Sunteți pe pagina 1din 105

UPTEC-ES12011

Examensarbete 30 hp April 2012

Wind Power and Its Impact on the Moldovan Electrical System


Joel Eriksson Simon Gozdz Englund

Abstract
Wind Power and Its Impact on the Moldovan Electrical System
Joel Eriksson & Simon Gozdz Englund

Teknisk- naturvetenskaplig fakultet UTH-enheten Besksadress: ngstrmlaboratoriet Lgerhyddsvgen 1 Hus 4, Plan 0 Postadress: Box 536 751 21 Uppsala Telefon: 018 471 30 03 Telefax: 018 471 30 00 Hemsida: http://www.teknat.uu.se/student

The master thesis project has been executed with the cooperation of Borlnge Energi, with the aim of reducing the high electric energy dependency which Moldova has on Ukraine, Transnistria and Russia. The project examines what reduction that would be possible by wind power installations on the existing electrical grid of Moldova. The installations should not surpass the capacity of the transmission lines or the voltage levels according to regulation. The southern regions of Moldova proved to have the best wind conditions and the locations of Besarabeasca, Zarnesti, Leovo, Ciadyr and Cimislia in the southern region were chosen for wind power installations. For the analysis a model over the Moldovan electrical system is constructed. Each of the five chosen locations is modelled with a generator symbolizing the wind power installation. The power flow software PSS/E is used to construct the model. To examine possible wind power installations different scenarios are created. The scenarios are executed with the southern regions 110 kV system as a focus area. All scenarios are analysed with a contingency analysis, where transmission lines in the focus region are tripped. The contingency analysis and the scenarios are automated using the programming language Python. An economic analysis shows payback periods for wind power investments in Moldova, the analysis also shows the sensitivity of the electricity price and discount rates. The project concludes that wind power installations are possible with the Moldovan electric grid as it looks today. The installations would result in reducing the high dependency of imported electrical energy.

Handledare: Ronny Arnberg mnesgranskare: Mikael Bergkvist Examinator: Kjell Pernestl ISSN: 1650-8300, UPTEC ES** *** Sponsor: Forsk Sida

Frord (in Swedish)

Bakgrunden till detta spnnande examensarbete r att frfattarna p egen hand skte en utmaning vad gller uppbyggnad och utformning av framtida elektriska kraftnt. Deras frgestllning var vad hnder i ett kraftnt vid en massiv utbyggnad av t.ex. vindkraft, karakteriserad av stora variationer i effekt? Frgestllningen r hggradigt intressant i lnder med lite tillgng p vattenkraft och ur perspektivet av utfasning av fossila brnslen. Ur den synvinkeln var det svenska kraftntet mindre intressant. Efter kontakter med Ronny Arnberg, Borlnge Energi, kom projektet att fokusera p elfrsrjningen i Moldavien vars kraftnt blev modell fr studien. Mlet r inte att lsa Moldaviens energifrsrjningsproblem. De ambitioner som frfattarna hade inledningsvis har sedan modererats p ett frtjnstfullt stt av mnesgranskaren Mikael Bergkvist att bttre passa tillgnglighet, tid och resurser. Ronny Arnberg har bisttt med mngder med kontakter i Moldavien som ppnat drrar fr frfattarna. Resultatet p frfattarnas initiala frga har kanske inte blivit besvarad men vl gett stora insikter i de utmaningar som vntar.

2012-03-16 Kjell Pernestl Examinator Unv.lekt. Uppsala Universitet

II

Acknowledgments

This Master Thesis Project has been financed by a MFS scholarship and a Forsk scholarship without which the project could not have been executed. Technical support was provided by the Technical University of Moldova, Anatolie Boscneanu Main Specialist at the National Agency for Energy Regulation and Lise Toll Project Developer at E.ON Climate & Renewables. Technical support was also provided along with and guidance in times of need throughout the project by our supervisors at Uppsala University; Mikael Bergkvist and Kjell Pernestl. Special thanks should be directed to Professor Arion Valentin and PhD student Victor Gropa at the Technical University of Moldova who took us in with the true spirit of the Moldovan people; with helping hands wanting nothing in return. Thank you This project could not have been written without the help of Borlng energi and its enthusiast Ronny Arnberg who provided contacts and a workplace in Moldova. We would also like to take the chance to express our gratitude for the opportunity to experience Moldova and its truly great people, out of which we now call many friends and whom we will never forget.

ii

III

Populrvetenskaplig beskrivning (in Swedish)

Moldavien r ett av de fattigare lnderna i Europa. Det finns ett starkt engagemang och en stor vilja fr sammarbeten med vstlnder fr att lmna fattigdomen och nrma sig Vsteuropa. Ett viktigt steg i detta r att bli av med det starka energiberoende gentemot Ukraina och Ryssland som finns idag. Moldaviens interna politiska situation r svr. En del av Moldavien, Transnistrien, existerar idag som en autonom republik och har en lngdragen konflikt bakom sig som nnu inte r lst. Transnistrien och situationen dr r viktig ur en energisituation d den strsta kraftanlggningen i hela regionen ligger dr. Moldavien importerar idag mellan 94 och 98 % av sin totala energikonsumtion dr de stora importprodukterna r naturgas frn Ryssland och el frn Ukraina och Transnistrien. Av sin elkonsumtion har Moldavien idag endast mjlighet att producera ca 26 % nationellt, resten importeras frn Ukraina och Transnistrien. I examensarbetet utreds mjligheterna att minska detta starka beroende genom att ka intern elproduktion genom vindkraft. Fokus ligger p elntet, allts hur mycket vindkraft som kan installeras till dagens existerande elnt utan att elledningarna blir verbelastade eller att spnningar i elntet kar eller sjunker utanfr gllande grnsvrden. Vindpotentialen har underskts via tidigare studier och den visar p att potentialen r strst i den sdra delen av Moldavien. Dessa vindkraftskarteringar r utfrda utifrn vindmtningar p meterologiska stationer, ofta p 10 till 12 meters hjd. Genom simuleringsprogram har man sedan kunnat uppskatta vindhastigheter fr olika omrden och hjd. Fem platser med bra vindpotential valdes ut fr vidare studier ver hur mycket vindkraft som kan installeras ur ntets perspektiv. Dessa platser i nrheten av stderna; Besarabeasca, Zarnesti, Leovo, Ciadyr och Cimislia ligger alla i sdra delen av Moldavien. Den begrnsade faktorn fr hur mycket vindkraft som kan byggas r elntet. Fr att underska effekterna frn vindkraftsinstallationerna p elntet var det ndvndigt att bygga upp en modell i datorprogrammet PSS/E, designat fr att berkna effektflden i elnt. Datorn kan sedan utfra de komplexa berkningar som krvs fr att rkna ut effekter och spnningar i systemet. Det rcker dock inte att endast se p systemet som det faktiskt ser ut, man mste ocks underska vad som skulle hnder d en elledning i systemet kopplas bort i en s kallad n-1 analys. Att en lina kopplas bort kan bero p behov av underhll eller rena fel som kan uppst vid till exempel olyckor. Platserna undersktes i den frdiga modellen bland annat en och en men ven i ett scenario dr det p alla platser samtidigt installeras vindkraft. Vindkraftparkerna symboliseras i modellen som generatorer som genererar aktiv effekt. Resultaten visar att den maximalt mjliga installerade effekten varierar mycket beroende p plats. Cimislia visar sig ha mjlighet fr 100 MW, innan verfringskapaciteten blir begrnsande. De vriga platserna begrnsas p grund av att spnningsniver stiger eller sjunker utanfr riktlinjerna. D installation sker p alla platser samtidigt finns det mjlighet att installera omkring 260 MW, ven hr r hga spnningar en begrnsande faktor fr ytterligare installation.

iii

Den reaktiva effekten i elntet har en stark koppling till spnningsniver och drav upprepas scenariona d vindkraftparkerna ven har mjlighet att producera eller konsumera reaktiv effekt. D vindkraftparkerna p detta stt har mjlighet att kompensera med reaktiv effekt hlls spnningen konstant p basspnningsnivn. De nya resultaten visar att detta ger en mjlighet att ka vindkraftinstallationen per plats. De platser i tidigare scenariot som tidigt fick spnningsproblem begrnsas nu, precis som Cimislia, endast av verfringskapaciteten. Installation vid Cimislia minskar dock ngot d reaktiv effekt ven den tar upp plats p elntet. Maximal produktion r dock fortfarande strst i Cimislia med ca 100 MW. D vindkraft installeras p alla platser samtidigt ges en kning till 355 MW, allts en tydlig kning av mjlig vindkraftsinstallation. Fr att rkna ut den totala minskningen av importerad el br man ta hnsyn till att en vindkraftpark med installerad effekt med t.ex. 260 MW inte kommer leverera 260 MW hela tiden p grund av att vinden inte blser hela tiden. Fr att ta hnsyn till detta anvnds tv olika utnyttjandefaktorer fr vindkraftparkerna, 0,1 och 0,3 dr 0,1 r en relativt lg utnyttjandefaktor och 0,3 r en relativt hg utnyttjandefaktor. Resultaten visar att vindkraftverk som endast levererar aktiv effekt kan minska elimporten med mellan 7 % till 20 % beroende p utnyttjandefaktorerna. D vindkraftparken har mjligheten att konsumera reaktiv effekt kan elimporten minska med mellan 8 % till 25 %. I rapporten utfrs ven en ekonomisk analys dr terbetalningstiden fr ett vindkraftsprojekt tas fram. terbetalningstiden berknas med nettonuvrdesmetoden och terbetalningstiden tas fram fr ngra olika rntesatser. terbetalningstiden fr vindkraftsprojekten varierar frn 3 r till att aldrig betala tillbaka sig vid de olika ekonomiska scenarierna. Slutsatsen r att Moldaviens starka beroende av importerad elektricitet kraftigt kan minskas med en utbyggnad av vindkraft i sdra delen av landet.

iv

IV

Executive summary

The Moldovan electrical energy imports can be reduced by as much as 25 %. This reduction is possible by wind power installations at the suitable locations of Besarabeasca, Zarnesti, Leovo, Ciadyr and Cimislia. Assuming a possible good wind resource with a capability factor of 0,3 wind power installations of 355 MW would reduce the electrical energy imports by 25 % according to the model created for the project. The model has not been verified with other models, which is of priority for future work. For a total installation of 355 MW the installed power needs to be allocated as shown below: Besarabasca Zarnesti Leovo Ciadyr Cimislia 56 MW 68 MW 68 MW 91 MW 72 MW

The strongest site for wind power production, one site at a time, is Cimislia with a total installed power of 102 MW possible. With all sites together the maximum installed power is 260 MW without reactive power compensation and 355 MW with reactive power compensation. Economic calculations include a sensitivity analysis with different the electricity price and discount rates. The economic analyses shows that the payback time vary from 3 years to never being paid back and conclusions are drawn that further investigations needs to be made.

V
ANRE AVR CDM CER CHP DSA EBRD ENTSO-E FACTS HAWT HPP IPS MAWS MSSR PSS/E p.u SNC SSA TUM UNFCCC VAWT WAsP

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations


National Agency for Energy Regulation Automatic Voltage Regulation Clean Development Mechanism Certified Emission Reduction credits Combined Heat and Power Dynamic Security Assessment European Banc of Reconstruction and Development European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Hydro Power Plant Integrated Power System Mean Annual Wind Speed Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic Power System Simulator for Engineering Per Unit Second National Communication Static Security Assessment Technical University of Moldova United Nations Framework Commission of Climate Change Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program

vi

Table of Contents
I II III Frord (in Swedish) ______________________________________________________ i Acknowledgments _______________________________________________________ ii Populrvetenskaplig beskrivning (in Swedish)________________________________ iii

IV Executive summary ______________________________________________________ v V List of Acronyms and Abbreviations ________________________________________ vi Introduction ____________________________________________________ 1

Chapter 1
1.2 1.3
1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 1.3.5 1.1.1

Borlnge Energi ___________________________________________________________ 1 Moldova Background _____________________________________________________ 1


Grid History _____________________________________________________________________ 2 Energy _________________________________________________________________________ 2 Bio Energy Potential ______________________________________________________________ 3 Solar Energy Potential _____________________________________________________________ 3 Wind Energy Potential ____________________________________________________________ 4 Environmental Goals ______________________________________________________________ 4

1.4

Aim and Goals ____________________________________________________________ 5

Chapter 2
2.1
2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.6

Background _____________________________________________________ 6
Active and Reactive Power _________________________________________________________ 6 Introduction to the Electrical Power System ___________________________________________ 8 Components in the Electrical Power System __________________________________________ 11 Per-Unit System _________________________________________________________________ 15 Equivalents in Electrical Power Systems ______________________________________________ 15 Static Modelling _________________________________________________________________ 16

Grid Theory ____________________________________________________________ 6

2.2
2.2.1 2.2.2

Wind Power ____________________________________________________________ 19


Moldovas Wind Resource ________________________________________________________ 22 Economy ______________________________________________________________________ 23

2.3
2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4

Method ________________________________________________________________ 24
PSS/E _________________________________________________________________________ 24 Building the Model ______________________________________________________________ 24 Scenarios ______________________________________________________________________ 29 Economy ______________________________________________________________________ 30

Chapter 3
3.1 3.2
3.2.1

Results ________________________________________________________ 32

Base Case_______________________________________________________________ 32 Scenario I _______________________________________________________________ 33


Scenario I, With Reactive Power Compensation _______________________________________ 33

3.3
3.3.1

Scenario II ______________________________________________________________ 34
Scenario II, With Reactive Power Compensation _______________________________________ 35

1.1
3.3.2 3.3.3

Reduction of Imported Electric Energy _______________________________________ 36


Scenario I ______________________________________________________________________ 36 Scenario II _____________________________________________________________________ 37

3.4

Economy _______________________________________________________________ 37

Chapter 4
4.1
4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3

Discussion _____________________________________________________ 40
Scenario I ______________________________________________________________________ 40 Scenario II _____________________________________________________________________ 41 Economy ______________________________________________________________________ 42

Scenarios _______________________________________________________________ 40

Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G Appendix H Appendix I Appendix J Appendix K

Conclusion _____________________________________________________ 43 Future Work ___________________________________________________ 44 Map of the Moldovan electrical system___________________________ A-1 Map over the wind potential in Moldova _________________________ B-1 Description of WAsP __________________________________________ C-1 Line diagram and data over the equivalent 330 kV circuit ____________ D-1 Transmission Line Data ________________________________________ E-1 Line diagram and data over the complete model ___________________ F-1 General Python Script executing the contingency analysis __________ G-1 Python Script Scenario I ______________________________________ H-1 Python Script Scenario II, Monte Carlo Simulation____________________ I-1 Base Case - Contingency Loading Report_____________________________J-1 Base Case Line Diagram with Line Capacities _____________________ K-1

Appendix L Scenario I Overload Report _____________________________________ L-1 Appendix M Appendix N Appendix O Appendix P Appendix Q Appendix R Appendix S Appendix T Appendix U Scenario I Reactive Power Compensation Overload Report_________ M-1 Scenario II - Overload Report ___________________________________ N-2 Scenario II Reactive Power Compensation Overload Report _________ O-2 Scenario II Contingency Loading Report _________________________ P-1 Scenario II Line Diagram for Line Capacities ______________________ Q-1 Scenario II All Generators Results ______________________________ R-1 The Contingency and Automation Process in PSS/E _________________ S-1 Sub, Mon and Con files for the contingency analysis ________________ T-1 Division of the Work Between the Authors ________________________ U-1

Table of Figures and Tables


Figure 1.1 Regional gropes of ENTSO-E and the IPS electrical systems [8] 2 Figure 2.1 The total power aka. the apparent power, active power and reactive power [18] 7 Figure 2.2 Real power and reactive power plotted against the load angle and voltage [20] 8 Figure 2.3 Structure of an electrical power system [20] 9 Figure 2.4 Showing the basic schematics of an on-load tap changer [20] 12 Figure 2.5 Transmission line equivalent 13 Figure 2.6 The magnetic field H between two conductors 14 Figure 2.7 Electric field E between two conductors 14 Figure 2.8 Busses connected in star and delta with line impedance Z [20] 16 Figure 2.9 An equivalent circuit of a short transmission line 17 Figure 2.10 An equivalent circuit of a medium transmission line 18 Figure 2.11 Schematic scheme over a contingency plan [23] 19 Figure 2.12 A typical arrangement for a HAWT [20] 20 Figure 2.13 A typical Cp/ curve for a wind turbine [20] 20 Figure 2.14 Turbine power as a function of the wind speed [20] 21 Figure 2.15 An investment and payback curve for a nonspecific project [25] 23 Figure 2.16 One line diagram over the PSS/E model 25 Figure 2.17 Load and generation in Moldova, rectangles represent generation and circles loads 28 Figure 2.18 The algorithm for the contingency analysis where generator G is increased 30 Figure 3.1 The dispersion of voltage levels for the base case contingency analysis 32 Figure 3.2 A histogram of the dispersion of voltage levels with a contingency analysis 34 Figure 3.3 A histogram of the dispersion of voltages levels with a contingency analysis 35 Figure 3.4 Payback time with a capability factor of 0,3 37 Figure 3.5 Payback time with a capability factor of 0,1 38 Figure 3.6 Payback time including CER:s with a capability factor of 0,3 38 Figure 3.7 Payback time including CER:s with a capability factor of 0,1 39 Figure A-1 Map over the Moldovan electrical system [31] A-1 Figure B-1 Wind Potential in Moldova at the height of 70 meters [14] B-1 Figure D-1 Line diagram from PSS/E for the equivalent circuit over the Moldovan electrical system D-1 Figure F-1 Line diagram for the equivalent circuit over the Moldovan electrical system F-1 Figure K-1 One line diagram with line capacities K-1 Figure Q-1 One line diagram with line capacities Q-1 Figure R-1 Shows the iterations with all generators in scenario I. R-1 Figure R-2 Histogram over the maximum generation without reactive power compensation R-2 Figure R-3 Results from the second iteration with a narrow interval for each generator R-2 Figure R-4 F Histogram over the maximum generation with reactive power compensation R-2 Figure S-1 Shows the recorder function within PSS/E S-2 Figure T-1 Contingency file created for the contingency analysis T-1 Figure T-2 Monitor file created for the contingency analysis T-1 Figure T-3 Subsystem file created for the contingency analysis T-1 Table 1.1 Existing transmission lines in Moldova 3 Table 2.1 Load values for the active generation and consumption 28 Table 2.2 Model load values for the active generation and consumption 28

Table 3.1 Maximum generation before violation in the contingency report Table 3.2 Maximum values regarding only line capacities Table 3.3 Extended generation potential until line capacity is reached Table 3.4 Possible generation capacity with reactive power compensation Table 3.5 Maximum generation for each location giving maximum total generation for the region Table 3.6 Maximum generation for each location giving maximum total generation for the region Table 3.7 Imported electrical energy reduction due to wind power installations Table 3.8 Imported electrical energy reduction with reactive power compensation Table 3.9 Imported electrical energy reduction due to wind power installations Table D-1 Bus data for equivalent circuit over the Moldovan electrical system Table D-2 Plant data for equivalent circuit over the Moldovan electrical system Table D-3 Machine data for equivalent circuit over the Moldovan electrical system Table D-4 Load data for equivalent circuit over the Moldovan electrical system Table D-5 Branch data for equivalent circuit over the Moldovan electrical system Table E-1 Data over transmission line types Table E-2 Impedance values for the lines in the 110 kV system Table E-3 Base impedance values Table E-4 Per Unit values for the lines in the 110 kV system Table F-1 Bus Data Table F-2 Branch Data Table F-3 Machine Data Table F-4 Plant Data Table F-5 Load Data Table F-6 Switched Shunt Data Table F-7 Three Winding Data Table F-8 Winding Data, MGRAS Table F-9 Winding Data, Vulcanesti Table F-10 Winding Data, Hancesti-Straseni Table F-11 Winding Data, Chisinau Table J-1 The busses with maximum and minimum voltage levels from the loading report

33 33 33 33 34 35 36 36 37 D-2 D-2 D-2 D-2 D-2 E-1 E-1 E-1 E-1 F-2 F-2 F-3 F-3 F-3 F-3 F-3 F-4 F-4 F-4 F-4 J-8

Chapter 1

Introduction

The introduction starts by giving a description of the company that the project has been executed in cooperation with. Thereafter follows a short background of Moldova with its electrical system, energy and renewable energy potential. The introduction ends with the aim and the goals of the project.

1.2

Borlnge Energi

AB Borlnge Energi is owned by the municipality of Borlnge. Borlnge Energi provides a wide range of services such as electricity, electricity grid, district heating, water, sewage, storm water and waste handling. In addition to these commitments Borlnge Energi also handles the municipalitys streets and parks [1]. Borlnge Energi has had international collaborations since the 1990th, with a primary focus on the environment. In 1998 the local authorities in Borlnge and the Swedish embassy in Bucharest initiated a project to establish links between the Swedish and the Romanian municipalities. This led to collaboration between Borlnge and the Romanian city of Pietsi. In Pietsi Ronny Arnberg from Borlnge Energi and the mayor of Borlnge Nils Persson met with representatives from Chisinau city hall and from APA Canal, the water and wastewater company in Chisinau. This was the start for the cooperation between Borlnge Energi and Moldova with focus on the capital, Chisinau. [2]. The municipality of Chisinau has an interest in understanding the Swedish way of thinking. From the cooperation with the municipality of Borlnge they will try to study different ways of spreading information to the society, working with youth and sustainable development. From the start of the cooperation in the year 2009 several projects regarding the environment have been conducted [3]. With the cooperation as a base many master thesis projects have been written together with Borlnge Energi in Chisinau.

1.3

Moldova Background

The Republic of Moldova is a small country situated in the south-eastern part of Europe with a total area of 33 800 m2 and 3,6 million inhabitants. Bordering countries to the north, south and east is Ukraine and to the west Romania. The capital is Chisinau with a population of around 600 000 inhabitants, other important cities are Tiraspol (located in Transnistria, see below) and Baltsi. Around 41 % of the inhabitants live in cities. Moldova became an independent state 1991 with the dissolution of the Soviet Union [4]. With a GDP of 1500 US dollars per capita Moldova is the poorest country of Europe [5]. The population consists of different ethnical groups with the biggest being the Moldavians but there are also large groups of Ukrainians and Russians. The different ethnic groups have contributed to the violent history of the country. In connection with the dissolution of the Soviet Union an armed conflict broke out in the eastern part of Moldova called Transnistria. The majority of the population in Transnistria consists of Russians and Ukrainians who wanted to establish a breakaway republic of Transnistria. The breakaway republic never gained international recognition and the armed conflict ended in 1992. Negotiations between Moldova and Transnistria with help from Russia have ended in a greater sense of autonomy for Transnistria, to this date the conflict is not yet solved. [6]

1.3.1

Grid History

Before the dissolution of the Soviet Union the electrical grid and power plants were laid out to jointly optimize the market in the south-western Soviet Union and the other countries in the region e.g. Romania. With the fall of the Soviet Union these countries had to redesign their electrical systems. Moldova and Ukraine stayed with the Eastern European system IPS (Interconnected Power Systems) together with Russia while Romania chose to connect with the Western European system ENTSO-E (European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity). ENTSO-E operates at the same frequency as IPS but the two systems do not operate synchronized with each other. [7]

Moldova

Figure 1.1 Regional gropes of ENTSO-E and the IPS electrical systems [8]

The ENTSO-E is the joint European transmission system operator, in Figure 1.1; all marked zones except IPS are part of the ENTSO-E network and thus operate synchronously.

1.3.2

Energy

Moldova imports 94 % to 98 % [9] of its consumed energy from Russia, Ukraine and Transnistria. The country thus is very dependent on the eastern countries for energy supply. Striving to align itself with the western part of Europe the energy security is an important issue. The main possibility for improving the energy security is with new power supply within the country. Today the electric power generation in Moldova and Transnistria consists of three CHP (Combined Heat and Power) plants, two HPP (Hydropower Plants); MGRAS, the biggest power plant in the region, fired with gas, and situated in Transnistria; and other minor power plants. The total capacity in Moldova, incl. Transnistria, is 3008 MW but around 2570 MW is generated by MGRAS and is thus not controlled by the Moldovan government. This means that Moldova only has around 438 MW of generation capacity. This is not enough to supply the demand of baseload in Moldova [10]. The total consumed electric energy in Moldova year 2010 was 4102 GWh out of which 1064 GWh was produced domestically and 3038 GWh was imported i.e. Moldova imported 74 % of all electrical energy consumed within the country. Due to the complex situation with Transnistria electrical energy imports have mainly come from Ukraine, but recently imports from Transnistria have increased and are now dominating. [11] 2

The transmission grid in Moldova is interconnected with the neighbouring countries; six 330 kV overhead power lines to the Ukrainian power system, the connections to Romania consists of four 110 kV lines and one 400 kV line with which Moldova also gets connection with the Bulgarian power system see Appendix A. Because of the connections to the ENTSO-E system i.e. with a different synchronization than Moldova in Romania and Bulgaria, the transmission lines can only operate in island mode on the Moldavian side, or by using back to back frequency converters. [12] The backbone in the Moldovan electrical system is the 330 kV line going from north to south, it is the main connection to both Transnistria and Ukraine. Well integrated together with the 330 kV system is the mesh of the 110 kV system which is spread out throughout Moldova. Table 1.1 shows the existing overhead line voltages and the total length of these. [13]
Table 1.1 Existing transmission lines in Moldova

Voltage level [kV] 400 330 110 Total:

Length of the overhead transmission lines [km] 214 532,4 5231,1 5977,5

1.3.3

Bio Energy Potential

Moldova has no experience of large scale applications of bio energy even though its an agricultural country. It has some experience in small scale applications in the rural area. Moldovas biomass suitable for energy use comes from forestry, agriculture, food industry and waste from households, where agricultural waste has the biggest potential as an energy source. At present Moldova biomass is inefficiently used as many outdated and simple technologies are used to convert the biomass into energy e.g. domestic fires and stoves efficiency rating rarely exceeds 50 %. There is also a lot of biomass that today cannot be used because the lack of new, today already existing, technologies needed for the conversion of biomass into energy. [14] The technical potential of biomass in Moldova is 5,4TWh, where 2,1TWh comes from agricultural waste, 1,2TWh comes from fuel wood, 1,3TWh comes from wood processing waste and 0,8TWh comes from biogas. The potential for bio fuels is another 0,6TWh, meaning that the total potential of bio energy in Moldova is 6TWh. [15] Bio energy has the biggest energy potential in Moldova; both in theoretical values and in the potential to include it in todays already existing social infrastructure and energy system development programs. [14]

1.3.4

Solar Energy Potential

There has been research about solar energy utilization in Moldova. The research where performed by the institute of Energy of the academy of Sciences of RSSM (Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic) in the late 1950s. The research resulted in a greenhouse with solar installations and heat storage in the ground. Because of the low prices for fossil fuel and lack of politic incitements for renewable energy the project was terminated. In the 1980s the work for implementing solar installations where restarted. [14]

Solar energy is received on the earths surface all the time, though the amount of energy received on the earths surface depends on several different factors. The most important factors are the suns brightness, duration and height above the horizon. In Moldova the theoretical duration of the sun, when its shining unimpeded, is 4445-4452 hours per year [14] but the real duration is 2100-2300 hours per year because of clouds concealing the sun. The amount of solar energy received on the surface of Moldova differs from 2300 kWh/ m2 year in south to 2100 kWh/m2 year in the north [14]. Other sources estimate the solar radiation in Chisinau to be 1300 kWh/m2 year. [15] The solar energy in Moldova is primarily used for heating water using solar panels, secondarily used to dry fruit, vegetables and medicinal plants and tertiary for converting solar energy into electricity via photovoltaic conversion.

