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Test Bank for Johns/Saks, Organizational Behaviour, Ninth Edition Chapter 3 1) Which of the following statements most accurately defines "perception"? a. Perception is reality. b. Perception is the tendency to attribute one's own thoughts and feelings to others. c. Perception is the tendency to generalize about people and ignore variations between individuals. d. Perception is the process by which motives are assigned to e plain people's behaviour. e. Perception is the process of interpreting messages of our senses to provide meaning. !nswer" e #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" )* +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.1 #efine perception and discuss some of the general factors that influence perception. $) %he three main components of perception are a. selectivity0 constancy0 and primacy. b. primacy0 recency0 and pro.ection. c. perceiver0 situation0 and target. d. perceiver0 situation0 and pro.ection. e. perceiver0 target0 and attribution. !nswer" c #iff" 1 %ype" &' Page (eference" )1 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.1 #efine perception and discuss some of the general factors that influence perception. /) Perceptual defence is

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a. the tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions. b. the tendency to attribute one's own thoughts and feelings to others. c. the tendency to generalize about people and ignore variations between individuals. d. the process by which motives are assigned to e plain people's behaviour. e. the process of interpreting messages of our senses to provide meaning. !nswer" a #iff" 1 %ype" &' Page (eference" )1 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.1 #efine perception and discuss some of the general factors that influence perception. 1) Which of the following statements may indicate pro.ection by the spea,er? a. "2 didn't land the contract because the competition was .ust too good." b. "2 would never assign a woman to that sales territory." c. "%elling a white lie to clinch a sale is perfectly ethical." d. "&ost of my sales staff thin, li,e 2 thin,." e. "2 don't steal from the company but 2'm sure that others do." !nswer" d #iff" / %ype" &' Page (eference" )3 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /./ #escribe the main biases in person perception. 3) Which of the following statements is indicative of an implicit personality theory on the part of the spea,er? a. "(oger is aggressive." b. "!ccountants are intelligent." c. "2ntroverts are honest." d. "Women ma,e bad managers." e. "%eenagers drive more rec,lessly than seniors."

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!nswer" c #iff" / %ype" &' Page (eference" )3 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /./ #escribe the main biases in person perception. 4) &y perceptions of people are strongly influenced by how ,ind they are to others. Which concept e plains my reaction? a. 'entral tendency b. 'entral trait c. +imilar5to5me effect d. Primacy effect e. Pro.ection !nswer" b #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" )3 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /./ #escribe the main biases in person perception. 6) "7ou're .ust li,e me. 2 despise you." Which perceptual tendency might the spea,er be revealing? a. !ctor5observer effect b. +elf5serving bias c. Pro.ection d. +imilar5to5me effect e. 'entral %rait !nswer" c #iff" / %ype" &' Page (eference" )3 +,ill" !pplied

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-b.ective" /./ #escribe the main biases in person perception. )) !ccording to 8runer's model of the perceptual process0 when an unfamiliar target is encountered0 we are li,ely to be 99999999 to target cues. -nce the target has been categorized0 however0 we become 99999999 selective in our cue search. a. open: more b. closed: more c. open: less d. closed: less e. selective: consistent !nswer" a #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" )/ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.$ ; plain social identity theory and 8runer's model of the perceptual process. <) %he chairperson opened the meeting by saying "2'm sure you all agree with me that . . ." What perceptual phenomenon might the spea,er be e hibiting? a. 2mplicit personality theory b. Pro.ection c. =undamental attribution error d. +imilar5to5me effect e. +tereotyping !nswer" b #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" )3 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /./ #escribe the main biases in person perception. 1*) >nowing that a person falls into some social category0 we might assume that he or she possesses certain traits0 and that everyone in this category possesses these traits. %his is an e ample of

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a. reliance on central traits. b. a situational attribution. c. pro.ection. d. a stereotype. e. consensus cues. !nswer" d #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" )4 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /./ #escribe the main biases in person perception. 11) #riving home from an auto repair shop0 you find that the repair you .ust paid for wasn't done properly. Which of the following would increase your tendency to blame the mechanic's error on dispositional factors? a. 7ou have never had a car repair done right the first time by any mechanic. b. When you pic,ed up the car0 the shop manager said that the mechanic had gone home early because he was in.ured on the .ob. c. %his mechanic has done poor repairs on your car twice before. d. +everal friends told you that this mechanic was e cellent. e. 7ou had authorized the mechanic to use reconditioned parts instead of new ones. !nswer" c #iff" / %ype" &' Page (eference" )) +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.1 #escribe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour. 1$) "?eraldo acts differently from everyone else." %he spea,er in the statement is invo,ing a 99999999 cue. a. consistency b. recency c. distinctiveness d. consensus

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e. situational !nswer" d #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" )) +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.1 #escribe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour. 1/) Which is a potential e ample of the fundamental attribution error? a. @ohn e plained his failure to land the big account by saying that the competing firm had a better product. b. Aancy e plained her department's success by describing her boss as brilliant. c. %om realized that most of his crew failed to get to wor, because of the big snowstorm. d. (odney defended his boss's embezzlement by pointing out that he was under severe marital stress at the time of the incident. e. +usan ac,nowledged that her company's sales growth was largely due to the booming economy. !nswer" b #iff" / %ype" &' Page (eference" <* +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.3 #iscuss various biases in attribution. 11) =or many months0 +am performed his .ob e cellently. Bowever0 .ust before his performance evaluation0 +am's boss saw him insult a client. 2n the performance evaluation0 the boss gave +am a very low rating. What happened? a. (ecency effect b. Barshness c. 'ontrast effect d. +elf5serving bias e. Primacy effect !nswer" a #iff" $

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%ype" &' Page (eference" )1 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /./ #escribe the main biases in person perception. 13) 2f primacy is operating within a selection interview0 the .ob candidate would be well advised to a. get an early appointment to see the interviewer. b. see the interviewer early in the morning. c. be sure her good Cualities come out early in the interview. d. engage the interviewer in small tal, before getting down to business. e. as, for a different interviewer. !nswer" c #iff" / %ype" &' Page (eference" )1 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /./ #escribe the main biases in person perception. 14) 2f recency is operating within a selection interview0 the .ob candidate would be well advised to a. see the interviewer late in the day. b. hold off revealing some good Cualities until the end of the interview. c. try to be the last applicant interviewed. d. list his or her most recent .obs first on his or her resume. e. as, for a different interviewer. !nswer" b #iff" / %ype" &' Page (eference" )1 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /./ #escribe the main biases in person perception.

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16) ">evin acts the same as everyone else." %he spea,er here is invo,ing a 99999999 cue. a. recency b. distinctiveness c. consensus d. consistency e. stereotype !nswer" c #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" )) +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.1 #escribe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour. 1)) We may rely on dispositional e planations when ma,ing .udgments about the behaviour of other people because a. we are ma,ing e cuses for our own behaviour. b. we have a tendency to give others the benefit of the doubt when they offend us. c. we don't appreciate how their behaviour can vary in other situations. d. we realize that circumstances beyond their control can cause them to act the way they do. e. we have a tendency to pro.ect our own thoughts and feelings on others. !nswer" c #iff" / %ype" &' Page (eference" <* +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.3 #iscuss various biases in attribution. 1<) When we e plain a behaviour by referring to some internal personality characteristic0 we are not offering a. an inference about the cause of the behaviour. b. an attribution. c. a dispositional e planation.

