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2008 Mobile WiMAX Handbook
2008 Mobile WiMAX Handbook
2008 Mobile WiMAX Handbook

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Mobile WiMAX Handbook
Mobile WiMAX Handbook
Mobile WiMAX Handbook
Mobile WiMAX Handbook

Mobile WiMAX Handbook

Mobile WiMAX Handbook
Index Introduction Overview Market Snapshot Case Study - KT Analyst View Patent Overview Sponsored Section

Index

Index Introduction Overview Market Snapshot Case Study - KT Analyst View Patent Overview Sponsored Section -

Introduction Overview Market Snapshot Case Study - KT Analyst View Patent Overview Sponsored Section - Beceem / Samsung Electronics Device Introduction Overview Market Snapshot Case Study - KT Analyst View Glossary Introduction Overview Market Snapshot Case Study - KT Analyst View Glossary Glossary

Case Study - KT Analyst View Patent Overview Sponsored Section - Beceem / Samsung Electronics Device

Introduction

It's Only a Beginning for Mobile WiMAX

"Well begun is half done" is a well-known saying that means the first step is the most difficult to take.

South Korea, the IT powerhouse that takes pride in CDMA technology, also has a wide customer base for broadband Internet. It is one of the most advanced nations in both fixed-line and wireless communication technologies.

Unsatisfied with this result, Korea turned its eyes to Mobile WiMAX, also known as Wibro (Wireless Broadband), which was emerging as the new center of focus, and in 2006 became the world’s first nation to run Mobile WiMAX service. Korea pioneered Mobile WiMAX service, which is now operating in over 20 nations on trial or commercial bases.

However, there were no substantial results to match their grand beginning. It has been almost two years since the launch of Mobile WiMAX in Korea, but the number of subscribers is barely over 100,000 - an almost devastating result in light of the enormous investment.

It is premature, however, to talk about failure; nothing has been started yet. When the service gets wider coverage and offers more applications next year, Mobile WiMAX will have a fair chance of winning in Korea.

Long-term prospects are even brighter. The International Telecommunication Union approved Mobile WiMAX as a 3G standard, which strengthens its candidacy for the 4G standard as well.

The purpose of this handbook is to help you understand the basics of Mobile WiMAX, which is now at its starting point. In other words, we also have just begun. We will see a second and third handbook full of encouraging contents as Mobile WiMAX continues to make headway.

Seong-ju Lee, Editor-in-Chief of Telecoms Korea benoie@telecomskorea.com

Mobile WiMAX continues to make headway. Seong-ju Lee, Editor-in-Chief of Telecoms Korea benoie@telecomskorea.com Overview

Overview

Mobile WiMAX continues to make headway. Seong-ju Lee, Editor-in-Chief of Telecoms Korea benoie@telecomskorea.com Overview

OverView

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Overview

Overview

Overview

What is Wibro or Mobile WiMAX

Wireless Broadband (Wibro) is a telecom service that provides high-speed wireless Internet connection anytime anywhere, even on the move. Inexpensive user of broadband wireless Internet will enhance consumer convenience and provide basis for the usage of various application services. - MIC -

basis for the usage of various application services. - MIC - The term ‘WiMAX’ has been
basis for the usage of various application services. - MIC - The term ‘WiMAX’ has been

The term ‘WiMAX’ has been used generically to describe wireless systems that are based on the WiMAX certification profiles of the IEEE 802.16-2004 Air Interface Standard. With additional profiles pending that are based on the IEEE 802.16e-2005 Mobile Amendment, it is necessary to differentiate between the two WiMAX systems. ‘Fixed’ WiMAX is used to describe 802.16-2004-based systems and ‘Mobile’ WiMAX is used to describe 802.16e-2005-based systems. - WiMAX Forum-

Mobile WiMAX is a broadband wireless solution that enables convergence of mobile and fixed broadband networks through a common wide area broadband radio access technology and flexible network architecture. The Mobile WiMAX Air Interface adopts Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) for improved multi-path performance in non-line-of-sight environments.

Mobile WiMAX systems offer scalability in both radio access technology and network architecture, thus providing a great deal of flexibility in network deployment options and service offerings. Some of the salient features supported by Mobile WiMAX are:

- High Data Rates : The inclusion of MIMO antenna techniques along with flexible sub-channelization schemes, Advanced Coding and Modulation all enable the Mobile WiMAX technology to support

‘In an environment where diverse technologies coexist, we should provide value more than the technology to our customers. WiBro can offer diverse services such as data transmission,media,andcommunications, and these services will enrich the lives of individuals.TheWiBrobroadbandwill markedlyactivatethoseserviceswhichare restricted in the mobile environment.’Nam Joong-soo, President & CEO of KT

peak DL data rates up to 63 Mbps per sector and peak UL data rates up to 28 Mbps per sector in a 10 MHz channel.

- Quality of Service (QoS) : The fundamental premise of the IEEE 802.16 MAC architecture is QoS. It defines Service Flows which can map to DiffServ code points or MPLS flow labels that enable end-to-end IP based QoS. Additionally, subchannelization and MAP-based signaling schemes provide a flexible mechanism for optimal scheduling of space, frequency and time resources over the air interface on a frame-by-frame basis.

- Scalability : Despite an increasingly globalized economy, spectrum resources for wireless broadband worldwide are still quite disparate in its allocations. Mobile WiMAX technology therefore, is designed to be able to scale to work in different channelizations from 1.25 to 20 MHz to comply with varied worldwide requirements as efforts proceed to achieve spectrum harmonization in the longer term. This also allows diverse economies to realize the multi- faceted benefits of the Mobile WiMAX technology for their specific geographic needs such as providing affordable internet access in rural settings versus enhancing the capacity of mobile broadband access in metro and suburban areas.

- Security : The features provided for Mobile WiMAX security aspects are best in class with EAP- based authentication, AES-CCM-based authenticated encryption, and CMAC and HMAC based control message protection schemes. Support for a diverse set of user credentials exists including; SIM/USIM cards, Smart Cards, Digital Certificates, and Username/Password schemes based on the relevant EAP methods for the credential type.

- Mobility : Mobile WiMAX supports optimized handover schemes with latencies less than 50 milliseconds to ensure real-time applications such as VoIP perform without service degradation. Flexible key management schemes assure that security is maintained during handover.

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Overview

Overview
OverView 8 Mobile WiMAX Handbook Overview The Relationship between WiBro and Mobile WiMAX The initial uncertainties

The Relationship between WiBro and Mobile WiMAX

The initial uncertainties surrounding WiBro and its relationship to Mobile WiMAX were driven by early standard initiatives in Korea through the Telecommunication Technology Association (TTA); however, the WiBro requirements released by MIC in July 2004 harmonized WiBro under the Mobile WiMAX baseline standard.

WiBro is the service name for Mobile WiMAX in Korea and uses the same standards, system and certification profiles, and certification processes as Mobile WiMAX.

Wibro Technical Feature

processes as Mobile WiMAX. Wibro Technical Feature Source : KT The Future of WiBro and Mobile

Source : KT

as Mobile WiMAX. Wibro Technical Feature Source : KT The Future of WiBro and Mobile WiMAX

The Future of WiBro and Mobile WiMAX

Further highlighting WiBro’s position within the Mobile WiMAX family, the entire ecosystem of the WiBro service including service providers, equipment vendors, TTA and the Korean Government have all agreed that WiBro products will all be certified under the Mobile WiMAX certification program when it becomes available. This decision guarantees global interoperability, ensures operators that WiBro will benefit from the economies of scale Mobile WiMAX will provide, and also enables global roaming for users of the WiBro service. In addition, where regulatory frameworks permit, equipment certified under the certification profile that supports WiBro may be adopted in other countries around the world outside Korea.

Korea is also playing a leading role in the Mobile WiMAX certification process, with TTA Lab being announced as an official Mobile WiMAX certification laboratory at the February 2006 Paris WiMAX Forum, making it the second official Mobile WiMAX certification laboratory after CETECOM (Centro de Tecnologia de las Comunicaciones) Spain.

Both TTA Lab and CETECOM are working aggressively with the WiMAX Forum CWG (Certification Working Group) and TWG (Technical Working Group) to meet the current target dates of 1Q2007 for Mobile WiMAX certification Release 1 Wave 1 and 3Q2007 for Release 1 Wave 2.

The WiBro community has been and will continue to be a driving force in Mobile WiMAX standards and certification development and a key contributor to the WiMAX Forum. The Korean WiBro community has provided over sixty members, from service providers to equipment vendors and many other areas of industry in Korea, to assist in a wide range of working groups within the WiMAX Forum. WiBro member companies also have served on the Board of Directors.

wide range of working groups within the WiMAX Forum. WiBro member companies also have served on
9
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Overview

Overview
OverView 11 10 Mobile WiMAX Handbook Overview Fixed WiMAX vs. Mobile WiMAX - WiMAX is also

Fixed WiMAX vs. Mobile WiMAX

- WiMAX is also called Mobile WiMAX as it can serve all usage models from fixed to mobile with the same infrastructure. Based on the IEEE 802.16e-2005 standard, Mobile WiMAX offers fixed, nomadic, portable and mobile capabilities

- Does not rely on line-of-sight transmissions in lower frequency bands (2 to 11 GHz)

- Provides enhanced performance, even in fixed and nomadic environments

- Currently uses Time Division Duplexing (TDD)

- System bandwidth is scalable to adapt to capacity and coverage needs

WiMAX and Mobile WiMAX

Mobile WiMAX

Fixed WiMAX

Wibro

Frequency(GHz)

3.5, 5.8 3.5, 7, 10, 14 TDD/FDD TDMA

2.3, 2.5, 3.5, etc 3.5, 7, 8.75, 10, 14, etc TDD OFDMA

2.3

Channel (MHz)

8.75

Duplexing

TDD

Mutiple Access

OFDMA

Source : MIC

(MHz) 8.75 Duplexing TDD Mutiple Access OFDMA Source : MIC 802.16m standard 802.16m is the next

802.16m standard

802.16m is the next generation standard beyond 802.16e-2005 and will be adopted by the WiMAX Forum once the standard is completed in the 2009 timeframe. 802.16m is considered to be a strong candidate for a 4G technology. The IEEE has defined its expected parameters for 802.16m, which can be found on their Web site.

Mobile WiMAX Offers Benefits that Others Don't

What makes Mobile WiMAX, including WiBro, stronger than others? Mobile WiMAX has eight competitive advantages over existing technologies. Compared to Fixed WiMAX, Mobile WiMAX supports a wider range of devices and mobility. Besides PDA, Smartphone, PCACIA card, and mobile router, the wireless broadband technology is also compatible with various mobile services, such as data and voice roaming, LBS, and mobile office.

In competition with HSDPA, dubbed 3.5G-service, Mobile WiMAX will gain the upper hand with simple network architecture that is completely IP-based, low TCO, high throughput, and fast connection time that will guarantee premium services. Mobile WiMAX technology is also superior to Wi-Fi (802.11) in seamless handover, QoS, security, and ease of maintenance.

MBWA (802.20) is no match either, considering the robust eco-system and advanced timing of Mobile WiMAX. The large number of WiMAX Forum members and commercial and test services prove the technological advantages of Mobile WiMAX.

Why Mobil WiMAX

and commercial and test services prove the technological advantages of Mobile WiMAX. Why Mobil WiMAX Source

Source : Posdata

and commercial and test services prove the technological advantages of Mobile WiMAX. Why Mobil WiMAX Source
and commercial and test services prove the technological advantages of Mobile WiMAX. Why Mobil WiMAX Source
Overview

Overview

Steps Toward 4G

WiBro Evolution transmits data at a speed of up to 400Mbps using 40ß÷ bandwidth in 2.3ß. ITU-R is scheduled to select a 4G (IMT-Advanced) technology standard in 2010. As WiBro was designated as 3G standard, WiBro Evolution is at an advantage in competing for the 4G standard. Currently, 3G LTE (Long-Term Evolution) and WiBro Evolution are thought to be the prime candidates for the next-generation technology standard.