1.3.5

Wind Energy Potential

Historically, the area that today is called the Republic of Moldova has been appreciated as favourable wind zone for wind energy development. Statistical data from 1901, before the development of steam engines and internal combustion engines, shows that a total of 6208 windmills were registered in the Moldova area and its surroundings. Some of these windmills were even used during the interwar period. During the 1950s even 350 windmills where built, exclusively to pump water for agricultural purposes. These where later replaced by cheaper and more easy to handle electrical systems. The electrification that occurred in Moldova during the 1950s as well as the low prices for electrical energy where factors that wind power could not compete with at the time. Today Moldova doesnt have any wind power. At present day Moldova has no wind power installed; however there are plans to install wind power plants in a near future. The south of Moldova is often mentioned as a preferable area to build wind power. The opinions of Moldovas wind potential differ e.g. the organisation 3tier concluded MAWS (Mean Annual Wind Speed) of 4-6 m/s at the height of 80 m [15] while a feasibility study written by the UNDP Moldova concluded MAWS of 4,5-8,5 m/s at a height of 70 m [14]. Moldovas technical potential for wind power is up to 1 GW installed power providing approximately 1,1TWh of electrical energy [15]. This correlates to a capability factor of 13 %, which is very low.

1.1.1

Environmental Goals

Renewable energy in Moldova would go in accordance with the goals set up in their SNC (Second National Communication) directed to the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Commission of Climate Change). The national priorities to reach the goals of greenhouse gas reductions include wider use of CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) projects, implementing a more aggressive policy on transfer of the green technologies, intensifying the process of international cooperation. An analysis on the possibilities to construct a wind power plant in Moldova in regards of the wind potential and the stability of the electrical grid would facilitate and work for the Moldavian national goals. The SNC also identifies relevant policies for the energy sector where two out of five directly would be coherence with the intended study, assuring energy security of the country by improving the interconnection capacity with the neighbouring countries and construction of new local sources of power generation based of the most recent and advanced environment friendly technologies. and increasing the share of renewable sources of energy in the energy balance of the country. [16]

1.4

Aim and Goals

Moldova has a high dependency of imported electrical energy from Ukraine and Transnistria. To rid this huge dependency Moldova could look to its national resources for domestic production. The national goals in Moldova are angled towards sustainable development with more renewable energy. This project will investigate how much the dependency of electrical imports could be reduced by wind power installations in the Moldovan electrical system as it looks today. The goals of the project: The project will conclude in how much wind power installations would be possible in Moldova considering limiting factors of the electrical system. The project will show how much the electrical imports can be reduced by wind power installations in Moldova. The project will also conclude in potential sites for wind power installation An economic analysis will show whether it would be profitable to construct wind power in Moldova

Chapter 2

Background

The background describes the grid theory important for the project, a section with wind power potential and finally the method with the creation of the model. This is followed with the scenarios used to examine the model.

2.1

Grid Theory

To understand transmission networks active and reactive power are important concepts described below, also described are definitions of terms and components in the electrical system. The section ends with a description of approximations needed for computerize model calculations.

2.1.1

Active and Reactive Power

Power is the rate of change of energy with respect to time [17]. It is the amount of energy being absorbed by a load during a time interval. Reactive power cannot be expressed in the same way, it cannot be seen as a constant flow of energy from one point to another, the reactive power is flowing back and forth in the system and when completing a cycle just as much energy that was flowing away has flowed back. The average reactive power in any system is always equal to zero. The reactive power is thus not measured by its average value, being zero, but by its amplitude, its maximum value. This gives a measurement of how much reactive power that is actually flowing through the system. [17] In an RLC circuit, with inductance L and capacitance C, the voltage before and after the load will have a small angular difference described by the load angle , the current will be shifted from the voltage with the current angle . The difference between and is the power factor angle . With a purely inductive load the current lags the voltage by and in a purely capacitive load the current leads the voltage with . In the following equations the load angle is equal to zero.
Equation 1 Equation 2

With these expressions for voltage and current the instantaneous power can be expressed by:
Equation 3

This expression combined with trigonometric identities gives Equation 2.4.


Equation 2.4

Equation 2.4 consists of one real and one imaginary part; the real power is defined as the average value of the real part.
Equation 2.5

The average value of reactive part, as can be seen below in the Figure 2.1, is always zero; this is the definition of reactive power. Instead the reactive power is measured by its amplitude value, this gives us: [18]
Equation 2.6

Power

Time

Figure 2.1 The total power aka. the apparent power, active power and reactive power [18]

P is expressed in Watts and Q in VAr (Volt Ampere reactive) both describing the same quantity but with different units to distinguish them. The power factor angle in the cosine term in Equation 2.5 and Equation 2.6 called the power factor. For inductive loads where the current lags the voltage the load consumes reactive power. With capacitive loads the current leads the voltage and the load creates reactive power. [17] According to [19] the active and reactive power in a RLC four terminal electric circuit can be described by Equation 2.7 and Equation 2.8 if the resistance R is neglected and assuming that the load angle is small. | || |
Equation 2.7

and | | | | | |
Equation 2.8

Equation 2.7 describes the dependence the active power has on the differences between the phase voltages and the angle between these. The phase voltages in the power system may not differ much between busses and thus the active power is highly dependent on the load angle which is the angular difference between and . This gives us the characteristics that the active power is strongly dependent on the load. [20] According to Equation 2.8 even a small change in voltage causes a large change in reactive power. If the reactive power is plotted against the voltage it corresponds to an inverted parabola, the dependency on the reactance gives us that the smaller the reactance the steeper will the parabola be, this means that with a low reactance small changes in voltages causes very large changes to the reactive power. The relationship can be seen in Figure 2.2 together with the sinusoidal characteristics of . [20]

Figure 2.2 Real power and reactive power plotted against the load angle and voltage [20]

In the three phase system the power is increased by a factor of as seen in the equations below. [17]
Equation 2.9 Equation 2.10

2.1.2

Introduction to the Electrical Power System

The modern society requires energy for use in the industry, agriculture, commerce, transportation, communications, domestic households etc. The total energy required during one year is called total annual energy demand. About 85 % [21] of the total energy demand in the world is today supplied by fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas. A large part of these fuels contribute to the electric energy production. Today the world is switching from these fossil fuels and more electrical energy is produced by renewable sources like wind power, solar power, hydro power, biogas, bio energy and geothermal energy. One of the major reasons for the increase in renewable energy is the global warming. In the future its likely that the share of the energy market taken by renewables will increase to high levels and play a more dominant role on the design of electrical power systems. [20]

2.1.2.1

Structure of the Electrical Power System

The electrical power system can be divided into three different parts; generation, transmission and distribution. The transmission network is normally the network with the highest voltage, from 300 kV and above. Transmission networks have the highest transferring capacities and are mostly built as meshed networks to increase the security of the system. To the transmission network only very large electrical energy consumers and producers are connected. The transmission network can also be used as connecting lines to other systems for example tying different countries together. [20] The sub transmission network is a part of the transmission network. It consists of a high or medium voltage network, with the voltage levels ranging between 100 kV to 300 kV. Unlike the transmission network the sub transmission network is built as a radial network or a weakly coupled network. To the sub transmission network medium producers and consumers can be connected. [20]

Figure 2.3 Structure of an electrical power system [20]

Distribution networks are networks with medium voltages, in the range of 1 kV to 100 kV. The distribution network is often radial built networks. To the distribution network small generation and medium sized customers are connected. Wind power plants are often connected to the distribution network. The classification of the different parts of the system is not a strict classification and can vary depending on who is classifying it. [20]

2.1.2.2

Reliability of Supply

One of the most important features of the electrical power system is that electrical energy cannot easily be stored in large quantities. At any instant in time the energy demand has to be met by the corresponding electricity generation. Fortunately the combined load pattern is pretty predictable whilst individual loads may vary quite much. This predictable system demand can thus quite easily be planned allowing scheduling the daily generation to be controlled in a predetermined manor. [17] The electrical system is designed to operate within certain operational limits governed by grid codes. These operational limits ensure that you avoid major interruption of supply that can lead to lifethreatening situations for the normal consumer, and for the industrial consumer may pose severe technical and production problems and thus loss of income. This is why high reliability of supply is of fundamental importance for the electrical system. High reliability can be ensured by: [17] High quality of installed elements The provision of reserve generation Employing large interconnected power systems capable of supplying each consumer via Alternative routes A high level of system security [17]

2.1.2.3

Stability and Security of the Power System

The stability of the power system is defined as the ability of the power system to regain equilibrium after being subjected to a change. The most common changes that affect the stability of the system are the variables described in the chapter on Active and Reactive Power i.e. the nodal voltage magnitudes, which affect the reactive power, and the nodal load angles, connected with the active power. This gives us the new terms of power angle stability, and voltage stability. [17] The security of the power system refers to the ability of the power system to survive certain contingencies without affecting the quality of electrical supply to the customers. The stability of the power grid is part of the security but the concept of security is wider and also deals with other issues. The assessment of the power system can be divided into the SSA (Static Security Assessment) and the DSA (Dynamic Security Assessment). The DSA deals with the stability and quality of electrical supply during a change in the system where as the SSA only considers before and after scenario and assumes that there was no breach in stability along the way. [17] It is in the interest of the TSO to perform the SSA in order to first evaluate the pre contingency state i.e. determine available transfer capability of transmission links and identify network congestions. Secondly to evaluate the post contingency states i.e. verify the bus voltages and power flow limits. Being responsible for the grid security the TSO needs to find ways of controlling the system so that it does not break down. Having no direct control over the generating units the only way to affect power outputs or control settings of the power plants are the grid codes or commercial agreements. [17] As stated above the DSA deals with problems regarding the system stability and quality of electrical supply, the analysis in this report strictly deals with SSA and will thus not describe the problems regarding the dynamic simulations. A short description of some of the problems that occur follows in the next chapter. [17]

2.1.2.4

Quality of the Electrical Supply

It is not just important that there is a high reliability to the system, there also has to be a high quality of the electrical supply. Electrical energy of high quality is provided by: Regulated and defined voltage levels with low fluctuations A regulated and defined value of the frequency with low fluctuations Low harmonic content Low content of transients and flicker

To ensure the quality of the electrical supply two basic methods can be used. Firstly the proper uses of automatic voltage control i.e. shunt elements, tap transformers, frequency control methods and AVR (Automatic Voltage Regulation) within the generating units. Secondly by employing large interconnected systems because larger systems are naturally affected by load variations as well as other disturbances. To ensure the quality of electrical supply the TSO set codes that the grid should operate within. A common standard is that the frequency should not deviate from the base value with more than 0,1 Hz and the nodal voltages should stay within 10 % of its normal value. These regulations vary depending on voltage level but also depending of fault scenario. [17]

10

2.1.3

Components in the Electrical Power System

The most important components of the electrical power system are generating units, transformers, shunt elements and transmission lines. These are described below.

2.1.3.1

Generating Units

Generating units are the elements in the electrical power system that produces electrical energy. There are several different types of generators with different properties. Examples of different generators are the synchronous generator and induction generator. The generators are converting kinetic energy into electrical energy. Electrical energy is produced by a generator driven by a kinetic energy source, often a turbine or diesel engine. The turbine is equipped with a turbine governor which controls either the speed or the power output according to a pre-set power-frequency characteristic. The generated power is then fed to the electrical power system. [17] Traditionally the electrical power system has been operated with relatively few large power plants connected to the transmission network. These large plants are usually either thermal or hydro based. Concerns about global warming and sustainability have increased the interest for renewable generation like thermal power plants which uses bio fuels, wind power and solar. This requires major changes in the electrical power system as the generation will increasingly be based on large amount of small producers often with the generation situated close to the energy source. Renewable energy has lower energy density than non-renewable energy sources and therefore the renewable power plants tend to be smaller, around hundreds of kilowatts to a few megawatts. Plants of this small size are often connected to the distribution level of the power system, rather than the transmission level because of the lower costs for the connection. These plants are called distributed generation. [17] Wind turbines are a typical example of distributed generation power source. Wind turbines often use induction generators with either fixed speed or doubly fed generators to convert the power in wind into electrical energy. It is important to know that the rotating magnetic field in the induction machine is produced by a magnetizing current, whether it is operating as a generator or a motor. The magnetizing current is always supplied from an outside power source, often from the electrical power system. This means that the induction machine always consumes reactive power and therefore always must be connected to a power system that can provide the induction machine with reactive power for it to function properly. The reactive power can either be provided directly from the electrical power system or via reactive power compensation units installed together with the wind turbine. [17]

2.1.3.2

Transformers

Transformers are needed to connect parts of the power system with different voltage levels. Generator step-up transformers are used when connecting generators to the grid. Tap transformers are used when there is a need for voltage regulation. Transformers can also be used for reduction of voltage to suit the low voltages needed by the consumers. This is done with distribution transformers. Connection of different parts of the electrical network with different voltage levels is done with transmission transformers. [20]

11

Transformers are built up by a magnetic core with windings wrapped around the core. For two winding transformer there are two sets of windings and with the three winding transformer there are three sets of windings. The three winding transformer can thus transform one voltage level into two different to suit several needs at once. The relation between the phasor voltage and the number of turns at each winding is shown in Equation 2.11. [17]
Equation 2.11

Thus the change in number of turns for the windings will affect the voltage levels proportionally. Transformers that can control voltage levels by changing the number of turns of the windings are known as tap changing transformers. The tap changers can operate ether as off load or on load. The off-load tap changers have a regulation rate of generally 5 % of voltage levels. The off load tap changers are operated manually and change is normally made to accommodate the seasons. The onload tap changers have a general operational range of maximum 20 % of voltage levels and change is controlled by a regulator and can thus respond directly to disturbances such as a load change. A basic principle of a tap changer is shown in Figure 2.4 where the selectors S1 and S2 can move between the windings to cause small changes to the voltage. [20]

Figure 2.4 Showing the basic schematics of an on-load tap changer [20]

2.1.3.3

Shunt Elements

Due to the fact that reactive power causes losses and uses the capacity in electrical lines the optimal operation is reached if reactive power is compensated for close to the point of consumption and not produced at the generation sources far from the consumption. One way to compensate for the reactive power is with shunt compensation i.e. by installation of capacitors or inductors close to the point of interest. Shunt compensation can also be used to stabilize voltage levels and thus strengthening the stability of the electrical power system. [20] Transmission lines are generally consuming reactive power but if the load is very low the production of reactive power can exceed the consumption. This may lead to very high reactive power levels which in turn may lead to very high voltage levels due to the strong correlation between reactive power and voltages seen in Equation 2.8. Compensation for this effect is generally done for lines longer than 200 km by installation of shunt reactors. In a loaded line, shunt capacitors may be used to produce reactive power and compensate for voltage drops, more commonly series capacitors are connected in series with the conductors to compensate for the reactive power consumed by the line. [20]

12

Shunt compensation can also be supplied by a synchronous motor or generator running at no load called synchronous compensation. Being rather expensive switched shunt capacitor banks and reactors are often used in addition to the synchronous compensation at substations. Small such compensators, of several MVA, are often used on the tertiary winding of transmission transformers while larger compensation, of up to hundreds MVA, are connected to by individual step-up transformers to high-voltage substations. [20]

2.1.3.4

Transmission Lines

There are both overhead and underground transmission lines though the overhead transmission lines are the most common. An overhead transmission line consists of three main components, conductors, insulators and support structures. Transmission lines often also have shield wires placed above the conductor to protect it from lightning.

2.1.3.4.1 Important Parameters


The design of the transmission line determines these parameters e.g. conductor type, the space between conductors and the size determines the series impedance and shunt admittance where the series impedance affects the ohmic losses, line-voltage drops and the stability limits. The shunt admittance, which is primarily capacitive, affects the line charging currents. The line charging currents are the currents which increases reactive power in the power system. In light loaded power systems shunt reactors often are installed to absorb this reactive power and thus reducing over voltages. [17] A transmission line can be described with the equivalent seen in Figure 2.5 where R is the resistance, L is the inductance, G is the conductance and C is the capacitance.

Figure 2.5 Transmission line equivalent

2.1.3.4.2 Resistance in Transmission Lines


The DC resistance in the conductors depends on the length, cross sectional area and the conductivity of the conductor. The conductivity also depends on the temperature. The DC resistance is described below:
Equation 2.12

where is the conductivity at temperature T, is the length of the conductor and A is the cross sectional area. The conductivity depends on the material and common materials for conductors are copper and aluminium. Temperature and current magnitude also affect the resistance in conductors with AC current. The resistance is frequency dependent due to the skin effect which is the phenomenon that the current distribution tends to be denser at the surface of the conductor. This 13

causes a conductor loss, the effect only occurs with AC currents. The higher the frequency the higher is the real power losses due to the skin effect. losses is always bigger than losses [17].
Equation 2.13

| |

2.1.3.4.3 Conductance in Transmission Lines


The conductance can be modelled as the shunt admittance in overhead lines. The conductance occurs because of the leaking currents due to the corona effect, damaged insulators and dirt, salt and other contaminants. The corona effect occurs when the electrical field strength at the conductor surface causes the surrounding air to ionize and thereby conduct. The losses from the conductance are much lower than the ohmic losses in the conductor, and are thus normally neglected. [17]

2.1.3.4.4 Inductance in Transmission Lines


The inductance in conductors comes from the current flowing in the transmission line.

Figure 2.6 The magnetic field H between two conductors

The inductance depends on the magnetic field intensity H, the magnetic flux density B, the flux linkages , and inductance from flux linkages per ampere as can be seen in Figure 2.6. [17]

2.1.3.4.5 Capacitance in Transmission Lines


An electric field is created between two conductors because of the difference in potential between the conductors, represented by V in Figure 2.7.

Figure 2.7 Electric field E between two conductors

The capacitance is defined by the charge divided by the voltage

. The charge is dependent on

the electrical field and the flux. In an ideal solid cylindrical conductor the flux and electrical field is equal to the area integral of the electric field strength and the electric flux density over the surface area of the conductor. [17] 14

2.1.4

Per-Unit System

Working with electrical systems with different voltages the per-unit system is often introduced. Basically it reduces the risk of making calculation error when going from one voltage level to another. If values are expressed in per-unit there can be a direct comparison from one side of a transformer to another. The expression for calculating the per-unit value is shown in Equation 2.14.
Equation 2.14

The resistance and reactance base values are calculated using the base value of the impedance and the base values for the conductance and susceptance is calculated with the base value for the admittance . The connection between the two base values can be seen in Equation 2.15. [17]
Equation 2.15

2.1.5

Equivalents in Electrical Power Systems

Electrical systems are generally very large with a lot of components, modelling this as a complete system including all components is often an impossible task if even a desired one. One method of creating an equivalent of parts in an electrical system is called model reduction methods. This method consists first of physical reductions, where suitable models for the system are chosen depending on how influential the system elements are to a disturbance. A component far from a disturbance is not as affected by a disturbance and can thus be modelled more simply. Secondly there is topological reduction where busses can be reduced to limit the size of the equivalent network and number of components in it. The topological reduction can be achieved by many techniques using matrix operation. The reduction can be done with Gauss-Rutishauser elimination, also called Ward equivalent, which use the admittance matrix as a starting point, se 2.1.6.1 for how to create the bus admittance matrix. Reduction can also be done looking at one specific bus, a typical such reduction is reduction of a centre bus in a star bus system creating a delta connected bus system. Equation 2.16 is describes the new admittance derived from old admittances in the system, k here describing the centre bus in the star system. [20]
Equation 2.16

The directly connected busses i.e. its neighbours will be affected in such a way that the admittance needs to be changed between these busses. Busses in the system not directly connected to the bus being removed will not be affected by the removal. With the star delta equivalent, a change of impedance needs to be regarded in lines AB, AC and BC. [20]

15

Figure 2.8 Busses connected in star and delta with line impedance Z [20]

In the case with the star connected bus Equation 2.16 can be written as seen in Equation 2.17. When taking into consideration that the admittance is the inverse of the impedance the equation can be rewritten as seen in Equation 2.18. [20]
Equation 2.17 Equation 2.18

Considering a circuit which consists of only three busses connected in serial Equation 2.18 is simplified and is expressed by Equation 2.19.
Equation 2.19

2.1.6 2.1.6.1

Static Modelling Bus Based Equations

For computing the power flow in an electrical system it is necessary to compute voltage magnitudes and phase angles at each bus in the system. The input data for these calculations are the voltage magnitudes V, the load angle , the net real power P and the reactive power Q. Two of these parameters are always input data at each bus in the system and two are calculated by the power flow program. The bus categorization is as follows: [17] Swing bus, also known as slack bus o The electrical model can only contain one swing bus being the reference bus for other busses in the system. Input data are the voltage and the load angle, normally as 1 p.u. and 0 . The swing bus is not a real bus. It is only a way to help model the system and perform numerical calculations. Load bus o Normally the most common bus in a power system where P and Q are input data and V and are calculated. Voltage controlled bus, also known as generator bus o Normally the bus to which a generator is connected. P and V are input data and Q and are calculated. With this bus there are also some extra input data, one can here also decide for example which interval a generator can operate between i.e. QMAX and QMIN. A bus to which a tap-changing transformer is connected to should also be designed this bus type.

16

Computer programs calculating power flows in electrical system use the bus admittance matrix which forms Equation 2.20 together with the voltage and current. The bus admittance matrix is built up on the diagonal by the sum of admittances connected to the specific bus in question and all off diagonal elements are the negative sum of all admittances between the specific bus and other busses in the system. [17]
Equation 2.20

Equation 2.20 is combined of the bus admittance matrix Y, the column vector of the bus voltages V and the vector of current sources I. The system admittance and the bus connections can be input data for the computations which result in the bus admittance vector. With the bus admittance vector and the current at each bus the bus voltage can be determined. [17] For one line these calculations can be made manually but for a system with many components this builds up to complex matrix calculations best suited for computer computation. There are many different programs for computing power flow problems e.g. PSS/E, PSCAD, Power World Simulator, Aristo, etc. The solution type used to solve can also vary but the most common is the NewtonRaphson method. [17] Since power flow bus data consist of the real and reactive power for load busses, and real power and voltages for generator busses. Equation 2.20 has to be rewritten while using Newton-Raphson methods of solving matrix equations, but it is still the base for the calculations. [17]

2.1.6.2

Line Approximations

Transmission lines characteristics can be modelled for calculations and depend on the length of the transmission line. A short transmission line, while having a 50 Hz system, shorter than 100 km can be represented as Figure 2.9 i.e. only with series resistance and inductance. The subscript S and R stands for the sending end and receiving end voltage and current and is the length of the line.

Figure 2.9 An equivalent circuit of a short transmission line

For a medium length transmission line the admittance, Y, cannot be neglected, and is represented by the admittance making the equivalent circuit change to a -circuit with the admittance connected in parallel with half at each end of the circuit, as seen in Figure 2.10. It is the same equivalent seen in Figure 2.5 but here with the admittance divided between the sending and receiving end. Mediumlength lines ranges from 100 to 300 km.

17

Figure 2.10 An equivalent circuit of a medium transmission line

The admittance is dependent on the conductance and the capacitance by:


Equation 2.21

The conductance is normally small enough to be neglected in transmission line calculations making the admittance in Figure 2.10 and the equations below only dependent on the capacitance. Equation 2.22 shows the relation between the sending and receiving currents and voltages for the circuits where the parameters A, B, C and D depends on the constants R, L and C and thus changes depending on the different length of the transmission lines.
Equation 2.22

The equation can be written in matrix format: [ ] [ ][ ]


Equation 2.23

For the short line equivalent circuit the A, B, C, D matrix is as shown below: [ ] [ ]
Equation 2.24

Equation 2.25 shows the relations for a medium length line where the more complex matrix also includes the admittance Y. [ ] [ ]
Equation 2.25

The expressions above are as stated approximations where the impedance and admittance is seen as lumped together. In reality these characteristics of the lines are uniformly distributed along the line. To account for this one can study line section of length x which changes the relations. The relations do not change for the short transmission lines but for medium lines with the admittance connected in parallel we get a new A, B, C, D matrix, shown in Equation 2.26. The equation together with Equation 2.23 makes it possible to solve for voltage and currents from one bus to another. [17]

Equation 2.26

18

2.1.6.3

Contingency Analysis

Contingency analyses are introduced to make sure that the system maintains a certain system security i.e. with static operation that means; operation without overloads and voltage levels within grid code levels. The contingency refers to changes in the system that might weaken the electrical power system and is thus one way to determine weak points in the power system in need of upgrades. There are different types of contingency analyses from the most basic only considering the outage of a single transmission line to more complex analyses considering multiple line outages or/and loss or change of generators/loads in the system. Even open lines i.e. unused, can be closed in a contingency analysis. [22] N-0 Base Case Yes

Violations? No N-1 Contingency

Report/Fix

Violations? No Final Report

Yes

Report/Fix

Figure 2.11 Schematic scheme over a contingency plan [23]

The most basic contingency can be described as an N-1 contingency analysis where one component from the model is disconnected; in the electrical system this can either be on purpose, for maintenance, upgrades etc. or by an accident or fault. [23]

2.2

Wind Power

There are several ways to extract the power of the wind but there are mainly two different types of wind turbines are used; HAWT (Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine) and VAWT (Vertical Axis Wind Turbines). Today the three bladed HAWT is the most common wind turbine. Three blades are generally favoured because it has lower power pulsations, as the blade passes the tower, than a HAWT with fewer blades. Moreover a three bladed wind turbine is more aesthetically appealing than a wind turbine with fewer blades than three, whilst the turbines are rotating. Any number of blades can be used on HAWT, although if too many blades are used they tend to interfere with each other aerodynamically. Figure 2.12 shows a typical arrangement for a HAWT where Gen stands for generator G/B for gear box and T for transformer. [20]

19

Figure 2.12 A typical arrangement for a HAWT [20]

The power of the wind is extracted by aerodynamically designed blades that produce a lift force along the length of the blade. This aerodynamic force integrated along the length of the blade produces the torque on the turbine shaft. The turbine shaft is connected to the gearbox which increases the shaft speed. The gearbox and generator is placed in the nacelle at the top of the tower. The generator is connected to the electrical power system via a transformer. [20] The power in the wind varies with the cube of the wind speed and is described with the following equation.
Equation 2.27

where is the power that can be extracted from the wind, is the air density, is the swept area of the blade, is the coefficient of performance for the turbine and is the wind speed. For the wind turbine to be able to absorb all the kinetic energy in the wind, the wind speed after the turbine has to be zero. This is impossible because the airflow has to be continuous. The theoretical maximum of energy that can be absorbed by the wind turbine is called the Betz limit and defined when Cp is equal to 16/27. The Betz limit is derived from an infinitely thin rotor, which represents the turbine, and a fluid flowing at a certain speed. In reality the coefficient of performance Cp for a wind turbine is lower, because also varies with the tip speed ratio . A typical value for Cp is around 0,4. [20]

Figure 2.13 A typical Cp/ curve for a wind turbine [20]

20

curve, as seen in Figure 2.13, for a specific wind turbine helps determent at what tip speed ratio

the wind turbine extracts the maximum amount of power in the wind. This is a powerful tool when designing wind turbines. [20]

Figure 2.14 Turbine power as a function of the wind speed [20]

Figure 2.14 shows the wind turbine power as a function of the wind speed. In order for the wind turbine to produce power the wind speed need to be greater than vw1, which is called the cut in speed and lies typically around 3-4 m/s. If the wind speed is lower than the cut in speed the power in the wind is not high enough for the generator to produce energy. With increasing wind speed the turbine produces more power until it reaches point A. At point A the generator produces its maximum power which happens at wind speed which is the rated wind speed, more specifically the wind speed the turbine is designed for. For higher wind speeds than the rated wind speed the turbine is regulated with either pitch regulation or stall regulation to extract the right amount of power from the wind preventing the wind turbine from accelerating. The power output remains constant until the wind speed reaches , typically around 25 m/s, which is called shut down wind speed; where the wind turbine shuts down to prevent it from breaking. [20] The wind is the most important aspect for wind power. Therefore the wind is measured at a desired location for building a wind power plant over at least one year. Another important aspect of wind power is the capability factor CF that is defined as seen in Equation 2.28 for a period of one year.
Equation 2.28

CF is the ratio between actual energy production and the maximum amount of energy that could have been produced if the plant had operated at full capacity over the designated time period. It can be used to see how efficiently a wind power plant has been operating over one year, a typical value is around 0,2. [20]

21

2.2.1

Moldovas Wind Resource

In order to decide the wind potential for a specific location, a large amount of data for that specific area is needed. This can be done with a variety of measuring instruments such as anemometers and direction sensors. Especially important to investigate is the wind velocity probabilistic distribution, daily and seasonal variations and prevalent wind directions. These are all important aspects for the efficiency or inefficiency for utilization of the wind power. Another important aspect to account for is the capability factor. As described in Equation 2.27 the energy in the wind is proportional to the cube of the wind speed. This relation is fundamental in all wind power. Statistical data with a high level of credibility is hard to obtain because it requires systematic observations during a long period of time, at least for one year but preferable longer, and at hub height of the wind turbine. These measurements is often performed by companies who are specialized in determining the wind power potential, this data is very expensive to retrieve. However there are ways to determine the wind power potential with data measured at the lower heights, which means that data from meteorological weather stations, often 10-12 meters above ground level, can be used to determine the wind power potential. These measurements are often influenced by the surroundings such as trees and houses. Two different methods are mainly used to determine the wind power potential for a certain location. One model is developed in Europe and one in USA. The American model is developed by NASA together with the U.S.A Air Force and is based on the dynamic climate theory which means that the model doesnt require a lot of meteorological data, but instead requires more computing processing power. The European model is called WAsP (Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program) and has been used when drawing the European wind atlas. Several European countries such as Austria, Croatia, Slovenia and Czech Republic etc. have used WAsP when drawing their wind atlases. Moldova has several meteorological stations which has recorded the wind direction and the wind velocity every three hours during a period of more than 10 years and have therefore chosen to use WAsP to draw their wind atlas. From the calculations given by the WAsP program and with the data from weather stations, a wind atlas can be derived. The wind atlas main goal is to present the wind energy resource in the area of the weather station, thus estimate the wind energy potential in the region and with this information you can identify the best locations for building a wind turbine or a wind power park. A wind atlas produced over Moldova can be seen in Appendix B [14] The wind atlas is not very accurate and cannot be used as reference when deciding exact locations for wind power plants, further investigations must be made. The wind atlas only gives a hint of the wind conditions. According to the wind atlas the southern region is best suited for wind power installations. There are other publications of the wind potential in Moldova from the beginning of the 1990th; these predictions give a negative picture of the wind power potential in Moldova. However these investigations where based on wind data from the meteorological station in Chisinau, which is located in the centre of Chisinau and is surrounded by a variety of obstacles and cannot be considered as a good reference station. [14]

22

2.2.2

Economy

The payback method is used for determining the time it takes for an investment to repay the sum of the original investment. Its a useful tool when investigating if an investment is profitable in a reasonable timeframe, or when comparing different investment proposals trying to determine which one is the most profitable. Originally the payback method doesnt account for other factors such as inflation or discount rate but there is a discounted payback method where these factors are taken into account. Its described with the following equation:
Equation 2.29

where is the net cash flow; which is the cash inflow minus outflow, is the discount rate and is the time. [24]

Figure 2.15 An investment and payback curve for a nonspecific project [25]

Figure 2.15 shows a typical investment and payback curve. At the start of the project money is invested in the project, this called the investment period. Until the project reaches the self-funding point the project just costs money. Typical cost during the investment period for wind installations can be wind measurements, calculations of wind potential, project management and off course costs for building the wind power plant. At the self-funding point, the investment is starting to earn money and the investors are getting the invested money back. At the breakeven point the investor has got all the invested money back and beyond this point all the money earned is pure profit.

