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INTRODUCTION IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY

20TH century has been regarded as the period of incredible change in human history. Philosophers and scientists have been various names to this period. Peter Drucker has called it The Age of Discontinuity, John Galbraith has called it The Age of Future Shock and Hari Albrecht called it The Age of Anxiety. Stress has become the 21 century buzz word, from the high pervading corporate echelons to the bassinets of teaching infants nurseries we find this world liberally used. Stress is part of modern life. Various events in life cause stress, starting with the birth of a child and enduring with the death of a dear one. Urbanization, industrialization and the increase scale of operations in society are some of the reasons for rising stress. It is an inevitable consequence of socio-economic complexity and to some extent, its stimulant as well. People experience stress as they can no longer have complete control over what happen in their lives. The telephone goes out of order, power is shut down, water supply is disrupted, children perform poorly at school etc, we feel frustrated and then stressed. The word stress is derived from a Latin word stringere, meaning to draw tight. From the view point of physical sciences, the phenomena of stress are evident in all materials when they are subjected to force, pressure, strain or strong-front. Every material steel, rock or wood has its own limit up to which it can withstand stress without being damaged. Similarly human beings can tolerate certain level of stress. Stress is highly individualistic in nature. Some people have high levels of stress tolerance for stress and thrive very well in the face of several stressors in the environment. In fact, some individuals will not perform well unless they experience a level of stress which activates and energizes then to put forth their best results. For every individual there is an optimum level of stress under which he or she will perform to full capacity. If the stress experience is below the optimum level, then the individual gets bored, the motivational level of work reaches a low point and it results to careless mistakes, forgetting to do things and thinking of things other than work during work hours and also leads to absenteeism which may ultimately lead to turnover. If on the other hand, stress experience is above the optimum level, it leads to too many conflicts

with the supervisor or leads to increase of errors, bad decisions and the individual may experience insomnia, stomach problems, and psychosomatic illness. The present world is fast changing and there are lots of pressures and demands at work. These pressures at work lead to physical disorders. Stress refers to individuals reaction to a disturbing factor in the environment. It is an adaptive response to certain external factor or situation or what can be called environmental stimuli as reflected in an opportunity, constraint, or demand the outcome of which is uncertain but important. In short stress is a response to an external factor that results in physical, emotional, behavioral deviations in a person. Stress is an all pervading modern phenomenon that takes a heavy toll of human life. Different situations and circumstances in our personal life and in our job produce stress. Those can be divided into factors related to the organization and factors related to the person which include his experience and personality traits. Job related factors are work overload, time pressures, poor quality of supervision, insecure political climate, role conflict and ambiguity, difference between company values and employee values. Person related factors are death of spouse, or of a close friend, family problems, change to a different line of work, prolonged illness in the family, change in social activities, eating habits, etc., Personality traits are Type A personality. They are impatient, ambitious, competitive, aggressive, and hardworking. They set high goals and demands of themselves and others. And they are particularly prone to stress inducing anticipatory emotions such as anxiety.

REMEDIES TO REDUCE STRESS


There are two major approaches to reduce stress. They are, Individual approaches Organizational approaches

INDIVIDUAL APPROACHES
An employee can take individual responsibility to reduce his/her stress level. Individual strategies that have proven effective include, implementing time management techniques, increasing physical exercise, relaxation training, and expanding the social support network. Time management Many people manage their time very poorly. Some of well known time management principles include, o Making daily list of activities to be accomplished o Scheduling activities according to the priorities set o Prioritizing activities by importance and urgency o Knowing your daily cycle and handling the most demanding parts of your job. Physical exercise Practicing non-competitive physical exercises like aerobics, race walking, jogging, swimming, and riding a bi-cycle. Relaxation training Relaxation techniques such as meditation, hypnosis and bio-feedback. The objective is to reach in state of deep relaxation, where one feels physically relaxed, somewhat from detached from the immediate environment. Fifteen or twenty minutes a day of deep relaxation releases tension and provides a person with a pronounced sense of peacefulness. Social support Having families, friends or work colleagues to talk provides an outlet, when stress levels become excessive. So expand your social support network that helps you with someone to hear your problems. 2

ORGANIZATIONAL APPROACHES
Several of the factors that cause stress particularly task and role demands and organizations structure are controlled by management. As such they can be modified or changed. Some of the strategies that management want to consider include improved personal self section and job placement, use of realistic goal setting, redesigning of jobs, improved organizational communication and establishment of corporate wellness programmes. Certain jobs are more stressful than others. Individual with little experience or an external lower of control tend to be more proven to stress. Selection and placement decisions should take these facts into consideration. Goal setting helps to reduce stress. It also provides motivation. Designing jobs to give employees more responsibility, more meaningful work, more autonomy, and increased feedback can reduce stress, because these factors give the employee greater control over work activities and lessen dependence on others. Increasingly formal organizational communication with employees reduces uncertainly by lessency role ambiguity and role conflict. Wellness program, say, employee counseling form on the employees total physical and mental condition. They typically proud work ships to help people quit smoking, control alcohol usage, eat better and develop a regular exercise program. Another remedy for reducing stress is cognitive restructuring. It involves two step procedures. First irrational or maladaptive thought processes that create stress are identified. For example Type A individuals may believe that they must be successful at everything they do. The second step consists of replacing these irrational thoughts with more rational or reasonable ones. One important remedy to reduce stress is the maintenance of good sleep. Research conducted on laboratory specimen to have met with startling discoveries. Sleep starved rats have developed stress syndrome. The amount of sleep one requires varies from person to person and is dependent on ones lifestyle. The American National Sleep Foundation claims that a minimum of eight hours of sleep is essential for good health. Generally studies shows that young adults can manage with about 7-8 hours. After the age of 35, six hours of sleep is sufficient whereas people over 65 years may just need three or four hours.

INDUSTRY PROFILE
Steel Industry Because of the critical role played by steel in infrastructural and overall economic development, the steel industry is often considered to be an indicator of economic progress. The economic boom in China and India has caused a massive increase in the demand for steel in recent years. Between 2000 and 2005, world steel demand increased by 6%. Since 2000, several Indian and Chinese steel firms have risen to prominence like Tata Steel (which bought Corus Group in 2007), Shanghai Baosteel Group Corporation and Shagang Group. ArcelorMittal is however the world's largest steel producer. The British Geological Survey reports that in 2005, China was the top producer of steel with about one-third world share followed by Japan, Russia, and the USA. In 2008, steel started to be traded as a commodity in the London Metal Exchange. At the end of 2008, the steel industry faced a sharp downturn that led to many cut-backs

Steel is the most widely recycled material in the United States. The steel industry has been actively recycling for more than 150 years, in large part because it is economically advantageous to do so. It is cheaper to recycle steel than to mine iron ore and manipulate it through the production process to form 'new' steel. Steel does not lose any of its inherent physical properties during the recycling process, and has drastically reduced energy and material requirements compared with refinement from iron ore. The energy saved by recycling reduces the annual energy consumption of the industry by about 75%, which is enough to power eighteen million homes for one year. Recycling one ton of steel saves 1,100 kilograms of iron ore, 630 kilograms of coal, and 55 kilograms of limestone. 76 million tons of steel were recycled in 2005.

A pile of steel scrap in Brussels, waiting to be recycled. 4

In recent years, about three quarters of the steel produced annually has been recycled. However, the numbers are much higher for certain types of products. For example, in both 2004 and 2005, 97.5% of structural steel beams and plates were recycled. Other steel construction elements such as reinforcement bars are recycled at a rate of about 65%. Indeed, structural steel typically contains around 95% recycled steel content, whereas lighter gauge, flat rolled steel contains about 30% reused material. Because steel beams are manufactured to standardized dimensions, there is often very little waste produced during construction, and any waste that is produced may be recycled. For a typical 2,000-square-foot (200 m2) two-story house, a steel frame is equivalent to about six recycled cars, while a comparable wooden frame house may require as many as 4050 trees.

Global demand for steel continues to grow, and though there are large amounts of steel existing, much of it is actively in use. As such, recycled steel must be augmented by some first-use metal, derived from raw materials. Commonly recycled steel products include cans, automobiles, appliances, and debris from demolished buildings. A typical appliance is about 65% steel by weight and automobiles are about 66% steel and iron. While some recycling takes place through the integrated steel mills and the basic oxygen process, most of the recycled steel is melted electrically, either using an electric arc furnace (for production of low-carbon steel) or an induction furnace (for production of some highly-alloyed ferrous products).