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d. a situational e planation. e. a rational e planation. !nswer" d #iff" / %ype" &' Page (eference" )6 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.1 #escribe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour. $*) When researchers studied "weight5based bias0" they found that the biases in hiring decisions were lower when the decision ma,ers a. had never met the candidate face5to5face. b. had performance5relevant information about the candidate. c. were not able to pre5screen the performance5relevant information about the candidate. d. had e perienced weight5based bias themselves. e. were not concerned about their budgets for salaries. !nswer" b #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" )4 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /./ #escribe the main biases in person perception. $1) 8ob resigns from a .ob that most of his friends consider to be a very good .ob. Which of the following is a dispositional attribution of the reason for 8ob's resignation? a. 8ob found a super .ob somewhere else. b. 8ob is irresponsible and doesn't ,now a good thing when he sees it. c. 8ob was forced to move to another city where medical care for his ill daughter is available. d. %he .ob that he resigned from was actually very bad. e. %he .ob that he resigned from was scheduled to be eliminated in an upcoming restructuring. !nswer" b #iff" $
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%ype" &' Page (eference" )6 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.1 #escribe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour. $$) %he actor5observer effect suggests that a. actors and observers tend to view the actor's behaviour in an identical way. b. actors tend to ma,e dispositional attributions about their own behaviour. c. actors and observers tend to view the actor's behaviour in a different way. d. observers tend to ma,e situational attributions about the actor's behaviour. e. actors tend to ta,e credit for successful outcomes and blame failures on observers. !nswer" c #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" <* +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.3 #iscuss various biases in attribution. $/) %he perception that a person might be .udged on the basis of stereotype and that their behaviour or performance will confirm the stereotype is ,nown as a a. preconception phenomenon. b. coloured lens bias. c. peer group sifting. d. stereotype threat. e. monotype bias. !nswer" d #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" </ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss how racial0 ethnic0 religious0 gender0 and age stereotypes affect organizational behaviour and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

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$1) -n a construction site0 (ay drops a wrench and it almost hits 'ecil on the head. 2f 'ecil develops a situational Das opposed to dispositional) e planation of (ay's behaviour he might assume that a. he was the target of a murder attempt. b. the wrench was oily and it slipped. c. (ay is stupid. d. (ay is a careless person. e. (ay has a poor aim. !nswer" b #iff" 1 %ype" &' Page (eference" )6 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.1 #escribe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour. $3) ! reporter covering a price fi ing trial felt that the alleged price fi er was a croo,. %he alleged price fi er testified that his boss pressured him to engage in illegal activities. %he alleged price fi er felt that the reporter's stories about the trial were the product of a vindictive and nasty mind. %he price fi er e plained his own behaviour 99999999 and that of the reporter 99999999. a. situationally: situationally b. dispositionally0 dispositionally c. situationally: dispositionally d. dispositionally: situationally e. desperately0 consistently !nswer" c #iff" / %ype" &' Page (eference" )) +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.1 #escribe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour. $4) 'ommon wor,place stereotypes include stereotypes based on a. age. b. gender.
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c. ethnicity. d. race. e. all of the above. !nswer" e #iff" 1 %ype" &' Page (eference" <$ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss how racial0 ethnic0 religious0 gender0 and age stereotypes affect organizational behaviour and what organizations can do to manage diversity. $6) Wor,force diversity can be defined in terms of which characteristics? a. !ge b. ?ender c. (eligion d. ;thnicity e. !ll of the above !nswer" e #iff" 1 %ype" &' Page (eference" <1 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.4 #iscuss the concepts of wor,force diversity and valuing diversity. $)) ?ender stereotypes are least li,ely to have a negative impact on women a. when their performance is being evaluated by their boss. b. when they are applying for a .ob. c. when they are see,ing a promotion. d. when a rater or evaluator has little information about their Cualifications. e. when they as, to attend a professional development conference. !nswer" a #iff" / %ype" &'

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Page (eference" <3 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss how racial0 ethnic0 religious0 gender0 and age stereotypes affect organizational behaviour and what organizations can do to manage diversity. $<) ;ncouraging teamwor, between minority and ma.ority members should a. reduce wor,place stereotypes by reCuiring different individuals to wor, with people different than themselves. b. increase wor,place stereotypes by reCuiring different individuals to wor, with people different than themselves. c. maintain wor,place stereotypes by reCuiring different individuals to wor, with people different than themselves. d. have no effect on wor,place stereotypes. e. result in increased employee turnover. !nswer" a #iff" 1 %ype" &' Page (eference" << +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss how racial0 ethnic0 religious0 gender0 and age stereotypes affect organizational behaviour and what organizations can do to manage diversity. /*) Paul met a salesperson for the first time. Bis first impression was that she was pushy0 as were most people in sales that Paul had encountered in the past. !ccording to 8runer's model of the perceptual process0 Paul is most li,ely to a. see, out cues that contradict his first impression. b. change his perception as soon as new cues become evident. c. select cues that confirm his first impression. d. recategorize the target. e. form a stereotype about the salesperson. !nswer" c #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" )/ +,ill" !pplied

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-b.ective" /.$ ; plain social identity theory and 8runer's model of the perceptual process. /1) %he self5serving bias a. may involve providing e cuses for one's own behaviour. b. suggests that we will provide dispositional reasons for our failures. c. suggests that we will provide situational reasons for our successes. d. may lead one to provide phony compliments when things go well for others. e. may lead one to attribute their own thoughts and feelings to others. !nswer" a #iff" / %ype" &' Page (eference" <* +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.3 #iscuss various biases in attribution. /$) "2 don't really li,e you very much0 and this causes me to overloo, a number of your good Cualities." %his is an e ample of a. implicit personality theory. b. harshness. c. stereotyping. d. the halo effect. e. central tendency. !nswer" d #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" 1*4 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. //) !ccording to 8runer's model of perception0 we are most open to cues about a target a. when the target is first encountered. b. when the target has been categorized. c. when the target is very familiar to us.

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d. when we already have a lot of information about the target. e. once the categorization has been strengthened. !nswer" a #iff" 1 %ype" &' Page (eference" )/ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.$ ; plain social identity theory and 8runer's model of the perceptual process. /1) +amantha engages in a low consensus behaviour. What other combination of cues will ensure that an observer ma,es a dispositional attribution about the behaviour? a. %he behaviour is also low in distinctiveness and low in consistency. b. %he behaviour is also low in distinctiveness and high in consistency. c. %he behaviour is also high in distinctiveness and low in consistency. d. %he behaviour is also high in distinctiveness and high in consistency. e. %he behaviour is also low in distinctiveness and high in contrast. !nswer" b #iff" / %ype" &' Page (eference" )) +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.1 #escribe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour. /3) Beloise was happy that the systems manager was fired. +he incorrectly assumed that everyone else in the company was also happy. What perceptual tendency is at wor, here? a. =undamental attribution error b. +imilar5to5me effect c. Pro.ection d. -ccupational stereotyping e. 'onsensus cues !nswer" c #iff" $

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%ype" &' Page (eference" )3 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /./ #escribe the main biases in person perception. /4) ">aren acts differently from everyone else0 but 8yron acts the same as everyone else." %he spea,er here is invo,ing a 99999999 cue to describe >aren's behaviour and a 99999999 cue to describe 8yron's behaviour. a. distinctiveness: consensus b. distinctiveness: consistency c. consensus: consistency d. consensus: consensus e. consistency: consistency !nswer" d #iff" / %ype" &' Page (eference" )) +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.1 #escribe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour. /6) %he contrast effect means that the perceiver a. e aggerates differences among target people. b. favours target people who are different from herself. c. compares target people with her own Cualities. d. re.ects target people who are different from herself. e. will generalize about people in a given social category and ignore variations among them. !nswer" a #iff" 1 %ype" &' Page (eference" 1*1 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

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/)) %he professor who gives all ''s to his class is committing a. halo. b. central tendency. c. self5serving bias. d. central trait bias. e. harshness. !nswer" b #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" 1*4 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. /<) (esearch shows that the employment interview a. is free of perceptual biases. b. is a totally invalid selection techniCue. c. is most effective when the interviewer does not as, personal Cuestions. d. overweights positive information. e. is most valid when the interviewer conducts it in an unstructured format. !nswer" c #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" 1*3 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 1*) Which is a potential e ample of the fundamental attribution error? a. +hawn thought that her secretary was the ,indest person she had ever met. b. (ich figured that the team was late because of congested air traffic over !tlanta. c. Pam e plained that late report by noting that she wasn't familiar with the new software. d. 'leo mistoo, the female vice5president for a secretary. e. @oe attributed the car accident to slippery pavement.

