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SMR 4722





Mohd Nazmi bin Abu Bakar Muhammad Khairi bin Omar Hassan

B11KM0021 AM100133

LECTURER: Dr. Ariffin bin Hj. Abd Razak

Table of Contents
1. Introduction..........................................................................................................2 2. Type of ASRS ......................................................................................................4 3. Importance of ASRS ..........................................................................................12 4. Reasons that tend to use AS/RS ........................................................................14 5. ASRS change manufacturing activity................................................................16 6. Detail explanation about the terminology related to AS/RS. ............................19 7. Advantages of automated storage and retrieval system. ...................................26 8. Disadvantages of automated storage and retrieval system. ...............................27 9. Overcome the weakness of ASRS .....................................................................28 10. 11. 12. 13. Guidelines of implementation procedure of AS/RS. ......................................32 Changes should be done in order to make sure its success. ...........................36 Implication in future .......................................................................................39 Conclusion ......................................................................................................41

1. Introduction
Automated storage and retrieval systems (ASRS) are systems that store and retrieve products from an inventory location. These computerized robotic systems are designed to automate operations such as unloading, sorting, put-away, storage, order-picking, staging, and loading. Typically, ASRS have four major components: the storage rack, the input/output system, the storage and retrieval (SR) equipment, and the computer management system.

There are many types of ASRS, and products are used in a variety of warehousing and manufacturing environments. Tunnel-style systems are used to replenish carton flow lanes and may be coupled with gravity flow lanes. High speed sorting box buffers can accept many different carton sizes for storage. The ASRS then processes the containers in a new, customerdefined sequence to complete the final order. Typically, these ASRS are characterized by multiple speed options, multiple heights, and a small footprint. So-called mini-load systems also enable warehouses to store more in less space. Designed with strong but lightweight alloys, these ASRS are suitable for the storage of small parts, and for both picking and order fulfillment.

Some ASRS are used in applications where a high volume of loads are moved into and out of storage. Others are used in industries where storage density is critical because of limited space. Typically, however, most ASRS are used in manufacturing or distribution environments to direct the flow of material through an industrial process and to the end-user. Systems may operate in a fully-automatic mode or semi-automatic mode, depending on ASRS capabilities and application requirements. In semi-automatic systems, the only operator involvement required is the material handing at the input and output stations. Inventory accuracy, therefore, is extremely high compared to manual storage and retrieval systems.

ASRS can improve employee productivity by bringing products and materials to their work locations. Automated storage and retrieval systems can also reduce work-in-process (WIP) inventory while enabling organizations to lower inventory safety factors and safety stock. By providing detailed inventory reporting, the ASRS enables warehouse managers and schedulers to

identify bottlenecks and build proper load-storage buffers for order picking and fulfillment. Ergonomic considerations and enhanced material traceability are additional benefits of ASRS, especially in heavily-regulated industries or applications that require heavy lifting or repetitive motion.

The facilities in which ASRS are used vary greatly but the more favorable operational conditions and environments into which these systems have been successfully installed in an article that appeared in Material Handling Management. The environments in which ASRS can offer the greatest benefit are cold storage, frozen foods, and those in which very strict item tracking is necessary. In terms of the conditions into which an ASRS installation may be most successfully installed as listed above:

i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. xi.

Two or three shifts Critical inventory levels Production flexibility is essential Joint storage of parts and tools High land cost areas No limit on building height Skilled technicians are on-staff or available High value parts or assemblies are used The number of stock keeping units in not large Tight existing site space in which an ASRS installation may eliminate the need to move Every situation is different but these guidelines provide an overview of the sorts of applications that are best suited to ASRS.

The flexible manufacturing system generally means a fully automated system consisting of automated workstations, automated material handling and computer control. Storage is an essential function in an automation system. The material storage system allows materials to be stocked for a specified period of time, before they are re-introduced, or are introduced for the first time, into the automation system. The sorts of stored material are related to the product for examples raw materials, purchased parts, work-in-process, finished products, and scrap and

rework, the process like process refuse, such as process waste products; and tooling, and the overall support functions in the factory such as maintenance spare parts, office supplies, and plant records. Each of these material types is typically stored under different conditions and controls. Robotic ASRS is designed to pick and palletize goods onto a mixed pallet which allow retrieving orders in a ready to ship sequence. Robots have frequently been used to palletize these specialized loads. The first Robotic ASRS system has been developed by Bastian in the world which helps to create store ready pallet.

2. Type of ASRS
1. Unit Load ASRS

These systems are designed to handle common size unit loads such as totes or pallets of goods. The goods are usually stored on static racking or on pitched gravity conveyors in flow through systems. The items are stored and retrieved via automated cranes that move through aisles between the racks.

