1 3 6

2 Vegetal topsoils up to the depth of 0.30 m Sandy clayey silt Clayey silt (loess)

3 Low cohesive Low cohesive Low cohesive

7 I I

9 14 20% 14 28% 8 17%

16

Medium

II

II

II

21

Silty clay

Medium cohesion

Hard

II

II

II

1800 2000

24 30%

According with the normative regarding the principles, exigencies and geotechnical investigations method of the foundation soils NP 074/2011, the intercepted soils are (according with point C of the mentioned normative) within the difficult soil category. Alltough the soils arent moisture sensitive, are weak foundation soils. According with the same normative, in conformity with table A3 and A4 regarding the geotechnical risk analysis, the site is within the geotechnical category 2, moderate geotechnical risk (14 points), the present score was given by the soil type difficult (6 p); without dewatering till 4.10 4.50 m depth (1p); construction framing by importance normal (3p); proximity without risks (1p); seismic area (3p). On the soils met on site, at the direct foundation, without soil improving, it is recommended a base conventional pressure pconv = 100 kPa.

Conform normativului privind principiile, exigentele si metodele cercetarii geotehnice a terenului de fundare NP 074/2007, pamanturile din amplasament se incadreaza (conform punctului C al normativului mentionat) in categoria terenurilor dificile. Desi nu mai prezinta sensibilitate la umezire, sunt terenuri slabe de fundare. Conform aceluiasi normativ se apreciaza ca, in conformitate cu tabelele A3 si A4 privind analiza riscului geotehnic, amplasamentul studiat se incadreaza in categoria geotehnica 2, risc geotehnic moderat (14 puncte). Incadrarea A reiesit din tipul de teren dificil (6p); fara epuismente pana la adancimea de 4.10 4.50 m (1p); incadrarea constructiei dupa importanta normala (3p); vecinatati fara riscuri (1p); zona seismica (3p). Pe pamanturile intalnite in amplasament, la fundarea directa, fara imbunatatirea terenului de fundare, se recomanda o presiune conventionala de baza pconv = 100 kPa.

Taking into consideration the presence of thick Avand in vedere prezenta umpluturilor cu grosmi fillings and the weak foundation soils, it is not mari si a pamanturilor slabe de fundare, nu se recommended the direct foundation. recomanda fundarea directa. Taking into consideration that the investigated soils are wet, verz wet and water saturated, these soil can be considered soils with reduced bearing capacity (with consistence status from soft plastic to consistent plastic). In this case the value of the base conventional pressure can be considered smaller than the normative values. Avand in vedere faptul ca pamanturile cercetate sunt umede, foarte umede si practic saturate, acestea pot fi considerate terenuri cu portanta redusa (avand starea de consistenta de la plastic moale la plastic consistenta). In acest caz presiunea conventionala de baza poate fi considerata mai mica decat valorile prevazute in normative.

Cu adancimea umiditatea creste, consistenta With the depth the soil humidity increases, the soil terenului si capacitatea portanta a terenului scad, consistency and the bearing capacity decrease, din cauza apropierii panzei freatice si implicit, a due to the phreatic level and capillary action. fenomenului de capilaritate. Taking into account the boreholes and penetration tests, both executed at TFBL and Park 6 Tank Farm Bordei Verde, taking into consideration the characteristics of the soils, the fact that from the surface the soils are in the consistent status and become soft consistent, wet and very compressible, also the laboratory test and penetration diagram, for the foundation of the dsigned objectives it is recommended the improving of the foundation soil. Luand in calcul forajele si penetrarile dinamice executate la TFBL si Parc 6 - Depozit Bordei Verde, avand in vedere caracteristicile terenului si anume faptul ca sunt inca de la suprafata in stare consistenta si devin moi-consistente in adancime, umede si foarte compresibile, ca si analizele de laborator si diagrama de penetrare, se recomanda, pentru fundarea obiectivelor care se proiecteaza, imbunatatirea terenului de fundare.