Modern steels are made with varying combinations of alloy metals to fulfill many purposes. Carbon steel, composed simply of iron and carbon, accounts for 90% of steel production.[1] High strength low alloy steel has small additions (usually < 2% by weight) of other elements, typically 1.5% manganese, to provide additional strength for a modest price increase. Low alloy steel is alloyed with other elements, usually molybdenum, manganese, chromium, or nickel, in amounts of up to 10% by weight to improve the harden ability of thick sections. Stainless steels and surgical stainless steels contain a minimum of 10% chromium, often combined with nickel, to resist corrosion (rust). Some stainless steels are magnetic, while others are nonmagnetic.

Some more modern steels include tool steels, which are alloyed with large amounts of tungsten and cobalt or other elements to maximize solution hardening. This also allows the use of precipitation hardening and improves the alloy's temperature resistance.

Tool steel is generally used in axes, drills, and other devices that need a sharp, long-lasting cutting edge. Other special-purpose alloys include weathering steels such as Cor-ten, which weather by acquiring a stable, rusted surface, and so can be used unpainted.

Many other high-strength alloys exist, such as dual-phase steel, which is heat treated to contain both a ferritic and martensitic microstructure for extra strength. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel involves special alloying and heat treatments to stabilize amounts of austentite at room temperature in normally austentitefree low-alloy ferritic steels. By applying strain to the metal, the austentite undergoes a phase transition to martensite without the addition of heat. Maraging steel is alloyed with nickel and other elements, but unlike most steel contains almost no carbon at all.

This creates a very strong but still malleable metal. Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel uses a specific type of strain to increase the effectiveness of work hardening on the alloy. Eglin Steel uses a combination of over a dozen different elements in varying amounts to create a relatively low-cost metal for use in bunker buster weapons. Hadfield steel (after Sir Robert Hadfield) or manganese steel contains 1214% manganese which when abraded forms an incredibly hard skin which resists wearing. Examples include tank tracks, bulldozer blade edges and cutting blades on the jaws of life. A special class of high-strength alloy, the superalloys, retain their mechanical properties at extreme temperatures while minimizing creep. These are commonly used in applications such as jet engine blades where temperatures can reach levels at which most other alloys would become weak.

Most of the more commonly used steel alloys are categorized into various grades by standards organizations. For example, the Society of Automotive Engineers has a series of grades defining many types of steel. The American Society for Testing and 6

Materials has a separate set of standards, which define alloys such as A36 steel, the most commonly used structural steel in the United States.

Though not an alloy, galvanized steel is a commonly used variety of steel which has been hot-dipped or electroplated in zinc for protection against corrosion

Ministry of Steel (India)


The Ministry of Steel, a branch of Government of India, is the apex body for formulating all policies regarding steel production, distribution and pricing in India. All steel companies except Tata Steel are under the administrative control of the Government of India. As of May 2008, The Ministry is headed by a Minister of Cabinet rank, Ram Vilas Paswan, and is assisted by a Minister of State, Akhilesh Das

Steel industry reforms particularly in 1991 and 1992 have led to strong and sustainable growth in Indias steel industry.
Since its independence, India has experienced steady growth in the steel industry, thanks in part to the successive governments that have supported the industry and pushed for its robust development.

Further illustrating this plan is the fact that a number of steel plants were established in India, with technological assistance and investments by foreign countries.

In 1991, a substantial number of economic reforms were introduced by the Indian government. These reforms boosted the development process of a number of industries the steel industry in India in particular which has subsequently developed quite rapidly.

India continually posts phenomenal growth records in steel production. In 1992, India produced 14.33 million tones of finished carbon steels and 1.59 million tones of pig iron. Furthermore, the steel production capacity of the country has increased rapidly since 7

1991 in 2008, India produced nearly 46.575 million tones of finished steels and 4.393 million tones of pig iron.

Both primary and secondary producers contributed their share to this phenomenal development, while these increases have pushed up the demand for finished steel at a very stable rate.

In 1992, the total consumption of finished steel was 14.84 million tones. In 2008, the total amount of domestic steel consumption was 43.925 million tones. With the increased demand in the national market, a huge part of the international market is also served by this industry. Today, India is in seventh position among all the crude steel producing countries.

The 1991 reforms allowed for no licenses to be required for capacity creation, except for some locations. Also, once Indias steel industry was moved from the listing of the industries that were reserved exclusively for the public sector, huge foreign investments were made in this industry. Yet another reform for Indias steel industry came in 1992, when every type of control over the pricing and distribution system was removed, making the modern Indian Steel Industry extremely efficient, as well as competitive. Additionally, a number of other government measures have stimulated the growth of the steel industry, coming in the form of an unrestricted external trade, low import duties, and an easy tax structure.

STEEL PRODUCTION BY COUNTRY

Countries CHINA JAPAN UNITED STATES RUSSIA

Production 394.9 Mton 112.5 Mton 94.9 Mton

Countries FRANCE TAIWAN SPAIN

Production 19.5 Mton 18.6 Mton 17.8 Mton

66.1 Mton

MEXICO CANADA UK BELGIUM

16.2 Mton 15.3 Mton 13.2 Mton 10.4 Mton

SOUTH KOREA 47.8 Mton GERMANY UKRAINE 44.5 Mton 38.6 Mton

SWOT ANALYSIS Strength Weakness Opportunities Threats Huge fund Skilled employees Monopoly expansion red tape rules and regulation Modernization World class standard Legal issues Security issues

Avtar Steels proposition Through its large pool of professional experts in varied disciplines of civil aviation, it offers consultancy services in following fields. 1. Feasibility study and master planning 2. Economic impact study. 3. Environment impact study. 4. Construction and operations steels terminals. 5. Communication and navigation 6. HR department 7. Commercial exploitation 8. R&D

HUMAN RESOURCES OF AVTAR STEELS Avtar Steels comprises of highly professional motivated and trained man power which helped it emerge as a professional organization on the horizon of aviation sector. High morale of employees continues to boost smooth operation of its steelss towards accomplishing the objective of customer satisfaction. The authority has successfully used the Human Resource Tools like Job Rotation, Redeployment etc to sustain employee's interest in their job. 10

Avtar Steels has a strength of about 21,000 employees both executives and nonexecutives the management of AVTAR STEELS firmly believes that through this invaluable assets of human resources alone, it can achieve its goals utmost care is taken in the employees welfare and various schemes have been introduced for the enlistment and better living standards of the AVTAR STEELS Fraternity.

HIERARCHY OF STAFF AT AVTAR STEELS (IAD)

1. GROUP A 2. GROUP B; 3. GROUP C 4. GROUP D

Levels of Management

3 4

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CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES

EXECUTIVES

NON-EXECUTIVES

Group A

Group B

Group C

Group D

Exe. Director Gen. Manager Dy. GM Asst. GM Sr. Manager Manager

Asst. Manager Junior Executive Sr. Spdt.

Superintendent Supervisor Sr. Assistant Assistant Jr. Assistant

Sr. Attendant Attendant Jr. Attendant

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AVTAR STEELS has a professional consultancy division comprising of competent designers, planners, architects, computer analysts and research engineers. The construction division undertakes execution of projects strictly according to schedule with the use of latest project management techniques and high-tech construction equipment.

AVTAR STEELS MANAGEMENT: In addition to technical services, AVTAR STEELS provides expertise in steels management. AVTAR STEELS offers know-how and services in the fields of steels and other industries .and financial management.

CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AND SAFETY Customer satisfaction and safety are the core priorities of AVTAR STEELS. In its endeavor to provide world class passenger amenities and services, the authority is developing move international steelss in the country and improving facilities in Domestic steelss

AVTAR STEELS IS REGISTERED WITH


International Bank of reconstruction and development (world Bank) International civil aviation organization African development bank Asian development bank Kuwait fund for Arab development Government of Zambia Republic of Iraq

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FOREIGN PROJECTS EXECUTED BY AVTAR STEELS AVTAR STEELS has undertaken assignments, like steels feasibility studies, steels design project implementation & project supervision, manpower training, Steels mgt and operation on turnkey basics , providing manpower for steels operation including air traffic services, ground navigation / surveillance facilities etc. The AVTAR STEELS has undertaken consultancy projects in Libya, Algeria, Yemen, Maldives, Nauru, Afghanistan, Iraq, Nepal, Nigeria, Zambia etc.