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!nswer" a #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" <* +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.3 #iscuss various biases in attribution. 11) "Be does it everywhere0 he does it all the time0 and no one else does it." Which cue combination is the spea,er invo,ing? a. Bigh consensus0 high consistency0 high distinctiveness b. Eow consensus0 high consistency0 low distinctiveness c. Eow consensus0 low consistency0 high distinctiveness d. Bigh consensus0 low consistency0 low distinctiveness e. Eow consensus0 low consistency0 low distinctiveness !nswer" b #iff" / %ype" &' Page (eference" )) +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.1 #escribe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour. 1$) "Be does it everywhere0 he does it all the time0 and no one else does it." Which attribution is the spea,er li,ely to ma,e? a. #ispositional b. +ituational c. +elf5serving d. %emporary situation e. !ctor5observer effect !nswer" a #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" )) +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.1 #escribe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour.

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1/) When we invo,e 999999990 we tend not to perceive differences between people. a. pro.ection b. the halo effect c. a stereotype d. the recency effect e. consistency cues !nswer" c #iff" 1 %ype" &' Page (eference" )4 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /./ #escribe the main biases in person perception. 11) When we invo,e 999999990 we tend not to perceive different Cualities within people. a. the primacy effect b. pro.ection c. the recency effect d. the halo effect e. consensus cues !nswer" d #iff" 1 %ype" &' Page (eference" 1*4 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 13) ;mployment interviewers tend to a. have an easy perceptual tas,. b. underweight positive information about the applicant. c. underweight negative information about the applicant. d. predict applicant success better with an unstructured interview than with a guided interview.

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e. avoid ma,ing comparisons between the current candidate and those previously interviewed. !nswer" b #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" 1*1 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 14) +ub.ective performance measures are called "sub.ective" because a. all performance measures are sub.ective. b. they are a product of the perceptions of an observer. c. it is impossible to measure performance ob.ectively. d. bosses and employees freCuently disagree on the ratings. e. they focus attention directly on the interview sub.ect. !nswer" b #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" 1*3 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 16) %he #evious ;mployment !gency uses a tric, to get companies to hire its candidates. 2f it only has a marginal candidate0 it sends over two real duds before sending over this marginal person. Which perceptual reaction is the #evious manager relying on to get the marginal candidate hired? a. 'ontrast effect b. Balo effect c. Eeniency d. 'entral trait e. !ctor5observer effect !nswer" a #iff" $ %ype" &'
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Page (eference" 1*1 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 1)) ;llen is an employment interviewer. -ne day she interviews three .ob applicants and rates the third applicant very negatively. 2f the contrast effect is responsible for this negative rating0 we can be sure that the first two applicants were a. perceived as totally unCualified for the .ob. b. seen by ;llen to be very different from herself. c. seen by ;llen to be very similar to herself. d. perceived as well Cualified for the .ob. e. given unstructured interviews. !nswer" d #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" 1*1 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 1<) ! manager is completing performance evaluations of his employees. Fnwittingly0 he allows his perceptions of their attendance to colour his ratings of many specific characteristics0 including their Cuality and Cuantity of wor,. %hus0 those with poor attendance invariably get poor ratings. What's happened? a. >nowledge5of5predictor bias b. Barshness c. Balo effect d. 'ontrast effects e. +imilar5to5me effect !nswer" c #iff" / %ype" &' Page (eference" 1*4 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

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3*) %rust perceptions towards management are based on perceptions of a. ability0 benevolence0 and support. b. ability0 honesty0 and support. c. ability0 fairness0 and support. d. benevolence0 integrity0 and support. e. ability0 benevolence0 and integrity. !nswer" e #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" 1*1 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.) #efine trust perceptions and perceived organizational support and describe organizational support theory. 31) 2f a manager wants to improve employees' trust perceptions towards management0 one thing he or she might do is a. adhere to and behave according to a set of values that employees find acceptable. b. enhance employeesG competence and s,ills. c. improve rewards and .ob conditions. d. avoid ma,ing rater errors when evaluating performance. e. all of the above. !nswer" a #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" 1*1 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.) #efine trust perceptions and perceived organizational support and describe organizational support theory. 3$) Which of the following factors contribute to perceived organizational support? a. +upervisor support0 .ob security0 recognition0 and .ob conditions b. =airness0 rewards0 pay0 and .ob security c. =airness0 rewards0 pay0 and .ob conditions

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d. +upervisor support0 fairness0 rewards0 and .ob conditions e. +upervisor support0 fairness0 rewards0 and opportunities for advancement !nswer" d #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" 1*$ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.) #efine trust perceptions and perceived organizational support and describe organizational support theory. 3/) !ccording to social identity theory0 our sense of self is composed of a a. personal identity and relational identity. b. personal identity and social identity. c. social identity and relational identity. d. self identity and social identity. e. social identity and normative identity. !nswer" b #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" )$ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.$ ; plain social identity theory and 8runer's model of the perceptual process. 31) Prototypes refer to a. members of a social category who best represent the attributes of that category. b. our uniCue personal characteristics0 such as our interests0 abilities0 and traits. c. our perception that we belong to various social groups0 such as our gender0 nationality0 and so on. d. the most typical attributes embodied by members that belong to a social category. e. social categories that we use to categorize people such as gender0 religion0 and so on. !nswer" d #iff" $

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%ype" &' Page (eference" )$ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.$ ; plain social identity theory and 8runer's model of the perceptual process. 33) @oan was poorly treated in an employment interview and perceived the organization as lac,ing respect for its employees. What is this an e ample of? a. 'ontrast effects b. Balo effect c. +ignalling theory d. +ocial identity theory e. =undamental attribution error !nswer" c #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" 1*/ +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 34) !mong various selection procedures0 which ones are perceived most favourably? a. ;mployment interviews and personality tests b. Personality tests and honesty tests c. ;mployment interviews and wor, samples d. Personality tests and wor, samples e. Wor, samples and honesty tests !nswer" c #iff" / %ype" &' Page (eference" 1*1 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

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36) Women have made the most significant progress moving into senior management and e ecutive positions in the a. paper and forest products industry. b. financial services industry. c. steel production industry. d. motor vehicles industry. e. general manufacturing. !nswer" b #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" <4 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss how racial0 ethnic0 religious0 gender0 and age stereotypes affect organizational behaviour and what organizations can do to manage diversity. 3)) What is considered to be a critical factor when .udging the best wor,places in 'anada? a. -rganizational support b. +upervisor support c. #iversity d. %rust e. =airness !nswer" d #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" 1*1 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.) #efine trust perceptions and perceived organizational support and describe organizational support theory. 3<) 2nterviews are more li,ely to be structured when a. the interviewer has a great deal of e perience interviewing. b. the interviewer has wor,ed for the same company for many years. c. the interviewer focuses on selection rather than recruitment.