The cranes are directed by software that also maintains a real-time inventory and location mapping of the goods stored in the system. The cranes can be equipped with various load handling devices designed to specifically handle the containers or loads stored in the system.

The ASRS Unit Load technology designed to handle unitized loads into and out of very high density storage. While sometimes used to replenish picking locations with palletized commodities, the most common application of this equipment is for the buffering of supply chain deliveries, storing and controlling the inventory until it has been released from QC, or is requested out for use in downstream processes. This would include the buffering of palletized finished goods waiting for distribution to the end user.

The ASRS Unit Load is available with a variety of horizontal and vertical speed options. As a result, it is easy to pick the right machine for your application. Also, todays lightweight cranes with their modern electronics allow for variable acceleration rates ensure the fastest speeds are possible while maintaining load stability. Although the ASRSs speed, the machines are remarkably quiet, operating at what is often described as office quiet sound levels.

2. Vertical Lift Module ASRS

The Vertical Lift Module (VLM) and Shuttles use Flexi Space smart technology to provide optimum flexibility and maximum storage density. The VLM and Shuttle storage systems have the ability to automatically find the right locations for the height of the inventory you are storing. The Near and Far Smart technology provides fast delivery of common inventory

items because it monitors inventory usage and locates the fastest moving items closest to the access opening and slower moving parts further away from the access opening. The VLM and Shuttles controllers feature large, easy-to-use keys and backlit LCD displays for fast, easy, and simple operation and inventory control management.

These systems are primarily intended to store product for quick access in picking and kitting operations. Goods are placed on trays that are stored and retrieved by a shuttle mechanism within the unit. Some advantages of this unit are:

i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii.

Fast, direct, random access to all stored items Secure storage of items within the unit's enclosure Dense storage of items in a small footprint Better utilization of vertical building space Automatic presentation of the next item to pick Reduction of worker travel distance to retrieve or store items Multiple access points on the same or multiple building floors are possible Available with refrigerated enclosures

3. Carousel ASRS

Carousels come in vertical, horizontal and rotary models and have the same uses as Vertical Lift Module-type storage and retrieval units. Goods are stored on shelves in vertical carousels and in bins or shelves on horizontal carousels. The shelves or bins are linked to each other by a chain. Like the name implies, the units rotate in a carousel-like manner to the appropriate item storage location. Vertical carousels have the same advantages as VLM-type storage systems except for the direct, random access and multiple access points.

Horizontal carousels are generally less expensive than VLM and vertical carousels and better suited to store and retrieve medium sized items. If ceiling height is limited, this is the carousel of choice. Horizontal carousels typically aren't enclosed in housing. Otherwise, they operate similar to a vertical carousel.

Vertical carousels

Rotary carousels

Horizontal carousels


Semi ASRS These systems are generally used in picking and kitting operations. The goods are

manually stored and retrieved from common storage equipment that has been linked to softwaredriven picking / putting indicators. The picking / putting indicator devices are usually either a voice headset, RF terminal or light directed pick / put system that sends the operator to the next storage location to access. Some examples of these semi-ASRS are:

i. ii. iii. iv. v.

Carton flow racks with pick lights Static storage racks and shelving with pick lights, RF terminals or voice pick headsets Pallet racks and man-up order picking lift trucks with RF terminals or voice pick headsets Conveyor lanes with pallets or boxes of goods Other static storage methods accessed by one of the pick / put indicator methods


ASRS for freezers/refrigerators

These ASRS are designed for refrigerated environments down to -60C. It is based on the many years of expertise we have gained as an ASRS manufacturer.


ASRS for hazardous materials This is a premiere product in the industry, helpful for efficient storage of hazardous materials.


ASRS for heavy/long objects

Heavy items and long items such as lumber, steel, polyvinyl chloride pipes, and dies can also be handled by ASRS, which help improve the storage efficiency.


ASRS for roll-type objects

ASRS suitable for the storage of paper and film rolls.



ASRS for outdoor facilities

An all-weather ASRS for items that are stored outdoors, such as drums.

10. ASRS for cleanroom

Glass storage system for liquid crystal displays (LCD) and Front Opening Unified Pod (FOUP) storage system for semi-conductor wafer manufacturing lines.


3. Importance of ASRS
1. ASRS help save space

ASRS have an integrated structure of racks (shelves) and cranes that enables vertical storage of items and maximum use of space up to the ceiling, which is the most important feature of ASRS.


ASRS are accessible to anyone

ASRS can be controlled with a single touch of the touch panel or with the barcode reader. Introducing an ASRS helps drastically reduce time and effort spent searching, walking, and retrieving. Further, a single operator can handle multiple cranes at ASRS. It is also easy to introduce ASRS.


