Sunteți pe pagina 1din 14

OTe 7190

Hydrodynamic Aspects of Moored Semisubmersibles and TLP's


J.A. Pinkster, Delft U. of Technology; Albertus Dercksen, MARIN; and A.K. Dev,
Delft U. of Technology
Copyright 1993, Offshore Technology Conference
This paper was presented at the 25th Annual OTC in Houston, Texas, U.S.A., 3-6 May 1993.
This paper was selected for presentation by the OTC Program Committee folloWing review of information contained In an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper,
as presented, have not been reviewed by the Offshore Technology Conference and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect
any position of the Offshore Technology Conference or Its officers. Permission to copy Is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words. illustratiOns may not be copied. The abstract
should contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper Is presented.
ABSTRACT
The mean and horizon-
tal wave drift forces 'on 2 types of
semi-submersible structures in regu-
lar and in irregular waves are de-
termined from model tests and calcu-
lations. For the measurement of the
low-frequency drift forces in irre-
gular waves use is made of a special
dynamic system of restraint.
Comparison of measured and computed
drift forces in irregular waves show
increasing divergence between
predictions based on 3-dimensional
potential theory and results of ex-
periments with increasing severity of
the irregular sea conditions.
Comparison between computed and
measured mean drift forces in regular
waves show increasing divergence at
lower wave frequencies. A simple
model for approximating viscous
contributions to the drift forces in
irregular waves is applied to some
test results and it is shown that the
correlation between measurements and
predictions is improved.
In order to gain more detailed
insight in the mechanisms of the
viscous contribution to the drift
force tests were carried out with
single fixed vertical cylinder in
601
regular waves. The results of tests
confirm that in conditions of waves
without current the major part of the
viscous contribution to the drift
force is confined to the splash zone
of the cylinder.
INTRODUCTION
The motions and mooring forces of
Semi-Submersibles and TLP' s moored in
exposed locations are often dominated
by wave effects. These may be sub-
divided in first order wave frequency
forces with frequencies corresponding
to the individual waves and mean and
low-frequency second order wave drift
forces related to wave groups.
From the point of view of the design
of mooring systems both first and
second order wave loads and the mo-
tion and mooring load response need
to be taken into account. At the
design stage predictions of these
quantities for a particular design
can be based on computational
methods, model tests or a rational
combination of both.
Computational methods for wave
frequency loads and motion response
for semi-submersibles have been in
development since the early 70's.
See reference [1]. Such methods are