Mobile WiMAX Roadmap

candidates for the next-generation technology standard. Mobile WiMAX Roadmap Source : Samsung Electronics Market Snapshot
candidates for the next-generation technology standard. Mobile WiMAX Roadmap Source : Samsung Electronics Market Snapshot
candidates for the next-generation technology standard. Mobile WiMAX Roadmap Source : Samsung Electronics Market Snapshot
candidates for the next-generation technology standard. Mobile WiMAX Roadmap Source : Samsung Electronics Market Snapshot
candidates for the next-generation technology standard. Mobile WiMAX Roadmap Source : Samsung Electronics Market Snapshot
candidates for the next-generation technology standard. Mobile WiMAX Roadmap Source : Samsung Electronics Market Snapshot
candidates for the next-generation technology standard. Mobile WiMAX Roadmap Source : Samsung Electronics Market Snapshot

Source : Samsung Electronics

candidates for the next-generation technology standard. Mobile WiMAX Roadmap Source : Samsung Electronics Market Snapshot

Market Snapshot

candidates for the next-generation technology standard. Mobile WiMAX Roadmap Source : Samsung Electronics Market Snapshot

Market Snapshot

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Market Snapshot

Market Snapshot

Market Snapshot

“Mobile WiMAX will begin to take off over the 2010 to 2013 period, exceeding 80 million mobile subscribers globally by 2013. Mobile WiMAX will represent a single digit proportion of the global mobile broadband base by 2013.?The value of Mobile WiMAX service revenues globally will grow to over $23bn per annum by 2013.”

2007.12 Juniper Research

“WiMAX subscribers will increase worldwide from 3.40 million to 27 million between 2006 and 2011. This forecast includes both 802.16e, and pre-802.16e subscribers, which use proprietary broadband and wireless access and 802.16.2004 technologies. By 2011, of the total number of WiMAX subscribers, 25.10 million will be using 802.16e.”

2008.01 YankeeGroup

“The worldwide fixed and mobile WiMAX equipment market is forecast to grow at a phenomenal 5- year compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 89% between 2006 and 2010. 43% of all mobile WiMAX equipment revenue comes from Asia Pacific in 2Q07, 31% from North America, 17% from EMEA, and 9% from CALA”

2007.10 Infonetics Research

Mobile Broadband Subscribers by Technology

Source : Parks Associates
Source : Parks Associates
Source : Parks Associates

Source : Parks Associates

“Mobile WiMAX will connect 8% of the world’s 1.1 billion mobile broadband subscribers by 2012, accounting for nearly 88 million users worldwide. 52% of these subscribers will be from Asian countries while North and South America will account for another 28%.”

“Mobile WiMAX will be more successful with laptops, external laptop adaptors, and other consumer electronics than in phone handsets. It is these devices outside of the handset where WiMAX provides the greatest competitive challenge to traditional cellular technologies.” 2008.02 In-Stat

“The biggest opportunity for mobile WiMAX is the chance to develop a wider device ecosystem and worldwide subscriber base before LTE starts to do the same. However, LTE remains a potential threat to WiMAX since 3GPP-backed LTE will become the dominant 4G technology and is progressing quickly toward standardization.” 2008.3 ABI Research

Who Is Interested in Mobile WiMAX? A variety of businesses, ranging from telecom companies to web portal companies, are offering or planning mobile WiMAX service. Among others, tier 1 carriers like KT of Korea, BT and France Telecom of Europe want to venture into the wireless market with mobile WiMAX. Wireless carriers such as SK Telecom of Korea, Sprint Nextel of the U.S. and KDDI of Japan are also jumping into the business to strengthen their data services. In addition, Service Operators and Internet Service Providers are eyeing mobile WiMAX to expand their business into the wireless arena. Omnivision, Arlalink, and TVA are among these. Satellite TV service providers and Internet portals such as DirecTV, Yahoo and Google are considering mobile WiMAX. Greenfield operators including YTL and MVS NET also want to launch mobile WiMAX to introduce IP-based Triple Play Service.

operators including YTL and MVS NET also want to launch mobile WiMAX to introduce IP-based Triple
operators including YTL and MVS NET also want to launch mobile WiMAX to introduce IP-based Triple
operators including YTL and MVS NET also want to launch mobile WiMAX to introduce IP-based Triple
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Lessons to Learn from KT's Hardships

For pioneers, the exploration of uncharted industry is a double-edged sword. In June 2006, when KT (Korea's biggest broadband provider) and SK Telecom (the nation's largest mobile operator) launched WiBro (the Korean version of mobile WiMAX), there was nothing but excitement about being the ‘world's first’. Two years later, however, as of March 2008, the service is a failure by all means.

The result fell far short of both high and low expectations. In Korea, WiBro subscribers were slightly over 100,000 as of December 2007. KT claims almost 100,000 subscribers while SK TELECOM has less than 1,000 subscribers, which is almost non-existent.

Determined to make WiBro a new growth engine, KT aims to increase their amount of subscribers to 400,000 by 2008. At least one million subscribers are needed to reach critical mass, they feel, which will be possible sometime in 2009. SK TELECOM, however, does not seem enthusiastic.

Some pessimists say that WiBro might not be able to cross the chasm like the public wireless LAN (PW-LAN) industry did. Common consensus held that the failure of PW-LAN proliferation is largely due to the industry chasm despite the wide perception of its efficiency and convenience.

Back in 2006, the Communications Services Strategy Research Group of the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) rightly pointed out that marketing efforts are necessary in order for WiBro to jump the chasm and spread. It said that the service had to remove the "value barrier" by offering more benefits than its competitors, overcome the "risk barrier" with higher service quality, and break down the "image barrier" by raising public awareness.

Mobile WiMAX Subscribers in Korea

 

2006.12

2007.6

2007.12

2008.12(E)

KT

1,601

21,723

106,101

300,000

SK Telecom

447

822

995

-

Total

2,048

22.545

107,096

 

Source : MIC

 

Obstacle No. 1: Lackluster Competition At first, WiBro service licenses were granted to three service providers: KT, SK Telecom, and Hanaro Telecom. Hanaro Telecom, however, gave up on the license due to business uncertainty, leaving the other two in the industry.

SK Telecom, the country's biggest mobile operator, is unhappy with the rapid growth of WiBro because WiBro seems capable of eating up the profits from SK Telecom’s current mobile subscribers. Of course, no bold steps to develop new services or expand coverage are expected from the mobile operator.

It's common knowledge that competition for better service quality leads to more customer choices and industry growth. In the WiBro industry, however, that common knowledge does not apply. Industry observers say that the root cause of the competition problem is that the government has decided to grant service licenses to fixed and wireless service providers who inherently have different characteristics.

providers who inherently have different characteristics. Obstacle No. 2: Coverage The biggest reason for the
providers who inherently have different characteristics. Obstacle No. 2: Coverage The biggest reason for the

Obstacle No. 2: Coverage The biggest reason for the sluggishness of subscriber growth is that the coverage is still limited to Seoul and some surrounding cities.

KT is planning to expand the service area to 17 cities around Seoul°¬ including Incheon, Goyang, Sungnam, and Suwon. It also decided to offer a fixed rate to existing subscribers for the time being and providing USB devices to new subscribers for free.

SK Telecom, though reluctantly, plans to build 54 more hot zones in 42 cities across the nation this year. It is preparing to release a DBDM device that supports WiBro and HSDPA (High-Speed Downlink Packet Access) together and a USB-type modem.

Obstacle No. 3: Service Differentiation When WiBro service was unveiled, the industry got into the controversy regarding its competitive

edge over HSDPA as both services offered high-speed wireless Internet on the move. WiBro's biggest advantage was the provision of high-speed data transmission with higher efficiency and lower cost than HSDPA, but HSDPA offered higher QoS and wider coverage than WiBro. At the peak of the heated debate, KTF (the nation's leading WCDMA service provider) went all out for HSDPA, and SK Telecom also jumped into the competition, which in turn pushed WiBro to the

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Handbook       Case Study/KT   back burner. Since then, HSDPA has received all of

back burner. Since then, HSDPA has received all of the attention due to the perception that it ensured high-speed data transmission with nationwide coverage. The fact that HSDPA is actually slower than WiBro did not mitigate this effect.

Obstacle No. 4: Broadband Service Still Prevails In Korea, almost everyone has access to 100Mbps broadband service. Therefore, mobile WiMAX, which has relatively weak transmission speed and service stability, is still at a disadvantage. Limited coverage prevented it from being complementary to broadband service. Also, it failed to appeal to targeted market segments, such as laptop users.

Obstacle No. 5 : Device Performance Problem One of the factors that prevented KT from making any additional investment in mobile WiMAX was the poor performance of wave-1 devices. The government also recognized the problem and gave a grace period for service providers to fulfill their investment obligation. Industry observers realize that major investment decisions will be made after wave-2 equipment has been developed in the first half of this year.

Campuses are a New Target for KT WiBro

Campuses are a New Target for KT WiBro College campuses are the most ideal customer base

College campuses are the most ideal customer base for a

WiBro service provider in view of investment efficiency. The

wide coverage, high speed, and strong mobility of WiBro will

appeal best to college students. That is why KT is

concentrating efforts on campus areas in preparation for the

nationwide service.

With notebook computers becoming more widely used and college students' digital

life patterns changing, universities and colleges are hurrying to introduce U-Campus.

Pit is in the best interest of KT to penetrate into campus areas that are full of students

whose lifestyle perfectly suits the WiBro environment.

KT is now working on turning all universities and colleges in Seoul and 17 other cities in

the metropolitan districts into Ubiquitous Campuses with WiBro connectivity.

Using WiBro, students of target universities will be able to access school

administration, e-books, as well as video-based lectures from every corner of the

campus.

Besides the convenience and the broad choices that it offers, WiBro’s price is also

tempting. Students who subscribe to the affordable service for just 10,000 won per

month and add U-Campus service for 3,000 won per month will have unlimited access

to video lectures.

Encouraged by its success in colleges throughout Korea, KT is now providing WiBro

service for Stanford University in the United States. KT has established a WiBro Zone at

the university to support a mobile education project.

Stanford University School of Education, while running a mobile education project

named “Pocket School” for children in Mexico, Peru, Guatemala, and Vietnam, where

there is poor fixed-line infrastructure, enlisted the help of KT in establishing a wireless

Internet platform capable of supporting real-time transmission of mostly large-

capacity video images.

Accordingly, KT provides WiBro solutions and an e-learning platform of high efficiency

and low cost, while Stanford University is developing this education program. The

mobile education solution jointly developed by the two institutions will be used for

children in underdeveloped countries and mobile education programs in Korea as well.

two institutions will be used for children in underdeveloped countries and mobile education programs in Korea
two institutions will be used for children in underdeveloped countries and mobile education programs in Korea

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A Peep into WiBro Service - the Essential Services

KT defines WiBro service as threefold: a high-speed multimedia data service, affordable wireless Internet access, and a high-capacity interactive service where users participate in creating and sharing content. Based on this definition, KT introduced UCC, Web Mail, My Web, Multi board, and PC control as its five core services.

UCC service enables users to upload large UCC files with its "quick and easy" user interface. As the upload speed is fast, large files can be easily uploaded so that users can post videos on their blogs or stream personal Web casts.

Web mail is a one-stop, integrated mailing service allowing people to use several mail accounts while on the move.

My web is a mobile RSS designed to use RSS feeds from Web portals and pages. You can adopt information you like without having to check all of the Web sites.

you like without having to check all of the Web sites. Source : Posdata Multi board

Source : Posdata

Multi board allows two-way multimedia communication based on mobile TPS. Uploading and multicasting are provided for a better interactive service.

PC control enables portable devices to be used as if they were PCs. File transmission, storage, and play are made possible thanks to remote access.

Applications for Mobile WiMAX

Mobile WiMAX operators can offer a wide array of fixed and mobile services to subscribers via a single platform.

Based on the benefits offered by mobile WiMAX - mobility, broadband service, always-on feature, personalization, portability, and low price - the various services listed below can be offered. This is expected to result in an increase in sales for operators as well as a rise in ARPU (Average Revenue Per User), which will turn lead to improvements in ROI (Return On Investment).

in ARPU (Average Revenue Per User), which will turn lead to improvements in ROI (Return On

Source : Posdata

in ARPU (Average Revenue Per User), which will turn lead to improvements in ROI (Return On
in ARPU (Average Revenue Per User), which will turn lead to improvements in ROI (Return On
   

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What's the Magic Pill?