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d. the interviewer focuses on recruitment rather than selection. e. the interviewer focuses on recruitment and selection. !nswer" c #iff" / %ype" &' Page (eference" 1*3 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 4*) What organization has been recognized for its efforts in attracting and hiring older wor,ers? a. +hell 'anada Etd. b. =ederal ; press 'anada Etd. c. Walmart 'anada d. 8oeing 'anada e. !merican ; press !nswer" c #iff" / %ype" &' Page (eference" <6 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss how racial0 ethnic0 religious0 gender0 and age stereotypes affect organizational behaviour and what organizations can do to manage diversity. 41) !'&; 2nsurance 'ompany wants to improve employee perceptions of organizational support. %hey hired a new director of human resources to implement supportive human resource practices. What practices are li,ely to be most effective for developing more positive perceptions of organizational support? a. Participation in decision ma,ing and opportunities for advancement b. Participation in decision ma,ing and opportunities for training c. ! fair reward and recognition system and better compensation d. Participation in decision ma,ing and opportunities for growth and development e. ! fair reward and recognition system0 and opportunities for advancement !nswer" d
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#iff" / %ype" &' Page (eference" 1*/ +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.) #efine trust perceptions and perceived organizational support and describe organizational support theory. 4$) Which of the following best represents the notion that social identities are relational and comparative? a. &edical students are perceived as doctors by patients in the hospital but as children by their parents. b. &edical students are perceived as doctors by patients in the hospital but as students by their professors in the classroom. c. &edical students are perceived as doctors by patients in the hospital but as students by themselves. d. &edical students are perceived as students by patients in the hospital and as students by their professors in the classroom. e. &edical students are perceived as students by patients in the hospital before they graduate0 but as doctors by the same patients after they have graduated. !nswer" b #iff" / %ype" &' Page (eference" )$ +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.$ ; plain social identity theory and 8runer's model of the perceptual process. 4/) ! training method to improve rating accuracy in performance appraisals is ,nown as a. behaviourally anchored training. b. rater accuracy training. c. frame5of5reference training. d. rater error training. e. performance evaluation training. !nswer" c #iff" $

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%ype" &' Page (eference" 1*) +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 41) ! rating scale that gives very specific e amples of good0 average0 and poor performance is ,nown as a a. behaviourally specific rating scale. b. behaviourally diverse rating scale. c. behaviourally based rating scale. d. behaviourally anchored rating scale. e. behaviourally oriented rating scale. !nswer" d #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" 1*6 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 43) What aspects of a perceiver can affect his or her perceptions of a target? a. ; perience0 cognitions0 and needs b. ; perience0 cognitions0 and emotions c. ; perience0 needs0 and values d. ; perience0 needs0 and beliefs e. ; perience0 needs0 and emotions !nswer" e #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" )1 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.1 #efine perception and discuss some of the general factors that influence perception.

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44) Aicole believes that her presentation was very good even though she overheard some of her friends say that it was the worst in the class. What is this an e ample of? a. Pro.ection b. Perceptual defence c. +elf5serving bias d. !ctor5observer effect e. =undamental attribution error !nswer" b #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" )1 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.1 #efine perception and discuss some of the general factors that influence perception. 46) ?loria is absent a lot0 her co5wor,ers are seldom absent0 and she was absent a lot in her previous .ob. What ,ind of attribution is her manager li,ely to ma,e? a. #isposition b. +ituation c. %emporary situation d. %emporary disposition e. 2t depends on other factors. !nswer" a #iff" 1 %ype" &' Page (eference" )< +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.1 #escribe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour. 4)) -rli is absent a lot0 her co5wor,ers are also absent a lot0 but she was almost never absent in her previous .ob. What ,ind of attribution is her manager li,ely to ma,e? a. #isposition b. +ituation c. %emporary situation

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d. %emporary disposition e. 2t depends on other factors. !nswer" b #iff" 1 %ype" &' Page (eference" )< +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.1 #escribe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour. 4<) %aylor is seldom absent0 her co5wor,ers are seldom absent0 and she was seldom absent in her previous .ob. What ,ind of attribution is her manager li,ely to ma,e? a. #isposition b. +ituation c. %emporary situation d. %emporary disposition e. 2t depends on other factors. !nswer" c #iff" 1 %ype" &' Page (eference" )< +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.1 #escribe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour. 6*) %he fact that people will e plain the very same behaviour differently on the basis of events that happened after the behaviour occurred is suggested by a. the fundamental attribution error. b. the actor5observer effect. c. the self5serving bias. d. perceptual defence. e. contrast effects. !nswer" c #iff" $ %ype" &'

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Page (eference" <* +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.3 #iscuss various biases in attribution. 61) !fter writing an e am0 7ani told everybody that he studied really hard and spent a great deal of time preparing for the e am. Bowever0 when the e am grades were posted the following wee,0 7ani did not tal, about how he studied but instead told everybody that the e am was not fair and was poorly graded. What is this an e ample of? a. %he fundamental attribution error b. %he actor5observer effect c. %he self5serving bias d. Perceptual defence e. 'ontrast effects !nswer" c #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" <* +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.3 #iscuss various biases in attribution. 6$) %he tendency for actors to attribute their behaviour to situational factors can be overcome by a. the fundamental attribution error. b. the actor5observer effect. c. the self5serving bias. d. perceptual defence. e. contrast effects. !nswer" c #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" <* +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.3 #iscuss various biases in attribution.

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6/) !fter writing an e am0 7ani told everybody that he did not study very hard and spent the wee,end partying and playing video games. Bowever0 when the e am grades were posted the following wee,0 7ani told everybody that he never studied so hard for an e am in his life and he described himself as brilliant. What is this an e ample of? a. %he fundamental attribution error b. %he actor5observer effect c. %he self5serving bias d. Perceptual defence e. 'ontrast effects !nswer" c #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" <* +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.3 #iscuss various biases in attribution. 61) Which of the following has been found to be associated with business5unit performance? a. #iversity president b. #iversity culture c. #iversity team d. #iversity climate e. #iversity policy !nswer" d #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" <$ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.4 #iscuss the concepts of wor,force diversity and valuing diversity. 63) 2f there is a single concept that serves as a barrier to valuing diversity0 it is a. discrimination. b. the stereotype. c. stereotype threat.

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d. the halo effect. e. similar5to5me effect. !nswer" b #iff" $ %ype" &' Page (eference" <$ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.4 #iscuss the concepts of wor,force diversity and valuing diversity. 64) Pro.ection is the tendency to act differently from the way we feel: to put on a false face0 so to spea,. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" 1 %ype" %= Page (eference" )* +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.1 #efine perception and discuss some of the general factors that influence perception. 66) %he contrast effect is the tendency for interviewers to select candidates who are very different from themselves. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" 1 %ype" %= Page (eference" 1*1 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 6)) ;mployment interviews that focus on selection are more valid than those that focus on recruitment. a. %rue b. =alse

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!nswer" a #iff" 1 %ype" %= Page (eference" 1*3 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 6<) -ther things eCual0 high consensus behaviour on the part of an employee will lead a manager to ma,e a dispositional attribution about the behaviour. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" )) +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.1 #escribe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour. )*) (ita inaccurately attributed %ommy's failure to show up at wor, to car problems. %his is a potential e ample of the fundamental attribution error. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" <* +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.3 #iscuss various biases in attribution. )1) Wes inaccurately attributed Aina's failure to show up at wor, to her poor wor, ethic. %his is a potential e ample of the fundamental attribution error. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" a #iff" $ %ype" %=
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Page (eference" <* +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.3 #iscuss various biases in attribution. )$) -ne implication of the halo effect is that we fail to appreciate that a target person could have both strengths and wea,nesses. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" a #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" 1*4 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. )/) Wor,place stereotypes are not harmful in any way. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" 1 %ype" %= Page (eference" <$ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss how racial0 ethnic0 religious0 gender0 and age stereotypes affect organizational behaviour and what organizations can do to manage diversity. )1) ! recency effect means that the most recently acCuired information we have about a target person has the least effect on our impression of the target. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" 1 %ype" %= Page (eference" )1 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /./ #escribe the main biases in person perception.