STEELS CLASSIFICATION International steels There are declared as international steels and are available for scheduled international operations by Indian and foreign carriers. Presently, Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Calcutta, and Trivandrum are in this category. Domestic steelss Customs steelss with limited international operations (Limited

international operations) Model steelss-runway-7500 feet and terminal capacity is 400 and above, 320 type of air craft. Other domestic steelss -71 Civil enclaves in defense steels-28

GEOGRAPHICAL CLASSIFICATION OF STEELSS Northern region Southern region Eastern region Western region North eastern region

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COMPANY PROFILE AVTAR STEELS, CHENNAI DIVISION,

Avtar Steel Ltd. is a conglomerate of companies dealing in manufacturing and exports ofa diverse range of Stainless Steels INGOTS, HOT ROLLED FLATS, ROLLED ROUNDS, FORGED ROUNDS, BRIGHT BARS as well as ALLOY STEELS also. With two of the companies being established houses recognized by the government of India as Pvt. Ltd Firms being reputed, High Profile, Independent, Yet Interlinked Units, the picture of a professionally managed and growth oriented industrial empire is complete. The flagship company of Avtar Steel was a humble yet pioneering beginning made by its founder and chairman Mr . B. B. JINDAL in the year 1996. He is very well supported by his two sons Mr. AMIT JINDAL and Mr. SUMIT JINDAL and with the team of professionals who are expert in their respective fields With his courage of conviction and his undeterred pursuits for growth and excellence, the company has assumed its present size and credence of global significance. The journey has been tedious and tiring, the efforts Herculean, The expectations of its Patrons-Nerve Wrecking and the never receding competition in the global markets Mind Boggling. Yet success at Avtar Steel has never been an end in itself rather a motivation to outperform its previous accolades. And all through this long, Tedious and soul and body wrecking process of evolution, the beautiful melody of the words of learned David Frost has been its constant companion: QUALITY POLICY To provide our passengers a safe smooth and enjoyable transit through Chennai steels. Also to provide secured and speedy movement of international steels through Chennai steels

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MISSION
To deliver superior value to our customers, employees and society at large. We will follow this principle in evaluating and guiding our business activities. We will to set an example of quality works and intend to contribute to build a flourishing economy. We will achieve this by offering our clients a comprehensive portfolio of commercially viable products coupled with the expertise and services required. We will endeavour to create high quality products that enable the growth of our organization. At Avtar Steel Ltd., the well-trained staff will achieve job satisfaction through security, motivation and harmonious work environments.

VISION
We recognize that every organization is different with its own unique business objectives, commercial approach and culture. That is why we have created flexibility and pragmatism with in our service options enabling us to tailor services to meet specific objectives

Our customers are our biggest asset and customer satisfaction ranks first on our business priorities. Over the years, we have grown to diversify into various fields but never have we let go off our roots. We lay stress on workers training, sensitization, orientati on and updating their skills for over all exposure as well as growth VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS IN AVTAR STEELS CHENNAI 1. Human Resource department 2. Department of finance and Accounts 3. Department of Sales 4. Department of operations 5. Department of commercial 6. Department of Legal 7. Department of project

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1) HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT IN AVTAR STEELS CHENNAI As like any other organization, HR department at AA1 also takes the responsibility in maintaining its employee's welfare as well as its policy. Main functions It identifies and meets the man power requirements of Chennai steels. It recruits and selects the Group C and D positions It implements welfare measures and carries out performance appraisal techniques. It conducts training and development programmes It ensures discipline and maintains industrial relations.

Quality policy of the HR Department "Select the right personnel for the Right job and provide him with the right working at". Manpower position at Chennai Steels:: Group A B C D TOTAL Main activities 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Recruitment and promotion cell. Disciplinary cell. Performance appraisal cell Advances (HBA, Vehicle and other advance) Leave cell Training and welfare cell. LTE and CEA cell. Services records Central dispatch Central diary Sanctioned strength 78 143 668 549 1438 Men in position 86 151 557 479 1273 Vacancy position +8 +8 111 82 165

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ORGANISATION CHART OF HUMAN RESOURCES DEPARTMENT

STEELS DIRECTOR

DY. GENERAL MANAGER (P&A)

Personal Assistant

SR. PERSONNEL MANAGER

MANAGER (PERSONNEL)

ASST. MANAGER (OFF. LANGUAGE)

Sr. Supdt.(O) R & P Cell

Sr. Asst. (O) Leave Cell

Sr. Supdt. (Hindi Translator)

Sr. Supdt.(O)
Disciplinary Cell

Sr.Asst. (O)

LTC & ALTC

Sr. Asst. (Steno) Hindi

Sr. Supdt.(O) Pay Fixation

Sr. Asst. (O) Advances

Asst. (O) Service Records

Sr. Asst. (O)

Performance Appraisal Cell

Asst.(O) Training & Welfare Cell

Asst.(O)
Central Dispatch & Diary

Daftry & DMO

ALL GROUP D STAFF

STEELS D

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HUMAN RESOURCE POLICY & RULES Transfer policy Generally, transfers are meant to utilize the individual skill/potential in areas in which he/she has been trained /skilled. The transfer policy shall apply to all the transferable posts in all discipline. 1. Normal transfer season: for both inter region and intra region. Normal transfer season would be (April & May, each year) 2. Inter regional transfer. 3. Intra regional transfer 4. Home town 5. Transfer on promotion. 6. Transfer to tenure stations. 7. Transfer from tenure stations. 8. Exemptions from transfer.

Employee welfare measures in AVTAR STEELS The employee welfare program at AVTAR STEELS in based on the management policy, which is aimed shaping perfect employees. Therefore, the concept of employee's welfare includes tow aspects, namely physical and mental welfare. Welfare at AVTAR STEELS is, 1. Application of merit system or work performance system as the basis for employee rewarding 2. Employee insurance program to provide the employees with better security. 3. Improvement in health security for one employees and their families, so that they may work confidently and productively. 4. Receives on social psychology no reach a balance between physical and mental well being. 5. Providing facilities for employees to make use of the allowance for housing, vehicles etc. 6. Providing education allowance for employee's children for their studies. 7. Providing rest rooms to five the employees to relax after the light schedule.

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Employee motivation schemes 1. Incentive scheme for acquiring professional/additional qualifications 2. Production linked incentive 3. Flexible complementing scheme (FCS): Staffs that have been waiting for promotion for long years after completing the eligibility period. 4. Career progression scheme (CPS): As a one time measure Asst.

managers/managers in various disciplines are eligible for consideration for promotion to the next higher post.

Combination of different kinds of leaves / holidays Regular leave - Saturday, Sundays Casual leave Restricted holiday Compensatory holiday Holidays Special casual leave

2) DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE AND ACCOUNTS Functions o Maintenance of a system of financial control, internal check and financial scrutiny of all expenditure and revenue proposals. o Disbursements to staff including retired persons o Disbursements to outside agencies for supplies and services provided. o Revenue billing, follow up and realization. o Preparation of budget and maintenance of a proper system of budgetary control. o Maintenance of financial accounts in accordance with the directions of Headquarters and preparations of financial statements. o Management of info systems. o Coordinating with internal and external audit and government audit for smooth disposal of audit queries. Different sections in accounts department 20

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Revenue section. Steels accounts section. Budget and accounts section Works section Establishment sections Contributory provident fund section (CPF)

3) DEPARTMENT OF STEELS

1. Export 2. Import 3. Transshipment


AVTAR STEELS air steels terminals provide for truck locks, strong rooms, live animals sheds, hazardous steels go down and palletisation station, offices for airlines, government regulatory agencies, multimodal steels operators, break bulk agents, and consolidators for ease of operation and user convenience.

4) DEPARTMENT OF OPERATIONS The entire function of the terminal building is been controlled by the operations dept. The work has been divided and is controlled by various sections according to their activities such as house keeping, electronic, material management.