Government Struggling to Create a Mobile WiMAX Boom The Korean government was very proud when the country launched a commercial mobile WiMAX service before any other country in the world. The glory of being the first in the world, however, turned out to be short-lived as the results fell far short of expectations. The dark cloud that was cast over the supposedly promising business did not seem to be temporary, so the government tried to invigorate the lackluster industry.

Make a Big Reference

North Korea, one of the least-connected regions in the world, is likely to have WiBro access soon. The South Korean government will carry out a WiBro establishment project in the North, which is expected to bring about symbolic effects in boosting WiBro service.

Mobile WiMAX Goes to North Korea

A high-ranking official at the Ministry of Information and Communication of Korea said that the

government would provide full support so that the public sector can adopt WiBro in full swing. First

of all, the ministry is seeking to construct a WiBro network in Gaeseong Industrial Complex and

International Business Center in Songdo, where there will be demands for particular purposes. However, the official did not unveil any specific timetable for providing WiBro service in Gaeseong.

KT, the Korean WiBro service provider, plans to expand fixed-line and wireless services in Gaeseong Industrial Complex and ultimately provide communication services in other North Korean cities as well.

The Korean information ministry will set up a communications center of 10,000 lines in the Industrial Complex for communication services, including the Internet. Expanding the service network in newly the established special economic zones, such as Mt. Geumgang and Haeju areas, the Ministry will conduct a feasibility study for upgrading the communication network in North Korea in the mid-long term.

Expanding the service network in newly the established special economic zones, such as Mt. Geumgang and Haeju areas, the Ministry will conduct a feasibility study for upgrading the communication network in North Korea in the mid- long term.

More service licenses The government decided to grant an additional license for mobile WiMAX business. Now that Hanaro Telecom has backed off, only two companies (i.e., KT and SK Telecom) currently provide the service. The government plans to fill in this space left by Hanaro Telecom by awarding the 2,363 Mhz-2390Mhz frequency band to a candidate with a strong will and capability to offer the service, expecting the newcomer to make a difference in the industry and encourage competition. In the case that there is no candidate, the frequency band will be diverted for other purposes.

24 25 Case Study/KT
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MVNO MVNO is considered another way to bring new vitality to the industry. The government planned to provide 30 percent of network capacity to wireless carriers and Internet access providers if more than five million people are subscribed to mobile WiMAX in three years, but the plan was scrapped. Instead, the government decided to let the deliberation committee on ICT policies consider whether to adopt MVNO, when, and how much network capacity shall be open.

Mobile VoIP The government thinks that Internet phone service on the mobile WiMAX network is a good inducement to attract customers in that the service would cut the communication fee and offer more options. There are challenges, though. The law stipulates that the frequency band licensed for mobile WiMAX service should only be used for portable Internet service, which prohibits telephone service. Issues like coverage, service quality, device development, and frequency band capacity should also be solved.

Case Study/KT

Case Study/KT

Experiencing KT WiBro Service HSDPA Benefits from Limited Coverage of WiBro

Since WiBro and HSDPA were first introduced, there have been many debates over which would become more successful. The prevailing opinion was that HSDPA, which, despite its relative sluggishness, offered wider coverage, would outperform WiBro.

At this moment, I would agree with the "No need for WiBro" side unless you expect especially large traffic. I recently subscribed to KT WiBro service, and the problem is that I have to wait for at least five months to use the service because my office is out of the range of their coverage. For that reason, I opted for a service that bundled WiBro and HSDPA together in order to use HSDPA in places that are beyond the reach of WiBro coverage.

The HSDPA service was offered by KTF, the nation's biggest HSDPA provider and KT's affiliate. As I had used KTF's HSDPA service before, I am well aware of how convenient it is. The Internet connection was seamlessly delivered in a vehicle running at 80 km/h.

KT claims that WiBro service is available everywhere in Seoul, but this is not true. In some places, transmission speed and access stability were far lower than HSDPA. As a matter of fact, no service was available in quite a lot of places.

When you want seamless Internet connection on the move for Web surfing, mailbox checking, stock trading, and other Internet tasks, I must say that HSDPA is a better choice.

surfing, mailbox checking, stock trading, and other Internet tasks, I must say that HSDPA is a
surfing, mailbox checking, stock trading, and other Internet tasks, I must say that HSDPA is a

Analyst View

surfing, mailbox checking, stock trading, and other Internet tasks, I must say that HSDPA is a

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Analyst View

Analyst View

Analyst View

One WiMAX Subscriber, Multiple Devices

The true disruptive power of mobile WiMAX may lie in breaking the one- subscriber, one-ARPU, one-device rule

Most communications services are currently tied to one contract and one device. For instance, a GSM mobile subscriber has a pre- or post-paid account that is typically associated with a SIM card, and it is the SIM card that, when inserted into a particular device, designates that device as being live on the account. The subscriber can use a different phone by moving the SIM card, but only one phone can be used for communication at any one time. Even bundled services respect this rule; they offer a discount on the overall bill, but mostly treat devices and services as independent products.

WiMAX is set to change all this. WiMAX will be embedded into a wider group of devices than GSM or even HSPA or EV-DO. These devices will include deSK Telecomop modems, laptops, phones, gaming consoles, multimedia players, and other consumer electronic devices. Subscribers already have many of these devices, but most of devices still lack wireless connectivity or use various interfaces (i.e., Wi-Fi for laptops, but GSM for phones). As more devices with embedded WiMAX become available, subscribers will increasingly prefer to buy these devices over those that lack connectivity, provided that the difference in price is small.

Initially, a subscriber may have a deSK Telecomop modem and possibly a laptop card. In a few years, however, the primary device is more likely to be mobile or portable (a laptop or other data- centric device), with consumer electronic devices, such as game consoles, multimedia players, or cameras, acting as most users’ secondary connection device or devices. According to our latest report, "WiMAX: Ambitions and Reality", approximately 30% of WiMAX subscribers worldwide will have more than one mobile WiMAX device by 2012. These subscribers will use WiMAX as an access technology for multiple applications and services (e.g., enterprise applications, games, content downloads).

Multiple devices per subscriber is a good proposition for device manufacturers ? it translates into higher WiMAX device sales, and for operators, it brings higher service stickiness and lower churn, however, this transition to multiple devices disrupts existing business models. The opportunity for WiMAX to attract subscribers is contingent upon the ability of device vendors and operators to facilitate this trend towards multiple devices, even if this often entails a new approach to product development and marketing that marks a sharp departure from their current practices.

The vendor’s perspective

More WiMAX sales? That should be the dream of any manufacturer or vendor. In reality, the situation is more complex: the per-subscriber expenditure for telecom, computing, and entertainment equipment is remarkably stable as a percentage of the overall disposable income of any country, and WiMAX is not going to change that. If subscribers buy more WiMAX devices, will they necessarily stop buying other devices? It is unlikely that they will throw away their iPods or trade them in for a tablet just because it has built-in WiMAX ? they want a digital music player, not a data-centric device.

On the contrary, we expect that multimedia players like the iPod will have WiMAX embedded because connectivity makes the device more attractive and expands its functionality. End users are not likely to think of these as WiMAX devices (or 3G or Wi-Fi devices for that matter) but rather as devices they are accustomed to (e.g., a PDA or multimedia player) with an additional feature.

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The opportunity - and the challenge - for vendors will not be represented by a huge increase in overall device sales, but in successfully addressing the shift in demand towards connected devices. This will require more than adding a WiMAX module to existing device types. They will need to:

Keep devices affordable without reducing performance. WiMAX functionality has to be embedded into a wide range of devices at low cost while limiting the impact on battery life and performance.a WiMAX module to existing device types. They will need to: Hide WiMAX. Many devices with

Hide WiMAX. Many devices with WiMAX connectivity are not primarily ‘WiMAX devices’, and the new functionality has to blend in well. The WiMAX connection should work right out of the box, and it should be straightforward to add the device to an existing plan.while limiting the impact on battery life and performance. Optimize devices for mobile access. Vendors need

Optimize devices for mobile access. Vendors need to go beyond the mere addition ofWiMAX connection should work right out of the box, and it should be straightforward to add

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WiMAX modules to their existing products. New form factors that combine the desired features and functionality with better support for mobile usage (e.g., long battery life, appropriate trade-offs between overall device size and weight, or between screen and keyboard size) are needed to accelerate adoption.

screen and keyboard size) are needed to accelerate adoption. Make them easier to use. According to

Make them easier to use. According to a recent survey by the Pew Internet and America Life Project, 32% of end users need someone else's help to set up their electronic devices. As mobile broadband and WiMAX move to address the mass market, vendors need to improve user-interface design to be able to meet the demands of their new subscribers.screen and keyboard size) are needed to accelerate adoption. Allow users to preserve a single identity

Allow users to preserve a single identity across multiple devices. Communications between devices is still very limited, even when they are all linked to the same local area network. The ability to sync a laptop and a phone or to manage phone settings and contents from a PC often requires more effort than most end users are willing to exert. With an increasing number of connected devices, it is crucial for both vendors and operators to enable subscribers to keep their identity across devices by sharing content (e.g., music, contacts, etc.) and by synchronizing information (e.g., calendar, email, etc.). Subscribers also want to add new devices effortlessly to a single service plan and to have access to the same services regardless of the device used.to be able to meet the demands of their new subscribers. These features are crucial to

These features are crucial to enticing subscribers to move to devices with data connectivity and to use the new functionality effectively. If managing multiple devices becomes a nightmare, as it too often is today, the overall adoption of mobile broadband and WiMAX may be delayed because its value to the subscribers will be greatly reduced. Mobile broadband has the potential to reach penetration rates comparable to those of cellular voice, but subscribers still have to be convinced that they need more than basic wireless data connectivity (i.e., texting, messaging, and email). The availability of compelling, well-designed devices will play a crucial role in driving mobile broadband adoption in the mass market ? even more so than the availability of mobile-focused applications.

The operator perspective

Most operators appreciate the opportunity that the use of multiple devices brings, and they plan to allow subscribers to add new devices to their account since that would cause lower churn, a more attractive service proposition, and higher ARPU. At the same time, however, they are accustomed to associating each device with a separate fee. Such an approach is likely to slow adoption of new devices and services because subscribers will find the overall service proposition less compelling if they are required to pay an additional fee for each device.

Mobile WiMAX is a wireless broadband technology that is designed to operate more than five times faster than today's third-generation wireless networks at lower cost. Mobile WiMAX technology is expected to allow users to wirelessly download full-length movies and songs, conduct live video-conferences from remote locations, and perform other interactive multi-media applications anywhere in the coverage area, mobilizing the full power of the open Internet. The technology is expected to be deployed ubiquitously with embedded chipsets in computing, consumer electronic devices and other innovative access devices being developed by a global ecosystem. - Sprint Nextel -

It is also true that subscribers with multiple devices may share them with other subscribers (e.g., one subscription in a household may allow all family members to use a connection) thereby may generate higher levels of traffic. But there are ways to avert abuse, other than charging separately for

each device, that also encourage the ownership and use of multiple devices. For instance, operators may impose traffic caps or give lower priority to traffic from heavy users after they exceed a defined limit. They could also allow only one

device (or one device type) to be active at any point in time from a single account, as long as they allow the subscriber to move quickly from one device to another.

The good news is that device subsidies will become less of a burden on operators. Subsidies are not likely to disappear entirely since WiMAX operators will have to compete with other operators that do offer subsidies. Subsidies are such a widespread marketing tool that a new technology alone is unlikely to threaten their existence. However, subscribers are not likely to expect substantial subsidies on secondary devices. They may expect a lower price on the deSK Telecomop modem or a phone, but they will probably want to buy the laptop or gaming console that they like best. In most cases, operators will not even sell these devices, and subscribers will buy them as they currently do through their favorite retail channels.

not even sell these devices, and subscribers will buy them as they currently do through their
not even sell these devices, and subscribers will buy them as they currently do through their
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Analyst View Mobile operators are accustomed to a high degree of control over devices. They sell

Mobile operators are accustomed to a high degree of control over devices. They sell them to subscribers, subsidize them, and control their interface and functionality. It is the mobile operator that decides which devices subscribers will use. The balance will shift with WiMAX subsidy-free devices ? the subscriber pays for them and feels entitled to retain control over the device. While subscribers will still expect devices to operate successfully in the network, they want to be free to use the device on a different network and are unlikely to tolerate limitations on the applications that they can access on their devices. As subscribers are no longer a captive audience, the operator may find it more difficult to successfully market value- added, application-based services to subscribers and may see its role restricted as an access provider.