--
based on linear hydrodynamic theory
and have proved their worth on many
occasions.
Non-linear, mean wave drift forces on
semi-submersible type structures can
be computed based on the application
of linear, diffraction
theory computational methods combined
with either a far-field method or a
near-field method for the evaluation
of the second order wave loads on the
structure. In case a far-field method
is applied, generally only the mean
second order horizontal drift forces
can be calculated. See reference [2]
and reference [3]. If a near-field or
pressure integration method is
applied the mean and low-frequency
components of the drift forces can be
computed for 6 degrees of freedom.
See reference [4]. This type of
computational method assumes the flow
to be inviscid thus excluding any
effects which might arise from
separated flow around the structure.
In the past efforts have been made to
verify the computational methods for
the mean and low-frequency or slowly
varying wave drift forces on semi-
submersible type structures. See
reference [5]. It has been surmised
that the drift forces on semi-
submersible type structures, which
consist of relatively slender
surface-piercing columns and sub-
merged floaters, are in some cases
significantly affected by viscous
effects in the flow around the
structural elements. Very little ex-
perimental data is available which
can give insight in such effects. See
reference [10].
In order to increase insight in these
effects MARIN, in co-operation with a
number of offshore operators, design-
ers and manufactures, carried out
extensive model test programs and
computations among others of the mean
and slowly varying wave forces on
slender and full semi-submersibles.
In this paper a number of aspects of
this research including the model
test programs and the correlation
between model test results and
602
results of computations are
discussed.
The findings of these studies have
confirmed that significant viscous
effects can be present in the low-
frequency wave forces on such
structures. As a result, a research
program has been initiated by the
Delft University of Technology into
determining such effects on structu-
ral elements of semi-submersibles
such as the columns and the pon-
toons. The purpose of this research
is to determine for which of these
elements the viscous effects play an
important role and, if possible, to
develop a rational computational
procedure for taking such effects
into account when determining the
mean and slowly varying drift forces
on the complete structure. In this
paper some results of recent model
tests carried out on a fixed verti-
cal cylinder in waves are presented.
SECOND ORDER WAVE DRIFT FORCES
ON A SEMI-SUBMERIBLE
The subj ects of this investigation
were a slender 8-column Semi-Submer-
sible I with circular columns and a
displacement of 23,270 tonnes and a
full 6-column Semi-Submersible II
with square columns and a displace-
ment of 56,300 tonnes. The body plans
of the semi-submersibles are given in
Figure 1 and Figure 2. In the follow-
ing all results of measurements and
computations will be given for the
full scale structures.
The aims of the study were as
follows:
-To increase insight in the mean and
low-frequency horizontal wave excit-
ing forces and motion responses of
large semi-submersibles
-To check the validity of computa-
tional methods for the prediction
of first order wave frequency mo-
tions and low-frequency wave drift
forces based on 3-dimensional
potential theory.
The total scope of the research does
not allow all aspects to be treated
here. In this paper the results of
the following investigations are
presented:
-Results of model tests in regular
waves to determine the mean hori-
zontal wave drift force response.
-Results of tests in irregular waves
to determine the mean and low-fre-
quency wave drift force records.
The model tests were carried out at a
scale of 1:40 in the Seakeeping Basin
of MARIN. This basin measures 100 m x
24 m x 2.5 m.
MODEL TEST SET-UP IN THE BASIN
Measurements of the mean horizontal
wave drift forces on a model in re-
gular waves can be carried out using
a soft-spring restraining or mooring
system which consists of horizontal
wires incorporating soft linear
springs which are connected to force
transducers mounted on the model. The
mooring wires are connected at deck
level. The set-up for tests in
regular waves is shown in Figure 3.
In order to measure the mean and
slowly varying horizontal wave drift
forces in irregular waves, ideally
the model should be moored in such a
way that all low frequency motion
response is suppressed while leaving
the model completely free to carry
out the motions at wave frequencies.
The first requirement ensures that
the measured force is not affected by
dynamic magnification effects. The
second requirement can be deduced
from theoretical analysis of the
second order wave drift forces which
show that part of the total second
order excitation forces are directly
dependent on the structural motions
at wave frequencies. See reference
[4].
As a consequence, the model re-
straining system must possess the
characteristics of an ideal Dynamic
Positioning system. For the model
.....::...=.-.---
--=- =-- -
tests a system consisting of hori-
zontal restraining wires connected to
controllable tension winches was
selected. See Figure 4. The winches
were operated based on an active
control system with a feed-back loop
supplemented by a feed-forward
control loop. See Figure 5.
The feed-back loop 'acted on the hori-
zontal position error and the time
derivative of the error (Proportio-
nal-Differential control). The feed-
forward control loop was based on the
real-time measurement of the re-
lative wave elevation on the up-wave
columns of the semi-submersible. It
has been shown that a major part of
the mean and slowly varying second
order wave drift forces as predicted
by potential theory, is due to terms
related to the square of the instan-
taneous relative wave elevation
around the waterline of a floating
structure. This has been demon-
strated, among others, from model
tests on a tanker. See reference [4].
Application of feed-back and feed-
forward control still does not result
in full suppression of low-frequency
motions however. This due to the fact
that the feed-forward loop is supply-
ing an imperfect estimate for the
instantaneous low frequency horizon-
tal force. As a result, the total
restraining force is not equal and
oppos i te to the low frequency wave
exciting force thus resulting in
residual low frequency motions. See
Figure 6. In order to obtain a best
estimate of the total low frequency
wave force on the model, the measured
restraining force is corrected for
the residual horizontal motions of
the vessel. This is carried out off-
line after a test has been carried
out. The bas ic assump tion behind this
process is that the instantaneous
discrepancy between the true wave
force and the measured restraining
force results in horizontal motion
accelerations which are described by
the following relationship:
m x(t) = Fd(t) - Fm(t)
603
~ ~ ~ ~ -- ~ ~ ~ = =
; ; ; ; = ~ ~
in which m represents the virtual
mass of the vessel and x(t) the mo-
tion acceleration. Assuming that the
virtual mass is constant, the accele-
ration force can be determined in the
time domain by passing a double-
differentiating filter over the time
record of the low frequency horizon-
tal motions. The best estimate of the
time record of the horizontal drift
force then follows from:
Fd(t)
= Fro(t) + mx(t)
An example of time records of
measured restraining force, residual
surge motion, correction force and
total drift force are shown in Figure
7. The results apply to Semi-Submer-
sible II.
In order to verify the accuracy of
this procedure model tests were
repeated using different settings of
the dynamic restraining system.
An-example of the results found for
the spectral density of the slowly
varying wave drift force on the Semi-
Submersible 11 in irregular head seas
is shown in Figure 8.
The results apply to the system of
restraint being adjusted to repre-
senting a spring system (Proportio-
nal control), a spring and damper
system (Proportional-Differential
control) and a P-D control including
Feed-forward based on the relative
wave elevation measurements. The
results shown in the figure indicate
that the spectral density of the
drift force obtained from tests with
significantly different characteris-
tics of the restraining system are
reasonably consistent.
TESTS IN REGULAR WAVES
Tests in regular waves were carried
out for both semi-submersibles for a
range of wave frequencies, wave
amplitudes and wave directions. For
the slender Semi-Submersible I tests
in head seas were carried out with-
out and with bracings. The results
are given in Figure 9 through Figure
13 for both structures in head waves
and in beam waves as mean drift force
transfer functions,
In the figures the theoretical values
found on the basis of 3-dimensional
potential theory computations ex-
cluding the contribution from the
bracings are also given.
Comparison between the results of mo-
del tests and computations show that
in the lower wave frequency range the
mean drift forces tend to be consi-
stently underestimated by the compu-
tations. The effect of the bracings
on the mean drift forces on the
slender Semi-Submersible I in head
seas is to increase slightly the mean
drift forces as can be seen from the
comparison between the measured
results shown in Figure 9 and in
Figure 11.
TESTS IN IRREGULAR WAVES
Tests were again carried out for both
semi-submersibles. The slender Semi-
Submersible I was tested with-out
bracings.
Results of tests in irregular waves
are given in the form of time traces
of the measured low frequency drift
forces compared with time traces of
the corresponding predicted low fre-
quency force based on 3-dimensional
potential theory. In some cases the
spectral density of the computed and
measured forces are compared. For the
time domain predictions, use was made
of second order impuls response
functions combined with the measured
time trace of the undisturbed ir-
regular wave record in the basin. See
reference [5]. The time domain second
order impuls response functions for
the drift forces are obtained from
the complete second order quadratic
transfer functions computed in the
frequency domain. The quadratic
transfer functions were computed
based on the pressure integration
method, See reference [4].
604
.=
_ -_= _ -= _ -
._._
--.=-. ____ ... ___ ., s. .< .=
.. .=..=, _-.s L =- -_ s -=:. _=-__=_- . .
.-