3. ASRS realize simple and clear inventory control

The two major aspects of warehousing are materials handling and inventory control. Accurate inventory control usually requires special staff with a great deal of experience; however, it can be easily achieved with an ASRS.

4. First-in, first-out is the basic principle of ASRS Though first-in, last-out tends to be the case when items are laid flat, high-rise automated warehouse carry out computerized inventory control for automatic first-in, first-out operations. This concept can give the first part in out first. It will make sure that the part that been stored not so long from the last process. For example for product that have an expired date, with this ASRS concept the product will not be stored for a long period of time that will make the product reach the due date before it been delivered.

5. ASRS help enhance safety and the working environment ASRS reduces material damage. In the automated warehouse, storage space is kept separate from space accessible by people. This helps enhance safety, reduce errors, and improve the working environment. With this ASRS system, the workers safety in the storage section can be eliminate due to no people get involved in the storage place and the working area will be safer.

4. Reasons that tend to use AS/RS

1. An AS/RS is highly space efficient. Space now occupied by raw stock, work in process, or finished parts and assemblies can be released for valuable manufacturing space. The machine can work in a tight area thus decreasing the defect that can occur by using human workers because machine has high level of accuracy and efficient.


2. Increased storage capacity to meet long-range plans. The part can be stored carefully in a place that secure and this part can be carried out of the system. It can be stored for a long time or just for short time.

3. Improved inventory management and control. Engineers can easily locate the past that have been stored and check the inventory through computers only.

4. Quick response time to locate, store, and retrieve items. By a single button the part can be retrieve in the system because the system use logical control to locate the parts.

5. Reduced shortages of inventory items due to real-time information and control. The item can easily called from the system to the workers the system can keep in control the shortage of inventory item.

6. Reduced labour costs due to automation. The need for worker in an automation system is less because the machine can work automatically. Only a few workers needed such as to maintain the machine, make the program for the machine and supervise the machine so that there will be no error during the process.

7. Improved stock rotation.

8. Improved security and reduced pilferage because of closed storage area. The area of the AS/RS system is not very large therefore the item stored in the system is more secure and easy to facilitate

9. Flexibility in design to accommodate a wide variety of loads. Many type of loads can be stored and located by the system because the system can save the item inventory data in the computer and the data can be organised to make the parts easy to be located.


10. Flexibility in interfacing with other systems such as AGVS, FMS, and inspection systems such as coordinate measuring machines. The other system can be done at another station where the AS/RS system can deliver the parts to the other system to make another process. All of this can be programmed by the programmer and the system will be able to interface with other system.

11. Reduced scrap and rework due to automatic handling of parts.

12. Reduced operating expenses for light, power, and heat.

13. Helps implement just-in-time (JIT) concepts by getting the right parts, tools, pallets and fixtures to the right place at the right time because of automatic control of storage and retrieval functions and accurate inventory management.

5. ASRS change manufacturing activity

ASRS systems are designed for automated storage and retrieval of parts and items in manufacturing, distribution, retail, wholesale and institutions. They first originated, initially focusing on heavy pallet loads but with the development of the technology the handled loads have become lesser. The systems operate in computerized control, maintaining an inventory of kept items. Retrieval of items is accomplished by specifying the item type and quantity to be retrieved. The computer defines where in the storage area the item can be retrieved from and schedules the retrieval. It directs the proper automated storage and retrieval machine to the position where the item is stored and leads the machine to deposit the item at a place where it is to be picked up. A system of conveyors and or automated guided vehicles is sometimes part of the AS/RS system. These take masses into and out of the storage area and transfer them to the manufacturing base or loading docks. To store items, the pallet or tray is placed at an input location for the system, the information for inventory is entered into a computer station and the ASRS system moves the load to the storage area, determines a suitable position for the item, and stores the load. As items are stored into or retrieved from the racks, the computer updates its inventory consequently.

The benefits of an ASRS structure include reduced labor for transporting items into and out of inventory, reduced inventory levels, more precise tracking of inventory, and space savings. Items are often stored more compactly than in systems where items are stored and retrieved manually. Within the storage, items can be located on trays or hang from bars, which are attached to chains or drive in order to move up and down. The tools required for an ASRS include a storage and retrieval machine (SRM) that is used for rapid storage and retrieval of material. SRMs are used to move loads up and down or horizontally, and can also move laterally to place objects in the right storage location.

The trend towards Just in Time production often requires sub-pallet level availability of production inputs, and ASRS is a much faster way of organizing the storage of smaller items next to production lines. Material Handling Institute of America (MHIA), the non-profit trade associations for the material handling world and its members have categorized ASRS into two primary segments which is Fixed Aisle and Carousels/Vertical Lift Modules (VLMs). These two sets of technologies provide automated storage and retrieval for parts and items, but use not the same technologies. Each technology has its exclusive set of benefits and disadvantages just like everything in the world. Fixed Aisle systems are characteristically larger systems while carousels and Vertical Lift Modules are used independently or grouped, but in small to medium-sized applications.