WiMAX adoption will mean much more than affordable mobile broadband. It is set to change the way vendors and operators develop, market, and support

devices and services. It represents a unique opportunity for operators to bring more freedom and flexibility to subscribers ? and a higher perceived value for the service than the one they are accustomed to with current cellular data services.

Contributed by Monica Paolini, President, Senza Fili Consulting

Monica Paolini can be contacted at monica.paolini@senzafiliconsulting.com

Monica Paolini, President, Senza Fili Consulting Monica Paolini can be contacted at monica.paolini@senzafiliconsulting.com

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Analyst ViewAnalyst View 34 35 Mobile WiMAX Handbook An Assessment of Developments in the Near Future Trends,

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An Assessment of Developments in the Near Future

Trends, Expectations, and Unpredictable Elements

WiMAX is defined as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, which allows for broadband wireless access of information in the form of packet data. It was introduced in October 2001 and is also known as the IEEE 802.16 standard. The Mobile WiMAX standard has been established to provide specifications for mobile broadband wireless access systems. The IEEE Working group ratified the standard in December 2005. Though the fixed version of WiMAX focuses on the point- to-multipoint broadband access and the last mile solution, the mobile version of WiMAX will focus on mobility for broadband. The strength lies in the fact that, apart from mobility, it will also support fixed and nomadic access. The peak throughput rate is expected to be 75 Mbps.

The aim of the WiMAX standard is to ensure that interoperability is maintained among devices. The WiMAX Forum will ensure that the standards, which are covered under WiMAX, are released according to their scheduled timelines and that guidelines are maintained by the vendors.

Global Mobile WiMAX Subscriber Forecast

by the vendors. Global Mobile WiMAX Subscriber Forecast We are seeing more and more Mobile WiMAX
by the vendors. Global Mobile WiMAX Subscriber Forecast We are seeing more and more Mobile WiMAX
by the vendors. Global Mobile WiMAX Subscriber Forecast We are seeing more and more Mobile WiMAX
by the vendors. Global Mobile WiMAX Subscriber Forecast We are seeing more and more Mobile WiMAX

We are seeing more and more Mobile WiMAX 802.16e trials and network contracts ? over 50 were announced in 2007 alone, and the market is very active in all regions of the world. We anticipate that mobile usage will develop after initial demand for fixed and portable services ? WiMAX 802.16e is a flexible platform that can operate in all three modes of usage. By 2013, mobile WiMAX will represent a single digit proportion of the global mobile broadband base. This will be a tremendous achievement for this new technology platform, which has recently been boosted by the ITU's endorsement of it as an IMT2000 specification.

Juniper Research forecasts that Mobile WiMAX 802.16e will begin to take off over the 2010 to 2013 period, exceeding 80 million mobile subscribers globally by 2013. The value of the Mobile WiMAX 802.16e service revenues market will grow to $23bn by the same year. Asia will account for over 50% of Mobile WiMAX 802.16e subscribers at that time, exceeding 40 million mobile subscribers. Countries such as India, Korea, Pakistan, Taiwan, and Australia will drive the growth of Mobile WiMAX 802.16e. WiMAX will be well-suited to rapid deployment in many underserved areas, whilst government programmes in countries such as Taiwan will support growth. Over the next year, licenses in countries such as India, Japan, and Thailand, as well as countries in other regions, will be auctioned. Timely award of these licenses will accelerate market development.

Mobile WiMAX will be a device-based technology, and there are several wildcard factors that could significantly increase the size of the market, including the emergence of very-low-cost laptops and the addition of broadband capability to a range of devices, including portable music/MP3 players and games consoles. The twin challenges are for vendors to produce the right devices at the right time and price and for Mobile WiMAX service providers to differentiate their offerings from those of existing mobile operators. Successfully facing these challenges will accelerate market development.

from those of existing mobile operators. Successfully facing these challenges will accelerate market development.
from those of existing mobile operators. Successfully facing these challenges will accelerate market development.
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In January 2007, the IEEE outlined a proposed work plan for a new version of the 802.16 standard that could increase speeds to 1 Gbps while maintaining backwards compatibility with existing WiMAX products. The new version has been called 802.16m, and the IEEE aims to complete the standard by September 2008 for approval by December 2008. The IEEE wants to develop a "competitive" and "significantly improved" radio-access technology that is "compliant with the ITU R/IMT advanced requirements for 4G" while keeping interoperability with mobile WiMAX. Potential new radio interfaces will need to support up to 100Mbps for high mobility services, such as mobile access, and up to 1Gbps for low mobility services, such as nomadic/local wireless access, by around 2010. A step-change speed increase of this magnitude will enable service providers to offer a range of content-rich multimedia services, such as TV, fast music downloads, and streamed video, as well as greatly improved VoIP performance and capacity.

Contributed by Howard Wilcox, Juniper Research Report Author: “Mobile WiMAX: Global Opportunities, Strategies & Forecasts, 2007- 2013”December 2007

USB Modem Makes up 89% of Mobile WiMAX Access

Since its commercial launch in June 2006, KT WiBro has attracted over 100,000 subscribers, the majority of whom use USB modems to access the service. According to KT's research results, 89% of WiBro subscribers are using notebook computers with USB modems, 10% PDAs and smartphones, and 1% ultra mobile PCs. The company attributes the predominance of USB modems to the convergence capability of modems supporting terrestrial DMB, HSDPA, MP3 players, and portable storage units as well as WiBro connectivity. The 3Mbps speed and monthly linear rates (10,000 to 19,800 won) also explain the preference for accessing WiBro through USB modems, the company said. Mobile WiMAX service is offering the fastest data communication with full-mobility among existing telecommunication technologies. Since Mobile WiMAX technology is based on IEEE 802.16e OFDMATDDand all IP-based, more effective and convenient mobile broadband services are possible with already existing IP infrastructure. Users can enjoy mobile broadband services, anytime, anywhere, any device, even on the move. - Samsung Electronics -

Users can enjoy mobile broadband services, anytime, anywhere, any device, even on the move. - Samsung
can enjoy mobile broadband services, anytime, anywhere, any device, even on the move. - Samsung Electronics

WiBro Patent

can enjoy mobile broadband services, anytime, anywhere, any device, even on the move. - Samsung Electronics

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WiBro Patent Application Overview

Handbook WiBro Patent WiBro Patent Application Overview In view of mobility and cell coverage, WiBro is

In view of mobility and cell coverage, WiBro is on the midpoint between voice- centered mobile communications and Wi-Fi data communications. Accordingly, WiBro has been upgrading and taking advantage of core technologies from both sides.

WiBro has adopted handover, electric power control, and connection control from mobile communications as well as AMC, MIMO, and scheduling from Wi-Fi.

WiBro modified and integrated existing technologies from different areas rather than developing new technologies. This goes for WiBro patents as well. Patents for original technologies were already issued in Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11) or WiMAX (IEEE 802.16). As WiBro began to receive publicity, applications for patents suitable to the service began to emerge.

While Korea led the approval of IEEE 802.16e as an international standard for WiBro and became the first nation to commercialize the technology, patents for WiBro in Korea were mostly filed by Korean companies or research institutes. Those who played a part in standardization or who are presently carrying out WiBro service, such as Samsung Electronics, KT, SK Telecom, and ETRI, account for about 60% of patent applications.

In the United States, WiBro patent applications are filed by a wide range of companies, including Ericsson, Lucent, Samsung Electronics, and Nokia. Samsung Electronics chiefly applies for technologies of commercially use, whereas Ericsson, Lucent, and Nokia concentrate on WiMAX, the fundamental technology for WiBro.

Patent Applications for Major WiBro Technologies

WiBro technologies include OFDMA, hand-over, power control, network interworking, scheduling, connection control, MIMO (Multi Input Multi Output), smart antenna, and VoIP.

OFDMA is one of the most important elements of the WiBro system. Qualcomm and Adaptix, the owners of Flarion and Broadstorm, respectively, hold the majority of patents for OFDMA original technologies. In Korea, Samsung and ETRI are taking the lead, but the patents are mostly for applied technologies.

In WiBro hand-over, South Korea and the United States have filed the majority of patents. The U.S. patents are mostly for handover in IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX) and are almost evenly distributed amongst large companies, such as Samsung, Nokia, Interdigital, Ericsson, and Motorola. In Korea, patent applications began to rise at about the time

of standardization, and over 90% of them were filed by Korean companies, such as Samsung, ETRI, KT, and SK TELECOM, while Interdigital is the most active among foreign companies.

Along with handover, power control is one of the most predominant technologies in terms of the number of patent applications. As in handover, South Korea and the Unites States are out in front. In Korea, patent applications gained momentum with the standardization, whereas in the United States, there had been a lot of applications even before the standardization of WiMAX. The distribution pattern of patent assignees in each country is similar to that of handover.

In network interworking, patent applications in the United States peaked at around the time of WiMAX standardization, but they have been declining ever since, whereas in Korea, commercial WiBro service triggered the increase of applications. SK Telecom, running both mobile and fixed- line networks, is filing more applications than any other patent assignees in Korea. In particular, the number of patent applications for WiBro interworking with WLAN increased in Korea with the development of IEEE 802.16m (WiBro Evolution) aimed at 4G standard.

WiBro scheduling is almost the same as handover or power control in terms of its patent application pattern. Patent fillings for packet scheduling combined with subcarrier allocation are on the rise.

its patent application pattern. Patent fillings for packet scheduling combined with subcarrier allocation are on the
its patent application pattern. Patent fillings for packet scheduling combined with subcarrier allocation are on the

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WiBro Patent 41 40 Mobile WiMAX Handbook WiBro Patent Patent applications for WiBro connection control have

Patent applications for WiBro connection control have been surging in South Korea, the United States, and Europe since the standardization. Connection control technologies are mostly related to synchronizing, ranging, and channel estimation. Patents are filed mostly for connection technologies in relation to handover and power control. Patents for channel estimation are based on IEEE 802.16d and cover the method of channel estimation by means of MIMO.

Patent applications for WiBro MIMO, smart antenna, WiBro VoIP have taken off in Korea since the standardization. The current WiBro standard supports MIMO and VoIP, but there

no such services are available. However, patents for these technologies are increasingly being filed for, especially in Korea, with better QoS and growing

efforts to introduce the real-time voice service involved in commercial WiBro service.

"WiMAX will translate into people being able to take their favorite Internet experiences - be it watching videos, streaming music or doing research on the Internet - on the go without compromising on quality,"- Ari Virtanen, Vice President, Nokia Multimedia

Other technologies ranking high for patent application in Korea are interference cancellation through WiBro handsets and base-stations, I-Q mismatching, and offset/timing correction.

Spread Your Message throughout the Industry Telecoms Korea suggests that you showcase your mobile WiMAX technologies, solutions, insights and opinions about the industry via the ‘Sponsored Editorial’ section of the ‘Mobile WiMAX Handbook 2009.’ It will be a great opportunity to inform wireless carriers, developers and general consumers who are interested in mobile WiMAX about what your company is doing and envisioning in a cost-efficient way. Looking forward to your contribution through support@telecomskorea.com

WiBro Patents for Major Technologies

WiBro (IEEE 802.16e) combines mobility and MIMO, building on WiMAX (IEEE802.16d). Therefore, the performance of WiBro depends on handover as well as MIMO and the smart antenna of the WiMAX system. These technologies existed even before the approval of the WiBro standard, but WiBro requires some special technologies to support 1Mbps-transmission in a vehicle moving at 100km/hr without compromising handover, MIMO or smart antenna. So these special technologies must be referred to as major technologies in the WiBro patent application.