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)3) !ccording to the te t0 a performance rater who is unfair and vindictive with regard to employees is engaging in harshness. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" 1*4 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. )4) ! stereotype suggests that we fail to perceive important distinctions within a class or category of people. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" a #iff" 1 %ype" %= Page (eference" )4 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /./ #escribe the main biases in person perception. )6) "Eaurie acts .ust li,e her cowor,er." 2n attribution theory terms0 this statement invo,es a "low distinctiveness" cue. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" / %ype" %= Page (eference" )) +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.1 #escribe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour. ))) When doing her performance evaluations0 (ic,'s boss engaged in central tendency. %his means that (ic, probably received an average performance rating. a. %rue
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b. =alse !nswer" a #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" 1*4 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. )<) 2f 2 ma,e a situational attribution about your behaviour0 2 am more li,ely to reward you or punish you than if 2 ma,e a dispositional attribution. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" )6 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.1 #escribe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour. <*) %he actor5observer effect refers to the remar,able similarity in the attributions that the actor and an observer ma,e about the actor's behaviour. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" 1 %ype" %= Page (eference" <* +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.3 #iscuss various biases in attribution. <1) 'ompany attendance records are an e ample of a sub.ective performance measure. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" 1 %ype" %=
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Page (eference" 1*3 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. <$) 2f 2 ma,e a dispositional attribution about your behaviour0 2 am more li,ely to reward you or punish you than if 2 ma,e a situational attribution. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" a #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" )6 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.1 #escribe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour. </) 2n attributional terms0 highly consistent behaviours are those that most people engage in. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" 1 %ype" %= Page (eference" )) +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.1 #escribe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour. <1) %he more information you have about 8ob0 the more li,ely a stereotype will influence your perceptions of him. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" )4 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /./ #escribe the main biases in person perception.

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<3) ;mployment interviewers tend to underweight positive information about .ob applicants. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" a #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" 1*1 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. <4) %he fundamental attribution error occurs when we blame others for our failures and ta,e credit for our successes. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" 1 %ype" %= Page (eference" <* +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.3 #iscuss various biases in attribution. <6) People tend to overemphasize the role that disposition plays in causing the behaviour of others. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" a #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" <* +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.3 #iscuss various biases in attribution. <)) 'entral tendency is our propensity to organize perceptions of others around certain ,ey traits. a. %rue
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b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" 1 %ype" %= Page (eference" 1*4 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. <<) %he similar5to5me effect means that we often attribute our own feelings0 attitudes0 and ideas to others. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" 1 %ype" %= Page (eference" 1*4 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 1**) %he actor5observer effect suggests that actors and observers will view an actor's behaviour differently. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" a #iff" 1 %ype" %= Page (eference" <1 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.3 #iscuss various biases in attribution. 1*1) ?ender stereotypes have less negative effects when an observer has accurate ,nowledge about the woman in Cuestion. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" a #iff" $
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%ype" %= Page (eference" <3 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss how racial0 ethnic0 religious0 gender0 and age stereotypes affect organizational behaviour and what organizations can do to manage diversity. 1*$) 2 say you are angry when0 truly0 2 am angry. %his is an e ample of pro.ection. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" a #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" )3 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /./ #escribe the main biases in person perception. 1*/) !ccording to the te t0 a performance rater who overloo,s gross errors on the part of employees is engaging in leniency. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" 1*4 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 1*1) %om attributes Eou's behaviour to immorality. %his is a situational attribution. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" 1 %ype" %= Page (eference" )6 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.1 #escribe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour.

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1*3) &ale managers today hold the same dysfunctional stereotypes about women and management that they held in the early 1<6*s. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" a #iff" 1 %ype" %= Page (eference" <3 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss how racial0 ethnic0 religious0 gender0 and age stereotypes affect organizational behaviour and what organizations can do to manage diversity. 1*4) (ecent research indicates that both men and women of varying age0 education0 and wor, e perience still describe a good manager as possessing predominantly masculine characteristics. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" a #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" <3 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss how racial0 ethnic0 religious0 gender0 and age stereotypes affect organizational behaviour and what organizations can do to manage diversity. 1*6) #iscrimination on the basis of age is e perienced by people as young as 1* to 13. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" a #iff" 1 %ype" %= Page (eference" <6 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss how racial0 ethnic0 religious0 gender0 and age stereotypes affect organizational behaviour and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

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1*)) Balo effect can cause a person to receive a bad performance evaluation. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" a #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" 1*4 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 1*<) -ur sense of self is composed of a self5identity and a social identity. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" 1 %ype" %= Page (eference" )$ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.$ ; plain social identity theory and 8runer's model of the perceptual process. 11*) Personal identity is based on our uniCue characteristics0 such as our interests0 abilities0 and traits. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" a #iff" 1 %ype" %= Page (eference" )$ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.$ ; plain social identity theory and 8runer's model of the perceptual process. 111) +ocial identity is based on our perception that we are similar to many other individuals. a. %rue b. =alse
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!nswer" b #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" )$ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.$ ; plain social identity theory and 8runer's model of the perceptual process. 11$) 7our interest in music and your musical talents can contribute to your personal identity. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" a #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" )$ +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.$ ; plain social identity theory and 8runer's model of the perceptual process. 11/) 7our gender0 religion0 and occupation are important in the formation of your personal identity. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" )$ +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.$ ; plain social identity theory and 8runer's model of the perceptual process. 111) ! prototype is a member of a social category who is easy to identify and categorize. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b
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#iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" )$ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.$ ; plain social identity theory and 8runer's model of the perceptual process. 113) Women have made the most significant progress moving into senior management and e ecutive positions in the paper and forest products industry. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" <4 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss how racial0 ethnic0 religious0 gender0 and age stereotypes affect organizational behaviour and what organizations can do to manage diversity. 114) People who threaten to stereotype others are issuing a stereotype threat. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" 1 %ype" %= Page (eference" </ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss how racial0 ethnic0 religious0 gender0 and age stereotypes affect organizational behaviour and what organizations can do to manage diversity. 116) ?ender stereotypes tend to favour women when they are being considered for "women's" .obs. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" a #iff" $ %ype" %=
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Page (eference" <3 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss how racial0 ethnic0 religious0 gender0 and age stereotypes affect organizational behaviour and what organizations can do to manage diversity. 11)) People tend to perceive leaders as similar to men and women. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" 1 %ype" %= Page (eference" <3 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss how racial0 ethnic0 religious0 gender0 and age stereotypes affect organizational behaviour and what organizations can do to manage diversity. 11<) !ge is not related to tas, performance0 but it is related to creativity. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" <4 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss how racial0 ethnic0 religious0 gender0 and age stereotypes affect organizational behaviour and what organizations can do to manage diversity. 1$*) 2f an organization wants to improve perceptions of organizational support0 they should ma,e sure that employee compensation is above the industry average. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" 1*/ +,ill" !pplied

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-b.ective" /.) #efine trust perceptions and perceived organizational support and describe organizational support theory. 1$1) 2f an organization wants to improve perceptions of organizational support0 they should ma,e sure that employees have opportunities for growth and development. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" a #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" 1*/ +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.) #efine trust perceptions and perceived organizational support and describe organizational support theory. 1$$) 2f an interviewer wants to improve the validity of the employment interview0 heHshe should focus on selection rather than recruitment. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" a #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" 1*3 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 1$/) 2f an interviewer wants to improve the validity of the employment interview0 heHshe should focus on recruitment and selection. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" 1*3 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