-..
=.
..
__=~ ~._ _=.= ~_.__ .. _-
..-:--
-.
-
_=. :__:=_ .,. ._
-=.
-
. ..
. -.
-- .=... _+ _
.
. ... .. =s>s===-. . - =_.===_. --- =- : -


.
.

-
..=. = .==__ _
_ ___~
~ ,__ _=_=_. .._._: _ : .:=~ ~:_=_,._, ._
.

.. ._ -=s=z_
s -_= .=. . __ ..
=.=+=_+,-=::. :- ~ __-:===.V=: s_ .= ._._ .__-.~z -~~_+= . . .- -_: =
.. -
-
E!si__ ._=D -==== .O==.. ~_.>=__ - ~.:_c= ,.e. =. <- ==== ~.. ____ : .
. .
= .. -__a _ =..=.< =
.-

_. . ..-: -_ - :---- - : .== .:= ~=..c __== _ -


.

.,.. _- ._ - .__.. ~ .=._-_ ._ ~.= -


._ ~v_ .
=- ~=- .=,. Q .-._. ,
-~ =.- a .,.-. .-lj,-.,... . ~-.:<_~= ,.~ .== ....._=_. .. ,._ ~===.. _ _ ,_- , - ~.. ~---- ,
_-:=: ----- , ~ . -T

.= __ ._ .-< ::=-. - ==__=- ._-


.--= =:--- =. ~
G_._:.- -=. -
&-=:.= +--- .=_: .:=:>-.:
=.,, .%:-=%=,~=_.=_:_:=:= ....=~=_-==.._=_= .=-=...s :- ..-
- ~_.s.-= ~-~.=:=-,e _:_~= = =- ---- . ===-- =- ==-=--- .-.~T..:=.~.~;-.----
. a. . .
-=:= = .:.==.-=-=- .e+~.><-= =. .-e..-=== =.=..= .........,..X.>=:. -..
_---- ._G.-:=== ~_.

