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Summary 1. Distinguish between career and job security.

Job security implies security in one job, often eith one company. Cereer security requires developing marketable skills and expertise that help ensure employment within a range of careers. 2. Define trining and development (T&D). Training is designed to permit learners to acquire knowledge and skills needed for their present jobs. Development involves learning that goes beyond todays job. 3. Explain the relationship that exists between organization change and (T&D). The basic purpose of T&D is to anticipate change and to respond proactively to it. Change involves moving from one condition to another, and it will affect individuals, groups, and entire organizations. 4. Expain factors influencing T&D. Increasingly rapid changes in technology, products,systems, and methods have had a significant impact on job requirements making T&D a must. T&D programs must have to managements full support; all amanagers should be committed to and involved in the T&D process. They must be convinced that there will be a tangible payoff if resources are committed to this effort. 5. Describe tha T&D process and how traing needs are determined and objectives established. Once the need for change has been recognized and the factors that influence intervention considered, the process of determining T&D nedds begins. After stating the T&D objectives, management can determine the appropriate methods for accomplishing them. Various training methods are available to use. T&D must be continuously evaluated. T&D needs may be formulated for T&D. Without them, designing meaningful T&D programs would not be possible. 6. Describe the various T&D methods. Training and development methods include classroom programs, mentoring and coaching, case study, videotapes, role playing, apprenticenship training, vestibule training, simulations, business games, in-basket training, distance learning and video conferencing, computer-based traing, virtual reality and e-learning, on-the-job training, job rotation and internships. 7. Explain the importance of corporate uniniversities and community colleges to training. The corporate training institution differs from many traditionan programs in that it focus is on creating organizational change. It is proactive and strategic rather that reactive and tactical. Ad estimated 2,000 corporate universities exist in the united states today. Some employers have discovered that community collages can provide certain types of training better and more costeffectively thatcan.

8. Describe management development. Mangemen development consists of al learning experiences provided bay an organization for the puepose of providing and appgreding skills and knowladgerequire in curreany and future managerial positions. 9. Define orientation and identify its purposes. Orientation is the guided adjustment of new employees to the company, the job, and the work group. Orientation acquaints employees with the with the employment situation, company policies ,and rules, compensation and benefits, and corporate culture. 10. Identify special training nesds. Specila training needs include training involving telecommuting, diversity, cutumer service, conflice resolution , values, teamwork, empowerment, and remedial training. 11. Identify the means by which T&D programs are implemented end evaluated. Means by which T&D programs are include participants options, extent of learning, behavioral change, accomplishment of T&D of objective, and benchmarking. 12. Describe the training partnerships tht exist between businesses, government, and education Federal programs include the workforce investment act and the scool-to-work opportunities act. 13. Explain career planning and development. A career is ageneral course that a person chooss to pursue throughout his or her working life. Career plenning is an ongoing process whereby an individual sets career goals and identifies the means to achieve them. Firms angaging in organizational career planning my identify paths-a succession of job-and activities for individuals as they develop 14. Define organization development (OD) and describe various OD techniques. Organization development (OD) is the planned process of improving an organization by developing its structure, systems, and processes to improve effectiveness, and achieving desired goals. Intervention include serfey feedback, a technique often combined with other interventions, quality circle, team building, and sensitivity training.