It will be excavating the fillings material, Se vor indeparta materialele de umplutura sometimes very thick (in borehole 1 1.70 m uneori foarte groase (vezi F1 1.70 m grosime, thickness, borehole 2 0.70 m thickness, in F2 0.70 m grosime, F3 1.00 m grosime). borehole 3 1.00 m thickness), In the site area we mention the possibility of In teren mentionam posibilitatea existentei

existing of filling materials with variable materialelor de umplutura cu grosime si continut thickness and composition, taking into variabile, avand in vedere ca zona este consideration that the area is anthropic influentata antropic. influenced. Due to the oil type technology and the anthropic influence from the area, in case of intercepting infested soils or filling with petroleum residues, water/oil leak, which were not discovered during the drillings, it is recommended to be removed till the necessary depth, until the natural soil will be reached. Avand in vedere tehnologia de tip petrolier si influenta antropica in zona, in cazul interceptarii de umpluturi sau pamanturi infestate cu reziduuri petroliere, scurgeri de apa/titei din conducte, nedepistate cu ocazia executarii forajelor, se recomanda indepartarea acestora, pana se ajunge in teren natural.

Solutions regarding the improving of the foundation Solutii privind imbunatatirea terenului de fundare soil
In this case, the foundation soil improving can be done by different technologies, to form a new internal structure on all layer depth which is consistent soft: it will be done a blocking on the digging bottom with riddling residue (sieve oversize), that at the upper part the stratum should be closed (uniformized with a pillow). The foundation soil can be improved with the help of compact loess cushion (the necessary soils for the execution of the cushion can be taken from the surrounding areas) or with the help of some ballast of crushed stone, under the frost depth and till 0.30 m over the constructive depth for foundation. At the selection of the soil will be consulted NE008-97 (which subsitutes C29/77, C29/1985 ,,Normative regarding the improvement of the weak foundation soil through mechanical processes. The optimum foundation depth will be selected by the resistance designer, based on the construction and functional characteristics of the objectives and based on the data presented in the geotechnical study. Regarding the constructive solution this will be established by the designer. Will be applied adequate design measures regarding the construction settling on soils with contractions classified in the actual normative and standards. The improvement solution of the soil through the realization of crushed rock/ballast pillow is done according with the Normative C29-1985 (Soil pillow, crushed rock or other materials). At the execution of the layers will be respected Normative regarding the execution of the works for the realization of the foundation for the civil and industrial constructions, indicative C169-88. Imbunatatirea terenului, in cazul analizat, se poate face prin diferite tehnologii, urmarind formarea unei noi structuri interne pentru intregul strat: pentru perna se va interveni cu un blocaj pe fundul sapaturii cu refuz de ciur, cu mentiunea ca la partea superioara stratul imbunatatit sa fie inchis (uniformizat cu o perna). Terenul de fundare va putea fi imbunatatit prin realizarea unei perne de loess compactat (pamantul necesar pentru executia pernei se poate aduce din zone limitrofe) sau a unei perne de balast sau piatra sparta, sub adancimea de inghet si pana la 0.30 m deasupra cotei constructive necesare pentru fundare. La alegerea solutiei de fundare sa va consulta NE008-97 (care inlocuieste C29/77, C29/85 Normativ privind imbunatatirea terenurilor de fundare slabe prin procedee mecanice). Adancimea de fundare optima va fi aleasa de catre proiectantul de rezistenta, in functie de caracteristicile constructive si functionale ale obiectivelor si de datele prezentate in studiul geotehnic de fata. In ceea ce priveste solutiile constructive de detaliu, acestea vor fi stabilite de catre proiectantul constructor. Se vor aplica masuri de proiectare adecvate, tinand seama de caracteristicile obiectivelor care se proiecteaza, cuprinse in normativele si standardele in vigoare. Adoptarea soluiei de imbunatatire a terenului prin realizarea unei perne de piatra sparta/balast se face conform Normativ C29-1985 (caiet VII: Perne de pamant, piatra sparta sau alte materiale). La executarea pernelor se vor respecta prevederile din Normativ privind executarea lucrarilor de terasamente pentru realizarea fundaiilor construciilor civile si industriale, indicativ C 169 88.

The pillow will be done till minimum 0.30 m over Perna se va ridica pana la cel putin 0.30 m the elevation recommended for foundation and (the deasupra cotei preconizate pentru fundare

foundation will be embed in pillow, in the layer of (fundatia va fi incastrata in perna, in stratul de compacted ballast at least 0.30 m). balast compactat cel putin 0.30 m). The ballast/crushed rock layer will be done from successive strata and will be compacted accordingly, of 25 30 cm, till it reaches a volumic weight of minimum 95 % from the maximum volumic weight identified in the laboratory. It is recommended that the layer to be geotechnical verified for each layers (quality check of the compaction from the ballast/crushed rock layer) by the local geotechnical laborators in order to avoid the differentiated compaction during operation. Perna se realizeaza din strate succesive compactate corespunzator, de 25 30 cm, pana la atingerea unei greutati volumice de minim 95% din greutatea volumica maxima identificata in laborator.