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1$1) !mong various selection procedures0 employment interviews and cognitive ability tests are perceived most favourably. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" 1*1 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 1$3) !ccording to signalling theory0 .ob applicants interpret performance appraisals as signals of how they will be treated in the organization. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" 1 %ype" %= Page (eference" 1*/ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 1$4) 2f you are treated poorly during the recruitment process0 you will probably not let it affect your perceptions towards the organization. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" 1*/ +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 1$6) 2f you are as,ed to ta,e a selection test that you perceive to be unfair0 you will probably form a negative perception of the organization. a. %rue b. =alse
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!nswer" b #iff" 1 %ype" %= Page (eference" 1*1 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 1$)) 2f an organization wants .ob applicants to form positive perceptions of selection fairness0 they should have them ta,e an honesty test. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" 1*1 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 1$<) When women are successful in traditional male .obs0 they are more li,ed. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" / %ype" %= Page (eference" <3 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.4 #iscuss the concepts of wor,force diversity and valuing diversity. 1/*) &ale managers today hold the same dysfunctional stereotypes about women and management that they held in the early 1<6*s. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" a #iff" / %ype" %= Page (eference" <3
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+,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss how racial0 ethnic0 religious0 gender0 and age stereotypes affect organizational behaviour and what organizations can do to manage diversity. 1/1) %he self5serving bias can overcome the tendency for actors to attribute their behaviour to situational factors. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" a #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" <* +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.3 #iscuss various biases in attribution. 1/$) !ccording to the actor5observer effect0 people will e plain the very same behaviour differently on the basis of events that happened after the behaviour occurred. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" $ %ype" %= Page (eference" <* +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.3 #iscuss various biases in attribution. 1//) 2f there is a single concept that serves as a barrier to valuing diversity0 it is the stereotype. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" a #iff" 1 %ype" %= Page (eference" <$ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.4 #iscuss the concepts of wor,force diversity and valuing diversity.

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1/1) ! diversity climate has been found to be associated with business5unit performance. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" a #iff" 1 %ype" %= Page (eference" <$ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.4 #iscuss the concepts of wor,force diversity and valuing diversity. 1/3) People perceive leaders as possessing both0 and in eCual measure0 masculine and feminine characteristics. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" 1 %ype" %= Page (eference" <3 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss how racial0 ethnic0 religious0 gender0 and age stereotypes affect organizational behaviour and what organizations can do to manage diversity. 1/4) =rame5of5reference training is an e ample of an activity to manage wor,force diversity. a. %rue b. =alse !nswer" b #iff" 1 %ype" %= Page (eference" 1*) +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 1/6) %he tendency for observers to e aggerate the role of dispositional factors in e plaining behaviour is called the fundamental attribution error . #ifficulty" 1 Page (eference" <*
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+,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.3 #iscuss various biases in attribution. 1/)) "(oberto acts differently from everyone else at wor,." 2n attribution theory terms0 the spea,er has invo,ed aDn) consensus or low consensus cue. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" )) +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.1 #escribe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour. 1/<) !lthough there were considerable performance differences among his employees0 'hester rated them all about average. 'hester committed the central tendency rater error. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" 1*4 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 11*) !fter interviewing three superstars0 the perfectly adeCuate candidate loo,ed wea, to &argo. %he contrast effect biased her impression of the adeCuate candidate. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" 1*1 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 111) "Beathcliffe only acts pretentious at wor,. ;verywhere else he's down to earth." 2n attribution theory terms0 the spea,er has invo,ed aDn) distinctiveness cue. #ifficulty" / Page (eference" )) +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.1 #escribe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour. 11$) !ttribution is the process of assigning causes to behaviour. #ifficulty" 1 Page (eference" )6 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.1 #escribe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour. 11/) %he tendency to ta,e credit for successes and deny responsibility for failures is called the self5serving bias. #ifficulty" 1 Page (eference" <* +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.3 #iscuss various biases in attribution.

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111) %he person who fails to perceive differences among the members of a class or category of people has fallen prey to aDn) stereotype. #ifficulty" 1 Page (eference" )4 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /./ #escribe the main biases in person perception. 113) ! performance rater who can't perceive differences within ratees is most li,ely a victim of halo effect. #ifficulty" / Page (eference" 1*4 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 114) !Dn) dispositional attribution is most li,ely to be made when consistency is high and consensus and distinctiveness are low. #ifficulty" / Page (eference" )) +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.1 #escribe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour. 116) !Dn) situational attribution is most li,ely to occur when distinctiveness0 consistency0 and consensus are all high. #ifficulty" / Page (eference" )) +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.1 #escribe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour. 11)) ; aggerating the weight of cues obtained early in an interaction with someone is the hallmar, of the primacy effect. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" )1 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /./ #escribe the main biases in person perception. 11<) !ttributing our own thoughts0 feelings0 or attitudes to someone else is characteristic of pro.ection. #ifficulty" 1 Page (eference" )3 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /./ #escribe the main biases in person perception. 13*) Baving a mental model where certain traits tend to "fit together" is indicative of aDn) implicit personality theory. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" )3

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+,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /./ #escribe the main biases in person perception. 131) 8ecause the employee was not creative0 @an tended to rate her unfairly low on all performance categories. @an has fallen prey to halo effect. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" 1*4 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 13$) Perceptual defence is defined as the failure to perceive unpleasant emotions. #ifficulty" 1 Page (eference" )1 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.1 #efine perception and discuss some of the general factors that influence perception. 13/) %he tendency for a rater to give more favourable evaluations to those who heHshe finds are similar to himHher in bac,ground or attitudes is called the similar5to5me effect. #ifficulty" 1 Page (eference" 1*4 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 131) Wor,force diversity is characterized by individual differences such as race0 age0 physical ability0 and se ual orientation. #ifficulty" 1 Page (eference" <1 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.4 #iscuss the concepts of wor,force diversity and valuing diversity. 133) #aniel rates all his employees as superstars. ;ither they are very good or #aniel has committed leniency. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" 1*4 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 134) Perceptually e aggerating the weight of some newly obtained information about an old friend is an e ample of the recency effect. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" )1 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /./ #escribe the main biases in person perception.

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136) %he perception that a person might be .udged on the basis of stereotype and that their behaviour or performance may be hindered by it is ,nown as a stereotype threat. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" </ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss how racial0 ethnic0 religious0 gender0 and age stereotypes affect organizational behaviour and what organizations can do to manage diversity. 13)) %rust perceptions towards management are based on perceptions of ability0 benevolence0 and integrity. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" 1*1 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.) #efine trust perceptions and perceived organizational support and describe organizational support theory 13<) Perceived organizational support refers to employees' general belief that their organization values their contribution and cares about their well5being. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" 1*1 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.) #efine trust perceptions and perceived organizational support and describe organizational support theory 14*) !ccording to social identity theory0 people form perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics and memberships in social categories. #ifficulty" 1 Page (eference" )$ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.$ ; plain social identity theory and 8runer's model of the perceptual process 141) -ur personal identity is based on our uniCue personal characteristics0 such as our interests0 abilities0 and traits. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" )$ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.$ ; plain social identity theory and 8runer's model of the perceptual process. 14$) -ur social identity is based on our perception that we belong to various social groups0 such as our gender0 nationality0 religion0 occupation0 and so on. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" )$ +,ill" (ecall

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-b.ective" /.$ ; plain social identity theory and 8runer's model of the perceptual process. 14/) 2 am a 'anadian male who wants to become a doctor. >nowing this contributes to my social identity. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" )$ +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.$ ; plain social identity theory and 8runer's model of the perceptual process. 141) 2 love sports and 2 am very good at hoc,ey and baseball. 2 also really love food and my friends say that 2 am a great coo,. %hese things all contribute to my personal identity. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" )$ +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.$ ; plain social identity theory and 8runer's model of the perceptual process. 143) When 2 see somebody who is 'anadian0 2 begin to perceive them as being friendly0 modest0 and nice because these are the prototypes that 2 associate with the category of 'anadian. #ifficulty" / Page (eference" )$ +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.$ ; plain social identity theory and 8runer's model of the perceptual process. 144) We tend to see members of a category as embodying the most typical attributes of that category0 or what are called prototypes. #ifficulty" / Page (eference" )$ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.$ ; plain social identity theory and 8runer's model of the perceptual process. 146) +ocial identities are relational and comparative. #ifficulty" / Page (eference" )$ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.$ ; plain social identity theory and 8runer's model of the perceptual process.