Functions:

Receipt

and disposal of complaints and possible action on comments and

suggestions from the passenger/user agencies.

To maintain and look after terminal building, city side and baggage make up
and baggage breakup areas to ensure service ability of facilities provided. Handling terminal building and air craft emergencies and bomb threats as per laid down emergency procedure.

Handling of VVIPS/VIPS and, up keep and allotment of retiring rooms. Lost and found property receipt, shortages are sent to the department
time.

after

expiry of 24 hours. Perishable item can be disposed off with in reasonable 21

Coordination with electrical, civil electronics departments for service ability


of terminal facilities.

Coordination
steels.

with airlines/agencies and regulatory authorities in the

Endeavoring enjoyable transit for passengers. Carrying out terminal inspections, city side,
observations toilet cave provided.

toilet inspections and record

5) DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCIAL AVTAR STEELS has over last 10 years or so developed a team of experts in the field of commercial aspects and based on the experience gained, can provide assistance to other steels operators in improving the financial viability of the steelss. Functions:

Management of all commercial revenue contracts All space allotment s in the steels area Insurance of AVTAR STEELS assets Allotment of residential quarters Allotment of community centre Recommendation of passes to concessionaires/agencies. Manage ground handling functions Administrative work.
6) DEPARTMENT OF LEGAL Objectives: o To minimize the cases against AVTAR STEELS o Providing legal assistance/advice to other dept on the queries required. o Speedy disposal of the files. o Attending and making available facts oat the time of contingency situations of AA1 and acting according to the contingency plan.

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Documents maintained: o Policy circular issued of the HQ. o Regulation of AA1. o Delegation of power. o Judgment copies of the important cases. o Notification files.

7) DEPARTMENT OF GROUND FLIGHT SAFETY Functions: Issue of temporary/permanent vehicle permits. Arranging airfield environment management and aerodrome meetings. Issue of airfield driving permit to drivers/operators. Arranging full scale aircraft crash mockup exercise. Arranging for disabled aircraft movement. Correspondence with air traffic services/ Hqrs/ airlines/ municipalities. Implement safety management systems and future developments committee

8) DEPARTMENT OF PROJECT The project department handles with under taking of new projects for the development or the expansion of the steels. There are two major sub divisions which handle the project by the specific department. They are 1) Electrical division 2) Civil division

Electrical department: As per the head of the department DGM shall be over all in charge for proper administration of "Work contract" and shall ensure that all provisions of the contract agreement are correctly implemented and installed of the same quality.

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RESPONSIBILITIES AND FUNCTIONS:

Over all proper admin of work contract and shall ensure that all provisions of contract agreement are correctly implemented. To accord technical sanction and approval of draft NIT as per Delegation of power. To assist and guide engineer-in charge. In processing and defending the arbitration proceedings. To exercise effective budgetary control. To issue completion certificates. To attend periodical HOD meetings conducted by APD.

Civil Department: The main duty of civil department is to examine the details which are given in the report as per the requirement. The total expenses for the completion of the project, number of bricks required, and time required for the completion of the project and the necessity of the product. Duties and Responsibilities o To project yearly budget for the maintenance and original works. o Responsible for utilization of funds provided in the approved budget. o To guide engineer in charge and approval of extra items/ substituted items. o To finalize replies to CTE'S observations and submit the same with in the stipulated time. o Follow up observations of quality control and those raised by technical and financial audit. o To exercise effective budgetary control. o The civil department is not only responsible for the construction works but also take care of the environment of the steels through horticulture.

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PRODUCT PROFILE
Avtar steels has a huge amount of products dealing with and it continues to produce more for the welfare of the society. Following are some of the products of the company 1. INGOTS: Ingots of all sizes and lengths confirming to all standards and grades are manufactured at Avtar Steel. The products are well-suited for all industrial applications It covers the range of both standard as well as special products. Ingots are manufactured confirming to ISO standards. Avtar Steel manufacture all types of : INGOT SIZES WEIGHT OF THE INGOT In Inches 3X4X47 4X5X39 4X5X47 4X5X47 5.5X6.5X46 7X8X39 7X8X47 7.25X8.25X47 8X9X47 In Millimeters 76X102X1194 102X127X991 102X127X1194 101X127X1194 140X165X1169 178X203X991 178X203X1194 184X210X1194 203X229X1194 ......In Kgs/piece 65 90 110 135 200 275 325 210 400

2.

BRIGHT BARS :

In Steel Industry we are known amongst the Best Bright Bar producers in INDIA. The production range includes Rounds, Flats, Ingots, Strips up to 15000 tons per annum.

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3. HOT ROLLED BLACK BARS: Our Hot Rolled Bar is perfect product for the needof the forging companies, likewise upsetting or Re-Rolling.

While hot rolling by selection of the most appropriate Ingot/ Billet size optimum reduction ratios are maintained. Which further ensure the complete breakage of as cast product and afterwards resulting the good internal soundness in the rolled products.

At every step proper identification and traceability of the material is maintained for the proper sorting of the material as per grade vise.

4. FLATS: Flats of different sizes and lengths confirming to all standards and grades are manufactured at Avtar Steel. The products are well-suited for all industrial applications It covers the range of both standard as well as special products. Flats are manufactured confirming to ISO standards. 5. FORGED : Heavy Forged rounds weighing are specially used in forging industry. We at AVTAR STEEL offer forging rounds for the various application likewise forging upsetting , ring rolling, production of bars, flats, and large sized flanges. 6. HOT ROLLED PATTI: Flat strips of different sizesand lengths confirming to all standards and grades are manufactured at Avtar Steel. The products are well-suited for all industrial applications It covers the range of both standard as well as special products. Flats are manufactured confirming to ISO standards.

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7. FLAT (ACID BRIGHT): Flats of acid bright of different sizes and lengths confirming to all standards and grades are manufactured at Avtar Steel. The products are well-suited for all industrial applications It covers the range of both standard as well as special products. Flats are manufactured confirming to ISO standards. Avtar Steel manufacture all types of Flats (Acid Bright): THICKNES 5 mm 6 mm 8 mm 10 mm 12 mm 16 mm 20 mm 25 mm 30 mm WIDTH 160 mm & 170 mm 160 mm & 170 mm 160 mm & 170 mm 160 mm & 170 mm 160 mm & 170 mm 160 mm & 170 mm 160 mm & 170 mm 160 mm & 170 mm 160 mm & 170 mm LENGTH in ( in inches) up to 6 Mtr up to 6 Mtr up to 6 Mtr up to 6 Mtr up to 6 Mtr up to 6 Mtr up to 6 Mtr up to 6 Mtr up to 6 Mtr

8. COLD ROLLED PATTA: Cold Rolled Patta of different sizes and lengths confirming to all standards and grades are manufactured at Avtar Steel. The products are well-suited for all industrial applications It covers the range of both standard as well as special products are manufactured confirming to ISO standards. Avtar Steel manufacture all types of Cold Rolled Flat (Bright Patta):

Thickness (In mm) 3mm 4mm 5mm

Width (In mm) 500 mm 400 mm 400 mm

Length (In inches) 90" 70" 60"

27

4. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
A review on the previous studies on stress among the employees is necessary to know the areas already covered. This will help to find our new areas uncovered and to study them in depth. The earlier studies made on stress among the employees are briefly reviewed here.

The research study of Jamal. M* finds that job stressors were significantly related to employees psychosomatic problems, job satisfaction, unproductive time at the job, and absenteeism. Type A behavior was found to be an important moderator of the stress outcome relationship.

Brief. A. P. and J. M. Atieh*, argues that it is not safe to assume that job conditions that have an adverse impact on affective reactions to the job will also have a negative impact on overall subjective well-being.

Fienmann views stress as a psychological response state of negative effect characterized by a persistent and a high level of experienced anxiety or tension.

Recent research into the interaction between the mind body show that we may place our body on stress alert quite unconsciously, because of our psychological and emotional attitudes to stress. Anticipatory emotions like impatience, anxiety, and anger can produce the same nerve impulses and chemical reactions as being faced with a concrete challenge. So when faced with a stressful situation, we must either use up the energy created by the body to challenge or learn how to turn off, the response using a conscious relaxation technique.