23

2.3

Method

Five potential locations were chosen for wind power installations. To simulate the effects new generation would have on the electrical power system of Moldova a model for power flow simulations is constructed. In the model different scenarios is simulated to show installation capacities for each location separately and for all sites at the same time.

2.3.1

PSS/E

Power flow simulations are done by computer programs, with approximations of transmission lines, transformers and other components of the electrical power system. There are a number of different programs on the market, for this project PSS/E (Power System Simulator for Engineering) is used. The software has efficient tools for simulating static power flows, contingency analysis, and it also has the possibility to automate these processes. The automation process in PSS/E can be executed in three different ways, in this project Python programing was used to simulate the different scenarios described later in chapter 2.3.3 . A description over how a contingency analysis can be executed in PSS/E together with the creation of important files needed for the process can be seen in Appendix S. The appendix also describes in more detail the different ways to automat in PSS/E.

2.3.2

Building the Model

There were no existing models over the Moldovan electrical power systems that could be used in the project. A model was created with the help of the Technical University of Moldova (TUM), situated in Chisinau, specific for this project. TUM provided an equivalent circuit over the Moldovan electrical power system. The equivalent circuit describes a 330 kV electrical power system, partially seen as the green line in Appendix A, stretching from big cities in Moldova such as Chisinau, Baltsi and Tiraspol in Transnistria, going in to Ukraine and finally back to Moldova again completing a full circle. The equivalent circuit can also be seen as the green part in Figure 2.16. The model is a 7 bus system, out of which 3 busses are situated in Ukraine, it includes 5 branches, 3 generators and 5 loads divided between the two areas; Moldova and Ukraine. The complete model along with its specified data, Table D-1 to Table D-5, can be seen in Appendix D. Detailed data of the southern parts of Moldovan electrical power system was also provided, the data was provided in the form of schematics over the grid also stating length and type of the transmission lines. The properties of the specific lines are given in Table E-1. With this given data the initial model was extended by 17 busses located in the southern region of Moldova. The line diagram over the complete equivalent model is shown in Figure 2.16, detailed data over the model can be seen in Appendix F.

24

Load Generator Three winding transformer Switched shunt 400 kV Line 330 kV Line 110 kV Line Active Power Flow Reactive Power Flow Line Offline

Figure 2.16 One line diagram over the PSS/E model

The extended part is the main focus of the report and describes mainly a 110 kV system with the only exception being one 400 kV line, the blue and yellow part in Figure 2.16. The system is connected to the initial equivalent circuit, green in the model, at three locations. The different voltage levels also introduces 4 three winding transformers to the system. Not all busses and thus also not all branches are modelled but all power flow paths in the southern regions 110 kV system are accounted for. All values in the model are expressed in per-unit values, the voltage values uses respective base voltage value as base value i.e. 110 kV, 330 kV and 400 kV. The impedance values are expressed with the base impedance values given for each voltage levels see Table E-3 in Appendix E. The 400 kV line is also long enough so the admittance needs to be regarded, the relation between base impedance and base admittance can be seen in Equation 2.15. [26]

25

2.3.2.1

Busses

The model consists of 24 busses, the initial 7 have 330 kV as their base voltage, 11 busses are connected within the 110 kV grid and 2 busses are situated on the 400 kV line between Vulcanesti and MGRAS, in Transnistria. There are also 4 busses in the 35 kV system, each connected to a three winding transformer, these busses have no meaning except for modelling the transformer i.e. they have no load or generation connected to them and can thus be seen as a part of the three winding transformer not contributing to any system losses by themselves. The swing bus is the MGRAS bus, situated in Transnistria and is chosen as such because of the high electrical energy imports from Transnistria. It is also an appropriate swing bus because of the excessive generation capacity of MGRAS. The swing bus input voltage is increased a bit from standard 1 p.u. to 1,0455 to increase the system overall voltages. Also the two generators in Ukraine has an increased voltage to 1,0455 for the same reason.

2.3.2.2

Branches

All branches in the 110 kV system are relatively short, the longest is still less than 50 km and as described in section 2.1.6.2 the admittance is thus neglected. The 400 kV line is of medium length type and thus also needs to take into consideration the admittance, this value can be located in Table F-2, under the heading charging, in Appendix F There is a branch between Tarecklia and Ciadyr that is marked in the model but it is not in use as can be seen in Figure F-1 and Table F-2. The line is an existing one but for reasons unknown to this project is not in use at the moment. The extended southern system do not account for all transmission lines but all power flows paths are accounted for, thus only transmission lines connected in series are removed. The impedance in these lines has been accounted for by the method of Equation 2.19. Line data can be seen in Appendix EThe total impedance values for the lines are given in Table E-2 and recalculated using Table E-3 and Equation 2.14, the resulting impedance values can be seen in Table E-4. The used rating for the equivalent lines is the thermal level, rate A in PSS/E, and the rating for each equivalent line is the rating of the connected lines with the lowest individual rating

2.3.2.3

Shunt Elements

There are two switched shunts connected to the grid, these do not operate on a daily basis, were one is only used during the night, and were thus neglected. This because the fact that the model simulates maximum load flows and shunt compensation should only be included if it is connected for use whenever needed which not is the case here. [26]

2.3.2.4

Transformers

The four transformers connected to the system are tap transformers and are simulated to operate as voltage control step transformers with a 15 step interval within plus minus 10 % of base voltage. At each transformer position there are two three winding transformers, due to constraints in the free university edition of PSS/E the model is built up by one transformer at each transformer point. Equivalent values representing two transformers in one were provided by TUM [26] and the ratings were multiplied by two due to the doubled capacity; the transformers at each point are identical.

26

Three winding transformers in PSS/E are modelled as three two winding transformer connected together in a star bus, this star bus is not visible by the user. The nominal voltage specified for each winding is the base voltage for respective bus each winding is connected to. The nominal voltages for each winding is by default zero and is interpreted by PSS/E as the base voltage for the bus to which the transformer is connected [27]. The tap transformers operate with voltage control for the busses in the models extended system i.e. not for busses in the 330 kV equivalent system provided by TUM.

2.3.2.5

Loads and Generation

Loads and generation in the model are based on maximum load data for 2011 [26], they can be seen allocated to important busses for the model in the sketch in Figure 2.17. Baltsi is the northern metropolitan in Moldova, both in the aspect population and electrical network. In the model all loads in northern Moldova are allocated to Baltsi. The third CHP, CHP 3, in Moldova is located within Baltsi and constitute together with a small HPP, located close to Baltsi at the border to Romania, the generation connected to Baltsi in the model. Moldova has a small export of energy to Romania made possible by back to back converters. The export is included in the load located at Chisinau. The generation in Chisinau consists of CHP1 and CHP 2. Straseni is a big electrical hub located just north of Chisinau in the centre of Moldova, as can be seen in Figure A-1 in Appendix A. All loads in central Moldova are allocated to Straseni. To the MGRAS bus is apart from the huge gas fired electrical complex located in Transnistria also the HPP on the river Nistru allocated. The loads in eastern and southeaster Moldova are allocated to the MGRAS in the model. The generation and export/import to Ukraine can be seen as divided in two. To the south there is an export of electricity to the Odessa region in Ukraine, the Ubolgr bus in the model, see Figure F-1 in Appendix F. To the north the Ukrainian busses connected to the 330 kV system is represented.

27

Figure 2.17 Load and generation in Moldova, rectangles represent generation and circles loads

There are some differences between stated values and values in the model as can be seen in Table 2.1 and Table 2.2. The difference is due in order minimize the difference between power flows in this model and more complex models used at TUM.
Table 2.1 Load values for the active generation and consumption

Values Generation (MW) Load (MW)

Baltsi 34 170

Straseni 0 87

Chisinau 231 382

MGRAS 703 129

Ukraine 425 438

Table 2.2 Model load values for the active generation and consumption

Model Values Generation (MW) Load (MW)

Baltsi 34 171

Straseni 0 87

Chisinau 234 391

MGRAS 703 220

Ukraine 428 444

The reactive power compensation for all generators in the system has a maximum production of reactive power, the maximum is calculated with the power factor equal to 0,8 using Equation 2.5 and Equation 2.6. The biggest source of generation in Ukraine comes from UDSGEC81, which is a HPP. This source gives a lot of reactive power compensation possibilities; positive and negative. The second Ukrainian generator, ULDTEC81, takes into account the balancing capacity of Ukraine and has possibilities to compensate enough reactive power necessary to keep its fixed voltage point.

28

Five generators were added to the southern region in the model each one representing a connection point for a wind power plant. The exact locations are good from a wind potential perspective as well as from a grid stability perspective [26]. The locations are Besarabeasca, Zarnesti, Leovo, Ciadyr and Cimislia and can be seen marked on the wind potential map in Figure B-1 in Appendix A.

2.3.3

Scenarios

A contingency analysis is first performed on the model as it is, symbolizing the Moldovan electrical system as it looks today with a maximum load scenario. This base case scenario is later used for comparison to analyse changes in the system when installing wind power. Two scenarios were developed to examine the wind power potential in the southern region of the Moldovan electrical system. The scenarios were executed with the help of different Python scripts making it possible to automate some processes. One part of the Python script used to automate the contingency analysis in the base case and the scenarios was re-used in all scenarios, se the script in Appendix G. The contingency analysis takes into account two parameters as limiting factors: Transmission line capacities Voltage level grid codes within 10 % of base voltage

The generation at each location is purely active i.e. the reactive power is limited to operate only at 0 MW. As stated under 2.1.6.1 generator busses are designed to keep voltage levels at a specific level, normally at 1 p.u. Designing the generators to have 0 MW output or input of reactive power makes the generator bus operate as a load bus with negative active power output and with varying voltages. The two scenarios are also tested where the generators have the possibility to consume or produce reactive power, thus operating as a true generator bus. The reactive power consumption or production occurs to keep the voltage levels at 1 p.u. making generator acting towards stabilizing the system. There is a natural limit for what is possible to install given by the lines connected to each point of connection. As shown in the figure at Appendix Fone can see that each installation point has exactly two lines connected to it. This means that, with the contingency analysis, the generators can never have a higher installed power than the lowest transfer capacity of any of the two transmission lines connected to the bus i.e. after regards are taken to the loads connected to each bus and the losses in the lines. This gives a definite maximum for the installed power for each of the five sites. A description of each scenario follows below.

2.3.3.1

Scenario I

The five points of installation i.e. Besarabeasca, Zarnesti, Leovo, Ciadyr and Cimislia, are tested separately. Installation is increased using a specific Python script for scenario I, see Appendix H, it increases the generation values with one MW at a time. In between each increase the script calls upon the main script to perform the contingency analysis. A separate text file is created containing all values which did not lead to violations in the contingency analysis. The value then needs to be read manually. The script operates according to Figure 2.18 where the generation at generator G is increased as long as no violation is reached in the contingency analysis.

29

Grid

+ 1 MW

No violation

N-1
Violation
Stop Simulation

Figure 2.18 The algorithm for the contingency analysis where generator G is increased

2.3.3.2

Scenario II

The second scenario intends to find the total maximum production possible in the southern region of Moldova. The situation is an optimization problem where the different sites generation is the variable parameters and line capacities and voltage levels are limiting factors. Finding the maximum total potential of generation is highly difficult only testing manually; that is to which level of generation the different generators should operate with in order to find a maximum total generation. There are too many parameters to easily optimize this problem; the level of unpredictability is too high. To optimize this problem a Monte Carlo simulation was used. The concept of the Monte Carlo simulation is working with random numbers, in this case using the built in random generator of Python. A new script was written to give each generator a random number from 0 to maximum value, given by line capacities, the results are then saved in text files for further processing in Excel. The algorithm is basically the same as in Figure 2.18 if a random generator replaces the plus 1 MW and working with all five generators at the same time. The script can be seen in Appendix I To find a maximum value a high amount of iterations needs to be made, the script is run with 100000 iterations. The solution1 is then tested and if increase is possible a new simulation is made with 5 MW of given maximum value. The solution provides a maximum; it cannot be proved to be the absolute maximum. The maximum is tested by increasing each generator one by one by one MW separately.

2.3.4

Economy

The payback method is used to determine the payback time for wind power plant installation in Moldova. This was done by plotting the capital value in relation to time and determining at what year the capital value reached the breakeven point. The capital value is determined with Equation 2.29. Assumptions made are as follows. The investment cost for a wind power plant used in this report is 1,1 million /MW installed capacity, this number also include costs for maintenance during a lifespan of a wind power plant. This cost can differ around 1,0 to 1,5 million /MW depending on the location for the wind power plant, type of wind power plant, reactive power compensation 30

devices, etc. [28]. A life time for a wind power plant is ca. 20 years. Two different capacity factors, and were used, this because the capacity factor of a wind power plant differs from location to location and year. The different capacity factors give an interval of the payback time instead of one definite value. In this report three different discount rates of 6, 8 and 10 % were used in the analysis. The electricity price used was 0,11 /kWh [29] with the sensitivity analysis of 20 %. The payback time is also compared between including and excluding income from CERs. The cost for CER:s which was used in the calculations was 4 /tonne CO2 [30].

31

Chapter 3

Results

The results from the different scenarios are described in this chapter. The Base case, Scenario I and Scenario II are described in detail. After follows the reduced electrical imports possible from the results in Scenario I and Scenario II. The chapter ends with the economic results.

3.1

Base Case

Running a contingency with the Base Case scenario does not give any violations in the systems i.e. the voltage levels are kept within voltage limits and the lines supply sufficient capacity to transfer the power. One can also note that the lines are not used close to rated values i.e. there is a lot of potential for new generation in the system, see Appendix Jfor a loading table report for the contingency which show the usage of lines in comparison to capacity and voltage reports for each bus at all contingencies and the line diagram in Appendix Kwhich also show how much each line is loaded. Table J-1 in Appendix J shows the highest and lowest values for the loading report for the base case. It shows that the highest voltage is at the Vulcanesti bus, throughout the entire contingency analysis. For low voltages with a contingency the Ciadyr bus and the Comrat bus are dominating; where they represent the lowest voltage in the system. The Zarnesti and Cimislia busses have the lowest voltages at one contingency each. The overall lowest voltage can be found at the Ciadyr bus with 0,933 p.u. when the line between Ciadyr and Vulcanesti is tripped. A histogram is created showing the dispersion for the voltage levels throughout the contingency analysis; it can be seen in Figure 3.1. All voltage levels at all busses in the focus area, the 110 kV system, are sampled and then stored in the bins making up the frequency in the histogram. The histogram shows that the majority of voltage levels lie close to one p.u.
45 40 35 Frequency 30

Base Case

25
20 15 10 5 0 0,93 0,94 0,95 0,96 0,97 0,98 0,99 Voltage [per unit] 1 1,01 1,02 1,03

Figure 3.1 The dispersion of voltage levels for the base case contingency analysis

32

3.2

Scenario I

The results from scenario I where the generation at each location is increased separately are shown in Table 3.1.
Table 3.1 Maximum generation before violation in the contingency report

Maximum Generation [MW]

Besarabeasca Zarnesti Leovo Ciadyr Cimislia 60 25 30 84 102

If generation is increased by 1 MW at each location the contingency analysis results in violations. These violations can be seen in the contingency report in Appendix L. The report shows that for Besarabeasca, Zarnesti, Leovo the limiting factor is high voltage levels and for Ciadyr the limiting factor is low voltage levels. For Cimislia the limiting factor is the capacity on the transmission lines. The violations are spread out; no contingency of any single line causes violations for more than one location and no contingency causes the same violation. Comparing the generated values with the maximum generation possible before the line capacity is reached, Table 3.2, we get the extra generation potential in Table 3.3 i.e. if voltage faults were to be compensated for. The maximum generation at each point due to capacities of the transmission lines is shown in Table 3.2.
Table 3.2 Maximum values regarding only line capacities

Values in MW

Besarabeasca Zarnesti 84

Leovo 87 83

Ciadyr 96

Cimislia 102

If no regard is taken to the voltage limits i.e. when the only limiting factor is the capacity of the transmission lines, the extended generation potential is increased and can be seen in the table below.
Table 3.3 Extended generation potential until line capacity is reached

Besarabeasca Generation potential [MW] 24

Zarnesti 62

Leovo 53

Ciadyr 12

Cimislia 0

3.2.1

Scenario I, With Reactive Power Compensation

For the scenario using one generator at the time with reactive power compensation gives us results shown in Table 3.4.
Table 3.4 Possible generation capacity with reactive power compensation

New Generation [MW] Produced Reactive Power [MVAr] Increased Generation [MW]

Besarabeasca Zarnesti Leovo Ciadyr Cimislia 74 78 74 91 98 -19,7 -19,3 -22,8 -16,8 -19,6 14 53 44 7 -3

33

When generation, as in scenario I, is increased by 1 MW the resulting overload report can be seen in Appendix M. According to the report the only limiting factor for further generation is the line capacity; faults occur only at lines directly connected to the busses that is generating and only when the other line directly connected to the bus is tripped. One exception can be seen in Besarabeasca where only the tripping of the line going to Chisinau results in breach of capacity for the other line connected to Besarabeasca. The extra generation does not reach values given by Table 3.4 because the reactive power produced also uses line capacity.

3.3

Scenario II

The first iteration process with 100000 iteration can be seen visualized in Appendix R, it shows a line diagram with all outcomes that did not reach violation, Figure R-2 in the appendix shows a histogram over the outcome for the simulation. The first Iteration method was followed by an iteration method with an interval close to values given for maximum generation in the first step. The second iteration was then followed by a 5 MW iteration, se Figure R-3, giving the results shown in Table 3.5.
Table 3.5 Maximum generation for each location giving maximum total generation for the region

Besarabeasca Zarnesti Leovo Ciadyr Cimislia Maximum Generation [MW] 29 14 31 84 102 Total Maximum Generation [MW] 260

An increase of 1 MW for each generator separately results in voltage violations for all points except for Cimislia, where the capacity once again is the limiting factor. The violations can be seen in Appendix Lwhere voltage violations occur with the contingency analysis when lines represented by single 7 and 11 are removed; single 7 is the line between Zarnesti and Vulcanesti and single 11 is the line between Comrat and Cimislia. In total there are violations at five occasions caused by high voltage, out of these five; one is at the Zarnesti bus, three at the Ciadyr bus and one at the Besarabeasca bus. A histogram showing the dispersion for the voltage levels throughout the contingency and can be seen in Figure 3.2.The histogram shows that voltage levels, compared to the base case as seen in histogram in Figure 3.1, has increased and several voltage levels are almost as high as 1,1 p.u. which is the maximum voltage limit according to grid codes.
40 35 30 Frequency 25 20 15 10 5 0 0,93 0,94 0,95 0,96 0,97 0,98 0,99 1 1,01 1,02 1,03 1,04 1,05 1,06 1,07 1,08 1,09 1,1 1,11 Voltage [per unit]
Figure 3.2 A histogram of the dispersion of voltage levels with a contingency analysis

Scenario II

34

3.3.1

Scenario II, With Reactive Power Compensation

To derive the results using generator busses with variable reactive power output the iterations from earlier have to be repeated. Due to the Monte Carlo method the values derived cannot be used for direct comparison but rather a general view that there is a high increase of the total production. Histograms showing the two different cases in scenario II can be seen in Appendix R
Table 3.6 Maximum generation for each location giving maximum total generation for the region

Maximum Generation [MW] Produced Reactive Power [MVAr] Increased Generation [MW] Increased Total Generation [MW]

Besarabeasca Zarnesti Leovo Ciadyr Cimislia 56 68 68 91 72 -8,3 -9,7 -14,7 -6,1 -6,5 27 54 37 7 -30 95

The overload reports in Appendix O for the contingency analysis where each generators generation is increased by one MW separately shows that the voltage values is a problem only at one location and only when one line is tripped. The voltage levels sink below grid code values for the Tarecklia bus when the line between Chisinau and Cimislia is tripped. This occur no matter which generators generation is increased by 1 MW. The bus voltage levels through a contingency analysis are shown below.

Scenario II - Reactiv Power Compensation


100 80 Frequency 60 40

20
0 0,9 0,91 0,92 0,93 0,94 0,95 0,96 0,97 0,98 0,99 1 1,01 1,02 1,03 1,04 1,05 1,06 1,07 1,08 1,09 1,1 1,11 Voltage [per unit]
Figure 3.3 A histogram of the dispersion of voltages levels with a contingency analysis

Comparing the results with Figure 3.1 and Figure 3.2 one can see a decrease in voltage levels with some values lying close to 0,9 which is the lowest value allowed according to grid codes. Overall voltage levels are close to 1 p.u. showing a stable system. The line capacity is also a limiting factor when the Ciadyr generation is increased; line capacity is surpassed on the line between Ciadyr and Vulcanesti as well as for the line between Comrat and Ciadyr. As can be seen in Appendix Kthe loading of the lines has increased by much from the base case.

35

1.1

Reduction of Imported Electric Energy

The reduction of electric energy depends on the capability factor of the wind power park. Reduction will be reduced from the imported electrical energy in Moldova as it was in 2010 i.e. 3038 GWh which stood for 74 % of the total consumed electrical energy. The reduced imports are not equal to the generated power from the wind power plants but rather the reduced production from the swing buss in MGRAS.

3.3.2

Scenario I

The first scenario gives two different reduction possibilities; one with the generators producing a net zero reactive power contribution, Table 3.7, and one where the generators can compensate with reactive power, Table 3.8.
Table 3.7 Imported electrical energy reduction due to wind power installations

Installed Power [MW]: Reduced Power at MGRAS [MW] Capability factor 0,1 Reduced Production at MGRAS [GWh] Reduced Electrical Imports [%] Capability factor 0,3 Reduced Production at MGRAS [GWh] Reduced Electrical Imports [%]

Besarabeasca Zarnesti Leovo Ciadyr Cimislia 60 25 30 84 102 57 25 30 77 95 50 1,6 57 4,9 22 0,7 25 2,2 26 0,9 30 2,6 67 2,2 77 6,6 83 2,7 95 8,2

Without the possibility to produce or consume reactive power the reduced electrical energy imports vary depending on location between 1 to 8 % of total imported electrical energy. The reduction is highly dependent on the specific location of installation where installations in Cimislia give the highest reduction.
Table 3.8 Imported electrical energy reduction with reactive power compensation

Installed Power [MW]: Reduced Power at MGRAS [MW] Capability factor 0,1 Reduced Production at MGRAS [GWh] Reduced Electrical Imports [%] Capability factor 0,3 Reduced Production at MGRAS [GWh] Reduced Electrical Imports [%]

Besarabeasca Zarnesti Leovo Ciadyr Cimislia 74 78 74 91 98 66 67 55 79 90 58 1,9 173 5,7 59 1,9 176 5,8 48 1,6 144 4,7 69 2,3 207 6,8 79 2,6 236 7,8

In the case where the generators are able to consume or produce reactive power the reductions increase to between 2 to 8 % of total imported electrical energy. The location with reactive power compensation the location does not matter as much as without reactive power compensation.

36

3.3.3

Scenario II

Scenario II gives as scenario I two different electrical energy reduction possibilities both seen in Table 3.9.
Table 3.9 Imported electrical energy reduction due to wind power installations

All generators reactive compensation Installed Power [MW] Reduced Power at MGRAS [MW] Capability factor 0,1 Produced Electricity at MGRAS [GWh] Reduced Electrical Imports [%] Capability factor 0,3 Produced Electricity [GWh] Reduced Electrical Imports [%]

without All Generators with reactive power power compensation 260 234 204 6,7 613 20,2 355 293 256 8,4 768 25,3

The electrical reduction without voltage production or consumption can reduce the electrical energy imports for Moldova by between 7 to 20 % depending on the capability factor of the wind power park. With the possibility to produce or consume reactive power this value increases to between 8 to 25 %.