_ ....=...< -=:-~+j:~-:==-~. ==..-=.-- ..... ==- ..=..: .,>-.=. .-.:.====-.=_..= ~__


.,-:+ ~== ___
=.....:.;. ~ _=~.=_ . .=-_
-... ...
.:-.:: -::- =.. .
--
Tests were carried out in different set-down waves present in the irregu -
irregular sea conditions in order to lar wave field. The troughs of these
determine the dependency of the cor- waves, which have periods comparable
relation between computed and mea- to the wave group periods, are in
sured forces on the sea condition. phase with the peaks of the wave
groups. See Figure 21. The low-
Time traces of the measured and com-
frequency wave force components due
puted drift force records for irre- to these waves are in phase with the
gular haed seas are given in Figure horizontal acceleration of the fluid
14 through Figure 17. The spectral which is largest when the slope of
densities of the computed and mea- the set-down waves is greatest. This
sured surge drift forces on Semi- occurs after the peak in the wave
Submersible II are compared in Figure
group passes the structure. Due to
18 through Figure 20. comparison this effect the peaks in the computed
between measured and computed data wave drift forces in irregular waves
show that the correlation is good in
with longer mean periods tend to lag
low sea conditions with relatively behind the peaks in the wave groups,
short mean periods. In higher sea The measured records, however, still
conditions combined with corres - shown that the peak forces co-incide
pondingly longer mean wave periods with the peaks in the wave groups. A
the correlation worsens. Beside possible explanation is that in
significant differences in the force longer waves, viscous forces, which
peak values, the phase shift between are dominated by velocity related
peaks in the measured and computed effects, are becoming relatively more
records increases in higher sea con-
important. Since the fluid velocities
ditions. The trend is more or less are highest near the peaks in the
the same for both types of semi- wave group, peaks in viscous contri-
submersibles. butions to the drift forces will also
tend to co-incide with the peaks in
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS FROM
the wave groups.
TESTS IN REGULAR AND IRREGULAR
In order to investigate this effect,
WAVES
a simple model for the viscous con-
tributions in the horizontal drift
The results found from tests in forces has been investigated and some
regular and irregular waves with further comparisons between the
respect to the drift force seem to measured and computed drift forces,
support each other in that in both including viscous contributions, on
cases the correlation between the slender semi-submersible carried
measurement and computations worsen out .
with an increase in the wave period.
The reduction in the correlation VISCOUS COMPONENTS OF THE DRIFT
seems to be accompanied by an in- FORCES IN IRREGULAR WAVES
creasing phase shift between measured
and computed forces. The peaks in the The model used to describe the vis-
computed drift forces tend to shift cous contribution to the drift forces
relative to the wave groups. See is based on the assumption that
Figure 17.This is related to the fact Morisons equation for the drag force
that in longer waves diffraction on a vertical cylinder in waves can
effects which make up the major part be applied to the surface-piercing
of the drift forces in shorter waves parts of the columns of a semi-sub-
are reduced. In longer waves the mersible. See reference [6] through
low-frequency drift forces are to a reference [10]. For the case of waves
larger extent dominatedby the compo- without current it can be shown that,
nents related to the second order as a first approximation, the viscous
605
~
drag force contribution to the drift
forces is confined to the splash zone
on a column. The viscous drag term is