28

* Jamal M. Job stress-prone Type A behavior, personal and organizational consequences, Canadian Journal Administration Sciences, 1985. pp 360-74. Brief. A. P and J. M. Atieh, Studying job stress: Are we making mountains out of molehills? Journal of occupational behavior, 1987 pp115-26. Hans Seyle, the endocrinologist, whose research on General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS), for the first time, revealed how human beings adapt themselves to emotional strives and strains in their lives. According to him emotional stress occurs in three important stages. 1. Alarm reaction stage 2. Resistance stage 3. Exhaustion stage.

Alarm reaction is caused by physical or psychological stressors. Resistances are brought about by ACTH hormone of the body. Exhaustion follows when ACTH dwindles as a result of continual stress. (ACTH-Aprinocorticotropic)

According to Stephen .P. Robbins*, stress related headaches are the leading cause of loss of work time in U. S. industry.

Cooper and Marshall* visualize stress as characteristics of both the focal individual and his environment. They designate the internal and external consultive forces as pressures or stressors and the resulting stalk of the organism on stress.

* Stephen Robbins, Organizational Behavior, Prentice Hall, U.K, 1989 pp 499-501. Cooper. C. L. and Marshall. J, Understanding Executive Stress, The McMillan Press Ltd, 1978 p 4.

29

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


Primary objective: To undergo an in-depth study about the stress among the employees of AVTAR STEELS.

Secondary objective: To identify the factors causing stress among the employees. To find out the level and kind of stress among the employees of different age groups. To study about the effects of stress on employees in AVTAR STEELS. To identify the coping strategies to manage stress.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY


The present world is fast changing and there are lots of pressures and demands at work. These pressures at work lead to physical disorders. Stress refers to individuals reaction to a disturbing factor in the environment. Hence this study would help the organization to know the factors of stress and to reduce the stress in employees. Since it is a well known fact that healthy employee is a productive employee

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY


In spite of the precautions, vigilance and scrupulousness taken by the investigator to make the study objective, it cannot be denied that there are certain limitations.

The employees were reluctant to give correct information. Even though the employees gave correct information
answering the questionnaire.

during the

unstructured interview conducted, they gave positive answer while

The investigator intended to cover only few areas of stress relevant to


the proposed study 30

7. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research is defined as human activity based on intellectual application in the investigation of matter. The primary purpose for applied research is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research can use the scientific method, but need not do so. Scientific research relies on the application of the scientific method, a harnessing of curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world around us. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organisations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines. Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. The

research methodology in the present study deals with research design, data collection methods, sampling methods, survey, analysis and interpretations.

APPROACHES TO RESEARCH Descriptive approach is one of the most popular approaches these days. In this approach, a problem is described by the researcher by using questionnaire or schedule. This approach enables a researcher to explore new areas of investigation

RESEARCH DESIGN A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.

A well structured questionnaire is framed. 31

Data is collected from the employees in AVTAR STEELS. Findings are made and necessary suggestions and recommendations are given.

DATA SOURCES There are two types of data collection namely primary data collection and secondary data collection. PRIMARY DATA The primary data is defined as the data, which is collected for the first time and fresh in nature, and happen to be original in character through field survey. Primary data collection, you collect the data yourself using methods such as interviews and questionnaires. The key point here is that the data you collect is unique to you and your research and, until you publish, no one else has access to it. There are many methods of collecting primary data and the main methods include:

questionnaires interviews focus group interviews observation case-studies diaries critical incidents portfolios.

SECONDARY DATA The secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else and have been passed through statistical process. The secondary data for this study are already available in the firm's internal records, annual report, broaches, and company's website.

32

In research, Secondary data is collecting and possibly processing data by people other than the researcher in question. Common sources of secondary data for social science include censuses, large surveys, and organizational records (Mintel). In sociology primary data is data you have collected yourself and secondary data is data you have gathered from primary sources to create new research. In terms of historical research, these two terms have different meanings. A primary source is a book or set of archival records. A secondary source is a summary of a book or set of records. Advantages to the secondary data collection method are - 1) it saves time that would otherwise be spent collecting data, 2) provides a larger database (usually) than what would be possible to collect on ones own However there are disadvantages to the fact that the researcher cannot personally check the data so it's reliability may be questioned. DATA COLLECTION METHOD The data collection method used in this research is survey method. Here the data are systematically recorded from the respondents.

RESEARCH TOOL A structured questionnaire has been prepared to get the relevant information from the respondents. The questionnaire consists of a variety of questions presented to the respondents for their despondence. The various types of questions used in this survey are: Open ended questions Closed ended questions Multiple choice questions

SAMPLING-MEANING Sampling is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of individual observations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern, especially for the purposes of statistical inference. Each observation measures one or more properties (weight, location, etc.) of an observable entity enumerated to distinguish objects or individuals. Survey weights often need to be applied to the data to adjust for the sample design. Results from probability theory and statistical theory are employed to guide practice. 33

The sampling process comprises several stages:


Defining the population of concern Specifying a sampling frame, a set of items or events possible to measure Specifying a sampling method for selecting items or events from the frame Determining the sample size Implementing the sampling plan Sampling and data collecting Reviewing the sampling process

SAMPLE UNIT The employees of AVTAR STEELS are the sample unit in the survey.

SAMPLE SIZE The sample size chosen for this study is 100. HR CIVIL ELECTRICAL STEELS ACCOUNTS COMMERCIAL 10 25 5 ---------100 TYPE OF SAMPLING The sampling type is non-probability which involves deliberating selections of particular units constituting a sample, which represents the universe. STRATIFIED SAMPLING: Stratum means a layer population from which samples are to be selected may contain a number of layers from each layer a few samples are selected that is why this method is called stratified sampling. 35 15 10

STATISTICAL METHODS USED Percentage analysis 34

Bars & charts Pie diagrams STATISTICAL TOOLS USED Chi-square test Weighted average PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS: Percentage refers to a special kind of ratio. Percentages are used in making comparison between two or more series of data. Percentage is used to describe relative terms the distribution of two or more series of data. No. of Respondents Percentage of Respondents = -----------------------Total Respondents X 100

DEFINITION OF HYPOTHESIS: According to Goode and Hatt, "Hypothesis is a proposition, which can be put to test to determine validity". A hypothesis can be defined as a logically conjectured relationship between two or more variables expressed in the form of testable statement. NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0): Null hypothesis is formulated only to test whether there is any relationship between variables related to the problem being studied. Usually the null hypothesis is formed as a negative statement. ALTERNATE HYPOTHESIS (H1): Alternate Hypothesis (H1) is a statement, which is accepted after the null hypothesis is rejected based on the test result. The alternate hypothesis usually is formed as a positive statement CHI-SQUARE TEST: The Chi-Square test is one of the simplest and most widely used non parametric tests in statistical work. The symbol X2 is the Greek letter Chi. Karl Pearson first used the chi-square test in the year 1980. The quantity chi-square describes the magnitude of the discrepancy between theory and observation.

35

In this Chi-square test Yates correction is used when the value of observed frequency in less than 10. The formula is given as, X2 = (|Oi Ei|)2 Ei Power of Association Test: If calculated value (cal) > X2 table value the Null

hypothesis is rejected and it is interpreted that the two variables are associated with each other. This chi-square test is strong one for determining the existence of association between two variables.

WEIGHTED AVERAGE: It can be defined as an average whose component items are multiplied by certain values (weights) and the aggregate of the products are divided by the total of weights. If x1, x2, x3 ...xn are n values and f1, f2, f3........fn are their weights (frequencies) respectively then, f1x1+f2x2+.....+fnxn X = --------------------------f1+f2+.......+fn

PILOT STUDY (Tested with 10 samples initially): Pilot study is defined as a study, which is done in the initial stage of the project in order to find the reliability of the questionnaire and to restructure the questionnaire on the respondent's suggestions. IMPORTANCE OF PILOT STUDY: It will increase the reliability of the scheduler. It helps to restructure the scheduler. It identifies the defects in the scheduler. It helps to add or remove the questions in the scheduler.