3.4

Economy

This section contains an economic analysis of the economic potential for building wind power plants in Moldova. The payback time is determined for two different capability factors and is compared with three different prices of electricity and three different discount rates. The results are presented below. EP stands for electricity price.

Payback time, capability factor = 0,3


2000000 1500000 1000000 Euro 500000 EP=0,09/kWh, r=6% EP=0,09/kWh, r=8% EP=0,09/kWh, r=10% EP=0,11/kWh, r=6% EP=0,11/kWh, r=8% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 EP=0,11/kWh, r=10% EP=0,13/kWh, r=6% EP=0,13/kWh, r=8% Years EP=0,13/kWh, r=10%

0
-500000 -1000000 -1500000

Figure 3.4 Payback time with a capability factor of 0,3

37

In Figure 3.4 the payback time when the wind power plant has a capability factor of 0,3 is shown. The payback time varies from ca. 3 to 7 years depending on the electricity price and interest. The graph also shows that the price of electricity has bigger impact on the payback time than the interest.

Payback time, capability factor = 0,1


800000 600000 400000 200000 0 EP=0,09/kWh, r=6% EP=0,09/kWh, r=8% EP=0,09/kWh, r=10% EP=0,11/kWh, r=6% EP=0,11/kWh, r=8% EP=0,11/kWh, r=10% EP=0,13/kWh, r=6% EP=0,13/kWh, r=8% Years EP=0,13/kWh, r=10%

Euro

-200000 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 -400000 -600000

-800000
-1000000 -1200000

Figure 3.5 Payback time with a capability factor of 0,1

In Figure 3.5 the payback time when the wind power plant has a capability factor of 0,1 is shown. The payback time varies from 14 years to never. In this case there is no significant difference on who has the biggest impact on the payback time. However with high electricity price the investment reaches the breakeven point with all the three different interests while with low electricity price only reaches the breakeven point in one case. The lifespan of a wind power plant is usually around twenty years and in this case only three scenarios pays back before twenty years.

Paybacktime including CER, capability factor = 0,3


2000000 1500000 1000000 Euro 500000 0 -500000 -1000000 -1500000 Years 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 EP=0,09/kWh, r=6% EP=0,09/kWh, r=8% EP=0,09/kWh, r=10% EP=0,11/kWh, r=6% EP=0,11/kWh, r=8% EP=0,11/kWh, r=10% EP=0,13/kWh, r=6% EP=0,13/kWh, r=8% EP=0,13/kWh, r=10%

Figure 3.6 Payback time including CER:s with a capability factor of 0,3

38

In Figure 3.6 the payback time when the wind power plant has a capability factor of 0,3 and including income from CERs is shown. In this graph the payback time is reduced from 3 to 7 years to 3 to 6 years. Its also shown that the electricity price has bigger impact on the payback time than the interest.

Paybacktime including CER, capability factor = 0,1


800000 600000 400000 200000 0 Euro -200000 0 2 4 6 8 10121416182022242628303234363840 -400000 EP=0,09/kWh, r=6% EP=0,09/kWh, r=8% EP=0,09/kWh, r=10% EP=0,11/kWh, r=6% EP=0,11/kWh, r=8% EP=0,11/kWh, r=10% EP=0,13/kWh, r=6% EP=0,13/kWh, r=8% Years EP=0,13/kWh, r=10%

-600000
-800000 -1000000 -1200000

Figure 3.7 Payback time including CER:s with a capability factor of 0,1

In Figure 3.7 the payback time when the wind power plant has a capability factor of 0,3 and including income from CERs is shown. In this graph the payback time is reduced from 14 years to never to 13 years to never. Still there is no significant difference on which parameter that has the biggest impact on the payback time.

39

Chapter 4

Discussion

Throughout the project many assumptions have been made, this affects the validity of the model. The results derived in this project have the model as base i.e. the results are true for this model but before the model has been verified with other models the results cannot be seen as true for the Moldovan electrical system. Because the model has been designed with real data over the Moldovan electrical system the results can give us a good indication of what possibilities and problems exists with wind power installations in the southern region of Moldova.

4.1

Scenarios

All results are based on the model created in the project and all results thus have the same accuracy as data used to construct the model. The model does not have exact data and is much generalized with many parts as equivalents. Loads and generation are not exact and sometimes allocated to locations in the model far from actual locations. This means that the results do not have exact relevance but merely gives the possibilities for a general overview over possibilities regarding new installations in the southern region in Moldova. The scenarios consider installations of power for one specific location or at all locations at once. Some sites could be optimized to have more power but this is not investigated in the project. The scenarios are based on the model with maximum load flows and contingencies on the 110 kV lines only, it does thus not consider the low load scenario or changes that might occur with loads and generators within the system. These changes are likely to affect the maximum values possible to install. All Scenarios are designed to stay within 10 % of base voltage. Using 10 % of base voltage levels as limiting factors might seem high and it is true that for normal operations the grid code for the Moldovan electrical system states that the voltage levels should lie within 5 % of base voltage levels, but extreme cases such as for a contingency where lines are tripped is here seen as extreme scenarios where 10 % of base voltage levels are used [26].

4.1.1

Scenario I

To upgrade the generation capacity for Besarabeasca one would have to build new transmission lines to upgrade the capacity, for the other locations cheaper solution could be found with the installation of shunt elements to consume reactive power in order to decrease the voltage levels in the busses. It would make most sense to upgrade the grid with such installations where most potential exists before line capacity is reached. According to Table 3.3 the locations of Zarnesti and Leovo would be best suited for such installations, regarding voltage stability. The results in Table 3.4 shows that generation potential is highly increased at some busses when the generators are given the potential to produce or consume reactive power. The results are built on the fact that the voltage levels are kept at 1 p.u, this proves to be effective in increasing generation potential at some busses and also makes the specific bus a strong point regarding voltage in the region. For Besarabeasca the fact that the voltage is kept at 1 p.u. result in decreasing the generation capacity; the apparent power increases even though the active power decreases i.e. the Besarabeasca bus becomes very stable out of a voltage but on the other hand reduces possible active power output.

40

4.1.2

Scenario II

The introduction of generation and the effect it has on voltage and capacity levels can be seen as stochastic but is not, it just depends on many factors that make it very difficult to predict what generation would be optimal at each location to generate a total maximum production for the region. To try to introduce generation at all five locations at the same time raises many questions about reliability. Our method of finding a maximum generation cannot be proven to give the absolute maximum, but a value close to maximum. The result does thus only give a guiding value of how much new generation that would be possible in the southern region of Moldova. It also shows quite clear that some sites are more sensible for change and would thus suit better out of a grid upgrade perspective. Cimislia is already limited by the capacities of the lines connected to the bus; upgrades to increase generation in Cimislia would be dependent on constructing new transmission lines. Ciadyr, Zarnesti and Besarabeasca are the weakest points in the grid according to voltage limits where Ciadyr would not benefit much from grid upgrades in form of voltage compensators being very close to its maximum value. Ciadyr and Zarnesti are far from maximum generation and would thus benefit most from reactive power compensation. The results from looking at where violations are given by increasing each generators generation with one MW shows that Zarnesti Besarabeasca and Ciadyr are the weakest point according to high voltage violations where upgrades are likely to give a high value of further generation possibilities. Looking at the histograms in Figure 3.1 and Figure 3.2 we can quite clearly see that the general voltage levels are increased and several busses in Scenario II are very close to the maximum value. This shows that if reactive power compensation would be used, it would support the system by consuming reactive power and thus decreasing the voltage levels. This is proven to be a correct assumption when generators can vary in reactive power because maximum generation is increased from 260 MW to 355 MW. This is good for wind power installations because wind generators usually consume reactive power and in this case some of the reactive power can be fed from the grid. In this case where generators can produce or consume reactive power Tarecklia is clearly the limiting factor for further installation of wind power. This due to low voltage levels, but line capacities are likely to become a big problem if generation were to be increased further, meaning that the whole 110 kV system would be in need of upgrades to increase line capacitys. Looking at the histogram in Figure 3.3 most voltage levels lay close to 1 p.u. i.e. the system is relatively stable, but some voltage levels are very low. The problem with low voltage levels lie at the Tarecklia bus and even though reactive power compensation would not increase possible wind power installations by much it would increase the stability of the system. Alternatively constructing new lines connecting the wind plants directly to the 330 kV system that is likely to have a higher capacity for new generation, this would of course bring forth new questions of economic aspects in constructing long new lines.

41

4.1.3

Economy

Moldovas has a difficult economic situation, being one of the poorest countries in Europe with inflation rates that are very high. We believe that the most likely scenario is that big wind power plants would not be constructed without investors from other countries; here the CDM projects could play a major roll. The economical calculations made in this project can only be seen as vague approximation without secure data. We can see in the economical results that the payback time for investments vary by much, strongly influenced by the capability factor and discount rates. The curves in the economic analysis are only accurate until the brake-even point. With Moldovas economic situation the inflation is high; this tends to increase the discount rates if a loan for the investment is taken within the country. Generally concerning wind power a capability factor as low as 10 % is not realistic and payback times for the investment will become extremely long if even possible making investments unrealistic; with such a low capability factor a new location should be found examined. For wind turbine investments the payback time should not exceed 20 years which is the general life expectancy of a wind turbine, it should rather be some years below 20 to make the investment profitable. Setting the limit to 15 years all scenarios are possible with capability factor of 0,3 but with the capability factor of 0,1 only one scenario would be possible i.e. with high electricity price and low discount rates at 6 %. Predictions of a future electricity price tend to lean towards higher electricity prices rather than lower prices thus making investment of wind power plants more profitable. Incentives for renewable energy projects such as CDM are helpful for wind power investments but in our scenarios it does not have as strong influence as the capability factor, discount rates and the electricity price.

42

Chapter 5

Conclusion

The conclusions drawn by this report are based on the model constructed in the report where wind power installations are made in the southern region of Moldova where wind conditions are satisfying. The Moldovan electrical system in the southern region is constructed with high amounts of unused transmission line capacity, giving the southern region in Moldova a high potential for wind power installations. With wind power installations at only one location the report conclude that Cimislia has the highest potential for wind power installations with 102 MW. This would reduce the electrical energy imports by 8 %. With wind power installations at all sites generation can reach 260 MW of installed power if the wind power plant does not produce or consume reactive power. If the plants are able to consume reactive power a further 95 MW can be installed. The electrical energy imports can be highly reduced by wind power installation at busses; Besarabeasca, Zarnesti, Leovo, Ciadyr, Cimislia at the same time. Total potential electrical energy can be reduced by as much 8 % to 25 % depending on the capability factor of the wind power plants. The economic results suggest that payback periods for wind power installations in Moldova stretches from 3 years to never reaching the breakeven point. Further studies are necessary.

43

Chapter 6

Future Work

The Model should be extended to regard a low flow scenario as well as contingency analysis where generators, loads and transformers are tripped. Wind potential, wind data should be sampled over the period, at specified locations, of at least one year at planned hub height of the wind. Further investigations of suggested wind power plant locations from environmental aspects as well as NiMBY (Not in My Back Yard) aspects. More specific aspects for the needed investments; such as site-specific costs, inflation, electricity price, CER:s and future renewable energy incentives. Aspects regarding balancing the wind power output within Moldova should be considered The project does not consider power quality and the project should be extended to include such considerations.

44

Bibliography
[1] Borlnge Energi, Borlnge Energi http://insidan.borlange-energi.se/311.php. [2] A. Ronny, Interviewee, [Interview]. 06 09 2011. municipality of Borlnge, Chisinau, [3] The www.borlange.se/templates/BlgPage____25600.aspx. [4] Nationalencyklopedin, Moldavien, 2008. [Online]. Institutet, Landguiden, 2007. [Online]. Available: [5] Utrikespolitiska http://www.landguiden.se/Statistik/Naturtillgangar-Energi?id=442#countries=POL,MDA. [6] Nationalencyklopedin, Transnistrien, 2008. [Online]. [7] G. Zachmann and A. Oprunenco, German Economic Team in Moldova, 2010. [Online]. Available: http://www.getmoldova.de/download/policypapers/2010/GET%20Moldova_PP%2001%202010_en.pdf. Miner, Super Grids, 2011. [8] M. http://www.neuralenergy.info/2009/06/super-grids.html. [Online]. Available: [Online]. Available: fr miljns skull, [Online]. Available:

[9] National Participating Institution / Climate Change office under the Ministry of Enviroment, Financing Energy Efficiency Investments for Climate change Mitigation, 2009. [10 The National Agency for Energy Regulation (ANRE), The National Agency for Energy Regulation, ] 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.anre.md/anre/index.php?vers=3. [11 National Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Moldova, Electricity balance in the national (million kilowatt-hours), 2010. [Online]. Available: ] economy http://www.statistica.md/category.php?l=en&idc=128&. [12 L. Belinschi, Electricity Transmission and State of Regulation in the Republic of Moldova, 2010. Available: ] [Online]. http://www.narucpartnerships.org/Documents/3.%20Moldova%20presentation_Eng.pdf. [13 United States Energy Association, Regional Model Construction Report, 2007. ] [14 P. Todos, I. Sobor, D. Ungureanu, A. Chiciuc and M. Plesca, Renewable Energy - A Feasibility ] Study, Chisinau, 2002. [15 Black & Veatch, Moldova - Country Profile, European Bank of Reconstruction and 2010. [Online]. Available: http://ws2] Development,

45

23.myloadspring.com/sites/renew/countries/moldova/profile.aspx#Wind. [16 Ministry of Environment and Natural Resurces, Moldova, Second National Communication of ] the Republic of Moldova under the United Nations Framework, 2009. [Online]. Available: http://www.clima.md/doc.php?l=en&idc=81&id=458. [17 J. D. Glover, M. S. Sarma and T. J. Overbye, Power System Analysis and Design, Fifth Edition, SI ] ed., Printed in the United States of America: Global Engineering, 2011. [18 A. P. R. Fetea, Reactive Power: A strange concept?, University of Cape Town; Department of ] Electrical Engineering. [19 L. v. d. S. Pieter Schavemaker, electrical power system essentials, WILEY, 2009. ] [20 J. Machowski, J. W. Bialek and J. R. Bumby, POWER SYSTEM DYNAMICS, Stability and Control, ] Second Edition ed., Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2008. [21 M. Bergkvist, Interviewee, Univ.lekt.. [Interview]. 2012. ] [22 PowerWorld Corporation, Contingency Analysis, 2008. [Online]. ] http://www.powerworld.com/WebTraining/I10ContingencyAnalysis.pdf. [23 P. Scott R. Dahman, N-1-1 Contingency Analysis using PowerWorld Simulator, 2010. ] [24 J. Olsson and P. Skrvad, Fretagsekonomi 100 volym 14, 2008. ] [25 R. Martens, "AGILEBLOG," 2009. [Online]. Available: ] http://www.rallydev.com/agileblog/2009/02/how-does-agile-deliver-time-to-market-savings-of50/. [26 V. Mr. Gropa, Interviewee, PhD Student at TUM. [Interview]. 2011. ] [27 C. Grande-Moran, Modeling of Three-winding Voltage Regulating Transformers for Posiive ] Sequence Load Flow Analysis in PSS/E, Siemens PTI eNewsletter, no. 106, 2010. [28 L. Toll, Interviewee, Project Developer at E.ON Climate & Renewables. [Interview]. 2012. ] [29 M. Johansson, Master of Science Thesis - Potential for Biogas at Wineries in Moldova, ] Chalmers University of Technology, 2012. [30 ICE - Global markets in clear view, Emissions, IntercontinentalExchange, 2012. [Online]. 46 Available:

Available: https://www.theice.com/productguide/ProductGroupHierarchy.shtml?groupDetail=&group.gro upId=19.

[31 ANRE - National Agency for Energy Regulation, Sistema Energtico de la Repblica de ] Moldavia. [32 Wind Energy Division at Ris DTU, WAsP - the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program, ] 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.wasp.dk/. [33 Siemens, GUI Users Guide, Siemens Energy Inc. Siemens Power Technologies International, ] 2010. [34 J. M. Cafarella, "SHAW PTI SOFTWARE - TAKING PSS/E TO THE NEXT LEVEL," Power Technology, ] no. Newsletter Issue 95, 2004. [35 Python Software Foundation, ] http://python.org/about/. "About Python," 2011. [Online]. Available:

[36 CGS, Resource for Automating PSSE with Python, Clear Grid Solutions, 2011. [Online]. ] Available: http://cleargridsolutions.com/developer.html. [37 European Bank of Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), www.ebrdrenewables.com, 2009. Available: ] [Online]. http://www.ebrdrenewables.com/sites/renew/countries/Moldova/default.aspx#projects. [38 Uppsala Universitet, Lecture 7 - Synchronous Generators for Hydropower Application, Uppsala, ] 2010.

47

Appendix A

Map of the Moldovan electrical system

Figure A-1 Map over the Moldovan electrical system [31]

A-1

Appendix B

Map over the wind potential in Moldova

Figure B-1 Wind Potential in Moldova at the height of 70 meters [14]

B-1

Appendix C

Description of WAsP

WAsP is a computer program used for predicting wind climates, wind resources and power productions from wind turbines and wind power parks. The predictions are based on wind data from meteorological stations. WAsP uses bi-dimensional extrapolation of the wind measured parameters and also accounts for the obstacles in the neighbourhood of the data collecting point, in this case a meteorological station. WAsP is developed by the Wind Energy Division at the technical university of Denmark at Ris. The program WAsP contains four basic computing modules. [32] Analysis of raw measured data Elaborating wind atlas Wind climatological estimation Estimation of wind potential

Analysis of raw measured data can be used as a separate tool and with it is possible to investigate the statics of the collected wind data. For example the module can provide a wind rose diagram and the Weibull distribution curve from data for a specific meteorological station or from data for several meteorological stations. The elaborating wind atlas modulus creates a wind atlas. From the data given by the meteorological stations the WAsP program can calculate the new values, for the analysis, desired parameters and thereby create a data set. This can be done for the desired height. This data set represents the wind atlas from which an analysis of the wind conditions in the area can be made. The wind climatological estimation modulus can estimate the wind value in any far-off emplacement, thus underlining possible emplacements. In other words the modulus permits the estimation of the real wind parameters on the interesting emplacement for a wind turbine or a wind power park. The estimation of wind potential modulus calculates the wind energy potential from the annual average wind speed at the right height and also the annual energy production for a wind turbine or a wind power park. This modulus also can estimate the annual energy production for different types of wind turbines.

C-1

Appendix D

Line diagram and data over the equivalent 330 kV circuit

Load Generator

Figure D-1 Line diagram from PSS/E for the equivalent circuit over the Moldovan electrical system

D-1

Table D-1 Bus data for equivalent circuit over the Moldovan electrical system
Bus Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Bus Name UDSGEC81 BALTSI STRASENI KISHINAU UKOTOVSK MGRAS ULDTEC81 Base kV 330 330 330 330 330 330 330 Area Number/Name 2 UKRAINA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 2 UKRAINA 1 MOLDOVA 2 UKRAINA Code 2 1 1 1 1 2 3 Voltage (kV) 350,10 331,46 319,50 318,18 336,92 323,14 363,00 Angle (deg) -4,27 -8,74 -11,15 -11,01 -7,34 -8,98 0,00

Table D-2 Plant data for equivalent circuit over the Moldovan electrical system
Bus Number 1 6 7 Bus Name UDSGEC81 330,00 MGRAS 330,00 ULDTEC81 330,00 Code 2 2 3 PGen 97,60 147,80 622,30 QGen 103,70 -5,20 293,70 QMax 103,70 -5,20 9999,00 QMin 103,70 -5,20 -9999,00 VSched (kV) 363,00 330,00 363,00 Voltage (kV) 350,10 323,14 363,00

Table D-3 Machine data for equivalent circuit over the Moldovan electrical system
Bus Number 1 6 7 Bus Name UDSGEC81 330,00 MGRAS 330,00 ULDTEC81 330,00 Code 2 2 3 VSched (pu) 363,0 330,0 363,0 Pgen (MW) 97,6 147,8 622,3 Pmax (MW) 0,0 0,0 9999,0 Pmin (MW) 0,0 0,0 -9999,0 Qgen (Mvar) 103,7 -5,2 293,7 Qmax (Mvar) 103,7 -5,2 9999,0 Qmin (Mvar) 103,7 -5,2 -9999,0 Mbase (MVA) 100 100 100

Table D-4 Load data for equivalent circuit over the Moldovan electrical system
Bus Number 2 3 4 5 Bus Name BALTSI 330,00 STRASENI 330,00 KISHINAU 330,00 UKOTOVSK 330,00 Area Number/Name 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 2 UKRAINA Pload (MW) 115,0 151,1 209,4 374,7 Qload (Mvar) 31,9 51,4 94,4 76,3

Table D-5 Branch data for equivalent circuit over the Moldovan electrical system
From Bus Number 1 1 2 3 4 5 5 From Bus Name UDSGEC81 330,00 UDSGEC81 330,00 BALTSI 330,00 STRASENI 330,00 KISHINAU 330,00 UKOTOVSK 330,00 UKOTOVSK 330,00 To Bus Number 2 7 3 4 6 6 7 To Bus Name BALTSI 330,00 ULDTEC81 330,00 STRASENI 330,00 KISHINAU 330,00 MGRAS 330,00 MGRAS 330,00 ULDTEC81 330,00 Line R (ohms) 4,5411 7,6775 5,5539 2,2107 2,0038 8,0042 4,4976 Line X (ohms) 37,6903 61,4087 35,6974 14,2332 16,9666 49,2990 36,1984

D-2

Appendix E

Transmission Line Data

Table E-1 Data over transmission line types


AS Conductor nr: 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 r0(Ohm\100km) 77,23 59,20 42,00 31,40 24,90 19,50 15,60 12,00 x0(Ohm\100km) 0 0 41,00 42,90 42,30 41,60 40,90 40,10 r0(Ohm\km) 0,77 0,59 0,42 0,31 0,25 0,12 0,16 0,12 x0(Ohm\km) 0 0 0,41 0,43 0,42 0,42 0,41 0,40

Table E-2 Impedance values for the lines in the 110 kV system
Line ID 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 111 12 13 14 15 kV 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 400 R (1 phase) 17,5578 6,4896 5,382 7,9929 5,772 19,0734 8,8395 13,3575 10,9746 18,55125 9,048 13,104 6,006 17,28405 0 X (1phase) 40,8323 17,0144 11,4816 13,5783 15,133 32,4018 15,0165 28,496 23,8011 35,94048 19,3024 27,9552 12,8128 32,65825 0 R (3 phase) 52,6734 19,4688 16,146 23,9787 17,316 57,2202 26,5185 40,0725 32,9238 55,65375 27,144 39,312 18,018 51,85215 3,5 X (3 phase) 122,4969 51,0432 34,4448 40,7349 45,399 97,2054 45,0495 85,488 71,4033 107,82144 57,9072 83,8656 38,4384 97,97475 46,99

Table E-3 Base impedance values


ZBase 110 kV 121 ZBase 330 kV 1089 ZBase 400 kV 1600

Table E-4 Per Unit values for the lines in the 110 kV system
Line ID 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 R (3 phase) p.u 0,435317355 0,160899174 0,133438017 0,198171074 0,143107438 0,472894215 0,219161157 0,331177686 0,272097521 0,459948347 0,224330579 0,324892562 0,148909091 0,428530165 0,0021875 X (3 phase) p.u 1,012371074 0,421844628 0,284667769 0,336652066 0,375198347 0,803350413 0,372309917 0,706512397 0,590109917 0,891086281 0,478571901 0,693104132 0,317672727 0,809708678 0,02936875

1 2

Line 11 is out of use 1 stands for load bus, 2 for generator bus and 3 is the swing bus

E-1

Appendix F

Line diagram and data over the complete model

Load Generator Three winding transformer Switched shunt 400 kV Line 330 kV Line 110 kV Line Active Power Flow Reactive Power Flow Line Offline

Figure F-1 Line diagram for the equivalent circuit over the Moldovan electrical system

F-1

Table F-1 Bus Data


Bus Number 1 30100 30120 30195 32049 34057 34060 34061 34062 34112 36005 36012 36023 36025 36028 36031 36032 36038 36046 36110 70530 70544 70805 70822 Bus Name MGRAS MGRAS MGRAS BALTSI CHISINAU HANCESTI CHISINAU STRASENI CHISINAU BESARABEASCA ZARNESTI COMRAT LEOVO TARECKLIA CIADYR CIMISLIA VULCANESTI VULCANESTI VULCANESTI UKOTOVSK UBOLGR UDSGEC81 ULDTEC81 Base kV 35 330 400 35 330 110 110 330 330 35 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 400 35 330 110 330 330 Area Number/Name 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 2 UKRAINE 2 UKRAINE 2 UKRAINE 2 UKRAINE Code
2

Voltage (pu) 1 3 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 0,9990 1,0455 1,0390 1,0423 1,0079 1,0115 0,9990 1,0045 1,0004 1,0107 0,9831 0,9911 0,9809 0,9785 1,0065 0,9808 0,9910 1,0180 1,0294 1,0184 0,9966 1,0180 1,0455 1,0455

Angle (deg) -1,51 0 -1,2 -0,57 -0,34 1,64 -1,5 -1,55 -1,6 1,64 -3,81 -6,89 -4,94 -4,29 -5,34 -6,42 -2,05 -5,36 -2,8 -5,36 -3,79 -5,36 3,39 -0,11

Table F-2 Branch Data


From Bus Number 30100 30100 30120 32049 32049 34057 34057 34057 34060 34061 36005 36012 36012 36023 36023 36023 36023 36028 36028 36031 36038 70530 70805 To Bus Number 34061 70530 36046 34062 70805 34060 36005 36032 36025 34062 36023 36023 36038 36025 36028 36031 36032 36031 36038 36038 70544 70822 70822 In Rate A (I as Service3 MVA) 1 0 1 0 1 1964 1 0 1 0 1 84,8 1 84,8 1 97,2 1 72,4 1 0 1 72,4 1 72,4 1 72,4 1 72,4 1 85,8 1 84,8 1 97,2 0 84,8 1 84,8 1 84,8 1 0 1 0 1 0

From Bus Name MGRAS 330,00 MGRAS 330,00 MGRAS 400,00 BALTSI 330,00 BALTSI 330,00 CHISINAU 110,00 CHISINAU 110,00 CHISINAU 110,00 HANCESTI 110,00 CHISINAU 330,00 BESARABEASCA110,00 ZARNESTI 110,00 ZARNESTI 110,00 COMRAT 110,00 COMRAT 110,00 COMRAT 110,00 COMRAT 110,00 TARECKLIA 110,00 TARECKLIA 110,00 CIADYR 110,00 VULCANESTI 110,00 UKOTOVSK 330,00 UDSGEC81 330,00

To Bus Name CHISINAU 330,00 UKOTOVSK 330,00 VULCANESTI 400,00 STRASENI 330,00 UDSGEC81 330,00 HANCESTI 110,00 BESARABEASCA110,00 CIMISLIA 110,00 LEOVO 110,00 STRASENI 330,00 COMRAT 110,00 COMRAT 110,00 VULCANESTI 110,00 LEOVO 110,00 TARECKLIA 110,00 CIADYR 110,00 CIMISLIA 110,00 CIADYR 110,00 VULCANESTI 110,00 VULCANESTI 110,00 UBOLGR 110,00 ULDTEC81 330,00 ULDTEC81 330,00

Id 1 1 15 1 1 3 1 2 6 1 4 10 14 7 9 8 5 11 13 12 1 1 1

Line R (pu) 0,0018 0,0074 0,0022 0,0051 0,0042 0,1334 0,4353 0,1609 0,4729 0,0020 0,1982 0,4599 0,4285 0,2192 0,2721 0,3312 0,1431 0,2243 0,1489 0,3249 0,0000 0,0041 0,0071