A fixed-aisle ASR machine, stacker crane is one of two main designs which are singlemasted or double masted. Most are supported on a track and ceiling guided at the top by guide rails or stations to ensure exact vertical alignment, although some are suspended from the ceiling. The shuttles that make up the system travel between fixed storage shelves to deposit or retrieve a requested load like reaching from a single book in a library system to a several ton pallet of goods in a warehouse system. The entire unit moves horizontally within an aisle, while the shuttles are able to elevate up to the needed height to reach the load, and can extend and retract to store or retrieve loads that are several positions deep in the shelving. A semi-automated system can be achieved by consuming only specialized shuttles within an existing rack system.

Another ASRS technology is known as shuttle technology. In this technology the horizontal movement is made by self-governing shuttles each working on one level of the rack while a lift at a fixed location within the rack is responsible for the vertical movement. By using two separate machineries for these two axes the shuttle technology is able to provide higher amount rates than stacker cranes.

Storage and Retrieval Machines SRM pick up or drop off loads to the rest of the supporting transportation system at detailed stations, where inbound and outbound loads are precisely located for proper handling.

Before using ASRS


After using ASRS

6. Detail explanation about the terminology related to AS/RS.

AS/RS act as a giant three-dimensional grid. Within this system, there is a series of aisles, rows and shelf levels. Each item has a specific aisle row and level it belongs to. At every location there is a sensor in which the tram has a reader that communicates with each sensor to determine if it is at the correct location. Once the pallet or item is picked up out of its location, it is brought to the ground floor of the warehouse. Once there, a series of rails rollers and conveyors brings the pallet or item to a pickup area where the item is brought to a machine or to the sales floor via human interaction.


Storage Space It is the three-dimensional space in the storage racks used to store a single load unit of material.

Storage Racks This structural entity comprises storage locations, bays and rows.

Bay It is the height of the storage rack from floor to the ceiling.

Row It is a series of bays placed side by side.


Aisle It is the spacing between two rows for the machine operations of AS/RS.

Aisle Unit It encompasses aisle space and racks adjacent to an aisle.

Storage Structure

It is the rack framework, made of fabricated steel that supports the loads contained in the AS/RS and is used to store inventory items. This structure must possess sufficient strength and rigidity that it does not defect significant due to the loads in the storage or other forces on the framework. The individual storage compartments in the structure must be designed to accept and hold the storage modules used to contain the stored materials. The rack structure may also be used to support the roof and siding of the building in which the AS/RS resides. Another function of the storage structure is to support the isle hardware required to align the S/R machines with respect to the storage compartments of the AS/RS. This hardware includes guide rails at the top and bottom of the structure as well as end stop and the other features to provide safe operation.


Storage/Retrieval Machine

It is used to move items in and out of inventory. An S/R machine is capable of both horizontal and vertical movement. A rail system along the floor guides the machine and a parallel rail at the top of the storage structure is used to maintain its alignment. In most system S/R machine consist of a rigid mast which is mounted on a rail system for vertical motion of the carriage. Wheels are attached at the base of the mast to permit horizontal travel along a rail system that runs the length of the aisle. A parallel rail at the top of the storage structure is used to maintain alignment of the mast and carriage with respect to the rack structure.

Storage Modules

These are the unit load containers used to hold the inventory items. These include pallets, steel wire baskets and containers, pans and special drawers. These modules are generally made to a standard base size capable of being stored in the structure and moved by the S/R machines.


Pickup and Deposit (P/D) Stations

P/D stations are where inventory are transferred into and out of the AS/RS. They are generally located at the end of the aisles to facilitate easy access by the S/R machines from the external material-handling system. The location and number of P/D stations depends upon the origination point of incoming loads and the destination of output loads. A P/D station must be design to be compatible with both the S/R machine shuttle and the external handling system. Common methods to handle loads at the P/D station include manual load/unload, forklift truck, conveyor and AGVs.


Control system Computer control and programmable logic controllers are used to determine the required location and guide the S/R machine to its destination. Computer control permits the physical operation of the AS/RS to be integrated with the supporting information and record-keeping system. Storage transaction can be entered in a real-time, inventory record can be accurately maintained, system performance can be monitored and communications can be facilitated with other factory computer systems. These automatic controls can be reset by manual controls when required under emergency conditions of for man-on-board operation of the machine.