AREA AND PERIOD OF SURVEY:

36

8. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS

Table 9.2: AGE WISE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES

AGE (21-30) YRS (31-40) YRS (41-50) YRS 50 & ABOVE YRS Total

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 69 75 72 84 300

PERCENTAGE 23% 25% 24% 28% 100%

CHART 9.2: AGE WISE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

S )Y R 50 & A B O V E

)Y R

)Y R

(2 130

(3 140

Inference: It is observed from the survey that 25% of the respondents are between (31-40) yrs, 24% of the respondents are between (41-50) yrs, 28% of the respondents are above 50 years and 23% of the respondents are between (21-30) yrs.

(4 150

R S

37

TABLE 9.3: GENDER WISE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES

GENDER MALE FEMALE Total

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 171 129 300

PERCENTAGE 57% 43% 100%

CHART 9. 1: GENDER WISE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES

MALE FEMALE

Inference: It is found from the survey that 57% of the respondents are male and 43% of the respondents are female.

38

TABLE 9.4: CLASSIFICATION ON EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION

QUALIFICATION SSLC UNDER GRADUATE POST GRADUATE TECHNICAL PROFESSIONAL Total

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 60 69 51 51 69 300

PERCENTAGE 20% 23% 17% 17% 23% 100%

CHART 9. 2: CLASSIFICATION ON EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION

SSLC UNDER GRADUATE POST GRADUATE TECHNICAL PROFESSIONAL

Inference: It is evident from the survey that 69% of the respondents are professionally qualified,23% of the respondents have graduation, 17% of the respondents have post graduation and technically qualified, 20% of the respondents have only done finished SSLC.

39

TABLE 9.5: WORK EXPERIENCE WITH AVTAR STEELS

ATTRIBUTES < 5 YRS (5-10) YRS (10-15) YRS > 15 YRS TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 75 69 84 72 300

PERCENTAGE 25% 23% 28% 24% 100%

CHART 9. 5: WORK EXPERIENCE WITH AVTAR STEELS


90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 <5 YRS (5-10) YRS (10-15) YRS > 15 YRS NO. OF RESPONDENTS

Inference: It is found from the survey that 24% of the respondents have more than 15 years of experience, 23% of the respondents have (5-10) yrs of experience and 28% of the respondents have their experience between (10-15)yrs remaining 24% of the respondents have less than 5 years of experience.

40

TABLE 9.6: PHYSICAL WORKING CONDITION OF THE ORGANIZATION

SATISFACTION HIGHLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NUETRAL HIGHLY DISSATISFIED DISSATISFIED TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 69 84 72 51 24 300

PERCENTAGE 23% 28% 27% 17% 8% 100%

CHART 9.6: PHYSICAL WORKING CONDITION OF THE ORGANIZATION


90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

HIGHLY DISSATISFIED

Inference: It is found from the survey that more than half of the respondents (28%) are satisfied with the physical working condition of the organization. 27% of the respondents are neither satisfied nor dissatisfied with the physical working condition of the organization, 23% of the respondents are highly satisfied with the physical working condition of the organization, 17% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied

DISSATISFIED

HIGHLY SATISFIED

SATISFIED

NUETRAL

41

TABLE 9.7: OPINION ABOUT THE PAYPACKAGE PROVIDED BY THE ORGANIZATION

SATISFACTION HIGHLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NUETRAL HIGHLY DISSATISFIED DISSATISFIED TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 84 72 69 24 51 300

PERCENTAGE 28% 24% 23% 8% 17% 100%

CHART 9. 3 : OPINION ABOUT THE PAY PACKAGE


90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

HIGHLY DISSATISFIED

Inference: It is evident from the survey that 28% of the employees are highly satisfied with the pay scale provided, 24% of the respondents are satisfied with their pay scale, 23% of them are neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, 8% of them are highly dissatisfied, and 17% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the pay scale provided 42

DISSATISFIED

HIGHLY SATISFIED

SATISFIED

NUETRAL

TABLE 9.8: OPINION ABOUT THE JOB

PARTICULARS

NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 24 84 51 72 69 300 8% 28% 17% 24% 23% 100%

CHALLENGING INTERESTING ROUTINE BORING MONOTOUS TOTAL

CHART 9.4: OPINION ABOUT THE JOB


90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS

Inference: It is observed from the survey that 28% of the respondents feel the job interesting, 24% of them feel it boring, 17% of the respondent feel it routine, 23% of them feel it boring and 8% of them feel it challenging.

CH

AL LE N IN TE GIN G RE ST I RO NG UT IN BO E RI M N O NO G TO US

43

TABLE 9.9: OPINION ABOUT THE COMPLETION OF THE WORK AT THE SPECIFIED TIME

SATISFACTION STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 69 24 72 84 51 300

PERCENTAGE 23% 8% 24% 28% 17% 100%

CHART 9. 9: PROGRAMS THAT COULD BE ADAPTED TO MANAGE STRESS


90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

UNDECIDED

STRONGLY AGREE

STRONGLY DISAGREE

Inference: It is found from the survey that 23% of them strongly agree that they can complete the work at time, 8 % of them agree that they can complete work at time, 24% of them have no idea, 28% of them strongly disagree that they cannot complete the work in time, 17% of them disagree that they cannot finish the work in time.

DISAGREE

AGREE

44

TABLE 9.10: WORK OVERLOAD

PARTICULARS STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 51 84 72 69 24 300

PERCENTAGE 17% 28% 24% 23% 8% 100

CHART 9. 10 : WORK OVERLOAD


STRONGLY STRONGLY AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

50

100

Inference: It is observed from the survey that 17% of the respondents are overloaded with work, 24% left it undecided and 23% of the respondents say that they are not overloaded with work.

45

TABLE 9.11: STRESS IN JOB

PREFERNCE YES NO TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 183 117 300

PERCENTAGE 61% 39% 100%

CHART 9. 11: STRESS IN JOB

YES NO

Inference: It is evident from the survey that 61% of the respondents suffer stress and 31% of the respondents do not suffer stress.

46

TABLE 9. 12: STRESS CAUSING FACTORS AMONG DIFFERENT LEVELS OF EMPLOYEES

FACTORS ROLE OVERLOAD ROLE UNDERLOAD INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP TOTAL

NO.OF RESPONDENTS 120 93 87 300

PERCENTAGE 40% 31% 29% 100%

CHART 9. 12: STRESS CAUSING FACTORS AMONG DIFFERENT LEVELS OF EMPLOYEES


140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

RO

Inference: It is observed from the survey that for most of the respondents of all the level of employees role overload is the major stress causing factor; the second place goes to the role under load and then comes the inter personal relationship

RO

RL O AD DE IN RL TE O RP AD ER SO RE NA LA L TI O NS HI P LE UN

LE

O VE

47

TABLE 9.13: KIND OF STRESS IN JOB AMONG DIFFERENT AGE GROUP

PARTICULARS PHYSICAL MENTAL BOTH TOTAL

NO.OF RESPONDENTS 93 87 120 300

PERCENTAGE 31% 29% 40% 100%

CHART 9. 13: KIND OF STRESS AMONG DIFFERENT AGE GROUP


140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 NO.OF RESPONDENTS

PH YS IC AL

Inference: It is found from the survey that 31% of them suffer physical stress, 29% of them suffer mental stress and the remaining of them suffer from both the stress.

EN TA

BO TH

48

TABLE 9. 14: LEVEL OF STRESS

LEVEL OF STRESS VERY HIGH HIGH MODERATE LOW VERY LOW TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 72 69 51 72 36 300

PERCENTAGE 24% 23% 17% 24% 12% 100%

CHART 9.14: LEVEL OF STRESS

LO W

HI G H

O DE RA HI G TE H

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

Inference: It is found from the survey that 17% of the respondents have moderate level of stress, 24% of the respondents have high level of stress, and only 12% of the respondents have very low level of stress.

VE R

20

40

60

80

49

TABLE 9.15: PHYSICAL INCONVENIENCE DUE TO STRESS

PREFERNCE YES NO TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 156 144 300

PERCENTAGE 52% 48% 100%

CHART 9. 15: PHYSICAL INCONVENIENCE DUE TO STRESS

YES NO

Inference: It is evident from the survey that 52% of the respondents suffer from physical inconvenience due to stress and 48% of the respondents do not suffer stress.