determined
equation:
Fvd(t) = %/J
in which:
v(t) -
D-
C(t) =
from the following
r(t)
cd~ v(L-).lv(t)l.D dz
o
relative horizontal
velocity between the
fluid and the column
column diameter
relative wave elevation
Cd = drag coefficient
This contribution to the drift force
could be evaluated for each column in
the time-domain based on the un-
disturbed wave elevation record, the
frequency domain motion characteris-
tics of the semi-submersible and an
assumption regarding the drag coef-
ficient in the above equation. The
summation of the drag force on each
column results in the estimated vis-
cous drag force contribution to the
drift force. The total drift force is
found by adding the viscous and
potential contributions.
The results of thes computations are
shown in Figure 22 for the slender
Semi-Submersible I in irregular head
seas. In this figure the wave eleva-
tion record, the potential part of
the drift force and the viscous part
of the drift force are shown in the
top three traces. The lower trace
shows the sum of the viscous force
and the potential force compared with
the total measured force.
It is clear that the result of adding
the viscous contribution is a clearly
improved correlation with the
measured force.
overall effect
contribution to
bution spectra
In order to show the
of adding a viscous
the potential contri-
of the low-frequency
surge force in irregular head seas
and sway force in beam seas on Semi-
Submersible I are given in Figure 23
for three different sea conditions.
Each figure shows the drag coeffi-
cient Cd used for the computations of
the viscous force contribution. The
Cd values used for the computations
of the viscous contribution in some
cases had to be adjusted in order to
achieve a reasonable fit with the
measured data. This clearly is an
unsatisfactory aspect of the simpli-
fied model for the viscous effect
which will need to be refined in the
future. An important effect not
accounted for is for instance, the
shielding effects due to the
I
proximit~ of the columns. However,
the above results tend to confirm
that there is a significant viscous
effect in the drift forces on semi-
submersible type structures which, in
irregular waves without current seems
to be concentrated in the splash zone
of the columns. The analysis has been
based on a rather simple model for
the viscous contribution which has
not been verified to any great
extent. In the next section some
results of ongoing detailed research
carried out at the Delft University
of Technology into such effects is
described.
VISCOUS EFFECTS IN DRIFT FORCES
ON A FIXED VERTICAL CYLINDER
In the previous section it was indi-
cated that the most significant vis-
cous contribution to the horizontal
drift force on a semi-submersible
seems to originate from the splash
zone of the columns. In order to gain
more insight in such effects, model
tests have been carried out to deter-
mine the distribution along the ver-
tical of the mean horizontal drift
force on a single vertical cylinder
in regular waves. The work is part of
an on-going Ph.D. project.
See
The
No.
reference [11].
model tests were
2 towing tank of
I
carried out in
the Ship Hydro-
606
I
mechanics Department. This facility given for the model scale.
measures 80 m x 2.75 m x 1,25 m and The model tests were carried out for
is equiped with a single flap a range of wave frequencies corres-
hydraulically operated wave-maker pending to the longer waves for a
capable of generating regular and semi-submersible. At scale 1:100 the
irregular waves. The basin is fitted wave frequencies tested in the model
out with a towing carriage with a correspond to 0.3 r/s to 0.8 r/s at
special low speed carriage control full scale. This is a range of
for the simulationof current effects frequencies relevant for extreme sea
by towing. conditions.
The model cylinder which had a dia- The results shown in Figure 25 and
meter of 0.075 m is shown in Figure Figure 26 confirm that the greatest
24. Afiscale 1:100 this could be re- discrepancies between the potential
preventative of a column with a 7.5 m computations and the measurements of
diameter. The splash zone and the the mean forces are found for the
sub-surface part are independently splash zone of the cylinder. The
attached to a central core through measured mean forces are consistently
force transducers measuring the significantly larger than the com-
horizontal force on each of the two puted values, For the sub-surface
sections. part of the cylinder, differences
Model tests were carried out in regu- also occur between measurements and
lar waves with and without current. computations. In a relative sense
For each test the vertical position they appear to be of the same order
of the cylinder was adjusted so that as for the splash zone part. However,
the through of the wave passing the the absolute value of the forces is
cylinder passed just above the sepa- considerable lower and the differen-
ration between the splash zone part ces between measurements and compu-
of the cylinder and the sub-surface tations are less consistent.
part of the cylinder. This ensured It can be concluded that these model
that the sub-surface part of the tests poit to the splash zone contri-
cylinder was fully submerged at all bution to the viscous part of the
times. Results of measurements in mean drift force as being the most
regular waves without current of the important one.
mean horizontal drift force on the
splash zone and the sub-surface zone
FINAL REMARKS
are compared with results of calcula-
tions of the relevant contributions In this paper we have shown some
to the drift forces based on 3-dimen- results of an extensive series of
sional potential theory and the ap- model tests on two semi-submersibles
plication of the pressure integration which confirm differences between
or near-field method in Figure 25 and computed and measured mean and low-
Figure 26 respectively. frequency horizontal wave drift
According to the near-field theory forces in regular and irregular
for drift forces, the splash zone waves.
contribution is dependent on the Application of a simple model for the
square of the relative wave elevation viscous contribution to the drift
around the cylinder while the drift forces indicated that irregular waves
force on the subsurface element is without current the major source of
due to the non-linear pressure con- the viscous contribution was to be
tribution in the Bernoulli pressure found at the splash zone part of the
equation. For this reason the results columns of a semi-submersible.
of mean force measurements have been Model test in regular waves with a
divided by the square of the undis- fixed vertical cylinder representing
turbed wave amplitude. Results are a single column of a semi-submersible
607
or a TLF confirm that the largest
discrepancies between computed and
measured drift forces are indeed to
be found in the splash zone.
Further experimental investigations
are required in order to be able to
formulate a more detailed model for
the viscous effects which can also
take into account such aspects as the
interaction effects due to the proxi-
mity of the columns of a semi-submer-
sible.
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4
[5]
[6]
Haoft, J.P.: Hydrodynamic
Aspects of Semi-Submersible
Platforms , Publication No.
400, Netherlands Ship Model
Basin, 1972
Newman, J.N,: The Drift Force
and Moment on Ships in Waves ,
Journal of Ship Research, 1966
Faltinsen, O.M. and Michelsen,
F,C,: Motions of Large Struc-
tures in Waves at Zero Froude
Number , Symposium on Marine
Vehicles, London, 1974
Pinkster, J.A.: Low-Frequency
Second Order Wave Exciting
Forces on Floating Structu-
res , Publication No, 650,
Netherlands Ship Model Basin,
Wageningen, 1980
Pinkster, .J.A. and Huijsmans,
R.H.M, : The Low Frequency Mo-
tions of a Semi-Submersible in
Waves , Boss82, Boston, 1982
Pijfers, J.G.L. and Brink,
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
Huse, E.: Wave induced Mean
Force on Platforms in Direc-
tion Opposite to Wave Propa-
gation, Norwegian Maritime
Research, VO1.5, No.1, 1977
Standing, R.G., Brendling,
W.J. and Jackson, G.E.: Full-
scale Measured and Predicted
Low-Frequency Motions of the
Semi-Submersible Support Ves-
sel Uncle John, First In-
ternational Offshore and Polar
Engineering Conference ,
Edinburgh, 1991
Ferretti, C. and Berta, M.:
Viscous Effect Contribution
to the Drift Forces on Float-
ing Structures , International
Symposium on Ocean Engineering
Ship Handling, Gothenburg, 80
Chakrabarti, S.K.: Steady
Drift Force on Vertical Cylin-
der - Viscous vs. Potential,
Applied Ocean Research, VO1.6,
No.2, 1984
Dev, A.K.: Experimental In-
vestigations of Viscous Mean
Drift Forces on a Fixed Verti-
cal Circular Cylinder in Waves
and Currents Part I , Report
No. 928-M, Ship Hydrodynamics
Department, Delft University
of Technology, 1992
A.W. : Calculated Drift Forces
of Two Semi-Submersible Plat-
form Types in Regular and Ir-
regular Waves , Paper No. OTC
2977, Offshore Technology
Conference, Houston, 1977
608