Line X (pu) 0,0156 0,0453 0,0294 0,0328 0,0346 0,2847 1,0124 0,4218 0,8034 0,0131 0,3367 0,8911 0,8097 0,3723 0,5901 0,7065 0,3752 0,4786 0,3177 0,6896 0,0001 0,0332 0,0564

Charging (pu) 0,000 0,000 0,011 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000

2 3

1 stands for load bus, 2 for generator bus and 3 is the swing bus 1 states in service and 0 out of service

F-2

Table F-3 Machine Data


Bus Number 30100 32049 34057 36005 36012 36025 36031 36032 70805 70822 Bus Name MGRAS 330,00 BALTSI 330,00 CHISINAU 110,00 BESARABEASCA110,00 ZARNESTI 110,00 LEOVO 110,00 CIADYR 110,00 CIMISLIA 110,00 UDSGEC81 330,00 ULDTEC81 330,00 Id 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Code 3 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 VSched (pu) 1,0455 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1,0455 1,0455 Pgen (MW) 703,054 34 234 0 0 0 0 0 326 102 Pmax (MW) 2520 40 240 9999 9999 9999 9999 9999 0 9999 Pmin (MW) 0 0 0 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 0 -9999 Qgen (Mvar) 442,6036 5 20 0 0 0 0 0 83,6194 151,1422 Qmax (Mvar) 2000 50 180 0 0 0 0 0 200 9999 Qmin (Mvar) 50 5 20 0 0 0 0 0 -200 -9999 Mbase (MVA) 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Table F-4 Plant Data


Bus Number 30100 32049 34057 36005 36012 36025 36031 36032 70805 70822 Bus Name MGRAS 330,00 BALTSI 330,00 CHISINAU 110,00 BESARABEASCA110,00 ZARNESTI 110,00 LEOVO 110,00 CIADYR 110,00 CIMISLIA 110,00 UDSGEC81 330,00 ULDTEC81 330,00 Code 3 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 PGen 703,1 34 234 0 0 0 0 0 326 102 QGen 442,6 5 20 0 0 0 0 0 83,6 151,1 QMax 2000 50 180 0 0 0 0 0 200 9999 QMin 50 5 20 0 0 0 0 0 -200 -9999 VSched (pu) Voltage (pu) 1,0455 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1,0455 1,0455 1,0455 1,0079 1,0115 0,9831 0,9911 0,9785 0,9808 0,991 1,0455 1,0455 RMPCT 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Table F-5 Load Data


Bus Number 30100 32049 34060 34061 34062 36005 36012 36023 36025 36028 36031 36032 36038 70530 70544 Bus Name MGRAS 330,00 BALTSI 330,00 HANCESTI 110,00 CHISINAU 330,00 STRASENI 330,00 BESARABEASCA110,00 ZARNESTI 110,00 COMRAT 110,00 LEOVO 110,00 TARECKLIA 110,00 CIADYR 110,00 CIMISLIA 110,00 VULCANESTI 110,00 UKOTOVSK 330,00 UBOLGR 110,00 Id 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Area Number/Name 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 1 MOLDOVA 2 UKRAINE 1 UKRAINE Pload (MW) 220 171 6 391 87 4,2 6,4 13,8 3,5 0,6 7,1 2,4 29,2 380 64 Qload (Mvar) 70 70 0,6 220 36 0,5 -1,3 1,5 0,9 -1 1,9 0,4 -12,4 189 24,2

Table F-6 Switched Shunt Data


Bus Number 30195 36046 In Service 0 0 Adjustment Method Sequential input order (0) Sequential input order (0) Contribute d Vars (%) 100 100 Blk 1 Steps 6 3 Blk Bstep (Mvar) 1

Bus Name MGRAS 35,000 VULCANESTI 400,00

Control Mode Discrete, cntr voltage (1) Discrete, cntr voltage (1)

Vhi (pu) 1,1 1,1

Vlo (pu) 0,95 0,95

VSC Name None None

-30 -55

Table F-7 Three Winding Data


From Bus Numbe r To Bus Numbe r Last Bus Numbe r Magnetizin g G (pu or watts)

From Name

Bus

To Name

Bus

Last Name

Bus

W1-2 R (pu)

W1-2 X (pu)

W2-3 R (pu)

W2-3 X (pu)

W3-1 R (pu)

W3-1 X (pu)

Magnetizin g B (pu)

F-3

30120 36038 34060 34057

MGRAS 400,00 VULCANEST I 110,00 HANCESTI 110,00 CHISINAU 110,00

30100 36110 34062 34061

MGRAS 330,00 VULCANEST I 35,000 STRASENI 330,00 CHISINAU 330,00

30195 36046 1 34112

MGRAS 35,000 VULCANEST I 400,00 35 CHISINAU 35,000

0,000 4 0,000 8 0,000 8 0,000 8

0,022 2 0,036 9 0,029 7 0,029 7

0,000 1 0,001 3 0,001 5 0,001 5

0,039 4 0,082 5 0,093 9 0,093 9

0,000 1 0,001 3 0,001 5 0,001 5

0,040 3 0,045 7 0,064 3 0,064 3

0,0003 0,0010 0,0010 0,0010

-0,0030 -0,0050 -0,0050 -0,0050

Table F-8 Winding Data, MGRAS


Bus Number 30120 30100 30195 Bus Name MGRAS 400,00 MGRAS 330,00 MGRAS 35,000 Winding 1 2 3 Rate A (MVA) 420 420 420 Control Mode Voltage Voltage Voltage Auto Adjust 1 1 1 Rmax (ratio or angle) 1,1 1,1 1,1 Rmin (ratio or angle) 0,9 0,9 0,9 Vmax (pu, kV MW, or Mvar) 1,05 1,05 1,05 Vmin (pu, kV MW, or Mvar) 0,95 0,95 0,95 Tap Positions 15 15 15

Table F-9 Winding Data, Vulcanesti


Bus Number 36038 36110 36046 Bus Name VULCANESTI 110,00 VULCANESTI 35,000 VULCANESTI 400,00 Winding 1 2 3 Rate A (MVA) 500 500 500 Control Mode Voltage Voltage Voltage Auto Adjust 1 1 1 Rmax (ratio or angle) 1,1 1,1 1,1 Rmin (ratio or angle) 0,9 0,9 0,9 Vmax (pu, kV MW, or Mvar) 1,05 1,05 1,05 Vmin (pu, kV MW, or Mvar) 0,95 0,95 0,95 Tap Positions 15 15 15

Table F-10 Winding Data, Hancesti-Straseni


Bus Number 34060 34062 1 Bus Name HANCESTI 110,00 STRASENI 330,00 35 Winding 1 2 3 Rate A (MVA) 400 400 400 Control Mode Voltage Voltage Voltage Auto Adjust 1 1 1 Rmax (ratio or angle) 1,1 1,1 1,1 Rmin (ratio or angle) 0,9 0,9 0,9 Vmax (pu, kV MW, or Mvar) 1,05 1,05 1,05 Vmin (pu, kV MW, or Mvar) 0,95 0,95 0,95 Tap Positions 15 15 15

Table F-11 Winding Data, Chisinau


Bus Number 34057 34061 34112 Bus Name CHISINAU 110,00 CHISINAU 330,00 CHISINAU 35,000 Winding 1 2 3 Rate A (MVA) 400 400 400 Control Mode Voltage Voltage Voltage Auto Adjust 1 1 1 Rmax (ratio or angle) 1,1 1,1 1,1 Rmin (ratio or angle) 0,9 0,9 0,9 Vmax (pu, kV MW, or Mvar) 1,05 1,05 1,05 Vmin (pu, kV MW, or Mvar) 0,95 0,95 0,95 Tap Positions 15 15 15

F-4

Appendix G

General Python Script executing the contingency analysis

#mainScript takes five inputs; each representing a generator output in MW. mainScript also returns a value #stating if violations have occurred def mainScript(genA, genB, genC, genD, genE): #Generator names and power outputs windBusA = 36005 windBusB = 36012 windBusC = 36025 windBusD = 36031 windBusE = 36032 runNum=('#',genA,' & ', genB, ' [MW] at Wind Generators ', windBusA, windBusB) outNum = str(runNum) #outNum is the output text defineing the increase #Changing the wind generator output (MW) id = "1" #Machine identifier intgar = [] #Owner number, array of 4 elements i.e. 4 different #owner (no input) realarA = genA #Array of 16 elements where the first element is the #machine active power output realarB = genB realarC = genC realarD = genD realarE = genE ierr = psspy.machine_data(windBusA,id,intgar,realarA) ierr = psspy.machine_data(windBusB,id,intgar,realarB) ierr = psspy.machine_data(windBusC,id,intgar,realarC) ierr = psspy.machine_data(windBusD,id,intgar,realarD) ierr = psspy.machine_data(windBusE,id,intgar,realarE) #Creating a file to store the ac-reports islct = 2 #Virtual devic selector; 1-standard destination, 2,3,4,5#output to file, printer, progress device, report device, 6#no output filarg = "reportTemp.txt" #Report file name (output) options = [] options.append(0) #1: 0-open with carriage control format and overwrite #existing files, 1-open with list format, 2-open file for #append options.append(0) #2: 0-printer option only, number of copies ierr = psspy.report_output(islct, filarg, options) if ierr>0: f = open('testIerr.txt','a') out = 'Error with creating the the temporary report file with generator levels: ',genA, genB, genC, genD, genE, ' error num: ', ierr f.write(str(out)) f.write('\n') f.close() a=2 return a #Solution for the new base case options = [] options.append(1) #1: Tap adjustment; 0-disabled, 1-enable, 2-direct adjustment options.append(0) #2: Area interchange adjustment; 0-disabled, 1-enabled using tie line flows, 2- enabled using tie line flows and loads options.append(0) #3: Phase shift adjustment; 0-disabled, 1-enable options.append(1) #4: Dc tap adjustment; 0-disabled, 1-enable options.append(0) #5: Switched shunt adjustment; 0-disabled, 1-enable options.append(1) #6: Flat start; 0-no flat start, 1-flat start

G-1

options.append(0) #7: Var limit; 0-apply var limits immediatly, >0-apply var limits on iteration n, -1-ignor var limits options.append(0) #8: Non-divergent solution; 0-disable, 1-enable ierr = psspy.fnsl(options) if ierr>0: f = open('testIerr.txt','a') out = 'Error with solving the new base case at generator levels: ',genA, genB, genC, genD, genE, ' error num: ', ierr f.write(str(out)) f.write('\n') f.close() a=2 return a #Creates a .dfx output file based on existing .sub, .mon and .con files ierr = psspy.dfax(1, 'Sub', 'Mon', 'Cont', 'Dfx') if ierr>0: f = open('testIerr.txt','a') out = 'Error with creating the .dfx file at generator levels: ',genA, genB, genC, genD, genE, ' error num: ', ierr f.write(str(out)) f.write('\n') f.close() a=2 return a #Executes a accc Contingency analys with the output file Accc.acc tol = None # Mismatch tolerance TOLN by default options = [] # Seven array element for specifying solution options options.append(0) #1: Tap adjustment; 0-disable, 1-enable, 2-direct adjustment options.append(0) #2: Area interchange adjustment; 0-disabled, 1-enabled using tie line flows, 2- enabled using tie line flows and loads options.append(0) #3: Phase shift adjustment; 0-disabled, 1-enable options.append(0) #4: Dc tap adjustment; 0-disabled, 1-enable options.append(0) #5: Switched shunt adjustment; 0-disabled, 1-enable, 2-enable continuous mode, disable discrete mode options.append(1) #6: Solution method; 0-FDNS, 1-FNSL, 2-optimized FDNS options.append(1) #7: Non-divergent solution; 0-disable, 1-enable dfxfile = 'Dfx' # Imports .dfx file accfile = 'Accc' # Output file ierr = psspy.accc(tol,options,dfxfile,accfile) if ierr>0: f = open('testIerr.txt','a') out = 'Error with the contingency solution at generator levels: ',genA, genB, genC, genD, genE, ' error num: ', ierr f.write(str(out)) f.write('\n') f.close() a=2 return a #Executes the ac-report based on the contingency and stores it in the report file STATUS=[] STATUS.append(0) #1: Report form; 0-spreadsheet overload report, 1-spreadsheet loading table, 2-avaiable capacity table, 4,5 #and 6-non-spreadsheet reports STATUS.append(1) #2: Base case rating; 1-rate A, 2-rate B, 3-rate C STATUS.append(1) #3: Contingency case rating; 1-rate A, 2-rate B, 3-rate C STATUS.append(0) #4: Exclude interfaces from report; 0-no, 1-yes STATUS.append(1) #5: Run voltage limit check; 0-no, 1-yes STATUS.append(0) #6: Only if #1 = 0 or 3; 0-no, 1-yes STATUS.append(0) #7: Only if #1 = 0 or 3; 0-no, 1-yes STATUS.append(0) #8: Exclude cases with no overloads from non-spreadsheet reports; only if #1 = 3,4,5 or 6; 0-no, 1-yes STATUS.append(0) #9: Report post-tripping action solutions; 0-no, 1-yes interval=[] # Filtering criterias interval.append(0) #1: Number of low voltage range violations interval.append(0) #2: Number of high voltage range violations interval.append(0) #3: Number of voltage deviation violations interval.append(0) #4: Number of buses in the largest disconnected island

G-2

realval=[] realval.append(0.5) #1: Bus mismatch converged tolerance (MW or MVA) realval.append(0.5) #2: Ssystem mismatch converged tolerandce (MVA) realval.append(100) #3: % of flow rating, use only when STATUS#1 is 0,3 or 4 realval.append(0) #4: Minimum contingency case flow change realval.append(0) #5: Minimum contingency case percent loading increas realval.append(0) #6: Minimum contingency case voltage change acccOutFile='Accc.acc' ierr = psspy.accc_single_run_report_2(STATUS,interval, realval,acccOutFile) if ierr>0: f = open('testIerr.txt','a') out = 'Error with writing the report file for contingency solution at generator levels: ',genA, genB, genC, genD, genE, ' error num: ', ierr f.write(str(out)) f.write('\n') f.close() a=2 return a #Checking violations and returning true or false f = open('reportTemp.txt','r') data_list = f.readlines() a = len(data_list[27]) b = len(data_list[30]) f.close() if a==1 and b==1: return a else: a=2 return a

G-3

Appendix H

Python Script Scenario I

#oneByOne increases one specific generator's output and #stores values not generating violation in a report file def oneByOne(): file = open('Run1GenA.txt','w') #Change file name to get separate reports for different generators genA = 0 genB = 0 genC = 0 genD = 0 genE = 0 generators = [genA, genB, genC, genD, genE] for i in range (0,103,1): violation = mainScript(genA, genB, genC, genD, genE) if violation == 1: genA = i #Change to other generators to check their maximum value else: break violation = mainScript(genA, genB, genC, genD, genE) file.write('Violation with generators set at: \n\n') out = 'genA = ',genA,' genB = ',genB,' genC = ',genC,' genD = ',genD,' genE = ',genE file.write(str(out)) file.write('\n') fTemp = open('reportTemp.txt','r') flag = False fTemp.close() fTemp = open('reportTemp.txt','r') for line in fTemp: if "MULTI-SECTION LINE" in line: file.write('\n') file.write(line) flag = True elif flag: file.write(line.strip()) file.write('\n') if "CONTINGENCY LEGEND" in line: flag = False fTemp.close() file.close()

H-1

Appendix I
def allTogether():

Python Script Scenario II, Monte Carlo Simulation


#f = open('Run1Random.txt','w') #f2 = open('Run1Max.txt','w') #fA = open('Run1MaxGenA.txt','w') #fB = open('Run1MaxGenB.txt','w') #fC = open('Run1MaxGenC.txt','w') #fD = open('Run1MaxGenD.txt','w') #fE = open('Run1MaxGenE.txt','w') n = open('testall.txt','w') n1 = open('testallA.txt','w') n2 = open('testallB.txt','w') n3 = open('testallC.txt','w') n4 = open('testallD.txt','w') n5 = open('testallE.txt','w') maxGen=0 for i in range (1,1000): count = open('testRaknare.txt','w') #counter to folow the iterations count.write(str(i)) count.write('\n') count.close genA = 28+random.randrange(0,5) #The random generator, genB = 10+random.randrange(0,5) #values needs to be changed genC = 28+random.randrange(0,5) #to use different intervals. genD = 83+random.randrange(0,5) genE = 98+random.randrange(0,5) violation = mainScript(genA, genB, genC, genD, genE) if violation == 1: #if=1 there is no violation maxGen = genA+genB+genC+genD+genE out = 'genA = ',genA,' genB = ',genB,' genC = ',genC,' genD = ',genD,' genE = ',genE n.write(str(maxGen)) n.write('\n') n1.write(str(genA)) n1.write('\n') n2.write(str(genB)) n2.write('\n') n3.write(str(genC)) n3.write('\n') n4.write(str(genD)) n4.write('\n') n5.write(str(genE)) n5.write('\n')

I-1

Appendix J

Base Case - Contingency Loading Report


% CURRENT FOR NON-TRANSFORMER

ACCC LOADING REPORT: MONITORED BRANCHES AND INTERFACES USING RATING SET A % LOADING VALUES ARE % MVA FOR TRANSFORMERS AND BRANCHES INCLUDES VOLTAGE REPORT AC CONTINGENCY RESULTS FILE: DISTRIBUTION FACTOR FILE: SUBSYSTEM DESCRIPTION FILE: MONITORED ELEMENT FILE: CONTINGENCY DESCRIPTION FILE:

C:\Users\Joel\Desktop\Testfiler\CONTINGENCYBACECASE.acc C:\Users\Joel\Desktop\Testfiler\Dfx.dfx C:\Users\Joel\Desktop\Testfiler\Sub.sub C:\Users\Joel\Desktop\Testfiler\Mon.mon C:\Users\Joel\Desktop\Testfiler\Cont.con

**PERCENT LOADING UNITS** %MVA FOR TRANSFORMERS % I FOR NON-TRANSFORMER BRANCHES **OPTIONS USED IN CONTINGENCY Solution engine: Solution options Tap adjustment: Area interchange control: Phase shift adjustment: Dc tap adjustment: Switch shunt adjustment: Non diverge: Mismatch tolerance (MW ): Dispatch mode: ANALYSIS** Full Newton-Raphson (FNSL) Stepping Disable Disable Enable Enable all Disable 0.5 Disable

<---------------- MULTI-SECTION LINE ----------------> <----------------- MONITORED BRANCH ----------------> CONTINGENCY RATING FLOW % 34057*CHISINAU 110.00 34060 HANCESTI 110.00 3 BASE CASE 84.8 18.2 21.1 34057*CHISINAU 110.00 36005 BESARABEASCA110.00 1 BASE CASE 84.8 9.1 10.5 34057*CHISINAU 110.00 36032 CIMISLIA 110.00 2 BASE CASE 97.2 15.1 15.4 34060*HANCESTI 110.00 36025 LEOVO 110.00 6 BASE CASE 72.4 5.9 8.1 36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 36023 COMRAT 110.00 4 BASE CASE 72.4 4.9 6.9 36012*ZARNESTI 110.00 36023 COMRAT 110.00 10 BASE CASE 72.4 3.5 4.8 36012 ZARNESTI 110.00 36038*VULCANESTI 110.00 14 BASE CASE 72.4 4.1 5.6 36023 COMRAT 110.00 36025*LEOVO 110.00 7 BASE CASE 72.4 2.5 3.5 36023 COMRAT 110.00 36028*TARECKLIA 110.00 9 BASE CASE 85.8 3.9 4.5 36023*COMRAT 110.00 36031 CIADYR 110.00 8 BASE CASE 84.8 3.2 3.9 36023 COMRAT 110.00 36032*CIMISLIA 110.00 5 BASE CASE 97.2 12.5 12.9 36028 TARECKLIA 110.00 36038*VULCANESTI 110.00 13 BASE CASE 84.8 3.1 3.6 36031 CIADYR 110.00 36038*VULCANESTI 110.00 12 BASE CASE 84.8 5.4 6.3 34057*CHISINAU 110.00 34060 HANCESTI 110.00 3 SINGLE 1 84.8 0.0 0.0 34057*CHISINAU 110.00 36005 BESARABEASCA110.00 1 SINGLE 1 84.8 9.3 10.8 34057*CHISINAU 110.00 36032 CIMISLIA 110.00 2 SINGLE 1 97.2 15.5 15.8 34060*HANCESTI 110.00 36025 LEOVO 110.00 6 SINGLE 1 72.4 5.6 7.6 36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 36023 COMRAT 110.00 4 SINGLE 1 72.4 5.2 7.2 36012*ZARNESTI 110.00 36023 COMRAT 110.00 10 SINGLE 1 72.4 3.5 4.9 36012 ZARNESTI 110.00 36038*VULCANESTI 110.00 14 SINGLE 1 72.4 4.1 5.6 36023 COMRAT 110.00 36025*LEOVO 110.00 7 SINGLE 1 72.4 2.0 2.8 36023 COMRAT 110.00 36028*TARECKLIA 110.00 9 SINGLE 1 85.8 4.0 4.6 36023*COMRAT 110.00 36031 CIADYR 110.00 8 SINGLE 1 84.8 3.3 3.9 36023 COMRAT 110.00 36032*CIMISLIA 110.00 5 SINGLE 1 97.2 12.9 13.4 36028 TARECKLIA 110.00 36038*VULCANESTI 110.00 13 SINGLE 1 84.8 3.2 3.7 36031 CIADYR 110.00 36038*VULCANESTI 110.00 12 SINGLE 1 84.8 5.4 6.3

J-1

34057*CHISINAU 3 1 2 6 4 SINGLE 2 SINGLE 2 SINGLE 2 SINGLE 2 SINGLE 2 84.8 84.8 97.2 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 85.8 84.8 97.2 84.8 84.8 84.8 84.8 97.2 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 85.8 84.8 97.2 84.8 84.8 84.8 84.8 97.2 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 85.8 84.8 97.2 84.8 84.8 84.8 84.8 97.2 72.4 18.8 0.0 18.1 7.6 4.0 2.7 5.1 4.2 4.4 2.0 15.3 4.1 6.4 19.5 12.4 0.0 9.4 8.0 2.2 6.1 5.7 5.8 1.2 2.4 5.9 7.6 17.3 10.1 17.0 0.0 5.9 2.9 4.8 3.5 4.3 2.4 14.2 3.9 6.2 18.5 4.2 16.7 6.8 21.9 34057*CHISINAU 0.0 34057*CHISINAU 18.4 34060*HANCESTI 10.4 5.7 36012*ZARNESTI 10 SINGLE 2 14 SINGLE 2 7 9 8 5 SINGLE 2 SINGLE 2 SINGLE 2 SINGLE 2 3.7 36012 ZARNESTI 6.9 36023 COMRAT 5.9 36023 COMRAT 5.1 36023 COMRAT 2.4 36023 COMRAT 15.9 36028 TARECKLIA 13 SINGLE 2 12 SINGLE 2 3 1 2 6 4 SINGLE 3 SINGLE 3 SINGLE 3 SINGLE 3 SINGLE 3 4.8 36031 CIADYR 7.4 34057*CHISINAU 22.7 34057*CHISINAU 14.5 34057*CHISINAU 0.0 34060*HANCESTI 12.8 11.4 36012*ZARNESTI 10 SINGLE 3 14 SINGLE 3 7 9 8 5 SINGLE 3 SINGLE 3 SINGLE 3 SINGLE 3 3.1 36012 ZARNESTI 8.3 36023 COMRAT 8.2 36023 COMRAT 6.8 36023 COMRAT 1.4 36023*COMRAT 2.6 36028 TARECKLIA 13 SINGLE 3 12 SINGLE 3 3 1 2 6 4 SINGLE 4 SINGLE 4 SINGLE 4 SINGLE 4 SINGLE 4 6.8 36031 CIADYR 8.8 34057*CHISINAU 20.1 34057*CHISINAU 11.8 34057*CHISINAU 17.3 34060*HANCESTI 0.0 8.3 36012*ZARNESTI 10 SINGLE 4 14 SINGLE 4 7 9 8 5 SINGLE 4 SINGLE 4 SINGLE 4 SINGLE 4 4.1 36012 ZARNESTI 6.6 36023*COMRAT 4.9 36023 COMRAT 5.0 36023 COMRAT 2.9 36023 COMRAT 14.8 36028 TARECKLIA 13 SINGLE 4 12 SINGLE 4 3 1 2 6 SINGLE 5 SINGLE 5 SINGLE 5 SINGLE 5 4.5 36031 CIADYR 7.1 34057*CHISINAU 21.6 34057*CHISINAU 4.9 34057*CHISINAU 17.0 34060*HANCESTI 9.3

110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

34060 HANCESTI

110.00

36005 BESARABEASCA110.00 36032 CIMISLIA 36025 LEOVO 36023*COMRAT 36023 COMRAT 36038*VULCANESTI 36025*LEOVO 36028*TARECKLIA 36031*CIADYR 36032*CIMISLIA 36038*VULCANESTI 36038*VULCANESTI 34060 HANCESTI 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005 BESARABEASCA110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005 BESARABEASCA110.00 36032 CIMISLIA 36025 LEOVO 36023 COMRAT 36023 COMRAT 36038*VULCANESTI 36025*LEOVO 36028*TARECKLIA 36031*CIADYR 36032 CIMISLIA 36038*VULCANESTI 36038*VULCANESTI 34060 HANCESTI 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005 BESARABEASCA110.00 36032 CIMISLIA 36025 LEOVO 36023 COMRAT 36023 COMRAT 36038*VULCANESTI 36025 LEOVO 36028*TARECKLIA 36031*CIADYR 36032*CIMISLIA 36038*VULCANESTI 36038*VULCANESTI 34060 HANCESTI 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005 BESARABEASCA110.00 36032 CIMISLIA 36025 LEOVO 110.00 110.00

J-2

36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 4 SINGLE 5 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 85.8 84.8 97.2 84.8 84.8 84.8 84.8 97.2 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 85.8 84.8 97.2 84.8 84.8 84.8 84.8 97.2 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 85.8 84.8 97.2 84.8 84.8 84.8 84.8 97.2 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 0.0 2.9 4.6 3.5 3.8 2.5 14.1 3.3 5.8 18.2 8.6 14.4 5.5 4.4 0.0 6.7 2.0 4.5 3.8 11.7 3.6 5.4 18.1 9.6 16.1 6.6 5.3 6.5 0.0 3.1 4.5 2.6 13.3 4.0 6.2 17.8 9.5 15.9 3.7 5.4 3.2 4.4 0.0 0.0 36012*ZARNESTI 10 SINGLE 5 14 SINGLE 5 7 9 8 5 SINGLE 5 SINGLE 5 SINGLE 5 SINGLE 5 4.1 36012 ZARNESTI 6.2 36023 COMRAT 4.9 36023 COMRAT 4.4 36023*COMRAT 3.0 36023 COMRAT 14.6 36028 TARECKLIA 13 SINGLE 5 12 SINGLE 5 3 1 2 6 4 SINGLE 6 SINGLE 6 SINGLE 6 SINGLE 6 SINGLE 6 3.9 36031 CIADYR 6.7 34057*CHISINAU 21.2 34057*CHISINAU 10.1 34057*CHISINAU 14.6 34060*HANCESTI 7.6 36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 6.2 36012*ZARNESTI 10 SINGLE 6 14 SINGLE 6 7 9 8 5 SINGLE 6 SINGLE 6 SINGLE 6 SINGLE 6 0.0 36012 ZARNESTI 9.0 36023 COMRAT 2.8 36023 COMRAT 5.2 36023 COMRAT 4.5 36023 COMRAT 12.2 36028 TARECKLIA 13 SINGLE 6 12 SINGLE 6 3 1 2 6 4 SINGLE 7 SINGLE 7 SINGLE 7 SINGLE 7 SINGLE 7 4.1 36031 CIADYR 6.2 34057*CHISINAU 21.1 34057*CHISINAU 11.2 34057*CHISINAU 16.3 34060*HANCESTI 9.0 36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 7.5 36012 ZARNESTI 10 SINGLE 7 14 SINGLE 7 7 9 8 5 SINGLE 7 SINGLE 7 SINGLE 7 SINGLE 7 9.2 36012*ZARNESTI 0.0 36023 COMRAT 4.3 36023 COMRAT 5.3 36023 COMRAT 3.2 36023 COMRAT 13.9 36028 TARECKLIA 13 SINGLE 7 12 SINGLE 7 3 1 2 6 4 SINGLE 8 SINGLE 8 SINGLE 8 SINGLE 8 SINGLE 8 4.6 36031 CIADYR 7.1 34057*CHISINAU 20.7 34057*CHISINAU 11.1 34057*CHISINAU 16.1 34060*HANCESTI 5.0 36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 7.5 36012*ZARNESTI 10 SINGLE 8 14 SINGLE 8 7 SINGLE 8 4.4 36012 ZARNESTI 5.9 36023*COMRAT 0.0 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36023 COMRAT 36023 COMRAT 36038*VULCANESTI 36025*LEOVO 36028*TARECKLIA 36031 CIADYR 36032*CIMISLIA 36038*VULCANESTI 36038*VULCANESTI 34060 HANCESTI