Se recomanda verificarea geotehnica a pernei realizate pentru fiecare strat compactat (verificarea calitatii compactarii in-situ a stratului de piatra sparta/balast) de catre laboratoarele geotehnice locale pentru evitarea tasarii diferentiate in timpul exploatarii. It is recommended to be taken measures in order Se recomanda luarea unor masuri pentru evitarea to avoid the water seepages in the field: surface infiltrarii apei in teren: apa de suprafata din water from precipitations or water coming from the precipitatii sau apa provenita din procese technological processes, in the execution period, tehnologice, atat in perioada executiei, cat si in but as well in the construction period. perioada exploatarii obiectivului. Vertical systematization is recommended, to collect and evacuate of the waters from precipitations, by building some slopes with a declivity of minimum 2 %. It is recommended to avoid the disturbing of the hydrogeological balance and the underground water level. It is recommended to be realized fillings around the foundations during their execution Se recomanda sistematizarea verticala si in plan a amplasamentului pentru asigurarea colectarii si evacuarii rapide a apelor din precipitatii, prin prevederea unor pante de minim 2%. Se recomanda evitarea perturbarii echilibrului hidrogeologic si ridicarii nivelului apei subterane. Se recomanda executia umpluturilor in jurul fundatiilor pe masura ce acestea sunt realizate.

Through the measures of vertical systematization, Prin masurile de sistematizare pe verticala trebuie it must be avoided the superficial water stagnation sa se evite stagnarea apelor superficiale la distante mai mici de 10 m in jurul fiecarei at distances < 10 m around each platforms. platforme. For the pillows, depending on the proportion of the Pentru realizarea pernelor, in functie de proportia main granular fractions from pebbles, gravel and fractiunilor granulare principale din bolovanis, sand, can be met the following materials: pietris si nisip, se pot intalni urmatoarele materiale: pebbles with the dominant fraction 20 200 mm, without exceeding 60 %, the rest being gravel and sand; ballast, a natural mix of gravels with sand and pebbles, the last fraction will not exceed 25 %; sandy ballast, a mix of gravel with sand, fractions with the same weight. bolovanis cu fractiunea dominanta 20 200 mm, fara a depasi 60%, restul fiind pietris si nisip; balast, un amestec natural de pietris cu nisip si bolovanis, ultima fractiune nedepasind circa 25%; balastul nisipos, un amestec de pietris cu nisip, fractiuni cu pondere apropiata.

The materials granulosity is recommended to be continuos, and the non-uniformity coefficient Un>15, looking for to be supplied a material from the same quarry, visible vegetal deposits will not be accepted pieces of wood, clayey soils, industrial waste etc.

Granulozitatea materialelor se recomanda a fi continua, iar coeficientul de neuniformitate U n>15, urmarindu-se pe cat posibil aprovizionarea unui sort din material provenit din aceeasi cariera, nefiind acceptate resturi vegetale vizibile, bucati de lemn, pamanturi argiloase, deseuri industriale etc.

Este necesara prezenta ori de cate ori situatia o It is necessary the presence, whenever the case, impune, a proiectantului geotehnician de of the geotechnical designer at the opening of the specialitate la deschiderea sapaturilor pentru foundation digging before pouring the concrete fundatii inainte de turnarea betoanelor (verificarea (verification of the foundation soil nature). naturii terenului de fundare). The present geotechnical study is valid for the Prezentul studiu geotehnic este valabil pentru

described site, any modification of location requires performing of another geotechnical study. Following the above geotechnical, geological and geomorphologic data in the conditions of respecting the technical recommendations mentioned in the geotechnical study, we consider that the objectives can be designed and executed on this location.

amplasamentul descris, orice alta modificare de amplasament impunand efectuarea unui nou studiu geotehnic. Ca urmare a datelor geomorfologice, geologice si geotehnice prezentate, in conditiile respectarii recomandarilor de ordin tehnic specificate in prezentul studiu geotehnic, obiectivele se pot proiecta si executa pe acest amplasament.