50

TABLE 9.16: KIND OF INCONVENIENCE

INCONVENIENCE HEADACHE HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE DIGESTIVE PROBLEM HYPERTENSION NERVOUSNESS TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 72 36 69 72 51 300

PERCENTAGE 24% 12% 23% 24% 17% 100%

CHART 9.16: KIND OF INCONVENIENCE


80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

DIGESTIVE PROBLEM

HYPERTENSION

HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE

HEADACHE

Inference: It is observed from the survey that most of the respondents 24% suffer from headache and hypertension and second comes the digestive problem due to stress, then comes the nervousness and only less % of the respondents suffer from nervousness and digestive problems.

NERVOUSNESS

51

TABLE 9.17: ORGANIZATION STEPS TO MANAGE STRESS

PREFERENCE YES NO TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 153 147 300

PERCENTAGE 51% 49% 100%

CHART 9.17: ORGANIZATION STEPS TO MANAGE STRESS

YES NO

Inference: It is evident from the survey that 51% of the respondents agrees that their organization is helping them in overcoming stress, and the 49% of them are not satisfied with the help provided by the organization to overcome stress.

52

TABLE 9.16: KIND OF INCONVENIENCE

INCONVENIENCE HEADACHE HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE DIGESTIVE PROBLEM HYPERTENSION NERVOUSNESS TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 72 36 69 72 51 300

PERCENTAGE 24% 12% 23% 24% 17% 100%

CHART 9.16: KIND OF INCONVENIENCE


80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

DIGESTIVE PROBLEM

HYPERTENSION

HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE

HEADACHE

Inference: It is observed from the survey that most of the respondents 24% suffer from headache and hypertension and second comes the digestive problem due to stress, then comes the nervousness and only less % of the respondents suffer from nervousness and digestive problems.

NERVOUSNESS

53

TABLE 9.18 PROGRAMS THAT COULD BE ADABTED TO MANAGE STRESS

PARTICULARS EMPLOYEE COUNSELING EFFECTIVE & TRAINING DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM WORK GROUPS HEALTH CLUBS AUTONOMOUS TRANSPORT SUBSIDY TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 72 36

PERCENTAGE 24% 12%

69 72 0 51 300

23% 24% 0% 17% 100%

CHART 9.18: PROGRAMS THAT COULD BE ADABTED TO MANAGE STRESS


80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

EMPLOYEE COUNSELING

Inference: It is observed from the survey 24% of them recommend employee

counseling,12% of them need effective training, 23% need work groups, 24% need health groups, and the remaining need transport subsidy.

WORK GROUPS

AUTONOMOUS

54

TABLE 9.19: OPINION ABOUT COUNSELING TO REDUCE THE STRESS

PARTICULARS STRONGLY AGREE AGREE NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 51 84 72 69 24 300

PERCENTAGE 17% 28% 24% 23% 8% 100%

CHART 9. 19 : OPINION ABOUT COUNSELING TO REDUCE THE STRESS


90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

STRONGLY AGREE

NEUTRAL

Inference: From the above we can find that17% of them strongly agree that counseling can overcome stress, 28% of them agree that they can over come stress through counseling, 24% of them dont have any idea, 28% disagree and the remaining disagree. 55

STRONGLY DISAGREE

DISAGREE

AGREE

TABLE 9.20: ORGANIZATION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES ARE STRESS FREE

PARTICULARS HIGHLY ACCEPTED ACCEPTED NOT ACCEPTED HIGHLY NOT ACCEPTED TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 51 84 72 93 300

PERCENTAGE 17% 28% 24% 31% 100%

CHART 9. 20: ORGANIZATION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES ARE STRESS FREE

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

HIGHLY ACCEPTED

Inference: It is observed from the survey that most of the respondents accept that the companies policies are stress free, 28% of them have accepted that organization policies are stress free, 24% of them have not accepted it, 31% of them have not accepted that their organization policy is full of stress.

NOT ACCEPTED

56

TABLE 9.21: BEST INTERVENTION TO REDUCE STRESS PARTICULARS RELAXATION TECHNIQUES TIME MANAGEMENT TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT WORKING TOTAL NO. OF RESPONDENTS 93 84 72 51 300 PERCENTAGE 31% 28% 24% 17% 100%

CHART 9. 21: BEST INTERVENTION TO REDUCE STRESS

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

TIME MANAGEMENT

Inference: It is observed from the survey that most of the respondents 31% says that relaxation techniques, 28% of them need time management,24% says that training is the best intervention,17% says working intervention is the best thing to overcome stress.

WORKING

Relaxation techniques

57

TABLE 9.22: OPINION ABOUT INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP

PARTICULARS STRONGLY AGREE AGREE NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 51 84 72 69 24 300

PERCENTAGE 17% 28% 24% 23% 8% 100

CHART 9. 22 : OPINION ABOUT INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP


90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

STRONGLY AGREE

NEUTRAL

Inference: From the above we can find that17% of them strongly agree that they have strained interpersonal relationship, 28% of them agree that they have strained interpersonal relationship stress , 24% of them dont have any idea, 28% disagree that they do not have strained interpersonal relationship.

STRONGLY DISAGREE

DISAGREE

AGREE

58

TABLE 9.23: OPINION ABOUT STRESS LEVEL IN NIGHT SHIFT COMPARED TO DAY SHIFT

PARTICULARS VERY HIGH HIGH MODERATE LOW VERY LOW TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 51 84 72 69 24 300

PERCENTAGE 17% 28% 24% 23% 8% 100

CHART 9. 22 : OPINION ABOUT STRESS LEVEL IN NIGHT SHIFT COMPARED TO DAY SHIFT
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

HI G O H DE RA TE

HI G H

LO W VE R

VE R

Inference: From the above we can find that17% of them strongly agree that they have stress in night shift, 28% of them agree that they have stress in night shifts,24% of them dont have any idea, 28% disagree that they do not have any stress in night shift.

LO W

59

TABLE 9.24: SPENDING THE WEEKEND

PARTICULARS GOING TO MOVIES GET TOGETHER VISIT FRIENDS/RELATIVES MUSIC CLASSES ANY OTHER (SPECIFY) TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 84 51 72 69 24 300

PERCENTAGE 28% 17% 24% 23% 8% 100

CHART 9.24: SPENDING THE WEEKEND


90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

GET TOGETHER

VISIT FRIENDS/RELATIV ES

GOING TO MOVIES

Inference: From the above we can find that 28% of them would like to go to movies, 17% would like a get together,24% would like to visit friends/relatives, and23% would like to go to music class and the remaining prefer any other thing.

MUSIC CLASSES

ANY OTHER (SPECIFY)

60

TABLE 9.25: FAMILY FACTOR WHICH INFLUENCE STRESS PARTICULARS DEPENDENT ILLNESS FINANACIAL POSITION OTHER PROBLEMS TOTAL NO.OF RESPONDENTS 93 87 60 60 300 PERCENTAGE 31% 29% 20% 20% 100%

TABLE 9.25: FAMILY FACTOR WHICH INFLUENCE STRESS


100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

DEPENDENT

FINANACIAL POSITION

ILLNESS

Inference: It is found from the survey that 31% of them says dependency influence stress, 29% says that illness influence stress, 20% of them says that financial as well as other problem influence stress.

OTHER PROBLEMS

61

TABLE 9.26: PERSONAL FACTOR INFLUENCING STRESS PARTICULARS PERCEPTION ATTITUDE HEALTH CONDITION PERSONALITY TOTAL NO.OF RESPONDENTS 60 87 60 93 300 PERCENTAGE 20% 29% 20% 31% 100%

TABLE 9.26:PERSONAL FACTOR INFLUENCING STRESS


100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

ATTITUDE

PERCEPTION

HEALTH CONDITION

Inference: It is found from the survey that 20% of them says perception influence stress, 29% says that attitude influence stress, 20% of them says that health condition influence stress, and the remaining says that personality influence stress.