AS/RS come in many different forms and sizes to serve different functions. They can vary in size from picking up giant pieces of steel to tiny surface mount technology components. No matter how big they are they all serve the same function. They all pick up items from a designated area and place them in an assigned place. Every AS/RS machine has three drive systems they are: to drive the ground movement


to drive the vertical movement

to pick up or drop off the unit


In order to retrieve the unit many different systems may be used. Some of these systems include forks, conveyors, suction, magnets and automated shelves. Depending on the type of unit being retrieved or placed the company will need to decide which system fits their needs best. The input/output (I/O) points are places where an item is either delivered to be taken out of the warehouse or to be taken into inventory. Bigger and more effective warehouses have more I/O points to allow more products to be moved.

7. Advantages of automated storage and retrieval system.

Grant users with increased tracking and inventory control, plus greater flexibility having room for changing business conditions.

Feed-in and feed-out systems, very high tolerance racking, automatic fire protection strictly controlled weight checking and load sizing.

Systems comprising modular subsystems easily substituted reducing downtime and expanding the life of the whole system.

Produces key reserves in inventory storage costs, as greatly improved both vertically and horizontally warehouse space utilization creating larger storage density.

Reduces labor costs, lowering essential labor force necessities, improving workplace safety, and eliminating staff from complex operational conditions.

It helps companies cut expenses by minimizing the amount of unnecessary parts and products in storage, and improving organization of the contents of a warehouse. Due to automated processes, it also allows for more storage space due to high-density storage, narrower aisles, etc.


Modelling and managing the logical representation of the physical storage facilities. For example, if certain products are often sold together or are more popular than others, those products can be grouped together or placed near the delivery area to speed up the process of picking, packing and shipping to customers.

Enabling a seamless link to order processing and logistics management in order to pick, pack, and ship product out of the facility.

Tracking where products are stocked, which suppliers they come from, and the length of time they are stored. By analysing such data, companies can control inventory levels and maximize the use of warehouse space. Furthermore, firms are more prepared for the demands and supplies of the market, especially during special circumstances such as a peak season on a particular month. Through the reports generated by an AS/RS system, firms are also able to gather important data that may be put in a model for it to be analysed.

8. Disadvantages of automated storage and retrieval system.

Automated storage and retrieval system requires significant investments of a company's capital, particularly for maintenance and updating of different subsystems. Every subsystem are expensive and it will make the starting capital for this system are higher than manual system. This system also need maintenance so that it can work properly and efficiently

Maintaining highly integrated systems it requires knowledge, skills and experience from the company to make the system works perfectly and integrated well with other system. The company need to provide the workers the knowledge like going to the seminar or a workshop to learn about the system that required a lot of skills. The workers also need to be innovative to modify the system so that it can be integrated in other system.


Interrupted AS/RS service extends from the measurable such as lost in manufacture and delivery revenue, increased labour costs for repair. There is also the intangible such as the shrinking workforce confidence in the company's operations as well as the client confidence. If the system is interrupted by failure of one of the machine all the system need to be stop and the repair must be done. This will make the company loss a lot of money.

By using the AS/RS the workers will be less so the industry workers will be jobless and this will increase the number of people that has no job.

9. Overcome the weakness of ASRS

Every new design or new technology must have a weakness which is the lack of the system. Then some improvements need to be done to make sure the system will have more advantages rather than disadvantages. What is the problem that is usually facing of the company is this ASRS system requires significant investment of a companys capital that is normally been used to maintain and updating of different subsystem.

For this situation, the company should do it step by step. This is not buy whole system for whole storage product. The company should buy the important part to make it work and buy for further storage. In the same time, let the person or engineer to learn about the system in the simple situation. To make sure the engineer knows how to operate and maintain or update the system if needed. This will reduce the company investment for starting and also for maintaining and updating.


The system is maintaining highly integrated system and it requires knowledge, skills and experiences from the company to make the system work perfectly and integrated well with other system. These situations need a good knowledge from the company to have a good system. The company needs to hire a knowledgeable person to handle of this entire problem. To make sure the system will work perfectly, an inspection need to be done many time for the single system before it has been assemble with other ASRS system for the next movement. This inspection must be done correctly without lack any movement of the ASRS. If there has any mistake, the company will need to pay more for the damage whether for the product of for the system.

Sometimes in the ASRS system, there have an interrupted service extends from the measurable such as lost in manufacture and delivery revenue. When this happened, the company will have to invest more money on repairing the damage that cause from this interrupted. These happened because of lack of information about the ASRS system. The manufacturer of ASRS system needs to give detail explanations about the ASRS system on how to handle the system and how to overcome the minor problem. The manufacturer also needs to give the overview of the flow for the ASRS. With this sufficient information, the problem like lost in manufacturer

and delivery revenue will not happened because of the worker know how to conduct the system and know how to tackle the minor problem.

As with any industrial operation, the entire workflow must be carefully understood and managed to maintain smooth flow. The following are some issues that may have to be managed.