110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005 BESARABEASCA110.00 36032 CIMISLIA 36025 LEOVO 36023 COMRAT 36023 COMRAT 36038*VULCANESTI 36025*LEOVO 36028*TARECKLIA 36031*CIADYR 36032*CIMISLIA 36038*VULCANESTI 36038*VULCANESTI 34060 HANCESTI 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005 BESARABEASCA110.00 36032 CIMISLIA 36025 LEOVO 36023 COMRAT 36023*COMRAT 36038 VULCANESTI 36025*LEOVO 36028*TARECKLIA 36031*CIADYR 36032*CIMISLIA 36038*VULCANESTI 36038*VULCANESTI 34060 HANCESTI 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005 BESARABEASCA110.00 36032 CIMISLIA 36025 LEOVO 36023 COMRAT 36023 COMRAT 36038*VULCANESTI 36025 LEOVO 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

J-3

36023 COMRAT 9 8 5 SINGLE 8 SINGLE 8 SINGLE 8 85.8 84.8 97.2 84.8 84.8 84.8 84.8 97.2 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 85.8 84.8 97.2 84.8 84.8 84.8 84.8 97.2 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 85.8 84.8 97.2 84.8 84.8 84.8 84.8 97.2 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 85.8 84.8 97.2 84.8 3.8 2.8 13.3 3.2 5.6 18.2 9.1 15.1 6.1 4.7 3.8 4.6 2.4 0.0 3.4 12.3 1.2 6.1 18.2 8.6 14.3 5.4 4.4 3.9 3.8 2.0 4.2 0.0 11.7 3.3 7.6 19.3 11.9 2.1 8.7 7.5 2.2 5.7 5.2 5.2 1.4 0.0 5.1 4.4 36023*COMRAT 3.4 36023 COMRAT 13.7 36028 TARECKLIA 13 SINGLE 8 12 SINGLE 8 3 1 2 6 4 SINGLE 9 SINGLE 9 SINGLE 9 SINGLE 9 SINGLE 9 3.7 36031 CIADYR 6.5 34057*CHISINAU 21.2 34057*CHISINAU 10.6 34057*CHISINAU 15.3 34060*HANCESTI 8.4 6.7 36012*ZARNESTI 10 SINGLE 9 14 SINGLE 9 7 9 8 5 SINGLE 9 SINGLE 9 SINGLE 9 SINGLE 9 5.3 36012 ZARNESTI 6.2 36023 COMRAT 3.5 36023*COMRAT 0.0 36023 COMRAT 4.1 36023 COMRAT 12.9 36028*TARECKLIA 13 SINGLE 9 12 SINGLE 9 3 1 2 6 4 SINGLE 10 SINGLE 10 SINGLE 10 SINGLE 10 SINGLE 10 1.4 36031 CIADYR 7.1 34057*CHISINAU 21.2 34057*CHISINAU 10.0 34057*CHISINAU 14.5 34060*HANCESTI 7.4 6.2 36012*ZARNESTI 10 SINGLE 10 14 SINGLE 10 7 9 8 5 SINGLE 10 SINGLE 10 SINGLE 10 SINGLE 10 5.5 36012 ZARNESTI 5.1 36023 COMRAT 2.8 36023 COMRAT 4.9 36023*COMRAT 0.0 36023 COMRAT 12.1 36028 TARECKLIA 13 SINGLE 10 12 SINGLE 10 3 1 2 6 4 SINGLE 11 SINGLE 11 SINGLE 11 SINGLE 11 SINGLE 11 3.8 36031 CIADYR 8.8 34057*CHISINAU 22.5 34057*CHISINAU 13.8 34057*CHISINAU 2.1 34060*HANCESTI 11.9 10.6 36012*ZARNESTI 10 SINGLE 11 14 SINGLE 11 7 9 8 5 SINGLE 11 SINGLE 11 SINGLE 11 SINGLE 11 3.1 36012 ZARNESTI 7.8 36023 COMRAT 7.4 36023 COMRAT 6.0 36023 COMRAT 1.6 36023*COMRAT 0.0 36028 TARECKLIA 13 SINGLE 11 5.9

110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36028*TARECKLIA 36031 CIADYR 36032*CIMISLIA 36038*VULCANESTI 36038*VULCANESTI 34060 HANCESTI

110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005 BESARABEASCA110.00 36032 CIMISLIA 36025 LEOVO 36023 COMRAT 36023 COMRAT 36038*VULCANESTI 36025*LEOVO 36028 TARECKLIA 36031*CIADYR 36032*CIMISLIA 36038 VULCANESTI 36038*VULCANESTI 34060 HANCESTI 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005 BESARABEASCA110.00 36032 CIMISLIA 36025 LEOVO 36023 COMRAT 36023 COMRAT 36038*VULCANESTI 36025*LEOVO 36028*TARECKLIA 36031 CIADYR 36032*CIMISLIA 36038*VULCANESTI 36038*VULCANESTI 34060 HANCESTI 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005 BESARABEASCA110.00 36032 CIMISLIA 36025 LEOVO 36023 COMRAT 36023 COMRAT 36038*VULCANESTI 36025*LEOVO 36028*TARECKLIA 36031*CIADYR 36032 CIMISLIA 36038*VULCANESTI 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

J-4

36031 CIADYR 12 SINGLE 11 3 1 2 6 4 SINGLE 12 SINGLE 12 SINGLE 12 SINGLE 12 SINGLE 12 84.8 84.8 84.8 97.2 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 85.8 84.8 97.2 84.8 84.8 84.8 84.8 97.2 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 85.8 84.8 97.2 84.8 84.8 7.1 18.2 9.2 15.3 6.2 4.9 3.6 4.6 2.6 1.2 3.2 12.6 0.0 6.0 18.1 9.6 16.1 6.7 5.2 3.3 5.0 3.0 5.2 7.4 13.3 4.6 0.0 8.2 34057*CHISINAU 21.2 34057*CHISINAU 10.7 34057*CHISINAU 15.6 34060*HANCESTI 8.5 6.9 36012*ZARNESTI 10 SINGLE 12 14 SINGLE 12 7 9 8 5 SINGLE 12 SINGLE 12 SINGLE 12 SINGLE 12 5.0 36012 ZARNESTI 6.2 36023 COMRAT 3.6 36023 COMRAT 1.4 36023 COMRAT 3.8 36023 COMRAT 13.1 36028*TARECKLIA 13 SINGLE 12 12 SINGLE 12 3 1 2 6 4 SINGLE 13 SINGLE 13 SINGLE 13 SINGLE 13 SINGLE 13 0.0 36031 CIADYR 7.0 34057*CHISINAU 21.1 34057*CHISINAU 11.2 34057*CHISINAU 16.3 34060*HANCESTI 9.2 7.4 36012*ZARNESTI 10 SINGLE 13 14 SINGLE 13 7 9 8 5 SINGLE 13 SINGLE 13 SINGLE 13 SINGLE 13 4.6 36012 ZARNESTI 6.8 36023 COMRAT 4.3 36023 COMRAT 6.0 36023*COMRAT 8.9 36023 COMRAT 13.8 36028 TARECKLIA 13 SINGLE 13 12 SINGLE 13 5.4 36031*CIADYR 0.0 <-------- B U S --------> 34057 CHISINAU 110.00 34060 HANCESTI 110.00 36005 BESARABEASCA110.00 36012 ZARNESTI 110.00 36023 COMRAT 110.00 36025 LEOVO 110.00 36028 TARECKLIA 110.00 36031 CIADYR 110.00 36032 CIMISLIA 110.00 36038 VULCANESTI 110.00 34057 CHISINAU 110.00 34060 HANCESTI 110.00 36005 BESARABEASCA110.00 36012 ZARNESTI 110.00 36023 COMRAT 110.00 36025 LEOVO 110.00 36028 TARECKLIA 110.00 36031 CIADYR 110.00 36032 CIMISLIA 110.00 36038 VULCANESTI 110.00 34057 CHISINAU 110.00 34060 HANCESTI 110.00 36005 BESARABEASCA110.00 36012 ZARNESTI 110.00 36023 COMRAT 110.00 36025 LEOVO 110.00 36028 TARECKLIA 110.00 36031 CIADYR 110.00 36032 CIMISLIA 110.00 36038 VULCANESTI 110.00 MONITORED VOLTAGE REPORT: SYSTEM CONTINGENCY 'SUB ' RANGE BASE CASE 'SUB ' RANGE BASE CASE 'SUB ' RANGE BASE CASE 'SUB ' RANGE BASE CASE 'SUB ' RANGE BASE CASE 'SUB ' RANGE BASE CASE 'SUB ' RANGE BASE CASE 'SUB ' RANGE BASE CASE 'SUB ' RANGE BASE CASE 'SUB ' RANGE BASE CASE 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 1 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 1 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 1 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 1 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 1 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 1 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 1 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 1 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 1 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 1 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 2 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 2 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 2 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 2 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 2 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 2 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 2 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 2 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 2 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 2

110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36038*VULCANESTI 34060 HANCESTI

110.00 110.00

36005 BESARABEASCA110.00 36032 CIMISLIA 36025 LEOVO 36023 COMRAT 36023 COMRAT 36038*VULCANESTI 36025*LEOVO 36028*TARECKLIA 36031*CIADYR 36032*CIMISLIA 36038 VULCANESTI 36038*VULCANESTI 34060 HANCESTI 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005 BESARABEASCA110.00 36032 CIMISLIA 36025 LEOVO 36023 COMRAT 36023 COMRAT 36038*VULCANESTI 36025*LEOVO 36028*TARECKLIA 36031 CIADYR 36032*CIMISLIA 36038*VULCANESTI 36038 VULCANESTI 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

V-CONT 1.01261 1.01153 0.98540 0.99257 0.98351 0.98433 1.00767 0.98233 0.99294 1.01844 1.01040 1.01401 0.98447 0.99227 0.98303 0.98489 1.00742 0.98202 0.99152 1.01831 1.01241 1.01146 0.96797 0.98971 0.97764 0.97997 1.00561 0.97939 0.98902 1.01842

V-INIT 1.01261 1.01153 0.98540 0.99257 0.98351 0.98433 1.00767 0.98233 0.99294 1.01844 1.01261 1.01153 0.98540 0.99257 0.98351 0.98433 1.00767 0.98233 0.99294 1.01844 1.01261 1.01153 0.98540 0.99257 0.98351 0.98433 1.00767 0.98233 0.99294 1.01844

V-MAX 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000

V-MIN 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000

J-5

'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB

' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '

RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE

SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11

34057 34060 36005 36012 36023 36025 36028 36031 36032 36038 34057 34060 36005 36012 36023 36025 36028 36031 36032 36038 34057 34060 36005 36012 36023 36025 36028 36031 36032 36038 34057 34060 36005 36012 36023 36025 36028 36031 36032 36038 34057 34060 36005 36012 36023 36025 36028 36031 36032 36038 34057 34060 36005 36012 36023 36025 36028 36031 36032 36038 34057 34060 36005 36012 36023 36025 36028 36031 36032 36038 34057 34060 36005 36012 36023 36025 36028 36031 36032 36038 34057 34060 36005 36012 36023 36025 36028

CHISINAU 110.00 HANCESTI 110.00 BESARABEASCA110.00 ZARNESTI 110.00 COMRAT 110.00 LEOVO 110.00 TARECKLIA 110.00 CIADYR 110.00 CIMISLIA 110.00 VULCANESTI 110.00 CHISINAU 110.00 HANCESTI 110.00 BESARABEASCA110.00 ZARNESTI 110.00 COMRAT 110.00 LEOVO 110.00 TARECKLIA 110.00 CIADYR 110.00 CIMISLIA 110.00 VULCANESTI 110.00 CHISINAU 110.00 HANCESTI 110.00 BESARABEASCA110.00 ZARNESTI 110.00 COMRAT 110.00 LEOVO 110.00 TARECKLIA 110.00 CIADYR 110.00 CIMISLIA 110.00 VULCANESTI 110.00 CHISINAU 110.00 HANCESTI 110.00 BESARABEASCA110.00 ZARNESTI 110.00 COMRAT 110.00 LEOVO 110.00 TARECKLIA 110.00 CIADYR 110.00 CIMISLIA 110.00 VULCANESTI 110.00 CHISINAU 110.00 HANCESTI 110.00 BESARABEASCA110.00 ZARNESTI 110.00 COMRAT 110.00 LEOVO 110.00 TARECKLIA 110.00 CIADYR 110.00 CIMISLIA 110.00 VULCANESTI 110.00 CHISINAU 110.00 HANCESTI 110.00 BESARABEASCA110.00 ZARNESTI 110.00 COMRAT 110.00 LEOVO 110.00 TARECKLIA 110.00 CIADYR 110.00 CIMISLIA 110.00 VULCANESTI 110.00 CHISINAU 110.00 HANCESTI 110.00 BESARABEASCA110.00 ZARNESTI 110.00 COMRAT 110.00 LEOVO 110.00 TARECKLIA 110.00 CIADYR 110.00 CIMISLIA 110.00 VULCANESTI 110.00 CHISINAU 110.00 HANCESTI 110.00 BESARABEASCA110.00 ZARNESTI 110.00 COMRAT 110.00 LEOVO 110.00 TARECKLIA 110.00 CIADYR 110.00 CIMISLIA 110.00 VULCANESTI 110.00 CHISINAU 110.00 HANCESTI 110.00 BESARABEASCA110.00 ZARNESTI 110.00 COMRAT 110.00 LEOVO 110.00 TARECKLIA 110.00

1.01240 1.01128 0.97301 0.98392 0.96711 0.97217 1.00111 0.97340 0.96196 1.01739 1.01251 1.01185 0.98078 0.98935 0.97730 0.96630 1.00524 0.97901 0.98916 1.01804 1.01239 1.01154 0.98951 0.99281 0.98342 0.98410 1.00800 0.98258 0.99238 1.01900 1.01232 1.01129 0.98395 1.00146 0.98168 0.98308 1.00767 0.98191 0.99203 1.01943 1.01222 1.01127 0.98009 0.95722 0.97650 0.97933 1.00579 0.97927 0.98885 1.01933 1.01264 1.01130 0.98560 0.99286 0.98374 0.98722 1.00798 0.98263 0.99288 1.01879 1.01182 1.01094 0.97796 0.98920 0.97381 0.97749 1.02336 0.97872 0.98749 1.02092 1.01253 1.01144 0.98608 0.99323 0.98446 0.98505 1.00825 0.98133 0.99361 1.01882 1.01268 1.01154 0.97789 0.98755 0.97328 0.97681 1.00402

1.01261 1.01153 0.98540 0.99257 0.98351 0.98433 1.00767 0.98233 0.99294 1.01844 1.01261 1.01153 0.98540 0.99257 0.98351 0.98433 1.00767 0.98233 0.99294 1.01844 1.01261 1.01153 0.98540 0.99257 0.98351 0.98433 1.00767 0.98233 0.99294 1.01844 1.01261 1.01153 0.98540 0.99257 0.98351 0.98433 1.00767 0.98233 0.99294 1.01844 1.01261 1.01153 0.98540 0.99257 0.98351 0.98433 1.00767 0.98233 0.99294 1.01844 1.01261 1.01153 0.98540 0.99257 0.98351 0.98433 1.00767 0.98233 0.99294 1.01844 1.01261 1.01153 0.98540 0.99257 0.98351 0.98433 1.00767 0.98233 0.99294 1.01844 1.01261 1.01153 0.98540 0.99257 0.98351 0.98433 1.00767 0.98233 0.99294 1.01844 1.01261 1.01153 0.98540 0.99257 0.98351 0.98433 1.00767

1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000

0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000

J-6

'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB CONTINGENCY LABEL SINGLE 1 SINGLE 2 SINGLE 3 SINGLE 4 SINGLE 5 SINGLE 6 SINGLE 7 SINGLE 8 SINGLE 9 SINGLE 10 SINGLE 11 SINGLE 12 SINGLE 13

' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' LEGEND: EVENTS : OPEN LINE : OPEN LINE : OPEN LINE : OPEN LINE : OPEN LINE : OPEN LINE : OPEN LINE : OPEN LINE : OPEN LINE : OPEN LINE : OPEN LINE : OPEN LINE : OPEN LINE

RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE

SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE

11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13

36031 36032 36038 34057 34060 36005 36012 36023 36025 36028 36031 36032 36038 34057 34060 36005 36012 36023 36025 36028 36031 36032 36038

CIADYR 110.00 CIMISLIA 110.00 VULCANESTI 110.00 CHISINAU 110.00 HANCESTI 110.00 BESARABEASCA110.00 ZARNESTI 110.00 COMRAT 110.00 LEOVO 110.00 TARECKLIA 110.00 CIADYR 110.00 CIMISLIA 110.00 VULCANESTI 110.00 CHISINAU 110.00 HANCESTI 110.00 BESARABEASCA110.00 ZARNESTI 110.00 COMRAT 110.00 LEOVO 110.00 TARECKLIA 110.00 CIADYR 110.00 CIMISLIA 110.00 VULCANESTI 110.00

0.97715 1.00893 1.01831 1.01200 1.01108 0.97931 0.98973 0.97555 0.97870 0.98042 0.97929 0.98843 1.02033 1.01180 1.01096 0.97618 0.98786 0.97140 0.97573 1.00483 0.93289 0.98598 1.02059

0.98233 0.99294 1.01844 1.01261 1.01153 0.98540 0.99257 0.98351 0.98433 1.00767 0.98233 0.99294 1.01844 1.01261 1.01153 0.98540 0.99257 0.98351 0.98433 1.00767 0.98233 0.99294 1.01844

1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000

0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000

FROM FROM FROM FROM FROM FROM FROM FROM FROM FROM FROM FROM FROM

BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS

34057 34057 34057 34060 36005 36012 36012 36023 36023 36023 36023 36028 36031

[CHISINAU 110.00] [CHISINAU 110.00] [CHISINAU 110.00] [HANCESTI 110.00] [BESARABEASCA110.00] [ZARNESTI 110.00] [ZARNESTI 110.00] [COMRAT 110.00] [COMRAT 110.00] [COMRAT 110.00] [COMRAT 110.00] [TARECKLIA 110.00] [CIADYR 110.00]

TO TO TO TO TO TO TO TO TO TO TO TO TO

BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS

34060 36005 36032 36025 36023 36023 36038 36025 36028 36031 36032 36038 36038

[HANCESTI 110.00] [BESARABEASCA110.00] [CIMISLIA 110.00] [LEOVO 110.00] [COMRAT 110.00] [COMRAT 110.00] [VULCANESTI 110.00] [LEOVO 110.00] [TARECKLIA 110.00] [CIADYR 110.00] [CIMISLIA 110.00] [VULCANESTI 110.00] [VULCANESTI 110.00]

CKT CKT CKT CKT CKT CKT CKT CKT CKT CKT CKT CKT CKT

3 1 2 6 4 10 14 7 9 8 5 13 12

J-7

Table J-1 The busses with maximum and minimum voltage levels from the loading report

Line Tripped No line tripped Chisinau-Hancesti Chisinau -Besarabeasca Chisinau-Cimislia Hancesti-Leovo Besarabeasca-Comrat Zarnesti-Comrat Zarnesti-Vulcanesti Comrat-Leovo Comrat-Tarecklia Comrat-Ciadyr Comrat-Cimislia Tarecklia-Vulcanesti Ciadyr-Vulcanesti

Buss Name Vulcanesti Ciadyr Vulcanesti Ciadyr Vulcanesti Ciadyr Vulcanesti Cimislia Vulcanesti Comrat Vulcanesti Ciadyr Vulcanesti Comrat Vulcanesti Zarnesti Vulcanesti Ciadyr Vulcanesti Comrat Vulcanesti Ciadyr Vulcanesti Comrat Vulcanesti Comrat Vulcanesti Ciadyr

Voltage [p.u.] 1,018 0,982 1,018 0,982 1,018 0,968 1,017 0,962 1,018 0,977 1,019 0,983 1,019 0,981 0,019 0,957 1,019 0,982 1,021 0,973 1,018 0,981 1,018 0,973 1,02 0,976 1,021 0,933

J-8

Appendix K

Base Case Line Diagram with Line Capacities

Load Generator Three winding transformer

Switched shunt
400 kV Line 330 kV Line 110 kV Line Active Power Flow Reactive Power Flow

Line Offline

Figure K-1 One line diagram with line capacities

K-1

Appendix L

Scenario I Overload Report

ACCC OVERLOAD REPORT: MONITORED BRANCHES AND INTERFACES LOADED ABOVE 100.0 % OF RATING SET A % LOADING VALUES ARE % MVA FOR TRANSFORMERS AND % CURRENT FOR NON-TRANSFORMER BRANCHES INCLUDES VOLTAGE REPORT AC CONTINGENCY RESULTS FILE: Accc.acc DISTRIBUTION FACTOR FILE: Dfx.dfx SUBSYSTEM DESCRIPTION FILE: Sub.sub MONITORED ELEMENT FILE: Mon.mon CONTINGENCY DESCRIPTION FILE: Cont.con **PERCENT LOADING UNITS** %MVA FOR TRANSFORMERS % I FOR NON-TRANSFORMER BRANCHES **OPTIONS USED IN CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS** Solution engine: Full Newton-Raphson (FNSL) Solution options Tap adjustment: Stepping Area interchange control: Disable Phase shift adjustment: Disable Dc tap adjustment: Disable Switch shunt adjustment: Lock all Non diverge: Enable Mismatch tolerance (MW ): ************************** Dispatch mode: Disable

Violation with generators set at: ('genA = ', 61, ' genB = ', 0, ' genC = ', 0, ' genD = ', 0, ' genE = ', 0) <---------------- MULTI-SECTION LINE ----------------> <----------------- MONITORED BRANCH -----------------> CONTINGENCY RATING MONITORED VOLTAGE REPORT: SYSTEM CONTINGENCY <-------- B U S --------> V-CONT V-INIT V-MAX V-MIN 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 2 36005 BESARABEASCA110.00 1.10054 1.07221 1.10000 0.90000 FLOW %

Violation with generators set at: ('genA = ', 0, ' genB = ', 26, ' genC = ', 0, ' genD = ', 0, ' genE = ', 0) <---------------- MULTI-SECTION LINE ----------------> <----------------- MONITORED BRANCH -----------------> CONTINGENCY RATING MONITORED VOLTAGE REPORT: SYSTEM CONTINGENCY <-------- B U S --------> V-CONT V-INIT V-MAX V-MIN 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 6 36012 ZARNESTI 110.00 1.10092 1.05221 1.10000 0.90000 FLOW %

Violation with generators set at: ('genA = ', 0, ' genB = ', 0, ' genC = ', 31, ' genD = ', 0, ' genE = ', 0) <---------------- MULTI-SECTION LINE ----------------> <----------------- MONITORED BRANCH -----------------> CONTINGENCY RATING MONITORED VOLTAGE REPORT: SYSTEM CONTINGENCY <-------- B U S --------> V-CONT V-INIT V-MAX V-MIN 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 8 36025 LEOVO 110.00 1.10125 1.03956 1.10000 0.90000 FLOW %

Violation with generators set at: ('genA = ', 0, ' genB = ', 0, ' genC = ', 0, ' genD = ', 85, ' genE = ', 0) <---------------- MULTI-SECTION LINE ----------------> <----------------- MONITORED BRANCH -----------------> CONTINGENCY RATING MONITORED VOLTAGE REPORT: SYSTEM CONTINGENCY <-------- B U S --------> V-CONT V-INIT V-MAX V-MIN FLOW %

L-1

'SUB

'

RANGE SINGLE 13

36023 COMRAT

110.00 0.89329 1.00134 1.10000 0.90000

Violation with generators set at: ('genA = ', 0, ' genB = ', 0, ' genC = ', 0, ' genD = ', 0, ' genE = ', 103) <---------------- MULTI-SECTION LINE ----------------> <----------------- MONITORED BRANCH -----------------> CONTINGENCY RATING 36023 COMRAT 110.00 36032*CIMISLIA 110.00 5 SINGLE 3 97.2 100.6 102.6 MONITORED VOLTAGE REPORT: SYSTEM CONTINGENCY <-------- B U S --------> V-CONT V-INIT V-MAX V-MIN FLOW %

CONTINGENCY LEGEND: LABEL EVENTS SINGLE 1 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 34057 [CHISINAU 110.00] TO BUS 34060 [HANCESTI 110.00] CKT 3 SINGLE 2 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 34057 [CHISINAU 110.00] TO BUS 36005 [BESARABEASCA110.00] CKT 1 SINGLE 3 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 34057 [CHISINAU 110.00] TO BUS 36032 [CIMISLIA 110.00] CKT 2 SINGLE 4 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 34060 [HANCESTI 110.00] TO BUS 36025 [LEOVO 110.00] CKT 6 SINGLE 5 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36005 [BESARABEASCA110.00] TO BUS 36023 [COMRAT 110.00] CKT 4 SINGLE 6 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36012 [ZARNESTI 110.00] TO BUS 36023 [COMRAT 110.00] CKT 10 SINGLE 7 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36012 [ZARNESTI 110.00] TO BUS 36038 [VULCANESTI 110.00] CKT 14 SINGLE 8 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36023 [COMRAT 110.00] TO BUS 36025 [LEOVO 110.00] CKT 7 SINGLE 9 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36023 [COMRAT 110.00] TO BUS 36028 [TARECKLIA 110.00] CKT 9 SINGLE 10 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36023 [COMRAT 110.00] TO BUS 36031 [CIADYR 110.00] CKT 8 SINGLE 11 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36023 [COMRAT 110.00] TO BUS 36032 [CIMISLIA 110.00] CKT 5 SINGLE 12 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36028 [TARECKLIA 110.00] TO BUS 36038 [VULCANESTI 110.00] CKT 13 SINGLE 13 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36031 [CIADYR 110.00] TO BUS 36038 [VULCANESTI 110.00] CKT 12