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14)) @ac, has .ust failed his midterm and he is blaming the professor for ma,ing the e am too long and for being a hard mar,er. %his is a good e ample of the self5 serving bias. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" <* +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.3 #iscuss various biases in attribution. 14<) &en and women of varying age0 education0 and wor, e perience describe a good manager as possessing predominantly masculine characteristics. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" <3 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss how racial0 ethnic0 religious0 gender0 and age stereotypes affect organizational behaviour and what organizations can do to manage diversity. 16*) Women have made the most significant progress moving into senior management and e ecutive positions in the financial services industry. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" <4 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss how racial0 ethnic0 religious0 gender0 and age stereotypes affect organizational behaviour and what organizations can do to manage diversity. 161) !wareness training should be accompanied by s,ills training that is relevant to the particular needs of the organization. #ifficulty" / Page (eference" << +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss how racial0 ethnic0 religious0 gender0 and age stereotypes affect organizational behaviour and what organizations can do to manage diversity. 16$) !ge is not related to tas, performance or creativity. #ifficulty" / Page (eference" <4 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss how racial0 ethnic0 religious0 gender0 and age stereotypes affect organizational behaviour and what organizations can do to manage diversity. 16/) 2nterviewers have a tendency to give less importance to positive information about the applicant. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" 1*1 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

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161) %he employment interview tends to be more structured when the interviewer focuses on selection. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" 1*3 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 163) 2f your tas, is to conduct a structured interview0 then you should not focus on recruitment. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" 1*3 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 164) ! friend of yours has .ust had an interview and was so impressed with the way she was treated that she is convinced that the organization must be a great place to wor,. %his is a good e ample of signalling theory. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" 1*/ +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 166) 7ou have a friend who is very tall and always seems to be getting paid more than you and everyone else that is shorter than him. -ne reason for this might be reliance on central traits. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" )3 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /./ #escribe the main biases in person perception. 16)) =rame5of5reference training is a method of training to improve rating accuracy for evaluating performance. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" 1*) +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources 16<) %he perceiverGs e perience0 needs0 and emotions can affect his or her perceptions of a target. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" )1 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.1 #efine perception and discuss some of the general factors that influence perception.

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1)*) +elf5serving bias can overcome the tendency for actors to attribute their behaviour to situational factors. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" <* +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.3 #iscuss various biases in attribution 1)1) ! diversity climate has been found to be associated with business5unit performance. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" <$ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.4 #iscuss the concepts of wor,force diversity and valuing diversity. 1)$) 2f there is a single concept that serves as a barrier to valuing diversity0 it is the stereotype. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" <$ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.4 #iscuss the concepts of wor,force diversity and valuing diversity. 1)/) !ge is not related to tas, performance or creativity. #ifficulty" $ Page (eference" <4 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss how racial0 ethnic0 religious0 gender0 and age stereotypes affect organizational behaviour and what organizations can do to manage diversity. 1)1) #efine "perception." What are its three main components? !nswer" Perception is the process of interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environment. 2ts three main components are the perceiver0 a target that is being perceived0 and a situational conte t in which the perception is occurring. #iff" $ %ype" ;+ Page (eference" )* +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.1 #efine perception and discuss some of the general factors that influence perception. 1)3) What is perceptual defence? ?ive an e ample.

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!nswer" Perceptual defence is the tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions. 2t occurs whenever we "see what we want to see" or "hear what we want to hear." ! good e ample is when an individual fails to see and hear negative things about themselves that are threatening. #iff" $ %ype" ;+ Page (eference" )1 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.1 #efine perception and discuss some of the general factors that influence perception. 1)4) #escribe four common biases which may influence the impressions that we form of others. !nswer" %here are actually si biases in person perception presented in the te t" primacy effect0 recency effect0 central traits0 implicit personality theories0 pro.ection0 and stereotyping. #iff" $ %ype" ;+ Page (eference" )1 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /./ #escribe the main biases in person perception. 1)6) ; plain the difference between situational and dispositional attributions. !nswer" +ituational attributions are e planations for behaviour based on an actor's e ternal situation or environment. #ispositional attributions are e planations for behaviour based on an actor's personality or intellect. #iff" 1 %ype" ;+ Page (eference" )6 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.1 #escribe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour.

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1))) Aame and briefly define the three main cues which lead to attributions. What combination of these cues will li,ely lead an observer to ma,e a dispositional attribution? %o ma,e a situational attribution? !nswer" %he cues are consistency0 consensus and distinctiveness. ! dispositional attribution is li,ely to occur when consistency is high0 consensus is low0 and distinctiveness is low. ! situational attribution is li,ely to occur when consistency0 consensus0 and distinctiveness are all high. #iff" / %ype" ;+ Page (eference" )) +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.1 #escribe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour. 1)<) Professor +chaan has .ust returned an e am to her organizational behaviour class. Fnfortunately0 the class average was much lower than usual0 and nearly half the students failed. %he students complained that the test was much too difficult and was full of tric,y and misleading Cuestions. Bowever0 Professor +chaan insists that the test was fair and believes that the students simply did not study hard enough. Fse your ,nowledge of attribution errors and perceptual biases to analyze this scenario. !nswer" Professor +chaan may be ma,ing a fundamental attribution error by underestimating the situational e planations De.g.0 tric,y Cuestions) and overestimating the dispositional e planations De.g.0 laziness or poor study habits). %he students' complaints indicate a self5 serving bias by attributing their poor performance to situational factors De.g.0 tric,y Cuestions) rather than accepting personal responsibility. #iff" / %ype" ;+ Page (eference" <* +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.3 #iscuss various biases in attribution. 1<*) What are some of the competitive advantages available to organizations which value and manage a diverse wor,force? !nswer"
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+i advantages or "arguments" are presented in ; hibit /.3 Dpage <$) in the te t" lower integration costs0 improved recruitment and mar,eting capabilities0 higher levels of creativity0 enhanced problem5solving abilities0 and greater system fle ibility to react to environmental changes. #iff" $ %ype" ;+ Page (eference" <$ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.4 #iscuss the concepts of wor,force diversity and valuing diversity. 1<1) 2dentify and briefly describe five types of "rater errors" which managers sometimes ma,e in performance appraisals. !nswer" Eeniency0 harshness0 central tendency0 halo effect0 and similar5to5me effect. #iff" $ %ype" ;+ Page (eference" 1*4 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 1<$) What is the halo effect? ?ive e amples which illustrate how the halo effect might lead to either a favourable or unfavourable rating. !nswer" %he halo effect occurs when the observer allows the rating of an individual on one trait or characteristic to colour the ratings of other traits or characteristics. ! manager might rate a wor,er as punctual0 leading her to give a good evaluation on other factors such as productivity and Cuality of wor,. %he manager may subseCuently rate another wor,er as freCuently late0 leading to a poor overall evaluation of the employee's productivity and Cuality of wor,. 2n both cases0 the issue of punctuality may be irrelevant to the wor,er's productivity and Cuality of wor,: the employee who is freCuently late may actually be the more productive employee. #iff" $ %ype" ;+ Page (eference" 1*4 +,ill" !pplied
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-b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 1</) #efine perceived organizational support and describe organizational support theory? !nswer" Perceived organizational support refers to employees' general belief that their organization values their contribution and cares about their well5being. !ccording to organizational support theory0 employees who have strong perceptions of organizational support feel an obligation to care about the organization's welfare and to help the organization achieve its ob.ectives. #iff" $ %ype" ;+ Page (eference" 1*1 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.) #efine trust perceptions and perceived organizational support and describe organizational support theory. 1<1) What factors contribute to perceived organizational support and what can organizations do to develop strong perceptions of organizational support? !nswer" %he factors that contribute to P-+ are supervisor support0 fairness0 organizational rewards0 and .ob conditions. +upportive human resource practices such as participation in decision ma,ing0 opportunities for growth and development0 and a fair reward and recognition system contribute to the development of P-+. #iff" $ %ype" ;+ Page (eference" 1*$ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.) #efine trust perceptions and perceived organizational support and describe organizational support theory. 1<3) #efine the meaning of trust and describe what managers can do to improve employees' trust perceptions towards management. !nswer" %rust refers to a psychological state in which one has a willingness to be vulnerable and to ta,e ris,s with respect to the actions of another party. 2f managers want to improve