Consumables: A steady, high volume supply of consumables (i.e. vials, microplates, pipette tips, solvent, etc.) is necessary. An inventory management system may be necessary, perhaps linked to the companies purchasing department. Storage space for consumables must be provided. A just-in-time approach to consumable supply may minimize storage requirements and help to manage costs. The disposal of a high volume of consumables must also be planned for and managed. The cost of purchasing, storing and disposing of consumables may be significant enough to dictate the use of methodologies that minimize their use, such as reformatting of samples using washable pipetting components or non-contact technologies, such as ultrasonic droplet ejection.


Weighing: The bottleneck for any dry compound collection is often the dispensing and weighing of samples. Automated techniques exist for this operation, but none span all the different potential physical characteristics posed by solid samples. Thus some degree of manual intervention is almost always going to be required. Strict attention must be given to eliminating the exposure of individuals to these dry compounds during such a weighing process.


Centralized vs. decentralized: The debate over the merits of a large, centralized sample collection vs. multiple, decentralized collections is ongoing. Many companies have decided to have both, with a single, large collection providing samples to smaller, decentralized facilities on a campaign basis. In this scenario, the decentralized facilities have a smaller capacity and are highly focused on providing the samples in a format and throughput consistent with their specific downstream needs. This mode of operation has been made more feasible by the increasing commercial offerings of lab -scale AS/RS systems, some no larger than a large laboratory freezer.


Sample identification: The use of some form of Automatic Identification technology is essential for sample identification. Two or three - dimensional bar coding are the most common methods. Radio Frequency ID tags (RFID) are also a viable choice, although likely more expensive. Any label technology must be capable of staying adhered to the vessel and remaining readable under the storage conditions, i.e. very cold, potential frost (see Bar code labels). A choice must be made between a ID strategy in which the identifier is simply a pointer to information in a data base, or one in which the identifier actually contains information about the sample (see Automatic Identification - strategy).


Support and maintenance: A large, fully automated AS/RS is an industrial scale system and operation. Each installation of such a system involves some degree of customization, so none of these systems can be considered to be commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS). Successful installation and operation of such systems is made much more likely by the presence of in-house laboratory automation specialists. Although the system is almost certainly to be provided and integrated by a commercial entity, internal resources are essential for all the aspects of managing a highly custom laboratory automation project.


Changing requirements: Such large, industrial operations take much time to put into place. The R&D process supported by these large systems change and evolve constantly, sometimes rapidly, not only in terms of science, but also organizationally. Therefore one must carefully weigh the timelines of implementing such a system vs. the potential timelines of change within the organization. It is not unknown for such projects to be overtaken by events and change and rendered irrelevant. Any system must be capable of evolving to meet changing requirements once installed. It is also not unknown for the sources of such highly custom systems to go out of business. A buyer must be prepared to make an investment in understanding the system and also take appropriate contractual precautions to assure the system IP remains accessible even if the original developer is no longer available.


Changing viewpoints on stability: Over the history of compound collections, opinions and information about sample stability has evolved, and will likely continue to evolve as

more long-term data is obtained. This may cause an evolution in the desired storage conditions or format, which may necessitate system modification.


Changing formats: The downstream formatting requirements may evolve and change over time, necessitating changes in the collection format.

10. Guidelines of implementation procedure of AS/RS.

The basic setup of the aisles, rows and shelves is standard building. Where the difficulty comes is with the incorporation of computer and automation setup. Tolerances need to be set for each axis of movement. Each location needs to be identified. Speeds need to be determined so that products may be moved safely and more efficiently. Storage assignment is an important factor that needs to be decided upon when designing an AS/RS. There are five different types of storage assignment Dedicated storage assignment o Dedicated Storage Assignment gives each item a fixed location on a rack. All refills of the same product will be placed at the same space as they occupied before. Dedicated storage assignments are best utilized when large inventories. Larger and heavier items are stored on the bottom and the smaller, lighter items towards the top. Random storage assignment o Random storage is completely the opposite of dedicated storage, any item can be put anywhere. This would be more suited to smaller inventories or inventories that are temporary. Closest open location o Closest open location storage functions just the way it sounds. The nearest slot to the I/O point will be the first to be used. This would suit a small variety inventory. Full turnover o Full turnover storage assignment is the system in which the most thought needs to be put in. The most used items are stored closest to the I/O point and the slower