9.14 20.57
a I
! 1 I I
i I I I
5,49 5.49 3.14
I 1 !
I
I
3.051 19.i41 I 3.05
59.44
Dimensionsin
22.86 t 22.86 ! 22.86
1.52 68.58
I
Fig. 1General arrangement of Semisubmersible 1.
Dimensionsaregiveninmetres
---
1
~----, +_-
1
I I I
%: )3
1s.5
1~
J -
. -------
~! ,,
II II
,1 II
II II
,1 {1
73.5 ,. . _.__._[.l
il II
,1
,1
,1
,1
,1 If
-a-l
--
-:.-r
14.0
w
I \ !---- ---- *-- :
L
! I
#- I
25.0

I
I !5.0
55.3 I
Fig. ZGeneral arrangement of Semisubmersible Il.
609
Fig.3Test setup for tests in regular waves.
. .-
.
. .

1
wave s
Drift forces
1
Feed.f cmwasd ~Q1ative
control
Wzlve dev.
system
Ffg. 4Tast srrtup for tests in Irregular waves.
20==)
Fig. 5Block diagram of control system for tests in irregular waves.
I
FB (Forcefrom control system)
Fig,6Block diagram of forces acting on the structure.
~r BSSM..I Surge motions .
m ~L-----., -. .
->, ~
.=
Fig. SSpectra of drift forces obtained for different restralnhrg system characteristics for the
Fig. 7-Exemple of (a) measured restraining form, (b) correction force for motions,
scme sea conditions,
and (8+ b) total drift force record.
610
I I
.20 -
calculation
A 0 a Rqularwaves,
b
a
A
-lo
o
A
o ,
A I

o 0.5 1.0 1.3


w In rad.sec.-~
Fig. 9 - Mean Surge drift force on Semi-SubmersibleI in regularhead
waves
20-
Calculati.
A o 0 I+- -VU.
A
10 -
9
A
A
o 1. A I I
o 0.5 1.0 1.3
0 in rad.sec.-l
Fig. 10 - Mean sway drift force on Semi-SubmersibleI in regularbeam
waves
0 0.s 1.0 1.5
e in rad..s,c..l
Fig 11 - Mean surge drift force on Semi-SubmersibleI in regularhead
waves includingeffectof br-ing=
611
. .-
.
. .