For high-speed mobility, WiBro should support prompt handover. Accordingly, WiBro patent applications for handover are mostly related to reducing L2/L3 handover time, minimizing packet loss by forecasting handover, simplifying handover, and decreasing the overload that is caused by scanning.

Since the WiBro system uses multi-carrier OFDM for uplink ? as well as downlink ? modulation, when the peak-to-average power ratio of the uplink grows, the terminal consumes more power. There is a patent application for the RF power amplifier that raises the average signal efficiency of high-PAPR. A technology that weights different subcarriers to reduce power loss by controlling average power is also waiting for patent issue. Other related patent applications deal with forecasting data scheduling and switching to sleep or idle modes.

WiBro Evolution (IEEE 802.16m), a strong candidate for 4G international standard, includes network interworking. WiBro/W-LAN and WiBro/mobile communications are popular items for patent applications. Specifically, most patent applications cover handoff between different networks, MIH (Media Independent Handover), authentication process for interworking, and efficient connection methods.

In WiBro, scheduling is related to QoS and VoIP. In this area, patents are mostly filed for scheduling within the limited amount of resources. Scheduling methods include prioritizing services, controlling transmission lag on L3, or allocating an exclusive channel. WiBro deploys the multicarrier method and some patent applications claim the method of subcarrier allocation and modulation for certain types of users.

Patents for connection control mainly refer to advances in the ability to conduct synchronizing and ranging with accuracy and promptness. Mostly, they deal with improving the performance

to conduct synchronizing and ranging with accuracy and promptness. Mostly, they deal with improving the performance
to conduct synchronizing and ranging with accuracy and promptness. Mostly, they deal with improving the performance
WiBro Patent

WiBro Patent

of synchronizing and ranging in relation to handoff and repeating. Patent applications for channel estimation are filed continuously, but they are mostly for coding or attaching preambles to a sub- channel in order to adjust OFDMA-based channel estimation to a mobile environment.

For MIMO, it is important to prevent the coupling of separate antennas. Patents are filed either for avoiding damage to practical use that could be caused by physical size or for practical space-time coding. Many patent applications combine space-time coding with the allocation of 1,024 subcarriers to antennas and the enlargement of communication capacity.

Other main issues in WiBro patent applications are compensation for I-Q mismatching, frequency offset, and synchronization based on pilot information.

WiBro Handover Technology Advances WiBro service is capable of offering faster data transmission than mobile services. Subscription to the service, however, needs to be facilitated due to the fact that the coverage is confined to certain areas of the country. Regarding the service, the industry was reported to be increasingly interested in developing dual-mode devices that allow the use of multiple wireless communication services on a single device. Among other technologies, it was reported that development of handover technology, which switches to mobile service outside of the WiBro service area, has been on the rise. The Korean Intellectual Property Office (KIPO) said that license applications for handover technology between WiBro and mobile networks had continued to be filed ? 19 in 2004, 16 in 2005, and 11 in 2006. Ten of the applications were filed by WiBro-related manufacturers, 25 by communications service providers, 10 by research centers, and one by academia, according to the KIPO. Most of the patents were about methods of determining handover timing, handover technology using mobile IP, and interoperation of mobile phone services. The KIPO said that the key to the handover between WiBro and mobile networks is to shorten handover time and build networks that allow for the use of mobile service in the WiBro network. The KIPO said that the technologies for reducing handover time are crucial because handover between WiBro and mobile networks take a lot of time, which can affect the quality of call services. The agency said that interoperability between the two service networks is a prerequisite to using voice calling, SMS, and MMS service in the WiBro network.

service networks is a prerequisite to using voice calling, SMS, and MMS service in the WiBro

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service networks is a prerequisite to using voice calling, SMS, and MMS service in the WiBro

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Best Partner for Mobile WiMAX

What's Happening in the Market?

The Advantage of Mobile WiMAX

In October 2007, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Radiocommunication Assembly, the international union for telecommunication standards, officially recognized Mobile WiMAX technology as one of the 3G mobile technologies and part of the next evolution of 3G cellular technology. Mobile WiMAX brings telecom operators more opportunities for providing faster high- speed broadband data service, and gives end users more choices to experience true mobile multimedia services.

The WiMAX Forum has attracted over 529 members representing the entire value chain, from component and silicon vendors to system vendors, service providers and other ecosystem players. It has expanded over 10 times since its foundation in 2001. It began the certification of the Mobile WiMAX product at the end of 2007, with the first certified products expected for the first quarter of 2008.

Sprint Nextel was committed to soft-launching the technology in early 2008 with the goal of a broader launch by the end of the year. Soft-launching service will be available in Chicago, Baltimore and Washington, D.C.

UQ Communications is a consortium of six companies including KDDI, Intel, East Japan Railway Company, Kyocera Corp., Daiwa Securities Group Inc., and the Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd. This consortium acquired Mobile WiMAX business rights from Japan’s Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications in December 2007. Samsung was chosen as the supplier of Mobile WiMAX equipment for UQ Communications in Japan on March 3.

WiMAX equipment for UQ Communications in Japan on March 3. UQ Communications plans to run a

UQ Communications plans to run a trial service of Mobile WiMAX in February 2009 in Tokyo and Yokohama, and hopes to launch commercial service there the following summer.

Economic Scalability, the strong ecosystem of the 529- member WiMAX Forum, will enable early spreading into the market and economy of scale. Thanks to cost- effective solutions with lower frequency costs and simple network configuration with 2-tier, a network can be configured at lower costs compared with other competitive technology offers. Enhanced service features with Multicast Broadcast Service (MBS) and high-efficient mobile Triple Play Service (TPS) can be provided, thus providing new revenue sources. Business flexibility is contingent on the service environment; fixed, nomadic, portable, and mobile services can be combined into a new service. Each service can be seamlessly migrated to mobile service.

The below factors explain why Mobile WiMAX is the best solution for successful rollouts of mobile broadband services:

"We will continue to introduce Mobile WiMAX devices and expand our portfolio of mobile convergence devices.Samsung will

continuously drive the market with pioneering telecommunication technology and services not only in Korea but also overseas. Samsung will meet the demands of Mobile WiMAX services and convergence devices by delivering the products that reflect consumers' demands." - Geesung Choi, President of Samsung's Telecom Network

Business-

Features of technology : The basic concept of Mobile WiMAX is to increase Internet access with mobility. It is developed and optimized for data services and offers some of the most advanced functionality and spectral efficiency features among all commercially available wireless data technologies. Its IP network will make it easier and more economical to roll out new data applications and inter-work with other IP-based technologies. Major technical features of 4G, such as OFDMA and Advanced Antenna technologies are already adopted in Mobile WiMAX. Mobile WiMAX brings further enhancements in throughput and coverage range.

A wide variety of devices : The IP architecture of Mobile WiMAX technology makes integration easier due to the open feature. Mobile WiMAX can support a wide variety of new devices. From external modems to Consumer Electronics (CE), the potential power of a Mobile WiMAX device is unlimited. Currently, various types of devices, such as external modems (PC card, USB dongle, CPE), UMPC, PDA, PMP, and Mobile WiMAX embedded PCs,

types of devices, such as external modems (PC card, USB dongle, CPE), UMPC, PDA, PMP, and
types of devices, such as external modems (PC card, USB dongle, CPE), UMPC, PDA, PMP, and

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are available for Mobile WiMAX service. The unlimited flexibility of Mobile WiMAX devices will attract customers in general and those who are ready for unpredictable changes in the business world.

Cost effectiveness : Mobile WiMAX’s spectral efficiency, caused by TDD, enables network operators to manage more flexible networks. Also, it delivers a lower cost per bit than other competitive technologies. As the world’s most advanced mobile broadband standard, Mobile WiMAX will be a good choice for countries with inadequate infrastructure. Wired broadband is clearly not the answer to democratizing the Internet in geographies such as deserts, jungles, etc. Mobile broadband access is preferred in these conditions, because it can reduce initial infrastructure and maintenance costs significantly, while providing service wherever desired.

Worldwide availability : Mobile WiMAX mainly operates in three spectrum bands (2.3GHz, 2.5GHz and 3.5GHz), which have common global allocation. Mobile WiMAX products, mobile stations and base stations provide global interoperability through official certification tests. It can support global roaming, so customers can enjoy worldwide mobile broadband service with one device that supports multiple bands. Also, the interoperability of Mobile WiMAX is an advantage for worldwide availability. The not-for-profit organization WiMAX Forum was formed to certify and promote the compatibility and interoperability of Mobile WiMAX. WiMAX Forum-certified products are fully interoperable and support mobile broadband services wherever you are.

Time to Market : The Mobile WiMAX standard was globally approved in December 2005, and its service was first commercialized in the Korean market in June 2006. Since then, it has shown significant growth and expansion in other global markets, such as the U.S. and Japan. Mobile WiMAX is timed to enter the market as a global standard that applies OFDMA technology for the first time. Mobile WiMAX systems and terminals authenticated by the WiMAX Forum will be supplied to the market in the first quarter of 2008. Mobile WiMAX enjoys a 2~3 year time advantage compared to competitive technologies like LTE. Early and abundant commercial experience will allow customers to enjoy mobile broadband service more freely.

customers to enjoy mobile broadband service more freely. What can you do with Mobile WiMAX? So

What can you do with Mobile WiMAX?

So what services can be supported by Mobile WiMAX? Basically Mobile WiMAX extends from a wired broadband, so it can support all services of wired broadband in a mobile environment to reach broader areas with various devices. More enhanced services are available to customers thanks to the enhanced technical features of Mobile WiMAX. Customers can enjoy diverse multimedia services anytime, anywhere, with any device by Mobile WiMAX.

- Internet Connectivity: Internet access is a main service in Mobile WiMAX. Wherever you are and whatever you do, you can maintain connectivity to the Internet while on the move.

- Communication: Mobile VoIP is another main service of Mobile WiMAX. Mobile WiMAX can support voice service through its IP network quite easily. With a minimal service fee, customers can enjoy mobile communication.

- Multimedia: High throughput data downloading and uploading is possible. Various multimedia services like mobile UGC, mobile gaming, mobile IPTV, mobile blogging, mobile karaoke, mobile LBS and other multimedia services are available to customers.

- Vertical Service: Mobile WiMAX can be useful for public safety by helping medical staffers and emergency crews. It can also be useful in isolated work areas such as construction sites and oil fields. In case of emergency, Mobile WiMAX can support very useful communication methods like PTA.

Mobile WiMAX service is offering the fastest data communication with full-mobility among existing telecommunication technologies. Since Mobile WiMAX technology is based on IEEE 802.16e OFDMA TDD and all IP-based, more effective and convenient mobile broadband services are possible with already existing IP infrastructure. Users can enjoy mobile broadband services, anytime, anywhere, any device, even on the move. - Samsung Electronics -

Users can enjoy mobile broadband services, anytime, anywhere, any device, even on the move. - Samsung
Users can enjoy mobile broadband services, anytime, anywhere, any device, even on the move. - Samsung

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WiMAX

Handbook

Sponsored Section

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Market Leadership

Samsung has been developing Mobile WiMAX technology since 2002, actively contributing to Mobile WiMAX standardization. Ever since Mobile WiMAX was approved as a global standard by IEEE and the WiMAX Forum at the end of 2005, Samsung has hosted many meaningful activities at international events such as the APEC (2005). Samsung is the first company to launch WiBro commercial services in Korea. WiBro is a wireless broadband service based on Mobile WiMAX. Korea Telecom (KT), Korea’s largest fixed line operator, and SKT, Korea’s largest mobile operator, have offered commercial WiBro services since June 2006. Currently there are over 100,000 WiBro subscribers. Currently, about 10 different types of end user devices are providing it.

10 different types of end user devices are providing it. Based on successful trials and commercialization

Based on successful trials and commercialization of the technology in the global market, Samsung was selected as a partner of Sprint Nextel’s Mobile WiMAX service. Sprint Nextel’s Mobile WiMAX commercial service will be launched in April 2008 using Samsung’s Mobile WiMAX equipments and devices. Samsung, a major provider of both system and devices for Sprint Nextel, will cover Washington D.C. and Baltimore in the initial stage, and then Boston, Providence, Philadelphia, and New York.