moving items are stored towards the back. This system would benefit larger inventories that have many orders coming through the warehouse. Class based storage assignment o Full turnover storage assignment is the system in which the most thought needs to be put in. The most used items are stored closest to the I/O point and the slower moving items are stored towards the back. This system would benefit larger inventories that have many orders coming through the warehouse. Class based storage is the most widely used system of storage. All the items are broken up into classes. Classes can be determined by selling rates, item size, and quantity in stock. The AS/RS designer will select the number of classes, the size each class and where each class will be in the warehouse. Effective planning of the warehouse will allow for proper use and easy upgradeability. An effective system will most likely be an efficient one. There are many design considerations in implementing an AS/RS into a manufacturing environment. First, and most importantly, is the need for an AS/RS. Typically, a capacity and capability analysis is needed to justify the improvements of an AS/RS into a manufacturing process. The time and cost savings of the system must be justified for a company to invest in such a large capital expense. Plant layout and the physical design of the AS/RS are needed in order to determine what type of AS/RS will be implemented. The plant layout will help to decide important design factors into the system, such as the number of containers or bins and the aisles layout for the system. These systems usually have a large footprint on a manufacturing floor and in certain case, an engineer may have to redesign a manufacturing process around the AS/RS system. In order to validate such a large plant change engineers choices will be made using, capacity and capability analysis, historical and forecasted product data, production output requirements, available floor space, and available budgeting. With these considerations, an engineer must decide what type configuration the system will have. While choosing the physical layout and design of the system, the engineer must take into consideration, the input and output configurations of the system. First, there are the

electrical and software setup of the system in order to functionally run and keep up with the high demand of the manufacturing process. Second, the physical input and output points of the system must be setup to be in a central location for all storage and retrieval requests.

As these system considerations are designed and decided upon, an engineer must then decide what type of storage, batching and sequencing operations will be used to most effectively use the AS/RS in the manufacturing process. Design decisions include storage positioning, batch size of storage containers, and the sequencing methods of the systems. Storage and retrieval operations are typically broken into classes based on the material, size restrictions, or storage location. This allows the system to be able to optimize the time for storage and retrieval throughout the system. Once the system has been implemented and built into the manufacturing process, the design portion may be over, however the system must be continuously improved over the implementation of the AS/RS on the manufacturing floor. Optimization of bin organization, timing of each bin, and bin location must be studied in order to have a cost saving and effective AS/RS. Performance metrics for AS/RS are usually based on time studies, as the systems are implemented to help save time in materials handling. Metrics used to measure AS/RS systems include, storage and retrieval travel times and wait times for storage and retrieval. Other metrics that will be used will evaluate the capability and capacity of processes before and after the implementation of an AS/RS. Engineers also must provide a proper logical flow system for the AS/RS for the system to run smoothly. Logical flow is important to make the automation to be more accurate and there may be some inaccuracy if the logical flow is not done. Logical flow determine the sequences of the program that the machine must follow in order to store and retrieve the part in the system.



With proper design, the return on investment of an AS/RS system will be met with the improvement of the manufacturing process, inventory control, and time savings in materials handling. The high initial costs of the system will be offset when implemented correctly and effectively, while always improving the system to meet the needs of production. There are many factors to take into effect, but when done correctly an AS/RS can help improve production yield, increase storage space, and improve quality of finished goods.

11. Changes should be done in order to make sure its success.

The principle AS/RS control problems is positioning the S/R machine within an acceptable tolerance at a storage compartment in the rack structure to deposit or retrieve a load. The locations of the material stored in the system must be determined to direct the S/R machine to a particular storage compartments. Within a given aisle in the AS/RS each compartment is identified by its horizontal and vertical positions and whether it is on the right side or the left side of the aisle. A scheme based on the alpha-numeric codes can be used for this purpose. Using this location identification scheme, each unit of material stored in the system can be referenced to a particular location in the aisle.

Given a specified storage compartments to go to, the S/R machine must be controlled to move to that location and position the shuttle for load transfer. One positioning method uses a counting procedure in which the number of bays and levels are counted in the direction of travel to determine position. Another method is the numerical identification procedure in which each compartments is provided with a reflective target with a binary-coded location identification on its face. Optical scanners are used to read the target and positions the shuttle for depositing or retrieving a load.

The engineer that make the flow process also must capture all relevant data in order to determine the optimal tolerance that AS/RS system needs and also find the time that the system

take to store and retrieve material so that the Just-in-time (JIT) concept can be implemented in the system. The flow that the material will be stored also must be accurate so that the storage and retrieval machine will not be colliding with each other.

The Gravity flow-rack AS/RS also can be used in the system, it is composed of a deep rack with several bins. Each bin can contain multiple items placed. When an item is removed from a bin, the next item automatically rolls to the front of the rack. The rack uses inclined shelves equipped with roll track to move products by gravity from the storage to the retrieval side of the system. The products are simply loaded into the storage side of the system by the storage machine and they flow to the front of the system. The products are picked on the retrieval side by the retrieval machine.