07
5
t
5000
0 0.25 0.50
Fig. 18-Spectral density on surge drift force of Fig. 1S on
Semisubmersible II.
1
Measu]
i
#
.-..
calculi
II
,1
20000 -t
,1
,1
,1
1:
,1
I
II
~:
lsooo +;
, I II
I 1};]
! It, , ,
I q, t
; t,l ~
I
~1
t
1 II
t
10000
t
9
!
I
t
1
1
1
I I
:
,
:
!
1
5000 +-
(
I
0. I
0 0.25
Fig. 20-Spectral deneity of surge drlff force of Fig. 17 on
Semlsubmereible Il.
*
!
I

Measured
.. ..
Cslculskd
l(W)OO
m
5
t
&
II
~
~b?i
,
I
o .
o 0.2.s 0.50
@ ~ radla
Fig, 19Spectral density of surge drift force of Fig. 16 on
Semisubmersible W.
Fig. 21Wave eet.down in irregular wave8.
CD = 0.80
25.02
Calculated (potential part) a
tf o
-25,CQ
J
2S.W
---Measured
1
Force Calculated (viscouspart) b
tfo,
---.~-
-..
%---------
t~:k-=--~.<~:=clat -
-25,1YI
r-fwT
0 50 100
tin,
Fig. 22-Low-frequency surge drift force on Semlsubmersibla I in irregular head seas,
. .-
.
.

Heammd durimq.Od.l t.st


til.mlamd, *t*nt ial cmcributim only
-- Calc .lat.d, visccus . f f . cc kncltiad
mad seas beam Se6S
160- 160
H, . 3,0S; T1 . 1.1 , K, . 3.09;T1 . 7.1 s
\
CD . 0.60 C3 = 9.5$
m
.m
: :
\
\
80
2
n IJO
\
.
# $~
\
.
\
0 0
400 800
% . 5.85; T1 . 11.3 s
H= . 5.0S: T1 - 11.3 ,
\
\ CD = 0.30
\\
\
CD = 0.75
\
: ;
\
2 .
200
\
a 400
5 .
# ~b~ t
\ ,
---\
0
400
%
4000
. 11.14.TL . 14,1 , H, . 11,24: T> . 1*,1 s
CD . !.00
.M .m
2 H
200
!
H 2000
5 .
$F
kb
\ m
\
\
\
\
0
0 0.1 0.4 0 0.2 0,4
u in radls u 1. ..6/*
Fig. 23-Spectra of low-frequency drift forces on Semisubmemible 1.
r
.-A.. . . . . .
.W -.
1
~] Eli
wt., - C, L,.E,
/
m,. !!?.
/
k -.,
..
!
-, TM, c ,,, w
/
,- w-.
w, m ! ,MD.,
/
Fig. 24-Arrangement and model setup of fixed vertical
cylinder.
MEAN DRIFT FORCE lN/M_21
100 --- - .
[H]. HlOHE$T 8ET OF WE AMP,
(o . INTERIASO,ATEs,, 0, WE AMP,
(L) . LOWESTSET OF WE AMP,
80 -
80 -
40
20 -
0
0
A
o
ol-.---.-.-~l
0123458 78
OMEGA lR/Sl
o Measured $ MEASURED
POTENTIAL THEORY : MEASURED(L)
Fig. 25-Mean drift forces on the splaeh zone part of the
cylinder.
MEAN DRIFT FORCE lN/M-21
so ----
[

[H) . H!OHES7 SET Or VLWEAMP, ;


01. lNTERMEOtATESST OF ww N4P, ,
~ IL] . LOWESTSET OF VMVEAhlP,
80
40
20 0
0
t--
-T-TT=O
6 b
-20L...~
01234.56 78
OME@A IRISI
o MEASURED(1) @ MEAsURE
POTENTIAL THEoRY u MEASURED(L)
fig. 26-Mean drift forces on the subsurface part of the
cylinder.
613

._. _
=.. .:-=.
. .-= --
-..

..
-
-.
___ =__~= ._.. ==.,== .=a _. -, __= -
.=

. . -. .
-- .=... _+
s==.=-. _ . . .: .= . > ~_ .,-
-
.

.
_ ___ ~ ~ ? , - -=.=__._ ._:_ : .:= : ~- =
.

.- _- & ..s.=a.=.

_._== ._=__ .=. __
= .=, .==,- ____:.- ___ -:_.-. :_
_____. __ ~. -.. .. = .-= .... .=. -.
.
.==e.= .-- _- ,= =. .-:
.