Meanwhile, Samsung is cooperating with many other global operators for widespread use of the technology, including in Europe, Latin America, the Middle East and Africa.

Technology Leadership

Through outstanding performances in solution development and commercial service deployments, Samsung has positioned itself as a pioneer of Mobile WiMAX technology. Samsung is actively involved in telecommunication industry forums and standard bodies to ensure Mobile WiMAX global standardization. Samsung participates in the WiMAX Forum as a board member with accumulated technological leadership. In the WiMAX Forum, Samsung plays an important role in the Technical Working Group and the Network Working Group. It leads the IOT profiles, certification and evolution of the technology.

Samsung held the world’s first wave2 demonstration at the 3GSM World Congress 2007 in Barcelona. It proved the system can provide high-speed data of 37 Mbps for download and 10 Mbps for upload. With this speed, users can download a 3MB MP3 music file within 0.7 seconds and a 700 MB movie in 2 minutes and 45 seconds.

By evolving from the 802.16e-based Mobile WiMAX to 4G service, Samsung also demonstrated the world's first touch-and-feel experience of the 4G wireless technology during its 4G Forum in 2006 and 2007. During these events, Samsung officials demonstrated 100 Mbps data transmission in a bus moving at 60 kilometers per hour, and 1 Gbps data transfer.

Samsung has also been leading the push for Mobile WiMAX 802.16m standards in IEEE. The technology leadership of Samsung Mobile WiMAX continues to usher in next-generation technology and 4G service.

Best Partner for Mobile WiMAX

Samsung provides complete end-to-end Mobile WiMAX solutions for the gamut from chipset, devices and base stations to IMS solutions. Devices include CPE, PCMCIA cards, express cards, PDA, UMPC and embedded PCs. Samsung’s system solution provides a wide range of coverage options ? from macro-dense urban areas to remote rural areas ??supporting all frequency bands (2.3/2.5/3.5GHz). Combined with Samsung’s market leadership in the traditional consumer electronics industry, Samsung Mobile WiMAX total solution enables an operator’s successful deployment of mobile broadband offerings. Customers can enjoy a variety of well-known mobile devices with the Samsung brand.

of mobile broadband offerings. Customers can enjoy a variety of well-known mobile devices with the Samsung
of mobile broadband offerings. Customers can enjoy a variety of well-known mobile devices with the Samsung
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System solution

Samsung’s system solution covers all areas and all frequency bands. The coverage supported by base stations and ASN gateways extend from macro zones to hot spots and in-building locations, and all licensed frequency bands (2.3GHz/ 2.5GHz/ 3.5GHz). Thanks to rich on-site knowledge accumulated during commercial service deployments and stabilizations, the Samsung system is optimized for a variety of environments including in the subway, on the highway and in both urban and rural areas.

Chip Solution

Samsung also has a chip solution, which is embedded in Mobile WiMAX devices. This chip has the advantage of providing low power and various interface solutions. Advanced technology, abundant experiences, a full system lineup and various devices make Samsung as your best partner for mobile broadband

Diverse Devices

Samsung has a whole portfolio of Mobile WiMAX devices to fit every user’s need. At home, at the caf?, in the office and in a vehicle, you can enjoy Mobile WiMAX service with Samsung Mobile WiMAX devices such as PDA phones, PC cards, USBs, and Mobile WiMAX embedded PCs or tablet PCs (UMPC). Thus users can enjoy Mobile WiMAX service anytime, anywhere.

and Mobile WiMAX embedded PCs or tablet PCs (UMPC). Thus users can enjoy Mobile WiMAX service
and Mobile WiMAX embedded PCs or tablet PCs (UMPC). Thus users can enjoy Mobile WiMAX service

Device

and Mobile WiMAX embedded PCs or tablet PCs (UMPC). Thus users can enjoy Mobile WiMAX service

Mobile

WiMAX

Handbook

Device

Device

Device

Mobile WiMAX Device

Mobile WiMAX Handbook Device Mobile WiMAX Device Everrun 60H/S6S RAON Digital AMD 600Mhz Geode LX900 Microsoft

Everrun 60H/S6S

RAON Digital

AMD 600Mhz Geode LX900 Microsoft Windows XP Home edition Qwerty Keyboard 4.8-inch Touch Screen WVGA 802.11b/g WLAN Bluetooth 2.0 Battery Life 7 hours

WVGA 802.11b/g WLAN Bluetooth 2.0 Battery Life 7 hours SPH-P9200 Samsung Electronics VIA 1Ghz Windows XP

SPH-P9200

Samsung Electronics

VIA 1Ghz Windows XP Home Edition 5-inch LCD WiFi

Electronics VIA 1Ghz Windows XP Home Edition 5-inch LCD WiFi Q1 Ultra Samsung Electronics Intel CPU

Q1 Ultra

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Intel CPU 800 Mhz Windows Vista Home Premium 7-inch LCD Bluetooth 2.0 60GB HDD

Windows Vista Home Premium 7-inch LCD Bluetooth 2.0 60GB HDD SPH M8200 Samsung Electronics Dual mode

SPH M8200

Samsung Electronics

Dual mode (Wibro + EV-DO) Touch Screen 2.8-inch 242k QVGA T-DMB Windows Mobile 5.0

SPH M8100

Samsung Electronics

QVGA T-DMB Windows Mobile 5.0 SPH M8100 Samsung Electronics Dual mode (Wibro + EV-DO) Bluetooth Dual

Dual mode (Wibro + EV-DO) Bluetooth Dual Camera 2.8-inch LCD T-DMB Windows Mobile 5.0

LG KC1

LG Electronics

Monahans 806Mhz CPU Bluetooth T-DMB 2.8-inch QVGA Touch Screen Windows Mobile 5.0

54 55 Device
54
55
Device

Mobile

WiMAX

Handbook

Device

Device

Device

Mobile WiMAX Device

Mobile WiMAX Handbook Device Mobile WiMAX Device SWT-W100K Samsung Electronics Wibro + GPS T-DMB 4.3-inch WVGA

SWT-W100K

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Wibro + GPS

T-DMB 4.3-inch WVGA TFT-LCD 2-megapixel camera, Bluetooth 2.0 USB 2.0 8GB memory.

2-megapixel camera, Bluetooth 2.0 USB 2.0 8GB memory. KWS-P1000 Sodiff Intel PXA270 Full Browsing Dual camera

KWS-P1000

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SPH-H1300

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Screen Qwerty Keyboard USB 2.0 SPH-H1300 Samsung Electronics Wibro +HSDPA KWD-U1100 Modacom Wibro + TDMB SPH-H1200

Wibro +HSDPA

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Electronics Wibro +HSDPA KWD-U1100 Modacom Wibro + TDMB SPH-H1200 Samsung Electronics Wibro + HSDPA LG-KU1P LG

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LG Electronics Wibro + MP3 Player + Memory

Wibro + TDMB SPH-H1200 Samsung Electronics Wibro + HSDPA LG-KU1P LG Electronics Wibro + MP3 Player
Device56 57
Device56
57

glossary

A
A

AGC Automatic gain control (AGC) is an electronic system found in many types of devices. Its purpose is to control the gain of a system in order to maintain some measure of performance over a changing range of real world conditions.

AMPS Advanced Mobile Phone System or AMPS is the analog mobile phone system standard, introduced in the Americas during the early 1980s. Though analog is no longer considered advanced at all, the relatively seamless cellular switching technology AMPS introduced was what made the original mobile radiotelephone practical, and was considered quite advanced at the time.

Antenna Gain Antenna gain is the measurement of an antennas ability to amplify the incoming microwave signals in a particular direction, compared with the sensitivity of an isotropic antenna in any direction, or a dipole antenna in the equatorial direction. The two measurements are measured in decibels and denoted by dBi and dBd respectively.

ARQ (Automatic Repeat reQuest) Automatic Repeat-reQuest. It is an Error control method for data transmission in which the receiver detects transmission errors in a message and automatically requests a retransmission from the transmitter.

ASK Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) is a form of modulation which represents digital data as variations in the amplitude of a carrier wave. The simplest and most common from a ASK operates as switch, using the presence of a carrier wave to indicate a binary one and its absence to indicate a binary zero. This of modulation is called on-off keying, and is used at radio frequencies to transmit Morse code (referred to as continuous wave operation).

B
B

Band In telecommunication, a band - sometimes called a frequency band - is a specific range of frequencies in the radio frequency (RF) spectrum, which is divided among ranges from very low frequencies (vlf) to extremely high frequencies (elf). Each band has a defined upper and lower frequency limit. Because two radio transmitters sharing the same frequency band cause mutual interference, band usage is.

Bandwidth 1) In electronic communication, bandwidth is the width of the range (or band) of frequencies that an electronic signal uses on a given transmission medium. In this usage, bandwidth is expressed in terms of the difference between the highest- frequency signal component and the lowest-frequency signal component. Since the frequency of a signal is measured in hertz (the number of cycles of change per

second), a given bandwidth is the difference in hertz between the highest frequency the signal uses and the lowest frequency it uses. A tpical voice signal has a bandwidth of approximately three kilohertz (3 kHz); an analog television (TV) broadcast video signal has a bandwidth of six megahertz (6 MHz) - some 2,000 times as wide as the voice signal. 2) In computer networks, bandwidth is often used as a synonym for data transfer rate ? the amount of data that can be carried from one point to another in a given time period (usually a second). This kind of bandwidth is usually expressed in bits (of data) per second (bps). Occasionally, it’s expressed as bytes per second (Bps). A modem that works at 57,600 bps has twice the bandwidth of a modem that works at 28,800 bps. In general, a link with a high bandwidth is one that may be able to carry enough information to sustain the succession of images in a video presentation.

BPSK The simplest PSK technique is called binary phase-shift keying (BPSK). It uses two opposite signal phases (0 and 180 degrees). The digital signal is broken up timewise into individual bits (binary digits). The state of each bit is determined according to the state of the preceding bit. If the phase of the wave does not change, then the signal state stays the same (0 or 1). If the phase of the wave changes by 190 degrees ? that is, if the phase reverses - then the signal state changes (from 0 to 1, or from 1 to 0). Because there are two possible wave phases, BPSK is sometimes called biphase modulation.

C
C

C/I (Carrier to Interference Ratio) On the Base station of mobile communication or lay our cell, calculate the Carrier to interference Ration for considering parameter a proximity.

Carrier 1) In information technology, a carrier (or carrier signal) is a transmitted electromagnetic pulse or wave at a steady base frequency of alternation on which information can be imposed by increasing signal strength, varying the base frequency, varying the wave phase, or other means. This variation is called modulation. With the advent of laser transmission over optical

fiber media, a carrier can also be a laser- generated light beam on which information is imposed. Types of analog modulation of a carrier include amplitude modulation (AM), frequency modulation (FM), and phase modulation. Types of digital modulation include varieties of pulse code modulation (PCM), including pulse amplitude modulation (PAM), pulse duration modulation (PDM), and pulse position modulation (PPM). Carrier detect is

a control signal between a modem and a

computer that indicates that the model detects a ‘live’ carrier that can be used for

sending or receiving information.

2) In the telecommunication industry, a carrier

is a telephone or other company that sells

or rents telecommunication transmission

services. A local exchange carrier (LEC) is a

local phone company and an inter- exchange carrier (IEC or IXC) carriers long- distance calls.

Channel

afterwards to confirm that no changes

generally a measure of the ratio between two

direct circuit with ASIC (demand

In RF field, most MMIC/RFIC design company

is

form of organized design house except

1. Frequency unit

occurred. CRCs are popular because they are

quantities, and can be used to express a wide

semiconductor).

A

signal or the number of times it happens

simple to implement in binary hardware, are

variety of measurements in acoustics and

during a particular period. Just like we often receive radio in the frequency of 89.1 MHz,

easy to analyze mathematically, and are particularly good at detecting common errors

electronics. The decibel is a ‘dimensionless unit’ like percent.

huge enterprise.

91.9 MHz, a signal possess frequency is called Channel.

caused by noise in transmission channels.

dBi

Diffraction

and electromagnetic waves such as light and

In

information technology, the term channel is

Crosstalk

The expression dBi is used to define the gain

Diffraction is the apparent bending and

used in a number of ways.