L-2

Appendix M

Scenario I Reactive Power Compensation Overload Report

ACCC OVERLOAD REPORT: MONITORED BRANCHES AND INTERFACES LOADED ABOVE 100.0 % OF RATING SET A % LOADING VALUES ARE % MVA FOR TRANSFORMERS AND % CURRENT FOR NON-TRANSFORMER BRANCHES INCLUDES VOLTAGE REPORT AC CONTINGENCY RESULTS FILE: Accc.acc DISTRIBUTION FACTOR FILE: Dfx.dfx SUBSYSTEM DESCRIPTION FILE: Sub.sub MONITORED ELEMENT FILE: Mon.mon CONTINGENCY DESCRIPTION FILE: Cont.con **PERCENT LOADING UNITS** %MVA FOR TRANSFORMERS % I FOR NON-TRANSFORMER BRANCHES **OPTIONS USED IN CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS** Solution engine: Full Newton-Raphson (FNSL) Solution options Tap adjustment: Stepping Area interchange control: Disable Phase shift adjustment: Disable Dc tap adjustment: Disable Switch shunt adjustment: Lock all Non diverge: Enable Mismatch tolerance (MW ): ************************** Dispatch mode: Disable

Violation with generators set at: ('genA = ', 75, ' genB = ', 0, ' genC = ', 0, ' genD = ', 0, ' genE = ', 0) <---------------- MULTI-SECTION LINE ----------------> <----------------- MONITORED BRANCH -----------------> CONTINGENCY RATING 36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 36023 COMRAT 110.00 4 SINGLE 2 72.4 72.5 100.2 MONITORED VOLTAGE REPORT: SYSTEM CONTINGENCY <-------- B U S --------> V-CONT V-INIT V-MAX V-MIN FLOW %

Violation with generators set at: ('genA = ', 0, ' genB = ', 79, ' genC = ', 0, ' genD = ', 0, ' genE = ', 0) <---------------- MULTI-SECTION LINE ----------------> <----------------- MONITORED BRANCH -----------------> CONTINGENCY RATING 36012*ZARNESTI 110.00 36038 VULCANESTI 110.00 14 SINGLE 6 72.4 73.0 100.9 36012*ZARNESTI 110.00 36023 COMRAT 110.00 10 SINGLE 7 72.4 72.6 100.2 MONITORED VOLTAGE REPORT: SYSTEM CONTINGENCY <-------- B U S --------> V-CONT V-INIT V-MAX V-MIN FLOW %

Violation with generators set at: ('genA = ', 0, ' genB = ', 0, ' genC = ', 75, ' genD = ', 0, ' genE = ', 0) <---------------- MULTI-SECTION LINE ----------------> <----------------- MONITORED BRANCH -----------------> CONTINGENCY RATING 36023 COMRAT 110.00 36025*LEOVO 110.00 7 SINGLE 4 72.4 72.9 100.7 34060 HANCESTI 110.00 36025*LEOVO 110.00 6 SINGLE 8 72.4 72.5 100.2 MONITORED VOLTAGE REPORT: SYSTEM CONTINGENCY <-------- B U S --------> V-CONT V-INIT V-MAX V-MIN FLOW %

Violation with generators set at: ('genA = ', 0, ' genB = ', 0, ' genC = ', 0, ' genD = ', 92, ' genE = ', 0) <---------------- MULTI-SECTION LINE ----------------> <----------------- MONITORED BRANCH -----------------> CONTINGENCY RATING 36031*CIADYR 110.00 36038 VULCANESTI 110.00 12 SINGLE 10 84.8 85.1 100.4 FLOW %

M-1

36023 COMRAT

110.00 36031*CIADYR

110.00 8 SINGLE 13

84.8

84.9 100.1

MONITORED VOLTAGE REPORT: SYSTEM CONTINGENCY <-------- B U S --------> V-CONT V-INIT V-MAX V-MIN

Violation with generators set at: ('genA = ', 0, ' genB = ', 0, ' genC = ', 0, ' genD = ', 0, ' genE = ', 99) <---------------- MULTI-SECTION LINE ----------------> <----------------- MONITORED BRANCH -----------------> CONTINGENCY RATING 36023 COMRAT 110.00 36032*CIMISLIA 110.00 5 SINGLE 3 97.2 97.3 100.1 34057*CHISINAU 110.00 36032 CIMISLIA 110.00 2 SINGLE 11 97.2 97.6 100.4 MONITORED VOLTAGE REPORT: SYSTEM CONTINGENCY <-------- B U S --------> V-CONT V-INIT V-MAX V-MIN FLOW %

CONTINGENCY LEGEND: LABEL EVENTS SINGLE 1 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 34057 [CHISINAU 110.00] TO BUS 34060 [HANCESTI 110.00] CKT 3 SINGLE 2 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 34057 [CHISINAU 110.00] TO BUS 36005 [BESARABEASCA110.00] CKT 1 SINGLE 3 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 34057 [CHISINAU 110.00] TO BUS 36032 [CIMISLIA 110.00] CKT 2 SINGLE 4 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 34060 [HANCESTI 110.00] TO BUS 36025 [LEOVO 110.00] CKT 6 SINGLE 5 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36005 [BESARABEASCA110.00] TO BUS 36023 [COMRAT 110.00] CKT 4 SINGLE 6 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36012 [ZARNESTI 110.00] TO BUS 36023 [COMRAT 110.00] CKT 10 SINGLE 7 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36012 [ZARNESTI 110.00] TO BUS 36038 [VULCANESTI 110.00] CKT 14 SINGLE 8 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36023 [COMRAT 110.00] TO BUS 36025 [LEOVO 110.00] CKT 7 SINGLE 9 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36023 [COMRAT 110.00] TO BUS 36028 [TARECKLIA 110.00] CKT 9 SINGLE 10 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36023 [COMRAT 110.00] TO BUS 36031 [CIADYR 110.00] CKT 8 SINGLE 11 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36023 [COMRAT 110.00] TO BUS 36032 [CIMISLIA 110.00] CKT 5 SINGLE 12 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36028 [TARECKLIA 110.00] TO BUS 36038 [VULCANESTI 110.00] CKT 13 SINGLE 13 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36031 [CIADYR 110.00] TO BUS 36038 [VULCANESTI 110.00] CKT 12

Appendix N

Scenario II - Overload Report

ACCC OVERLOAD REPORT: MONITORED BRANCHES AND INTERFACES LOADED ABOVE 100.0 % OF RATING SET A % LOADING VALUES ARE % MVA FOR TRANSFORMERS AND % CURRENT FOR NON-TRANSFORMER BRANCHES INCLUDES VOLTAGE REPORT AC CONTINGENCY RESULTS FILE: Accc.acc DISTRIBUTION FACTOR FILE: Dfx.dfx SUBSYSTEM DESCRIPTION FILE: Sub.sub MONITORED ELEMENT FILE: Mon.mon CONTINGENCY DESCRIPTION FILE: Cont.con **PERCENT LOADING UNITS** %MVA FOR TRANSFORMERS % I FOR NON-TRANSFORMER BRANCHES **OPTIONS USED IN CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS** Solution engine: Full Newton-Raphson (FNSL) Solution options Tap adjustment: Stepping Area interchange control: Disable Phase shift adjustment: Disable Dc tap adjustment: Disable Switch shunt adjustment: Lock all Non diverge: Enable Mismatch tolerance (MW ): ************************** Dispatch mode: Disable

Violation with generators set at: ('genA = ', 30, ' genB = ', 14, ' genC = ', 28, ' genD = ', 84, ' genE = ', 102) <---------------- MULTI-SECTION LINE ----------------> <----------------- MONITORED BRANCH -----------------> CONTINGENCY RATING MONITORED VOLTAGE REPORT: SYSTEM CONTINGENCY <-------- B U S --------> V-CONT V-INIT V-MAX V-MIN FLOW %

N-2

'SUB

'

RANGE SINGLE 2

36005 BESARABEASCA110.00 1.10031 1.06269 1.10000 0.90000

Violation with generators set at: ('genA = ', 29, ' genB = ', 15, ' genC = ', 28, ' genD = ', 84, ' genE = ', 102) <---------------- MULTI-SECTION LINE ----------------> <----------------- MONITORED BRANCH -----------------> CONTINGENCY RATING MONITORED VOLTAGE REPORT: SYSTEM CONTINGENCY <-------- B U S --------> V-CONT V-INIT V-MAX V-MIN 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 7 36012 ZARNESTI 110.00 1.10294 1.04131 1.10000 0.90000 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 11 36031 CIADYR 110.00 1.10011 1.09693 1.10000 0.90000 FLOW %

Violation with generators set at: ('genA = ', 29, ' genB = ', 14, ' genC = ', 29, ' genD = ', 84, ' genE = ', 102) <---------------- MULTI-SECTION LINE ----------------> <----------------- MONITORED BRANCH -----------------> CONTINGENCY RATING MONITORED VOLTAGE REPORT: SYSTEM CONTINGENCY <-------- B U S --------> V-CONT V-INIT V-MAX V-MIN 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 11 36031 CIADYR 110.00 1.10006 1.09685 1.10000 0.90000 FLOW %

Violation with generators set at: ('genA = ', 29, ' genB = ', 14, ' genC = ', 28, ' genD = ', 85, ' genE = ', 102) <---------------- MULTI-SECTION LINE ----------------> <----------------- MONITORED BRANCH -----------------> CONTINGENCY RATING MONITORED VOLTAGE REPORT: SYSTEM CONTINGENCY <-------- B U S --------> V-CONT V-INIT V-MAX V-MIN 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 11 36031 CIADYR 110.00 1.10027 1.09717 1.10000 0.90000 FLOW %

Violation with generators set at: ('genA = ', 29, ' genB = ', 14, ' genC = ', 28, ' genD = ', 84, ' genE = ', 103) <---------------- MULTI-SECTION LINE ----------------> <----------------- MONITORED BRANCH -----------------> CONTINGENCY RATING 36023 COMRAT 110.00 36032*CIMISLIA 110.00 5 SINGLE 3 97.2 100.6 100.6 MONITORED VOLTAGE REPORT: SYSTEM CONTINGENCY <-------- B U S --------> V-CONT V-INIT V-MAX V-MIN FLOW %

CONTINGENCY LEGEND: LABEL EVENTS SINGLE 1 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 34057 [CHISINAU 110.00] TO BUS 34060 [HANCESTI 110.00] CKT 3 SINGLE 2 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 34057 [CHISINAU 110.00] TO BUS 36005 [BESARABEASCA110.00] CKT 1 SINGLE 3 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 34057 [CHISINAU 110.00] TO BUS 36032 [CIMISLIA 110.00] CKT 2 SINGLE 4 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 34060 [HANCESTI 110.00] TO BUS 36025 [LEOVO 110.00] CKT 6 SINGLE 5 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36005 [BESARABEASCA110.00] TO BUS 36023 [COMRAT 110.00] CKT 4 SINGLE 6 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36012 [ZARNESTI 110.00] TO BUS 36023 [COMRAT 110.00] CKT 10 SINGLE 7 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36012 [ZARNESTI 110.00] TO BUS 36038 [VULCANESTI 110.00] CKT 14 SINGLE 8 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36023 [COMRAT 110.00] TO BUS 36025 [LEOVO 110.00] CKT 7 SINGLE 9 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36023 [COMRAT 110.00] TO BUS 36028 [TARECKLIA 110.00] CKT 9 SINGLE 10 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36023 [COMRAT 110.00] TO BUS 36031 [CIADYR 110.00] CKT 8 SINGLE 11 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36023 [COMRAT 110.00] TO BUS 36032 [CIMISLIA 110.00] CKT 5 SINGLE 12 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36028 [TARECKLIA 110.00] TO BUS 36038 [VULCANESTI 110.00] CKT 13 SINGLE 13 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36031 [CIADYR 110.00] TO BUS 36038 [VULCANESTI 110.00] CKT 12

Appendix O

Scenario II Reactive Power Compensation Overload Report

ACCC OVERLOAD REPORT: MONITORED BRANCHES AND INTERFACES LOADED ABOVE 100.0 % OF RATING SET A % LOADING VALUES ARE % MVA FOR TRANSFORMERS AND % CURRENT FOR NON-TRANSFORMER BRANCHES INCLUDES VOLTAGE REPORT AC CONTINGENCY RESULTS FILE: Accc.acc DISTRIBUTION FACTOR FILE: Dfx.dfx SUBSYSTEM DESCRIPTION FILE: Sub.sub MONITORED ELEMENT FILE: Mon.mon

O-2

CONTINGENCY DESCRIPTION FILE: Cont.con **PERCENT LOADING UNITS** %MVA FOR TRANSFORMERS % I FOR NON-TRANSFORMER BRANCHES **OPTIONS USED IN CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS** Solution engine: Full Newton-Raphson (FNSL) Solution options Tap adjustment: Stepping Area interchange control: Disable Phase shift adjustment: Disable Dc tap adjustment: Disable Switch shunt adjustment: Lock all Non diverge: Enable Mismatch tolerance (MW ): ************************** Dispatch mode: Disable

Violation with generators set at: ('genA = ', 57, ' genB = ', 68, ' genC = ', 68, ' genD = ', 91, ' genE = ', 72) <---------------- MULTI-SECTION LINE ----------------> <----------------- MONITORED BRANCH -----------------> CONTINGENCY RATING MONITORED VOLTAGE REPORT: SYSTEM CONTINGENCY <-------- B U S --------> V-CONT V-INIT V-MAX V-MIN 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 3 36028 TARECKLIA 110.00 0.89946 0.94045 1.10000 0.90000 FLOW %

Violation with generators set at: ('genA = ', 56, ' genB = ', 69, ' genC = ', 68, ' genD = ', 91, ' genE = ', 72) <---------------- MULTI-SECTION LINE ----------------> <----------------- MONITORED BRANCH -----------------> CONTINGENCY RATING MONITORED VOLTAGE REPORT: SYSTEM CONTINGENCY <-------- B U S --------> V-CONT V-INIT V-MAX V-MIN 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 3 36028 TARECKLIA 110.00 0.89942 0.94036 1.10000 0.90000 FLOW %

Violation with generators set at: ('genA = ', 56, ' genB = ', 68, ' genC = ', 69, ' genD = ', 91, ' genE = ', 72) <---------------- MULTI-SECTION LINE ----------------> <----------------- MONITORED BRANCH -----------------> CONTINGENCY RATING MONITORED VOLTAGE REPORT: SYSTEM CONTINGENCY <-------- B U S --------> V-CONT V-INIT V-MAX V-MIN 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 3 36028 TARECKLIA 110.00 0.89951 0.94047 1.10000 0.90000 FLOW %

Violation with generators set at: ('genA = ', 56, ' genB = ', 68, ' genC = ', 68, ' genD = ', 92, ' genE = ', 72) <---------------- MULTI-SECTION LINE ----------------> <----------------- MONITORED BRANCH -----------------> CONTINGENCY RATING 36031*CIADYR 110.00 36038 VULCANESTI 110.00 12 SINGLE 10 84.8 84.9 100.1 36023 COMRAT 110.00 36031*CIADYR 110.00 8 SINGLE 13 84.8 84.9 100.1 MONITORED VOLTAGE REPORT: SYSTEM CONTINGENCY <-------- B U S --------> V-CONT V-INIT V-MAX V-MIN 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 3 36028 TARECKLIA 110.00 0.89942 0.94036 1.10000 0.90000 FLOW %

Violation with generators set at: ('genA = ', 56, ' genB = ', 68, ' genC = ', 68, ' genD = ', 91, ' genE = ', 73) <---------------- MULTI-SECTION LINE ----------------> <----------------- MONITORED BRANCH -----------------> CONTINGENCY RATING MONITORED VOLTAGE REPORT: SYSTEM CONTINGENCY <-------- B U S --------> V-CONT V-INIT V-MAX V-MIN 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 3 36028 TARECKLIA 110.00 0.89934 0.94057 1.10000 0.90000 FLOW %

O-2

CONTINGENCY LEGEND: LABEL EVENTS SINGLE 1 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 34057 [CHISINAU 110.00] TO BUS 34060 [HANCESTI 110.00] CKT 3 SINGLE 2 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 34057 [CHISINAU 110.00] TO BUS 36005 [BESARABEASCA110.00] CKT 1 SINGLE 3 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 34057 [CHISINAU 110.00] TO BUS 36032 [CIMISLIA 110.00] CKT 2 SINGLE 4 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 34060 [HANCESTI 110.00] TO BUS 36025 [LEOVO 110.00] CKT 6 SINGLE 5 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36005 [BESARABEASCA110.00] TO BUS 36023 [COMRAT 110.00] CKT 4 SINGLE 6 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36012 [ZARNESTI 110.00] TO BUS 36023 [COMRAT 110.00] CKT 10 SINGLE 7 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36012 [ZARNESTI 110.00] TO BUS 36038 [VULCANESTI 110.00] CKT 14 SINGLE 8 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36023 [COMRAT 110.00] TO BUS 36025 [LEOVO 110.00] CKT 7 SINGLE 9 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36023 [COMRAT 110.00] TO BUS 36028 [TARECKLIA 110.00] CKT 9 SINGLE 10 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36023 [COMRAT 110.00] TO BUS 36031 [CIADYR 110.00] CKT 8 SINGLE 11 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36023 [COMRAT 110.00] TO BUS 36032 [CIMISLIA 110.00] CKT 5 SINGLE 12 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36028 [TARECKLIA 110.00] TO BUS 36038 [VULCANESTI 110.00] CKT 13 SINGLE 13 : OPEN LINE FROM BUS 36031 [CIADYR 110.00] TO BUS 36038 [VULCANESTI 110.00] CKT 12

O-3

Appendix P

Scenario II Contingency Loading Report


% CURRENT FOR NON-TRANSFORMER

ACCC LOADING REPORT: MONITORED BRANCHES AND INTERFACES USING RATING SET A % LOADING VALUES ARE % MVA FOR TRANSFORMERS AND BRANCHES INCLUDES VOLTAGE REPORT AC CONTINGENCY RESULTS FILE: DISTRIBUTION FACTOR FILE: SUBSYSTEM DESCRIPTION FILE: MONITORED ELEMENT FILE: CONTINGENCY DESCRIPTION FILE: CONTINGENCYALLA.acc C:\Users\Joel\Desktop\Testfiler\Dfx.dfx C:\Users\Joel\Desktop\Testfiler\Sub.sub C:\Users\Joel\Desktop\Testfiler\Mon.mon C:\Users\Joel\Desktop\Testfiler\Cont.con

**PERCENT LOADING UNITS** %MVA FOR TRANSFORMERS % I FOR NON-TRANSFORMER BRANCHES **OPTIONS USED IN CONTINGENCY Solution engine: Solution options Tap adjustment: Area interchange control: Phase shift adjustment: Dc tap adjustment: Switch shunt adjustment: Non diverge: Mismatch tolerance (MW ): Dispatch mode: ANALYSIS** Full Newton-Raphson (FNSL) Stepping Disable Disable Enable Enable all Disable 0.5 Disable

<---------------- MULTI-SECTION LINE ----------------> <----------------- MONITORED BRANCH ----------------> CONTINGENCY RATING FLOW % 34057 CHISINAU 110.00 34060*HANCESTI 110.00 3 BASE CASE 84.8 23.3 27.3 34057 CHISINAU 110.00 36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 1 BASE CASE 84.8 19.4 21.5 34057 CHISINAU 110.00 36032*CIMISLIA 110.00 2 BASE CASE 97.2 69.7 66.5 34060 HANCESTI 110.00 36025*LEOVO 110.00 6 BASE CASE 72.4 28.4 36.8 36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 36023 COMRAT 110.00 4 BASE CASE 72.4 5.4 7.1 36012 ZARNESTI 110.00 36023*COMRAT 110.00 10 BASE CASE 72.4 11.1 14.5 36012*ZARNESTI 110.00 36038 VULCANESTI 110.00 14 BASE CASE 72.4 17.9 23.8 36023 COMRAT 110.00 36025*LEOVO 110.00 7 BASE CASE 72.4 3.9 5.0 36023*COMRAT 110.00 36028 TARECKLIA 110.00 9 BASE CASE 85.8 27.8 30.8 36023 COMRAT 110.00 36031*CIADYR 110.00 8 BASE CASE 84.8 19.4 20.9 36023 COMRAT 110.00 36032*CIMISLIA 110.00 5 BASE CASE 97.2 30.0 28.7 36028*TARECKLIA 110.00 36038 VULCANESTI 110.00 13 BASE CASE 84.8 26.0 30.2 36031*CIADYR 110.00 36038 VULCANESTI 110.00 12 BASE CASE 84.8 57.5 61.8 34057*CHISINAU 110.00 34060 HANCESTI 110.00 3 SINGLE 1 84.8 0.0 0.0 34057 CHISINAU 110.00 36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 1 SINGLE 1 84.8 19.1 21.2 34057 CHISINAU 110.00 36032*CIMISLIA 110.00 2 SINGLE 1 97.2 69.1 66.0 34060 HANCESTI 110.00 36025*LEOVO 110.00 6 SINGLE 1 72.4 29.1 37.8 36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 36023 COMRAT 110.00 4 SINGLE 1 72.4 5.8 7.5 36012 ZARNESTI 110.00 36023*COMRAT 110.00 10 SINGLE 1 72.4 11.2 14.6 36012*ZARNESTI 110.00 36038 VULCANESTI 110.00 14 SINGLE 1 72.4 18.0 23.9 36023 COMRAT 110.00 36025*LEOVO 110.00 7 SINGLE 1 72.4 4.6 6.0 36023*COMRAT 110.00 36028 TARECKLIA 110.00 9 SINGLE 1 85.8 28.0 31.0 36023 COMRAT 110.00 36031*CIADYR 110.00 8 SINGLE 1 84.8 19.3 20.8 36023 COMRAT 110.00 36032*CIMISLIA 110.00 5 SINGLE 1 97.2 30.7 29.3 36028*TARECKLIA 110.00 36038 VULCANESTI 110.00 13 SINGLE 1 84.8 26.1 30.4 36031*CIADYR 110.00 36038 VULCANESTI 110.00 12 SINGLE 1 84.8 57.6 62.0

P-1

34057 CHISINAU 3 1 2 6 4 SINGLE 2 SINGLE 2 SINGLE 2 SINGLE 2 SINGLE 2 84.8 84.8 97.2 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 85.8 84.8 97.2 84.8 84.8 84.8 84.8 97.2 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 85.8 84.8 97.2 84.8 84.8 84.8 84.8 97.2 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 85.8 84.8 97.2 84.8 84.8 84.8 84.8 97.2 72.4 21.9 0.0 76.0 32.0 24.8 13.2 20.0 6.1 32.1 16.7 23.7 29.8 60.2 18.0 34.0 0.0 42.4 11.1 19.4 25.6 18.1 43.2 9.5 99.6 41.8 68.0 27.2 24.2 78.5 0.0 1.5 14.4 21.1 27.5 34.3 15.2 21.1 31.9 61.7 23.6 24.9 67.9 27.3 25.7 34057*CHISINAU 0.0 34057 CHISINAU 72.5 34060 HANCESTI 41.4 31.2 36012 ZARNESTI 10 SINGLE 2 14 SINGLE 2 7 9 8 5 SINGLE 2 SINGLE 2 SINGLE 2 SINGLE 2 17.3 36012*ZARNESTI 26.6 36023 COMRAT 7.9 36023*COMRAT 35.3 36023 COMRAT 18.0 36023 COMRAT 22.6 36028*TARECKLIA 13 SINGLE 2 12 SINGLE 2 3 1 2 6 4 SINGLE 3 SINGLE 3 SINGLE 3 SINGLE 3 SINGLE 3 34.7 36031*CIADYR 64.8 34057*CHISINAU 21.2 34057*CHISINAU 40.1 34057*CHISINAU 0.0 34060*HANCESTI 58.8 15.7 36012 ZARNESTI 10 SINGLE 3 14 SINGLE 3 7 9 8 5 SINGLE 3 SINGLE 3 SINGLE 3 SINGLE 3 27.7 36012*ZARNESTI 36.8 36023 COMRAT 25.3 36023*COMRAT 52.1 36023 COMRAT 11.0 36023 COMRAT 99.1 36028 TARECKLIA 13 SINGLE 3 12 SINGLE 3 3 1 2 6 4 SINGLE 4 SINGLE 4 SINGLE 4 SINGLE 4 SINGLE 4 51.4 36031*CIADYR 79.0 34057 CHISINAU 31.9 34057 CHISINAU 27.1 34057 CHISINAU 75.5 34060*HANCESTI 0.0 1.9 36012 ZARNESTI 10 SINGLE 4 14 SINGLE 4 7 9 8 5 SINGLE 4 SINGLE 4 SINGLE 4 SINGLE 4 19.0 36012*ZARNESTI 28.3 36023 COMRAT 34.7 36023*COMRAT 38.1 36023 COMRAT 16.5 36023 COMRAT 20.3 36028*TARECKLIA 13 SINGLE 4 12 SINGLE 4 3 1 2 6 SINGLE 5 SINGLE 5 SINGLE 5 SINGLE 5 37.6 36031*CIADYR 67.1 34057 CHISINAU 27.8 34057 CHISINAU 27.4 34057 CHISINAU 64.9 34060 HANCESTI 35.5

110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

34060*HANCESTI

110.00

36005 BESARABEASCA110.00 36032*CIMISLIA 36025*LEOVO 36023 COMRAT 36023*COMRAT 36038 VULCANESTI 36025*LEOVO 36028 TARECKLIA 36031*CIADYR 36032*CIMISLIA 36038 VULCANESTI 36038 VULCANESTI 34060 HANCESTI 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005 BESARABEASCA110.00 36032 CIMISLIA 36025 LEOVO 36023 COMRAT 36023*COMRAT 36038 VULCANESTI 36025*LEOVO 36028 TARECKLIA 36031*CIADYR 36032*CIMISLIA 36038*VULCANESTI 36038 VULCANESTI 34060*HANCESTI 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 36032*CIMISLIA 36025 LEOVO 36023 COMRAT 36023*COMRAT 36038 VULCANESTI 36025*LEOVO 36028 TARECKLIA 36031*CIADYR 36032*CIMISLIA 36038 VULCANESTI 36038 VULCANESTI 34060*HANCESTI 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 36032*CIMISLIA 36025*LEOVO 110.00 110.00

P-2

36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 4 SINGLE 5 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 85.8 84.8 97.2 84.8 84.8 84.8 84.8 97.2 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 85.8 84.8 97.2 84.8 84.8 84.8 84.8 97.2 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 85.8 84.8 97.2 84.8 84.8 84.8 84.8 97.2 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 0.0 10.5 17.3 3.7 26.6 20.2 31.8 24.8 56.7 23.4 20.9 72.5 30.1 3.9 0.0 7.7 4.9 30.9 17.4 27.2 28.9 59.6 23.5 22.0 74.2 31.3 2.9 7.8 0.0 5.5 33.1 16.0 25.5 30.8 60.9 23.4 19.5 70.0 27.5 5.4 11.2 18.0 0.0 0.0 36012 ZARNESTI 10 SINGLE 5 14 SINGLE 5 7 9 8 5 SINGLE 5 SINGLE 5 SINGLE 5 SINGLE 5 13.8 36012*ZARNESTI 23.0 36023 COMRAT 4.9 36023*COMRAT 29.5 36023 COMRAT 21.7 36023 COMRAT 30.4 36028*TARECKLIA 13 SINGLE 5 12 SINGLE 5 3 1 2 6 4 SINGLE 6 SINGLE 6 SINGLE 6 SINGLE 6 SINGLE 6 28.9 36031*CIADYR 61.0 34057 CHISINAU 27.5 34057 CHISINAU 23.3 34057 CHISINAU 69.3 34060 HANCESTI 39.1 36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 5.1 36012*ZARNESTI 10 SINGLE 6 14 SINGLE 6 7 9 8 5 SINGLE 6 SINGLE 6 SINGLE 6 SINGLE 6 0.0 36012*ZARNESTI 10.2 36023 COMRAT 6.3 36023*COMRAT 34.2 36023 COMRAT 18.7 36023 COMRAT 26.0 36028*TARECKLIA 13 SINGLE 6 12 SINGLE 6 3 1 2 6 4 SINGLE 7 SINGLE 7 SINGLE 7 SINGLE 7 SINGLE 7 33.6 36031*CIADYR 64.1 34057 CHISINAU 27.6 34057 CHISINAU 24.3 34057 CHISINAU 70.8 34060 HANCESTI 40.5 36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 3.7 36012*ZARNESTI 10 SINGLE 7 14 SINGLE 7 7 9 8 5 SINGLE 7 SINGLE 7 SINGLE 7 SINGLE 7 9.8 36012*ZARNESTI 0.0 36023 COMRAT 7.1 36023*COMRAT 36.4 36023 COMRAT 17.2 36023 COMRAT 24.3 36028*TARECKLIA 13 SINGLE 7 12 SINGLE 7 3 1 2 6 4 SINGLE 8 SINGLE 8 SINGLE 8 SINGLE 8 SINGLE 8 35.9 36031*CIADYR 65.5 34057 CHISINAU 27.5 34057 CHISINAU 21.8 34057 CHISINAU 67.2 34060 HANCESTI 34.6 36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 7.1 36012 ZARNESTI 10 SINGLE 8 14 SINGLE 8 7 SINGLE 8 14.9 36012*ZARNESTI 24.0 36023*COMRAT 0.0 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36023 COMRAT 36023*COMRAT 36038 VULCANESTI 36025*LEOVO 36028 TARECKLIA 36031*CIADYR 36032*CIMISLIA 36038 VULCANESTI 36038 VULCANESTI 34060*HANCESTI