. . _=. = -__= _ =...=< v. . __= _- _-_: ___ ____= ------ :.-== .. =._ _ .- .
_.

-.

-.<>__. = _=_. =_= =._-Q .-


____ -. -._ ..s. = .__ _:__. . -=4. e.._: ___ ___
~ _____ ~yu_= -T+ ,_= ~=_ ___ ~ . . . ..
~ .= >~:.
=- +=- .=. _ _=.- ___ -.:, .=== _ __ ~= ___ ._, .=..= ____ =____ . , -
.= .==. =. ,-=. . s..=i=<_==<_== ,. ~=== ....._=_. .., ._ ~=.. _ _ : -: = : _. :-=-_ _ ._ -__.=,_.._. ~. : _. . . .=_ ~=. ~- -=. .
. =_ G .
.--= =: -- ..
___.__ ~.= ~__ ~=__.= _= .= a.-: ..: ~ .-.=. ===.v._m %._~ ..==T=_==_...=.-.=...
=., , .%:_ ~%=,==.=. ..a~~ ___...-==. =_~= _=---- .= .
..
. -.. -- ==. .=+ -. ~.>< -. a:-e.z-=~. .Ta.=%::a: 2*. .=..-_--=:=g:*~_:~-- ?.=-::=:.=l- - -.:-== ... -= .
..::.-=... . , - .<.., .
. >___ -<-; -%-=. +=- . -,=:. ==.. .
. . ___. ~. .
~..., .=.. .<. -;..=.- m.=. - _.== ~. . s=~_L_.. _
. .._ .=. .. . .= +~=~ .= ~ +
. .-= --. + .=-e_-_=._._ ~ .===.. .- ,_z _.-.~* . ..== ~..: _. ____ .;_. ~_.- ___~= .._ ~ ~..= = - .. - _, __ . .~,
-=----- . e==.=. .=. .- >__ . . . . -...>- .
--= . __.. .=.
=. _. _____ ___ ---- ._. _ .. - -. ___ = ...
--
-50
Czlmlaticm
I
o u A R&ax waves. (Uc exii.mg W-aVdheight)
>
8
u
0
A
P-
E
8
-25 -
9
A
,d
0
.
L.
8
>
0 -0.5 1.0 1.5
u radls
Fig. 12- Mean surge drift force on Semi-Submersible 1(
in regular head waves,
50.
Ci.
[
O K A W3UMZ==s . [UC- W-V* Might)
K
Q.
25 - 0
0
0 0.5 1.0 3
. rad/s
Fig. 13-Mean sway efriff force on Samisubmersible II In regular beam
waves.
Measur ed
4E0 = 3.lm

Calcufakd %, - 7.1 *
dir - 180.
m-rm
0 50 100
tir. ,
Fig. 15-Low.frequency surge driff force on Semisubmersible II in
irregular head aeaa-Ha = 3.1 m, T, -7.1 G.
5.03 I
1
Wave
mO
. Mtaturcd

C4kuhted
Wo -5.5 m
*1 - 11.3 s
diz - 130-
m
0 50 100
tic!,
Fig. 16Low.frequency surge drlff force on Samiaubmeraible II In
irregular head aeaa-Hs x 5.5 m, T, =11,3 a.
614
S.@.l ~ Wave 4W - 3.09; $= - 7.12 s
m o .,!3. -. - !ti.. - ;,,?.;:.. ..:;. . :...; ..!j:.. ,,,-.... . ;
-5.@I J

Measured
.. . .
Cahdared
10.03,
1
Force
tf o
------- ,,=---.~ -
-Io,lx J ~
-~...-
--------
/=
.._ ,,
4m -5-85 =; $1 = 11.30 =
10.027
Forc e
! 4-. 13..24 M; %1 = 14.25 s
10.C4-
Forc e
to*- . .......
---
=--./-----ks ... --... {--+----- ;7%;,:,:
-10.W-
7,
1 L
\ ;
\,
u
1, I , t
I
I
1
0 50 100
t in seconds
Fig. 14-Low.frequency eurge driff force on Samiaubmemible I in
Irragular head aeaa.
4=0 - Io.3 =
Mu.rurtd
%1 - 14.5 G
. .
Catculatrd
dir - 180.
.
Fmmm
o 50 100
tins
Fig. 17Low.frequency surge driff force on Semisubmaralble II In
Irregular head seasHa = 10.3 m, T, x 14.5 s.