The Crosstalk each railway line or interference

of an antenna system relative to an isotropic

spreading of waves when they meet an

In

telecommunications in general, a channel is

of Channel for happens from communication

radiator at radio frequencies. The symbol is an

obstruction. It can occur with any type of

separate path through which signals can flow.

a

and it is a terminology which is plentifully used in the case where the cross becomes.

abbreviation for ‘decibels relative to isotropic.’ The dBi specification is based on the decibel, a

wave, including sound waves, water waves,

In

the public switched telephone network

logarithmic measure of relative power.

radio waves. Diffraction also occurs when any

(PSTN), a channel is one of multiple transmission paths within a single link between network points. For example, the commonly used (in North America) T-carrier

D
D

DAB

dB

Suppose an antenna direction at a point located some distance away. Also, suppose an isotropic antenna Q produces an

group of waves of a finite size is propagating; for example, a narrow beam of light waves from a laser must, because of diffraction of the beam, eventually diverge into a wider beam at

system line service provides 24-64 channels for digital data transmission.

Digital audio broadcasting or DAB is a developing technology for broadcasting

electromagnetic field of intensity IQ uW/m2 at the same distance. Then the gain G of antenna A, in dBi, is G= 10 log10(IA /IQ)

a

sufficient distance from the laser.

In

radio and television, a channel is a separate

audio programming in digital form. Broadcast

incoming signal or program source that a user can select.

radio has been in widespread use since the 1920s, and to this time has remained largely

dBm The expression dBm is used to define signal

DSP Digital Signal Processing (DSP) is the study of signals in a digital representation and the

filter continuous real-world analog signals, the

In

optical fiber transmission using dense

based on the analog ‘amplitude

strength in wires and cables at RF and AF

processing methods of these signals. DSP and

wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM), a channel is a separate wavelength of light within a combined, multiplexed light stream.

modulation’(AM) technologies used at the beginning and the ‘frequency modulation’ (FM) technologies introduced in the mid-20th

frequencies. The symbol is an abbreviation for ‘decibels relative to one milliwatt,’ where one milliwatt (1 mW) equals 1/1000 of a watt

analog signal processing are subfields of signal processing. DSP has three major subfields: audio signal processing, digital

CNR (Carrier to Noise Ratio) Size of carrier wave and noise and (amplitude)

century. The objective of converting to digital systems is to enable higher fidelity, greater noise immunity, and new services.

(0.001 W). This unit is commonly used in test laboratories.

image processing and speech processing. Since the goal of DSP is usually to measure or

it

shows a difference. It is urnt generally and

The acronym DAB is used both to identify the

Design house

first step is usually to convert the signal from

the bell (dB) with it shows.

generic technology of digital audio

Meaning of design house is Fab-less company,

broadcasting, and specific technical standard,

a

professional design company without a

an analog to a digital form, by using an analog to digital converter.

CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Code)

particularly the Eureka 147 standard.

production line but, it designs products. Thus,

 

A

cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is a type of

Standardization of DAB technology is

a

term mainly being use of IC (direct circuit),

hash function used to produce a checksum,

traffic or a block of a computer file, in order to

promoted by the DAB Forum, which

production equipments constructs and

E
E

which is a small number of bits, from a large block of data, such as a packet of network

detect errors in transmission or storage. A CRC

represents more than 30 countries, not including the United States.

management of semiconductor takes huge budgets so, including ASIC and, many direct circuit design companies aim of outsourcing to the professional FAB.

ESN The Electronic Serial Number (ESN) is a 32-bit

number assigned by the mobile station

is

computed and appended before

Although it is widely used as a measure of the

A

term Design house being used for small

manufacturer which uniquely identifies the

transmission or storage, and verified

loudness of sound, the decibel (dB) is more

design company which produce optimized

mobile station equipment. The rules to be

followed by manufacturers for assigning the ESN are given in the IS-95 standard. Binary digits are allocated for a manufacturer identity code (8 bits), the equipment serial number (18 bits), and 6 bits are reserved. ESN, and MIN1, along with other digital input, are used during the authentication process.

Evaluation Board Evaluation board is a kind of Jig board for testing IC and etc. Actual output might not be the same but in order test the performance of IC, the IC manufacturer make actual model with chips and jig board for gauge.

F
F

Frequency Assignment

In telecommunication, the term Frequency Assignment has the following meanings:

1. Authorization, given by an Administration, for a radio station to use a radio frequency or radio frequency channel under specified conditions.

2. The process of authorizing a specific frequency, group of frequencies, or frequency band to be used at a certain location under specified conditions, such as bandwidth, power, azimuth, duty cycle, or modulation.

Fading From radio reception grade, it has a multi size and the phase where the same signal is different with each other and it is received the fact that pay ting as this. Like this pay ting it was caused by under actual conditions and was received the same signal by mistake to come to combine, it is brought a distortion finally.

FDMA

FDMA, or Frequency-Division Multiple Access,

is the oldest and most importan of the three

main ways for multiple radio transmitters to share the radio spectrum. The other two

methods are Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA).

In FDMA, each transmitter is assigned a

distinct frequency channel so that receivers

can discriminate among them by tuning to the desired channel. TDMA and CDMA independently of signals on other frequency channels.

FFT

A Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is an efficient

algorithm to compute the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and its inverse. FFTs are of great importance to a wide variety of applications, from digital signal processing to solving partial differential equations to algorithms for quickly multiplying large integers.

Firmware

In computing, firmware is software that is

embedded in a hardware device. Often it is

provided in flash ROMs and can be updated by an end user.

Fourier Transform The Fourier Transform, named after Joseph Fourier, is an integral transform that re- expresses a fuction in terms of sinusoidal basis functions, i.e. as a sum of integral of sinusoidal functions multiplied by some coefficients (‘amplitudes’).

Frequency Frequency is the measurement of the number

of times that a repeated event occurs per unit time. To calculate the frequency of an event, the number of occurrences of the event within

a fixed time interval are counted, and then

divided by the length of the time interval. In SI units, the result is measured in hertz (Hz) named after the German physicist Heinrich Rudolf Hertz. 1 Hz means that an event repeats once per second, 1 Hz is twice per second, and so on.

Frequecy Diversity Transmission and reception in which the same information signal is transmitted and received simultaneously on two or more independently fading carrier frequencies. It may be vary due to the frequencies. Even in the similar communication conditions, the frequency differences make differences in receiving capacity. For these cases, frequency bandwidth should be widening in order to solve this problem. However, unlike the FDMA which transmits each signal in individual frequency, in CDMA, the signals share wide frequency bandwidth. Therefore, each signal contains wide bandwidth in CDMA. Also, this helps the signals in CDMA to be received without much fading when comparing with

FDMA. This is called Frequency Diversity and it

is one of the strengths of CDMA.

Frequency Shift Key Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK) is a form of frequency modulation in which the modulating signal shifts the output frequency between predetermined values. Usually, the instantaneous frequency is shifted between two discrete values temed the mark frequency and the space frequency. This is a noncoherent form FSK.

G
G

Gap Filer Gap Filler is a main equipment for when broadcasting satellite send TDM signal of 12 GHz (KU band) to the earth, Gap Fillet, one of the main equipment which changes TDM signal to CDM of 2.6 GHz (S band) for DMB terminal, receives the signal and send it to the earth. This digital signal transferring or changing requires high technology so development of this device closely related to the success of satellite DMB business.

GPS The Global Positioning System, usually called GPS, is a satellite navigation system used for determining one’s precise location and providing a highly accurate time reference almost anywhere on Earth or in Earth orbit. It uses an intermediate circular orbit (ICO) satellite constellation of at least 24 satellites. The GPS system was designed by and is controlled by the United States Department of Defense and can be used by any one, free of charge. The GPS system is divided into three segments : space, control, and user.

H
H

Hand Off Hand-off is the term for synchronous and for asynchronous, hand-over is more commonly used. When Mobile Station moves from one Base Transceiver Station to another, in order to keep the communication channel, one changes its cell to the other and it is called Hand-over ( or Hand-off). Unlike the analog Hard Hand-over method which disconnected the former one and connected to the new

one, in CDMA, it supports Soft Hand-over which allows to be connected to two Base Transceiver Stations at a same time.

Hybrid Intermediate Frequency Most of the communication system uses superheterodyne. In order to transfer the carrier frequency to baseband, it must go through frequency changes twice-up and down. In this case, the frequency which exists between carrier and baseband is called Intermediate Frequency.

Inverse Fourier Transform The Fourier transform relates a signal’s time and frequency domain representations to each other. The direct Fourier transform (or simply the Fourier transform) calculates a signal’s frequency domain representation from its time-domain variant. The inverse Fourier transform finds the time-domain representation form the frequency domain.

Isotropic Antenna An isotropic antenna is an ideal antenna that radiates power with unit gain uniformly in all direction and is often used to reference antenna gains in wireless systems. There is no actual physical isotropic antenna; a close approximation is a stack of two pairs of crossed dipole antennas driven in quadrature. The radiation patten for the isotropic antenna is a sphere with the antenna at its center. Antenna gains are often specified in dBi, or decibels over isotgropic. This is the power in the strongest direction divided by the power that would be transmitted by an isotropic antenna emitting the same total power.

J
J

Jig Usually overall board/structure for measurement is called Jig.

As a measuring instrument measure each kind

a characteristic of surface tension

microelectronics devices like SMD type, MMIC chip, it is impossible. A measuring instrument must connect coaxial connector, it is difficult for microelectronics devices to measure because of its size with several a column of input and output.

Jitter

In telecommunication, jitter is an abrupt and

unwanted variation of one or more signal characteristics, such as the interval between successive pulses, the amplitude of successive cycles, or the frequency or phase of successive cycles. Jitter has become a significant factor in the design of communications busses for computers.

L
L

Link Budget In wireless communication system, in order to make successful communication between transmitter and receiver, one has to consider the reduction of signal transferring channel while it is transmitting. Link budget is the work of adjusting the spec or the result of the calculation for successful communication. It means, by calculating the lose and gain for each step, having a minimal demanding spec.

LNA The Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) is a special type of electronic amplifier or amplifier used in communication systems to amplify very weak

signals captured by an antenna. It is usually located at the antenna. It is a key component, which is placed at the front-end of a receiver system. As we know from the Friis’ formula that the overall noise figure of the receiver front-end is dominated by the first few stages. Using a LNA, the noise of all the subsequent stages is reduced by the gain of the LNA and the noise of the LNA is injected directly into the received signal. Thus, it is necessary for a LNA to boost the desired signal power while adding as little noise and distortion as possible so that the retrieval of this signal is possible in the later stages in the system.

LOS When viewing a scene, as in optics, photography, or even hunting, the line of sight is the straight line between the observer and the target. In astronomy, when the distance between the observer and the distant objects is large, the light of sight can often be taken as the straight line between the earth and the target.

Microwaves are electromagnetic waves with wavelengths longer than those of infrared light, but shorter than those radio waves.

Modulation Modulation is the process of varying a carrier signal, typically a sinusoidal signal, in order to use that signal to convey information. One of the three key characteristics of a signal are usually modulated; its phase, frequency or amplitude. A device that performs modulation is known as a modulator and a device that performs demodulation is known as a demodulator. A device that can do both operations is a modem.

Multipath Fading Multipath Fading is simply a term used to describe the multiple paths a radio wave may follow between transmitter and receiver. Such propagation paths include the ground wave, ionospheric refraction, reradiaton by the ionospheric layers, reflection from the earth’s surface or from more than one ionospheric layer, and so on.

M N
M
N

Maxwells Equation The Maxwells Equation is the numerical formula which proves the existence of the electromagnetic waves. The pulse which is defined a lot with numerical formula of 4 things. The Maxwells equation by the meaning union of the each field is proven the existence of the electromagnetic waves and.

Microwave 300 Mhz ~ 300 Ghz High frequency substitute actor

Noise In general usage, noise can be considered data without meaning; that is, data that is not being used to transmit a signal, but is simply produced as an unwanted by-product of other activities. In Information Theory, however, noise is still considered to be information.