110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 36032*CIMISLIA 36025*LEOVO 36023 COMRAT 36023 COMRAT 36038 VULCANESTI 36025*LEOVO 36028 TARECKLIA 36031*CIADYR 36032*CIMISLIA 36038 VULCANESTI 36038 VULCANESTI 34060*HANCESTI 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 36032*CIMISLIA 36025*LEOVO 36023 COMRAT 36023 COMRAT 36038 VULCANESTI 36025*LEOVO 36028 TARECKLIA 36031*CIADYR 36032*CIMISLIA 36038 VULCANESTI 36038 VULCANESTI 34060*HANCESTI 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 36032*CIMISLIA 36025*LEOVO 36023 COMRAT 36023*COMRAT 36038 VULCANESTI 36025 LEOVO 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

P-3

36023*COMRAT 9 8 5 SINGLE 8 SINGLE 8 SINGLE 8 85.8 84.8 97.2 84.8 84.8 84.8 84.8 97.2 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 85.8 84.8 97.2 84.8 84.8 84.8 84.8 97.2 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 85.8 84.8 97.2 84.8 84.8 84.8 84.8 97.2 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 85.8 84.8 97.2 84.8 28.0 19.3 29.6 26.2 57.7 23.7 24.0 77.8 33.6 0.8 15.9 22.5 7.2 0.0 13.4 22.1 1.2 63.5 23.0 16.5 64.7 25.1 8.3 8.3 15.4 4.4 22.7 0.0 35.0 21.0 76.9 25.4 13.2 99.6 21.8 11.8 7.1 14.0 6.2 20.1 24.5 0.0 18.7 31.2 36023 COMRAT 20.8 36023 COMRAT 28.4 36028*TARECKLIA 13 SINGLE 8 12 SINGLE 8 3 1 2 6 4 SINGLE 9 SINGLE 9 SINGLE 9 SINGLE 9 SINGLE 9 30.6 36031*CIADYR 62.3 34057 CHISINAU 27.9 34057 CHISINAU 26.5 34057 CHISINAU 74.0 34060 HANCESTI 43.3 1.1 36012 ZARNESTI 10 SINGLE 9 14 SINGLE 9 7 9 8 5 SINGLE 9 SINGLE 9 SINGLE 9 SINGLE 9 20.6 36012*ZARNESTI 29.8 36023 COMRAT 9.3 36023*COMRAT 0.0 36023 COMRAT 14.4 36023 COMRAT 21.1 36028*TARECKLIA 13 SINGLE 9 12 SINGLE 9 3 1 2 6 4 SINGLE 10 SINGLE 10 SINGLE 10 SINGLE 10 SINGLE 10 1.4 36031*CIADYR 68.2 34057 CHISINAU 27.0 34057 CHISINAU 18.4 34057 CHISINAU 61.9 34060 HANCESTI 32.7 10.8 36012 ZARNESTI 10 SINGLE 10 14 SINGLE 10 7 9 8 5 SINGLE 10 SINGLE 10 SINGLE 10 SINGLE 10 11.0 36012*ZARNESTI 20.6 36023 COMRAT 5.8 36023*COMRAT 25.3 36023*COMRAT 0.0 36023 COMRAT 33.5 36028*TARECKLIA 13 SINGLE 10 12 SINGLE 10 3 1 2 6 4 SINGLE 11 SINGLE 11 SINGLE 11 SINGLE 11 SINGLE 11 24.7 36031*CIADYR 84.4 34057 CHISINAU 29.8 34057 CHISINAU 14.7 34057 CHISINAU 96.0 34060 HANCESTI 28.3 15.4 36012 ZARNESTI 10 SINGLE 11 14 SINGLE 11 7 9 8 5 SINGLE 11 SINGLE 11 SINGLE 11 SINGLE 11 9.4 36012*ZARNESTI 18.6 36023 COMRAT 8.0 36023*COMRAT 22.4 36023 COMRAT 26.3 36023*COMRAT 0.0 36028*TARECKLIA 13 SINGLE 11 21.7

110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36028 TARECKLIA 36031*CIADYR 36032*CIMISLIA 36038 VULCANESTI 36038 VULCANESTI 34060*HANCESTI

110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 36032*CIMISLIA 36025*LEOVO 36023 COMRAT 36023*COMRAT 36038 VULCANESTI 36025*LEOVO 36028 TARECKLIA 36031*CIADYR 36032*CIMISLIA 36038 VULCANESTI 36038 VULCANESTI 34060*HANCESTI 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 36032*CIMISLIA 36025*LEOVO 36023 COMRAT 36023*COMRAT 36038 VULCANESTI 36025*LEOVO 36028 TARECKLIA 36031 CIADYR 36032*CIMISLIA 36038 VULCANESTI 36038 VULCANESTI 34060*HANCESTI 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 36032*CIMISLIA 36025*LEOVO 36023 COMRAT 36023*COMRAT 36038 VULCANESTI 36025*LEOVO 36028 TARECKLIA 36031*CIADYR 36032 CIMISLIA 36038 VULCANESTI 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

P-4

36031*CIADYR 12 SINGLE 11 3 1 2 6 4 SINGLE 12 SINGLE 12 SINGLE 12 SINGLE 12 SINGLE 12 84.8 84.8 84.8 97.2 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 85.8 84.8 97.2 84.8 84.8 84.8 84.8 97.2 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.4 85.8 84.8 97.2 84.8 84.8 52.4 23.7 23.9 77.6 33.5 0.9 15.8 22.4 7.0 1.1 13.5 22.3 0.0 63.4 23.8 25.9 82.3 35.4 6.1 18.5 24.7 12.3 40.9 76.8 19.3 40.3 0.0 56.2 34057 CHISINAU 27.8 34057 CHISINAU 26.4 34057 CHISINAU 73.7 34060 HANCESTI 43.2 1.2 36012 ZARNESTI 10 SINGLE 12 14 SINGLE 12 7 9 8 5 SINGLE 12 SINGLE 12 SINGLE 12 SINGLE 12 20.4 36012*ZARNESTI 29.7 36023 COMRAT 9.1 36023 COMRAT 1.2 36023 COMRAT 14.5 36023 COMRAT 21.2 36028*TARECKLIA 13 SINGLE 12 12 SINGLE 12 3 1 2 6 4 SINGLE 13 SINGLE 13 SINGLE 13 SINGLE 13 SINGLE 13 0.0 36031*CIADYR 68.0 34057*CHISINAU 28.0 34057 CHISINAU 30.5 34057 CHISINAU 81.9 34060 HANCESTI 48.5 8.4 36012*ZARNESTI 10 SINGLE 13 14 SINGLE 13 7 9 8 5 SINGLE 13 SINGLE 13 SINGLE 13 SINGLE 13 25.9 36012 ZARNESTI 34.4 36023 COMRAT 16.9 36023*COMRAT 48.5 36023 COMRAT 85.3 36023 COMRAT 19.2 36028 TARECKLIA 13 SINGLE 13 12 SINGLE 13 47.9 36031*CIADYR 0.0 <-------- B U S --------> 34057 CHISINAU 110.00 34060 HANCESTI 110.00 36005 BESARABEASCA110.00 36012 ZARNESTI 110.00 36023 COMRAT 110.00 36025 LEOVO 110.00 36028 TARECKLIA 110.00 36031 CIADYR 110.00 36032 CIMISLIA 110.00 36038 VULCANESTI 110.00 34057 CHISINAU 110.00 34060 HANCESTI 110.00 36005 BESARABEASCA110.00 36012 ZARNESTI 110.00 36023 COMRAT 110.00 36025 LEOVO 110.00 36028 TARECKLIA 110.00 36031 CIADYR 110.00 36032 CIMISLIA 110.00 36038 VULCANESTI 110.00 34057 CHISINAU 110.00 34060 HANCESTI 110.00 36005 BESARABEASCA110.00 36012 ZARNESTI 110.00 36023 COMRAT 110.00 36025 LEOVO 110.00 36028 TARECKLIA 110.00 36031 CIADYR 110.00 36032 CIMISLIA 110.00 36038 VULCANESTI 110.00 MONITORED VOLTAGE REPORT: SYSTEM CONTINGENCY 'SUB ' RANGE BASE CASE 'SUB ' RANGE BASE CASE 'SUB ' RANGE BASE CASE 'SUB ' RANGE BASE CASE 'SUB ' RANGE BASE CASE 'SUB ' RANGE BASE CASE 'SUB ' RANGE BASE CASE 'SUB ' RANGE BASE CASE 'SUB ' RANGE BASE CASE 'SUB ' RANGE BASE CASE 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 1 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 1 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 1 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 1 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 1 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 1 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 1 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 1 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 1 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 1 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 2 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 2 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 2 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 2 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 2 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 2 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 2 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 2 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 2 'SUB ' RANGE SINGLE 2

110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36038 VULCANESTI 34060*HANCESTI

110.00 110.00

36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 36032*CIMISLIA 36025*LEOVO 36023 COMRAT 36023*COMRAT 36038 VULCANESTI 36025*LEOVO 36028*TARECKLIA 36031*CIADYR 36032*CIMISLIA 36038 VULCANESTI 36038 VULCANESTI 34060 HANCESTI 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 36032*CIMISLIA 36025*LEOVO 36023 COMRAT 36023 COMRAT 36038*VULCANESTI 36025*LEOVO 36028 TARECKLIA 36031*CIADYR 36032*CIMISLIA 36038*VULCANESTI 36038 VULCANESTI 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

36005*BESARABEASCA110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00

V-CONT 1.00253 1.00370 1.06186 1.03927 1.05257 1.06497 1.01340 1.09688 1.07797 1.00080 1.00000 1.00734 1.06102 1.03871 1.05190 1.06508 1.01289 1.09629 1.07667 1.00049 1.00239 1.00297 1.09945 1.03792 1.05905 1.06659 1.01085 1.09560 1.07896 0.99682

V-INIT 1.00253 1.00370 1.06186 1.03927 1.05257 1.06497 1.01340 1.09688 1.07797 1.00080 1.00253 1.00370 1.06186 1.03927 1.05257 1.06497 1.01340 1.09688 1.07797 1.00080 1.00253 1.00370 1.06186 1.03927 1.05257 1.06497 1.01340 1.09688 1.07797 1.00080

V-MAX 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000

V-MIN 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000

P-5

'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB

' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '

RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE

SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11

34057 34060 36005 36012 36023 36025 36028 36031 36032 36038 34057 34060 36005 36012 36023 36025 36028 36031 36032 36038 34057 34060 36005 36012 36023 36025 36028 36031 36032 36038 34057 34060 36005 36012 36023 36025 36028 36031 36032 36038 34057 34060 36005 36012 36023 36025 36028 36031 36032 36038 34057 34060 36005 36012 36023 36025 36028 36031 36032 36038 34057 34060 36005 36012 36023 36025 36028 36031 36032 36038 34057 34060 36005 36012 36023 36025 36028 36031 36032 36038 34057 34060 36005 36012 36023 36025 36028

CHISINAU 110.00 HANCESTI 110.00 BESARABEASCA110.00 ZARNESTI 110.00 COMRAT 110.00 LEOVO 110.00 TARECKLIA 110.00 CIADYR 110.00 CIMISLIA 110.00 VULCANESTI 110.00 CHISINAU 110.00 HANCESTI 110.00 BESARABEASCA110.00 ZARNESTI 110.00 COMRAT 110.00 LEOVO 110.00 TARECKLIA 110.00 CIADYR 110.00 CIMISLIA 110.00 VULCANESTI 110.00 CHISINAU 110.00 HANCESTI 110.00 BESARABEASCA110.00 ZARNESTI 110.00 COMRAT 110.00 LEOVO 110.00 TARECKLIA 110.00 CIADYR 110.00 CIMISLIA 110.00 VULCANESTI 110.00 CHISINAU 110.00 HANCESTI 110.00 BESARABEASCA110.00 ZARNESTI 110.00 COMRAT 110.00 LEOVO 110.00 TARECKLIA 110.00 CIADYR 110.00 CIMISLIA 110.00 VULCANESTI 110.00 CHISINAU 110.00 HANCESTI 110.00 BESARABEASCA110.00 ZARNESTI 110.00 COMRAT 110.00 LEOVO 110.00 TARECKLIA 110.00 CIADYR 110.00 CIMISLIA 110.00 VULCANESTI 110.00 CHISINAU 110.00 HANCESTI 110.00 BESARABEASCA110.00 ZARNESTI 110.00 COMRAT 110.00 LEOVO 110.00 TARECKLIA 110.00 CIADYR 110.00 CIMISLIA 110.00 VULCANESTI 110.00 CHISINAU 110.00 HANCESTI 110.00 BESARABEASCA110.00 ZARNESTI 110.00 COMRAT 110.00 LEOVO 110.00 TARECKLIA 110.00 CIADYR 110.00 CIMISLIA 110.00 VULCANESTI 110.00 CHISINAU 110.00 HANCESTI 110.00 BESARABEASCA110.00 ZARNESTI 110.00 COMRAT 110.00 LEOVO 110.00 TARECKLIA 110.00 CIADYR 110.00 CIMISLIA 110.00 VULCANESTI 110.00 CHISINAU 110.00 HANCESTI 110.00 BESARABEASCA110.00 ZARNESTI 110.00 COMRAT 110.00 LEOVO 110.00 TARECKLIA 110.00

1.00000 0.99584 0.98041 0.96062 0.96774 0.98874 0.93988 1.01574 1.03389 0.95769 1.00000 1.00587 1.05313 1.02777 1.04769 1.09532 1.00139 1.08521 1.07052 0.99118 1.00206 1.00367 1.07127 1.03886 1.04945 1.06352 1.01345 1.09641 1.07671 1.00165 1.00119 1.00266 1.06048 1.04270 1.05290 1.06365 1.01305 1.09609 1.07653 1.00278 1.00084 1.00236 1.06380 1.09994 1.05864 1.06666 1.01242 1.09649 1.07877 1.00050 1.00222 1.00553 1.05441 1.03317 1.04280 1.09759 1.00816 1.09058 1.07250 0.99846 1.00000 1.00156 1.06717 1.04055 1.06587 1.06962 1.00455 1.09818 1.08077 1.00228 1.00395 1.00485 1.05693 1.03083 1.04255 1.06047 1.00435 1.07383 1.07482 0.98853 1.00000 1.00407 1.05946 1.04276 1.04423 1.06307 1.01872

1.00253 1.00370 1.06186 1.03927 1.05257 1.06497 1.01340 1.09688 1.07797 1.00080 1.00253 1.00370 1.06186 1.03927 1.05257 1.06497 1.01340 1.09688 1.07797 1.00080 1.00253 1.00370 1.06186 1.03927 1.05257 1.06497 1.01340 1.09688 1.07797 1.00080 1.00253 1.00370 1.06186 1.03927 1.05257 1.06497 1.01340 1.09688 1.07797 1.00080 1.00253 1.00370 1.06186 1.03927 1.05257 1.06497 1.01340 1.09688 1.07797 1.00080 1.00253 1.00370 1.06186 1.03927 1.05257 1.06497 1.01340 1.09688 1.07797 1.00080 1.00253 1.00370 1.06186 1.03927 1.05257 1.06497 1.01340 1.09688 1.07797 1.00080 1.00253 1.00370 1.06186 1.03927 1.05257 1.06497 1.01340 1.09688 1.07797 1.00080 1.00253 1.00370 1.06186 1.03927 1.05257 1.06497 1.01340

1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000

0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000

P-6

'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB 'SUB CONTINGENCY LABEL SINGLE 1 SINGLE 2 SINGLE 3 SINGLE 4 SINGLE 5 SINGLE 6 SINGLE 7 SINGLE 8 SINGLE 9 SINGLE 10 SINGLE 11 SINGLE 12 SINGLE 13

' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' LEGEND: EVENTS : OPEN LINE : OPEN LINE : OPEN LINE : OPEN LINE : OPEN LINE : OPEN LINE : OPEN LINE : OPEN LINE : OPEN LINE : OPEN LINE : OPEN LINE : OPEN LINE : OPEN LINE

RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE RANGE

SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE

11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13

36031 36032 36038 34057 34060 36005 36012 36023 36025 36028 36031 36032 36038 34057 34060 36005 36012 36023 36025 36028 36031 36032 36038

CIADYR 110.00 CIMISLIA 110.00 VULCANESTI 110.00 CHISINAU 110.00 HANCESTI 110.00 BESARABEASCA110.00 ZARNESTI 110.00 COMRAT 110.00 LEOVO 110.00 TARECKLIA 110.00 CIADYR 110.00 CIMISLIA 110.00 VULCANESTI 110.00 CHISINAU 110.00 HANCESTI 110.00 BESARABEASCA110.00 ZARNESTI 110.00 COMRAT 110.00 LEOVO 110.00 TARECKLIA 110.00 CIADYR 110.00 CIMISLIA 110.00 VULCANESTI 110.00

1.10000 1.06764 1.00823 1.00006 1.00171 1.06915 1.04179 1.06836 1.07148 1.07314 1.09949 1.08224 1.00194 1.00000 0.99793 1.00193 0.98936 0.98218 1.00819 0.97160 1.06273 1.03284 0.99314

1.09688 1.07797 1.00080 1.00253 1.00370 1.06186 1.03927 1.05257 1.06497 1.01340 1.09688 1.07797 1.00080 1.00253 1.00370 1.06186 1.03927 1.05257 1.06497 1.01340 1.09688 1.07797 1.00080

1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000 1.10000

0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000 0.90000

FROM FROM FROM FROM FROM FROM FROM FROM FROM FROM FROM FROM FROM

BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS

34057 34057 34057 34060 36005 36012 36012 36023 36023 36023 36023 36028 36031

[CHISINAU 110.00] [CHISINAU 110.00] [CHISINAU 110.00] [HANCESTI 110.00] [BESARABEASCA110.00] [ZARNESTI 110.00] [ZARNESTI 110.00] [COMRAT 110.00] [COMRAT 110.00] [COMRAT 110.00] [COMRAT 110.00] [TARECKLIA 110.00] [CIADYR 110.00]

TO TO TO TO TO TO TO TO TO TO TO TO TO

BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS BUS

34060 36005 36032 36025 36023 36023 36038 36025 36028 36031 36032 36038 36038

[HANCESTI 110.00] [BESARABEASCA110.00] [CIMISLIA 110.00] [LEOVO 110.00] [COMRAT 110.00] [COMRAT 110.00] [VULCANESTI 110.00] [LEOVO 110.00] [TARECKLIA 110.00] [CIADYR 110.00] [CIMISLIA 110.00] [VULCANESTI 110.00] [VULCANESTI 110.00]

CKT CKT CKT CKT CKT CKT CKT CKT CKT CKT CKT CKT CKT

3 1 2 6 4 10 14 7 9 8 5 13 12

P-7

Appendix Q

Scenario II Line Diagram for Line Capacities

Load Generator Three winding transformer

Switched shunt
400 kV Line 330 kV Line 110 kV Line Active Power Flow Reactive Power Flow

Line Offline

Figure Q-1 One line diagram with line capacities

Q-1

Appendix R
300

Scenario II All Generators Results

250

200

Power [MW]

Cimislia 150 Ciadyr Total Generation

Besarabeasca
100 Leovo Zarnesti

50

0 1 56 111 166 221 276 331 386 441 496 551 606 661 716 771 826 881 936 991 1046 1101 1156 1211 1266 1321 1376 1431 1486 1541 1596 1651 1706 1761 1816 1871 1926 1981 2036 2091 2146 Iteration
Figure R-1 Shows the iterations with all generators in scenario I.

R-1

Generation without reactive power compensation


Frequency
400 200 Frequency 600 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0

Generation with reactive power compensation

Power [MW]

Figure R-2 Histogram over the maximum generation without reactive power compensation

Figure R-4 F Histogram over the maximum generation with reactive power compensation

300 250 Total Generation Besarabeasca Zarnesti Leovo Ciadyr 1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 Iteration Cimislia

Power [MW]

200 150 100 50 0

Figure R-3 Results from the second iteration with a narrow interval for each generator

R-2

0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 60-100 100-120 120-140 140-160 160-180 180-200 200-220 220-240 240-260 260-280 280-300 300-320 320-340 340-360 Power [MW]

Appendix S

The Contingency and Automation Process in PSS/E

The Contingency and Automation Process in PSS/E

S-1 Contingency Analysis


PSS/E has an effective way of performing a contingency analysis without having to trip each line by itself manually. To execute a contingency analysis in PSS/E you will first have to create files of three different file types; one that describe the subsystem concerned by the analysis (.sub), one that describes what changes should be mad in the system (.con) and finally one that controls which values that should be monitored (.mon). These files then combine in the Distribution Factor Data File (.dfx) which in turn is used to create the Contingency Solution Output file (.acc) which gives you the contingency report with the specified data given. The .sub, .con and .mon files can be automatically created within PSS/E or manually. Different kind of reports can be given but the main ones are the Spreadsheet Overload report, the Spreadsheet Load report and the Available Capacity report, all these reports are spreadsheet compatible. The overload report names branches that have been overloaded during the contingency analysis and/or busses whose voltage levels deviate from the given levels in the monitor file. The load report shows voltage values and used capacity for all busses and branches defined in the subsystem file. The capacity report shows the contingency worst case run; it shows you all the busses in the subsystem file together with the highest usage of line capacity during the entire contingency study, which line that was tripped for each worst case scenario is also given. There are also non spreadsheet reports for the first two stated and also a Non-converged network report which is important to find solutions that have not converged aka blown ups. For the creation of the Subsystem Description Data File one have to choose a specific area (busses, branches etc.) of which to study, the area can be selected in several ways using the program description of area, zones, by owners, by base kV or by simply hand picking the specific busses needed for the intended contingency analysis. Several subsystems can be defined and studied at once, up to one hundred different subsystems can be included in one .sub file. The default code created by PSS/E is as follows: COM SUBSYSTEM description file entry created by PSSE Config File Builder SUBSYSTEM 'example' 'Bus nr' 'Bus nr' END Busses are entered by the command BUS followed by the bus number before the end statements, the same true for areas (AREA), zones (ZONE), owners (OWNER), per kV level (KV) followed by the specified kV level. The COM statement is followed by a comment to the sub, mon and con files. When creating the Monitored Element Data File in PSS/E options are given for which voltage range that is to be monitored as maximum and minimum, also it is possible to specify a specific voltage deviation. The default code created by the PSS/E with all branches and busses specified in the subsystem monitored is as follows: S-1

COM MONITORED element file entry created by PSSE Config File Builder MONITOR VOLTAGE RANGE SUBSYSTEM 'example' 0.950 1.050 MONITOR BRANCHES IN SUBSYSTEM 'example' END If any specific branch, bus, transformer etc. would need extra supervision it can be added before the end statement. The Automatic Contingency File given by PSS/E looks as follows: COM CONTINGENCY description file entry created by PSSE Config File Builder SINGLE BRANCH IN SUBSYSTEM 'example' END This is done with the assumption that only the tripping of a single branches are under interest and thus the only selected criteria while creating the file in PSS/E. Other branches can be included by using the statement 'branch nr' TO 'branch nr ' See Appendix Tfor sub, mon and con files used in the simulations. [33]

S-2 The Automation Process


There are several ways to automate a process with PSS/E; the main methods are connected to the creation of response files. The response files can be created using the PSS/E recorder function where the basic principle is that the recorder, after started, records your actions within PSS/E and saves the commands in a response file.

Figure S-1 Shows the recorder function within PSS/E

The basic response file with the file extension .idv creates a response file with the PSS/E batch commands. This makes it a viable option for basic automations such as changing bus values or generator output but for more advance operations. For more advance operations where it is necessary to directly write new commands within the response file it is necessary to be familiar with the PSSE batch commands. [33] To facilitate the automation process IPLAN has been developed as a direct programing language design for PSS/E. With IPLAN it is not possible to create a response file directly with the recorder i.e. the file or script has to be written manually in a text editor. Being developed specifically for PSS/E it does not have the diversity of a modern programing language. [33] From version PSS/E-30 the program comes with an interface making it possible to implement Python programing in the automation process [34]. Python is a modern, powerful, dynamic, interpreted S-2

object-oriented program language often compared to Tcl, Perl, Ruby, Scheme or Java [35]. The Python script can be created through the recorder function in PSS/E, as were the case for the idv files, but now with the Python extension .py. Python programing language makes editing of the produced script much easier. It is of course also possible to create the script from scratch in a text editor to grasp each function fully. [33] To run a response file or a Python script file one can go through the recorder function; pressing play gives you the option to open a file which if opened automatically runs it. The main module, psspy, is a wrapper function for the PSS/E Application Program Interface (API). PSS/E also comes with a built in Python interpreter, the IDLE interactive interpreter Python Shell, this shell opens by running the RunIdle.py file which is included in the EXAMPLE directory in the PSS/E folder. The IDLE shell is a platform making it possible to edit and run the Python script. It also has an extensive help function clarifying built in modules in the API. [36]

S-3

Appendix T

Sub, Mon and Con files for the contingency analysis

Figure T-1 Contingency file created for the contingency analysis

Figure T-2 Monitor file created for the contingency analysis

Figure T-3 Subsystem file created for the contingency analysis

T-1

Appendix U

Division of the Work Between the Authors

The report has two authors where some of the work has been performed together and some parts are the responsibility of a single author. Below follows a description dividing the responsibilities. The background to the project was necessary for a joint discussion leading up to the aim and goals of the project, in this part all necessary contacts were made. This section is not possible to divide between the two authors. The theory can be divided as parts written by one single author: o Active and reactive power Joel Eriksson o Introduction to the electrical system Simon Gozdz Englund o Components in the grid Simon Gozdz Englund o Per-Unit system Joel Eriksson o Equivalents in electrical system Joel Eriksson o Static Modelling Joel Eriksson The wind power research was the responsibility of Simon Gozdz Englund The method with constructing the model was based on an iterative process where parts were successively created; the process cannot be divided between the two authors. The automation process, using Python programming, within PSS/E was the responsibility of Joel Eriksson The scenarios were jointly decided and executed by Joel Eriksson The economic aspects were the responsibility of Simon Gozdz Englund The discussion was a carried out between the two authors and must thus be the responsibility of both of the authors.

U-1