The company or factory owner should not buy the used system that is available in the market because the used system may not be reliable than a new AS/RS system. The new system can be more accurate and the maintenance is less than a used part of the system. Furthermore, the used AS/RS system maybe cannot integrate well with the other system such as AGVS, FMS, and inspection systems such as coordinate measuring machines.


Production buffer the rack is typically used as production buffer and in testing and sorting applications. The automated storage and retrieval system (ASRS) can be used for intelligent buffering, balancing of process flow, kitting, test and burn-in solutions or as storage for different items.

Control Automation blends material handling automation, automatic data collection, and human resources to achieve Computer Integrated Warehousing (CIW).Warehouse staffs are linked to the computer via Radio Frequency Data Terminals (RFDT). These systems are called Real Time Warehouse Control Systems (RTWCS). Records are automatically and immediately updated when material is received, put-away, picked, and shipped. When RTWCS monitors receive request to put-away, move and pick material. The following steps are taken by the RTWCS work queue; which prioritizes them, identifies available resources and then dispatches the best available resource. Warehouse staff and material handling automation components receive direction from the RTWCS.

AS/RS is moving towards greater centralization of distribution warehouses as layers of distribution will be eliminated and the pull for the goods will be directly from the central warehouse to the consumer of the finished goods. This trend will require centralized warehouses to perform more small picks. The second greatest area of growth in warehouses automation over the next decade will be in order picking. The automated order picking systems of the future will not be labour intensive but will have greater responsiveness, will be more flexible and will be more modular than systems today. In support of this higher throughput order picking environment, conveyor systems will play an even more significant role in warehousing than in

the past. The greatest area of growth will be in Real Time Warehouse Control Systems RTWCS. The reduced costs of warehouse control systems will place these systems well within reach of warehouses who in the past could not afford warehouse automation. The reduced costs and increased performance of warehouse control systems will result in automated warehouse control systems.

12. Implication in future

The implication of automated storage and retrieval system are the system can be used in many industry in this world such as the manufacturing industry, food industry, library and others. The system can reduce the labor cost and the lead time for the product. In the manufacturing industry the system are used to store and retrieve the parts. The operator do not need to find the parts in the big warehouse that will take time. They just need to search the parts in the computer and the system will automatically retrieve the parts safely.

The AS/RS also can be used widely in the food industry and it can increase the quality of the food. The AS/RS can store the food without contaminate the food with germs so the food will be germs free and can increase the life time of the food. In the food industry the storing of the food is important so that they will be stored safely without any damage and defect. By using this system the storage density will increase because the arrangement of the aisle can be compact. Thus, it will provide the factory more space.

This system can utilize the work of many labor workers because the system is independent. It just need a programmer to program it and a supervisor to control and supervise the flow of the AS/RS. With this system the number of labor workers can be cut down and this also can minimize the error that human can make. This system also can be improvise some more to make it flexible to the other line of work. If this system is use wisely it will generate more income to the company and reduce the risk of injuring the workers.


In the future, this system may be integrated in all the storage that have in the world. For example now we have use the system to make a parking a lot easier and take less space. This because the AS/RS system were used to park the car in a compartment that are safe and reliable. The system is also use to store bicycle and maybe it also can be used to store and retrieve bags, books, home appliances and other. As humanity advances, manual labor becomes increasingly robotic. Storage and retrieval systems in supermarkets and factories may become completely controlled by robots and computers. People will be able to work from home and control various processes via the internet.


13. Conclusion
Since the system did not have any specific requirement to be used in any country in the world such as at country that have 4 season in a year, so this system is available to be used for any company that wish to do so. The ASRS system is appropriate to be used in Malaysia to improve the storage system in manufacturing company. As we can see many company choose to have this system for their storage system. This system will help to improve lots from the old storage system.

Some of the improvement that we can see after changing to this system is, that dynamic storage fits in with improved manufacturing practices is by supporting repeatable, accurate processes. With ASRS, features such as integrated pick-to-light means less chance for error, along with faster pick processes. A manufacturer and distributor of parts and systems for the rail transit industry.

Incremental improvements in accuracy through ASRS may not seem like a game-changer for Malaysia manufacturing. However, when better accuracy can be combined with sizable improvements in labor productivity and space savings, the case for dynamic storage as an enabler of lean efficiencies is clear cut. Reshoring appears to be gaining momentum, but with off-shore locations still having much lower labor costs, manufacturing company will need to be as lean and efficient as possible to turn the tables on offshoring.

Along with productivity improvements, ASRS also consumes significantly less space. ASRS can achieve this level of space savings because of its efficient, dense use of space, as well as its ability to eliminate space. Carousels, for instance, use dense arrangement of various-sized totes and dividers to efficiently hold the needed mix of inventory. Shuttle VLMs have trays that allow for variable increment storage heights inside the machine.

So, the use of ASRS in manufacturing company will bring more benefits to improve the company production.


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