Noise Factor Noise Factor has same meaning with Noise Figure. Noise Factor = Input SNR / Output SNR

Noise Figure

O
O
P
P

sinusoids, are out of phase with each other by

direction of a wave due to a change in

Return Loss

RFID

Noise Figure is the ratio of the output noise power of a device to the portion thereof

PCB

90°Δ and are thus called quadrature carriers ? hence the name of the scheme. As with all

velocity. It happens when waves travel from a medium with a given refractive index to a

attributable to thermal noise in the input

A

printed circuit board or PCB interconnects

modulation schemes, QAM conveys data by

medium with another. At the boundary

termination at standard noise temperature (usually 290 K).

electronic components without discrete wires. Alternative names are printed wiring board or PWB or etched wiring board. A PCB consists of ‘etched conductors’ attached to a sheet of insulator. The conductive ‘etched conductors’

PCM

changing some aspect of a base signal, the carrier wave, (usually a sinusoid) in response to a data signal. In the case of QAM, the amplitude of two quadrature wave is changed (modulated or keyed) to represent the data

between the media the wave changes direction; its wavelength increases or decreases but frequency remains constant. For example, a light ray will refract as it enters and leaves glass; understanding of this

OFDM Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), also sometimes called discrete multitone mojulation (DMT), is a transmission

are called ‘traces’ or ‘traces’ or ‘tracks.’ The insulator is called the substrate.

Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a digital

signal. Phase modulation (analogue PM) and phase-shift keying (digital PSK) can be regarded as a special case of QAM, where the amplitude of the modulating signal is constant, with only the phase varying. This can

concept led to the invention of the refracting telescope.

In telecommunication, return loss is the ratio,

technique based upon the idea of frequency- division multiplexing (FDM). In FDM, multiple

representation of an analog signal where the magnitude of the signal is sampled regularly

also be extended to frequency modulation and frequency-shift keying, as this can be

at the junction of a transmission line and a terminating impedance or other discontinuity,

signals are sent out at the same time, but on

at

uniform intervals, then quantized to a series

regarded as a special case of phase

of the amplitude of the reflected wave to the

different frequencies. Most people are familiar

of

symbols in a digital (usually binary) code.

modulation.

amplitude of the incident wave. The return

with FDM from the use of radio and television:

PCM is used in digital telephone systems and

loss value describes the reduction in the

normally, each station is designated to

Omnidirectional Antenna

is

also the standard form for digital audio in

amplitude of the reflected energy, as

broadcast at a particular frequency or channel.

computers and various compact disc formats.

R
R

compared to the forward energy. For

OFDM takes this concept further. In OFDM, a single transmitter transmits on many different

PLL

Reflection

Refraction

example, if a device has 15dB of return loss, the reflected energy from that device is always

orthogonal (independent) frequencies

In

electronics, a phase-locked loop (PLL) is a

Reflection in electricity is the result of

15dB lower than the energy presented. For all

(typically dozens to thousands). (Because the frequencies are so closely spaced, each one only has room for a Narrowband signal). This, coupled with the use of advanced modulation techniques on each component, results in a signal with high resistance to interference.

An omnidirectional antenna is an antenna system which radiates maximum power uniformly in all directions. The perfectly

closed-loop feedback control system that maintains a generated signal in a fixed phase relationship to a reference signal. Since an integrated circuit can hold a complete phase- locked loop building block, the technique is widely used in modern electronic devices, with signal frequencies from a fraction of a cycle per second up to many gigahertz.

Q
Q

impedance mismatch in electrical signals. When voltage hits a discontinuity, some energy is reflected. This occurs in any change in a material’s final stop. Impedance discontinuities cause attenuation because a portion of a transmitted signal will be reflected back to the transmitting device rather than continuing to the receiver, much like an echo. The effect is compounded if there are multiple discontinuities causing additional portions of the remaining signal to be reflected back to

devices that are not perfect transmission lines, or purely resistive loads (perfect black-bodies), the return loss value varies with frequency.

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a method of storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. An RFID tag is a small object that can be attached to or incorporated into a product, animal, or person. RFID tags contain

omindirectional antenna is the isotropic antenna, a theoretical construct derived from actual antenna radiation patterns and used as a reference for specifying antenna gain and radio system effective radiated power.

QAM Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is a modulation scheme which conveys data by changing (modulating) the amplitude of two carrier waves. These two waves, usually

the transmitter. This is a fundemental problem with the daisy chain method of connecting electronic components.

Refraction in geometric optics is the change in

antennas to enable them to receive and respond to radio frequency queries from an RFID transceiver. Passive tags require no internal power source, whereas active tags require a power source.

Roaming Roaming is a general term in wireless telecommunication that refers to the extending of connectivity service in a network that is different than the network with which a station is registered. The canonical example of ‘roaming’ is for cellular phones, when you take your phone to an area where your service provider does not have coverage (eg, another country). In order for a mobile device to roam to another network, a number of processes need to be performed. The very first necessity for inter-network roaming is that your service provider must have a roaming agreement with the network to which you have moved.

RSSI Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) is a measurement of the strength (not necessarily the quality) of the received signal strength in a wireless environment, in arbitrary units. RSSI can be used internally in a wireless networking card to determine when the signal is below a certain threshold at which point the network card is clear to send (CTS). Once the card is clear to send, a packet of information can be sent. The end-user will likely observe an RSSI value when measuring the signal strength of a wireless network through the use of a wireless network monitoring tool like Network Stumbler.

S
S

Schematic A schematic is a diagram, drawing, or sketch that details the elements of a system, such as the elements of an electrical or electronic circuit or the elements of a logic diagram for a computer or communications system.

Sector Sector is the term for method or the structure when Base Transceiver Station does not uses the omni directional antenna but divides its sections and posting directional antenna.

Smart Antenna Smart Antenna refers to a system of antenna arrays with smart signal processing algorithms that are used to identify the direction of arrival (DOA) of the signal, and use it to calculate beamforming vectors, to track and locate the antenna beam on the mobile/target. The antenna could optionally be any sensor. Smart antenna techniques are used notably in acoustic signal processing, track and scan RADA, Radio astronomy and Radio Telescpes, and mostly in cellular system like WCDMA and UMTS.

SNR Signal-to-noise ratio is an engineering term for the power ratio between a signal (meaningful information) and the background noise:

Because many signals have a very wide dynamic range, SNRs are usually expressed in terms of the logarithmic decibel scale.

SoC System-on-a-chip (SoC) is an idea of integrating all components of a computer system into a single chip. It may contain digital, analog, mixed-signal, and often radio- frequency fuctions - all on one chip. A typical application is in the area of embedded systems. A typical computer system consists of a number of integrated circuits that perform different tasks. These are : microprocessor, memory, UARTs, parallel ports, DMA controller chips, etc. The recent improvements in semiconductor technology have allowed VLSI integrated circuits to grow in complexity,

making it possible to integrate all components of a system in a single chip. This can be done in a number of technologies.

Space Diversity After dropping two reception antennae at schedule one distance, it is a Diversity method which receives a signal. After receiving a same signal with the antenna cranium, it synthesizes again at one.

Spectrum The noun spectrum has a variety of meanings, some of which are listed at spectrum (disambiguation). In most modern usages, there is a unifying theme of a variety of possible cases between extremes at either end. Older usages were not necessarily on the same unifying theme, but nonetheless led to the modern ones through a sequence of events set out below. Some modern usages in mathematics evolved out of that unifying theme but may be difficult to recognize as fitting into it.

Spread Spectrum Spread-spectrum techniques and electronic devices are those in which energy generated at a single frequency is deliberately spread over a wide band of frequencies. This done for a variety of reasons, including resistance to interference and the prevention of eavesdropping

Spurious Spurious comes from pseudo. Spurious is a word for all extra frequencies which are not necessary for communication purpose. Therefore it must be suppressed under certain limit. It is distinguishable from other sounds which can be analyzed since its source is fixed.

Stability Stability defined here as the index of stability or instability of something. In RF circuit, stability pairs with oscillation by perforce. If the stability is good, then there will be no oscillation and vice versa.

Synchronism

In telecommunication, the term synchronism has the following meanings :

1. The state of being synchronous.

2. For repetitive event the same, multiple, or submultiple repetition rates, a relationship among the events such that a significant instant of one event bears a fixed time relationship to a corresponding instant in another event.

3. The simultaneous occurrence of two or more events at the same instant on the same coordinated time scale.

T
T

TDD (Time Division Multiplexing) Supports interactive communications using the same frequency bandwidth unlike FDD that uses different frequency bandwidth in uplink and downlink for interactive communications Provides services with half frequencies of FDD, and is appropriate for Internet services of a large volume of asymmetric application transmission due to dynamic allocation of time slots

TDMA Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is a technology for shared medium (usually radio ) networks. It allows several users to share the same frequency by dividing it into defferent time slots. The users to share the same transmission medium (e.g. radio frequency)

whilst using only the part of its bandwidth they require. Used in the GSM, PDC and iDEN digital cellular standards, among others. TDMA is also used extensively in satellite systems, local area networks, physical security systems, and combat-net radio systems.

U
U

Ubiquitous Ubiquitous is derived from Latin which means it exist anywhere and everywhere. This is the term for the directivity and the goal for the future electronic technology market and also it is the term used overall computer environment based on Broadband-integrated Services Digital/wireless Network and semiconductor manufacture.

V
V

VoIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol) Voice over IP (also called VoIP, IP Telephony, Internet telephony, and has also been branded Digital Phone) is the routing of voice conversations over the internet or any other IP network. The voice data flows over a general- purpose packet-switched network, instead of the traditional dedicated, circuit-switched voice transmission lines.

VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio) In telecommunication, standing wave ratio (SWR) is the ratio of the amplitude of a partial standing wave at an antinode (maximum) to the amplitude at an adjacent node ( minimum). The SWR is usually defined as a voltage ratio called the VSWR, for voltage standing wave ratio. It is also possible to

define the SWR in terms of current, resulting in the ISWR, which has the same numerical value. The power standing wave ratio (PSWR)

is defined as the square of the SWR. The

voltage component of a standing wave in a uniform transmission line consists of the forward wave superimposed on the reflected wave.

W
W

White Noise

White noise a random signal (or process) with

a flat power spectral density. In order words,

the signal’s power spectral density has equal power in any band, at any centre frequency,

having a given bandwidth. An infinite- bandwidth white noise signal is purely a theoretical construct. By having power at all frequencies, the total power of such a signal is infinite. In practice, a signal can be ‘white’ with

a flat spectrum over a defined frequency band.

WiBro Wireless Broadband. A standard developed for the Korean market that is essentially 802.16d with limited 802.16e functionality offering support for device mobility at speeds of up to 60 km per hour. The standard is expected to support 1 to 2 Mbps throughput per subscriber, and will operate in the 2.3-GHz band.

Provided by

and will operate in the 2.3-GHz band. Provided by Spread Your Message throughout the Industry Telecoms

Spread Your Message throughout the Industry

Telecoms Korea suggests that you showcase your mobile WiMAX technologies, solutions, insights and opinions about the industry via the ‘Sponsored Editorial’ section of the ‘Mobile WiMAX Handbook 2009.’ It will be a great opportunity to inform wireless carriers, developers and general consumers who are interested in mobile WiMAX about what your company is doing and envisioning in a cost-efficient way.

Looking forward to your contribution through support@telecomskorea.com

List Your Company in the Mobile WiMAX Handbook! Telecoms Korea invites you to reserve your

List Your Company in the Mobile WiMAX Handbook!

List Your Company in the Mobile WiMAX Handbook! Telecoms Korea invites you to reserve your company's

Telecoms Korea invites you to reserve your company's name in the print edition of the ‘Mobile WiMAX Handbook 2009’. The ‘Mobile WiMAX Handbook 2009’ is published in Korea by the world leader in WiBro technology. It provides the world telecom industry with a precise understanding of the technology, market, and major players. The Handbook will come out in December 2008 and will be distributed free of charge to industry leaders. Also, it will be available at popular trade shows and events throughout 2009. If yours is a mobile WiMAX company, you can choose to be listed for just $99. You can also choose to upgrade your listing with your company logo for an additional $100. Do not miss this opportunity to have your company listed among the elite of the mobile WiMAX industry!

Place your order through support@telecomskorea.com

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