PERSONALITY

62

TABLE 9.27: STRATERGY TO REDUCE STRESS FACTORS HIGHLY SATISFIED 10 10 11 0 11 2 SATISFIED NEUTRA L 10 11 10 0 20 6 DISSATI SFIED 10 17 20 9 11 10 HIGHLY DISSATISF IED 11 20 20 0 11 0 TOTA PERCENTAGE L 50 69 72 9 72 28

YOGA MEDITATIO N MOTIVATIO N COUNSELIN G INDOOR GAMES OHTERS

10 11 11 0 20 10

17 23

24

3%

23

6%

CHART 9.27: STRATERGY TO REDUCE STRESS


80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

YOGA meditation MOTIVATION COUNSELING INDOOR GAMES OHTERS

Inference: It is found from the above table that 17% prefer yoga, majority prefer indoor games, and the next majority prefer motivation.

Sa tis f Sa ied tis fie Ne d Hi D g h iss utra a ly l Di tisf ss ied at isf ie d To ta l

Hi g

hl y

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CHI-SQUARE TEST ON SPENDING WEEKEND Vs STRATEGY TO REDUCE STRESS


Null Hypothesis (H0): There is no significant relation between spending weekend and strategy to reduce stress Alternate Hypothesis (H1): There is a significant relation between spending weekend and strategy to reduce stress

TABLE 9.22: CROSS TABULATION FOR SPENDING WEEKEND Vs

STRATEGY TO REDUCE STRESS


STRATEGY

YOGA
SPENDING WEEKEND

MEDITA MOTIV TION ATION

COUNS ELING

ROW INDOOR TOTAL GAMES OTHER

GOING TO MOVIES GET TOGETHER VISIT TO FRIENDS/ RELATIVES MUSIC CLASSES ANY OTHER COLUMN TOTAL

16

28

22

10

10

48

12

12

42

32

14

100

64

Degrees of freedom = 12 Calculated value = 27.497 For 12 degrees of freedom at 5% level of significance, the chi-square table value is 5.226.

Inference: Calculated value > Tabulated value. Hence H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted.

Conclusion: There is a significant relation between the spending weekend and strategy to reduce stress

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FINDINGS Out of the total sample most of the respondents are male and many are between 50 and above. Most of the respondents are under graduate and have professional qualification. Most of the respondents have 10-15 years of long association with the organization. Almost all the respondents are satisfied with the physical and psychological working condition of the organization, and only fewer respondents are dissatisfied with the psychological working condition of the organization. The opinion about the training programs conducted by the organization is almost better, according to majority of the respondents. Almost all the respondents are satisfied with the pay package provided by the organization and nearly half of the respondents feel that they do a routine job. Most of the respondents agree that they can complete their work within the specified time and some of the respondents are undecided. Nearly half of the respondents agree that they are overloaded with work. More than half of the respondents suffer stress in their job. Among all other factors, role overload cause more stress according to most of the respondents. Most of the respondents from steels department suffer from physical stress; most of the respondents from accounts department suffer from mental stress, and most of the respondents from civil department suffer from both physical and mental stress. Most of the respondents feel only moderate level of stress and some of the respondents feel high level of stress in their job. More than half of the respondents have physical inconvenience due to stress and most of the respondents suffer from headache and high blood pressure. Almost all the respondents prefer to follow coping strategies personally, to manage stress and they prefer to do meditation and yoga to reduce stress. Most of the respondents say that the organization does not take suitable steps to manage stres

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SUGGESTIONS

The employees must give importance to time management techniques there by they can complete their work within the specified time. Many tasks can be delegated to subordinates without losing effectiveness so that we can reduce the overload of work. Adopt the work to home transition strategy. It means instead of carrying the pressures of the work to home, the suggestion is to start the unwinding process during the work day and enter the home in a relaxed and peaceful mind.

Giving counseling to the employees when they face problems, because counseling is the discussion of a problem that usually has emotional content with an employee in order to help the employee cope within better.

The organization must introduce Employee Assistance Programmes (EAPs) and stress control workshops accordingly to the level of employees, because there is a strong relation between the level of stress and level of employees. EAP includes counseling employees who seek assistance on how to deal with alcohol and drug abuse, managing personal finances, handling conflicts at the work place, dealing with marital and other family problems, and coping with health problems.

Engaging the bored employee in aerobic exercise, because it stimulates the brain and the body. Also the employee must do meditation and yoga in their daily life.

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CONCLUSION

Stress in the work place has become the black plague of the present century. Much of the stress at work is caused not only by work overload and time pressure but also by lack of rewards and praise, and more importantly, by not providing individuals with the autonomy to do their work as they would like. Most of the employees were not satisfied with the grievance handling procedure of the organization which was found by the unstructured interview.

Organization must begin to manage people at work differently, treating them with respect and valuing their contribution. If we enhance the psychological well being and health of the employees, in the coming future the organization would make more revenue as well as employee retention. Because it is said that,

A Healthy Employee is a Productive Employee

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
BOOKS
1. Ahuja. K.K- Industrial psychology and organizational behavior, Khanna publishers, New Delhi, 1991. 2. Biswanath Ghosh- A new look organizational behavior, Himalaya Publishing House New Delhi, 1994. 3. Finemann- A Psychological Model of Stress and its application to managerial unemployment, Human relations, 1979. 4. Ghosh P.K. and Ghorpade M.B. - Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Himalaya Publishing House, Bombay 1991. 5. Kapur S.K, Punia B.K.-Organizational Behavior and Management,

S.K.Publishers, New Delhi. 6. Laurie J. Mullins Organizational Behavior, Pitmans publishing Ltd, London, 1990. 7. PaulHersey, Kenneth H. Blanchard, Dewey E. Johnson Organizational Behavior, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd, 1998. 8. Srivastava.A.K, A study of Roll Stress Mental health relationship a moderator by adopted coping strategies, psychological studies, 1991. 9. Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behavior, Prentice Hall, U .K. 1999.

JOURNALS AND MAGAZINES


1. Business line, The stress is beginning to show, Financial Express published by Hindu, Trivandrum, 1989. 2. Brief A.P. and Atieth J.M., Studying Job Stress: Are we making mountains out of mole Hills? Journal of occupational behavior, 1987. 3. Jamal M., Job Stress-Prone Type A behavior and personal and organizational consequences, Canadian Journal of Administrative. 4. Dr.Satish Chandra Pandy, Indian ways of winning Stress, The Journal of Indian Management and Strategy, 1997. 69

QUESTIONNAIRE PERSONAL PROFILE


Kindly provide your valuable personal information. : _______ _______________________ Dept:

1. Name: 1. Age group (2 (21-30) yrs (41-50) yrs 2. 3. 5. yrs Sex :Male / Female Educational Qualification: Experience > 15 yrs SSLC/UG/PG/Technical/Professional : < 5 yrs (5-15) (31-40) yrs 50 & above yrs

QUALITY OF WORK LIFE 6. How do you feel about the physical working condition of the organization? Highly satisfied Dissatisfied 7. How do you feel about the psychological working condition of the organization? Highly Amicable 8. Cordial Neutral Strained Very poor Satisfied Neutral Highly dissatisfied

What is your opinion about the training programs conducted in the organization? Excellent Good Better Bad Worse

9.

How do you feel about the pay package provided by the organization? Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Highly

dissatisfied Dissatisfied 10. How do you feel about your job? Challenging Boring 11. Do you agree that you can complete your work within the specified time? 70 Interesting Routine Monotonous

Strongly agree Disagree 12.

Agree

Undecided

Strongly Disagree

Do you agree that you are overloaded with work? Strongly agree Disagree Agree Undecided Strongly Disagree

13.

Do you suffer any stress in your job?

Yes

No

FACTORS AND EFFECTS OF STRESS 14. In your accordance which of the following factors cause more stress? Role overload Role under load Interpersonal relationship

15. What kind of stress do you suffer in your job? Physical Mental Both

16. What is the level of stress that you feel in your job? Very high low 17. Do you suffer any physical inconvenience due to stress in your job? Yes 18. If yes, what kind of inconvenience? Headache Hypertension High blood pressure Nervousness Digestive problem No High Moderate Low Very

COPING STRATEGIES 19. Have you taken any coping strategies personally to manage stress? Yes 20. No

What kind of strategies of the following have you taken? Exercise Meditation Listening music Take a

walk 21.

Spend time with children Does this organization take any suitable steps to manage stress? Yes No

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22.

What type of company-wide programs that are/could be adapted to manage stress? Employee counseling Autonomous work groups Effective Training & Development program Health clubs Transport

subsidy 23. Kindly give your suggestions to reduce stress

72