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employees' trust perceptions0 they need to improve employees' perceptions with respect to 1) management's competence and s,ills Dability perceptions): $) management's caring and concern for employees' interests and willingness to do good for employees Dbenevolence): and /) adhere to and behave according to a set of values and principles that employees find acceptable Dintegrity). !ccording to the trust model0 managers can improve employeesG trust perceptions by practicing credibility0 respect0 and fairness0 and by encouraging pride and camaraderie among employees. #iff" $ %ype" ;+ Page (eference" 1*1 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.) #efine trust perceptions and perceived organizational support and describe organizational support theory. 1<4) #escribe the nature of gender and age stereotypes and the impact they have on human resource decisions. !nswer" %he nature of gender stereotypes is such that successful managers are perceived as having traits and Cualities that are generally ascribed to men and do not correspond to stereotypes of women. !s for age stereotypes0 older wor,ers are perceived as having less capacity for performance. %hey are viewed as less productive0 creative0 logical0 and less capable of performing under pressure compared to younger wor,ers. %hey are also viewed as having less potential for development. ?ender and age stereotypes have a detrimental effect on the hiring0 promotion0 and s,ills development of women and older wor,ers. #iff" $ %ype" ;+ Page (eference" <1 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss how racial0 ethnic0 religious0 gender0 and age stereotypes affect organizational behaviour and what organizations can do to manage diversity. 1<6) What factors threaten the validity of the employment interview? What can be done to improve the validity of the employment interview? !nswer" !pplicants are motivated to present an especially favourable impression of themselves: interviewers compare applicants to a stereotype of the ideal applicant which is often

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inaccurate: interviewers have a tendency to e hibit primacy reactions: interviewers have a tendency to give less importance to positive information about the applicant: contrast effects sometimes occur in the interview. %he validity of the interview improves when it is structured. #iff" $ %ype" ;+ Page (eference" 1*1 +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 1<)) !s a new director of human resources0 your first ma.or tas, is to ensure that all employment interviews are structured. 7ou are to meet with all of the staff of human resources to instruct them on how to conduct structured employment interviews. What will you tell them? !nswer" 7ou need to tell them to standardize the evaluation of applicants by using standardized and numeric scoring procedures: to use only .ob5related behavioural Cuestions and situational Cuestions: to be consistent in Cuestioning applicants by as,ing the same Cuestions in the same order of every candidate: and not to as, personal Cuestions that are unrelated to the .ob. 7ou should also tell them to focus on selection rather than recruitment. 2t is also helpful if interviewers receive formal interview training. #iff" / %ype" ;+ Page (eference" 1*3 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. 1<<) %he competition for talent has become intense and you need to ma,e sure that every .ob applicant who applies for a .ob will stay interested in the .ob and will want to wor, for your organization. What can you do to ma,e sure that .ob applicants have positive perceptions of the recruitment and selection process and of the organization? !nswer" !pplicants interpret recruitment e periences as signals about what it is li,e to wor, in an organization. %herefore0 it is important that applicants are treated well during recruitment and that recruiters are friendly0 professional0 and respectful. %his will increase the li,elihood that applicants will form positive perceptions of their recruitment e perience and towards the organization. 2n addition0 the selection procedures should be perceived as

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fair by applicants who will form more positive perceptions of the selection process and the organization when they have more positive perceptions of selection fairness. 2n terms of various methods of selection0 employment interviews and wor, samples are perceived more favourably than personality tests and honesty tests. #iff" / %ype" ;+ Page (eference" 1*/ +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. $**) What is social identity theory and how does it help us understand stereotypes and discrimination? !nswer" !ccording to social identity theory0 people form perceptions of themselves and others based on their characteristics and memberships in social categories. %herefore0 our sense of self is composed of a personal identity and a social identity. We categorize ourselves and others to ma,e sense of and understand the social environment. -nce a category has been chosen0 we see members of that category embodying the most typical attributes of that category. Bow we categorize the individuals and the associated attributes can lead to the creation of stereotypes. =urther0 because we tend to perceive members of own social categories in more positive and favourable ways than those who belong to other categories0 this can lead to discrimination towards those who belong to other social categories. #iff" / %ype" ;+ Page (eference" )$ +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.$ ; plain social identity theory and 8runer's model of the perceptual process. $*1) What is a stereotype threat? ?ive an e ample and discuss its implications for individuals and organizations. !nswer" ! stereotype threat occurs when members of a social group such as visible minorities or women feel they might be .udged or treated according to a stereotype and that their behaviour andHor performance will confirm the stereotype. %he activation of a stereotype threat in a testing situation has been found to result in lower cognitive ability and math

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test scores of minorities and women. %his means that individuals might not do well on selection tests and as a result will not be hired. -rganizations might be losing good employees who perform poorly on selection tests because of a stereotype threat. #iff" / %ype" ;+ Page (eference" </ +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss how racial0 ethnic0 religious0 gender0 and age stereotypes affect organizational behaviour and what organizations can do to manage diversity. $*$) What are rater errors and what can organizations do to reduce them and improve the accuracy of performance appraisals? !nswer" (ater errors refer to perceptual tendencies that occur in performance evaluations. ; amples described in the te t include leniency0 harshness0 central tendency0 halo effect0 and similar5to5me effect. %hey can be minimized through the use of behaviourally anchored rating scales D8!(+) and frame5of5reference training D=-(). #iff" / %ype" ;+ Page (eference" 1*4 +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.< #iscuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources. $*/) %he !'&; 2nsurance 'ompany has tried to achieve a diverse wor,force0 but they have had difficulty changing a wor,force that has historically not been all that diverse. 2f you were hired as the new manager of human resources0 what actions would you ta,e to achieve and manage a diverse wor,force? !nswer" +elect enough minority members to get them beyond to,en status: encourage teamwor, that brings minority and ma.ority members together: ensure those ma,ing career decisions about employees have accurate information about them: and train people to be aware of stereotypes. !dditional answers can be found in ; hibit /.6 Dpage <<) as well as in the list of strategies used by 8oeing 'anada to manage diversity. #iff" $ %ype" ;+

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Page (eference" << +,ill" !pplied -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss how racial0 ethnic0 religious0 gender0 and age stereotypes affect organizational behaviour and what organizations can do to manage diversity. $*1) +ome have argued that organizations should value diversity0 not .ust tolerate it or try to blend everyone into a narrow mainstream. What is the basis for this argument? !nswer" ! critical motive is the basic fairness of valuing diversity. 2n addition0 there is increasing awareness that diversity and its proper management can yield strategic and competitive advantages such as improved problem solving and creativity when diverse perspectives are brought to bear on an organizational problem as well as improved recruiting and mar,eting. &ore organizations are adopting diversity as part of their corporate strategy to improve their competitiveness in global mar,ets. =urthermore0 a diversity climate has been found to be associated with business5unit performance0 and organizations with gender5diverse teams have superior financial performance. #iff" $ %ype" ;+ Page (eference" <$ +,ill" (ecall -b.ective" /.6 #iscuss the concepts of wor,force diversity and valuing diversity.

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