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All the bullet points in this handout have been awarded a mark on A level mark schemes at some stage. This handout shows the level of information you must give in your answers and what the examiners are looking for. As the number of AS exams completed increases I will add to the document making it a better resource to revise from. How the structure of DNA is related to its function sugar phosphate backbone gives strength; coiling gives compact shape; se uence of bases allows information to be stored; long molecule stores large amount of information; information can be replicated exactly because of complementary base pairing; !double helix protects" weak hydrogen bonds#double helix makes molecule stable#prevents code being corrupted; $eak hydrogen bonds#chains can split for replication#transcription. Differences between trna and mrna t%&A short chain versus m%&A long chain t%&A clover leaf shape versus m%&A straight chain t%&A folded versus m%&A straight t%&A fixed length versus m%&A variable length Protein synthesis m%&A is formed from '&A; by transcription involving complementary base pairing; m%&A leaves the nucleus and associates with a ribosome in the cytoplasm; where codons on m%&A attach to anticodons on t%&A; specific amino acid are attached to the t%&A molecules; peptide bonds form between the amino acids and a polypeptide chain is formed. Mutations change in code#base se uence; detail eg substitution#addition#deletion; of base!s"; different amino acid!s" inserted into protein#polypeptide. Mitosis (hromosomes become shorter#condense#coiling &uclear membrane disappears Spindle formation The chromosomes arrange on e uator of the spindle (entromeres attach to spindle; (entromeres divide;


(hromatids pulled apart; %ole of spindle fibres#kinesin motors (hromatids moved to opposite poles 0ncoiling#elongation; !'&A" replication; formation of another chromatid

easons why e!!s are lar!er than sperm 1arger amount of food can be stored; 2or development of embryo "tructure of e!! (ytoplasm of egg contains yolk#food stores &eeded for nourishment#development of !embryo#3ygote" #e!etati$e reproduction 4roducing identical plants from a part of a plant#asexual reproduction#cloning %enetic en!ineerin! (ells disrupted to remove '&A; 5ndonuclease#restriction en3yme cuts '&A removing gene; %eference to specificity; %eference to sticky ends; 4lasmid cut; $ith !same" endonuclease; 0se of ligase; Treatment of recipient bacteria to make them accept plasmid eg heat shock Polymerase chain reaction &P' ( heat !to about 6,7(" primers#short nucleotide chains#%&A added individual !'&A" nucleotides then added by !'&A" polymerase provides multiple copies of a '&A fragment; eg to analyse in forensic detection. Electrophoresis and autoradio!raphy (urrent switched on#fragments move due to electrical attraction; Several hours to run; '&A transferred to nylon membrane# 8southern blot9; !wrapped" photographic film placed on gel; film developed#radioactivity darkens film. How !ene probes wor) 4robes will attach to fragments %adioactivity#autoradiography will make fragments visible 4robes attach only to fragments with complementary base pairs


/nly these will be radioactive#show up on film

'ystic *ibrosis (2T% of person with cystic fibrosis lacks one amino acid; (aused by mutation#difference in '&A; &ormally (2T%: Transports chloride ions; Across cell surface membrane; ;aintains ionic balance#water potential of cells cells with faulty (2T% membrane protein do not secrete chloride ions; osmotic entry of water into cells#exit from mucus occurs; sticky mucus produced; eg blocks airways in lungs; difficulty in getting breath; pancreatic duct blocked; reduces digestion %enetic en!ineerin! for e+pressin! proteins in sheeps mil) gene identified; removed from human '&A using endonuclease; detail eg sticky ends; same endonuclease; used to cut plasmid; role of ligase; combined with promoter se uence; gene#'&A !< promoter se uence" in=ected into nucleus of fertilised sheep egg; detail eg micropipette; embryo inserted into sheep uterus; en3yme obtained from sheep milk. Ethical considerations of !enetic en!ineerin! >$e should not play ?od@ and >more profits@ will not be given a mark without a good explanation. Pros and cons of usin! embyonic cells Pros 5mbryo cells can develop into any type of tissue 5asier to use embryo cells than to extract cells from a person (ells#'&A would replicate in patient during mitosis Permanent cure#one treatment might be sufficient#no need for continued medication 1ikely to be safer than implants from animals Since these may contain 8new9 viruses /nly body cells implantedA therefore germline would not be affected 1ess danger of damage to other cells


'ons 5ffects of introduction might not be fully understood#long term effects unknown %eligious#ethical issue explained eg embryo has potential for development to person therefore could be regarded as murder#9embryo rights9 !allow reference to antibiotic resistance passed on to microbes" !8we should not play ?od9 neutralA no mark" !re=ect references to evolutionary effects" 'auses of mutation Bigh energy ionised particles#CDrays#ultraviolet light#high energy radiation#uranium#plutonium#gamma rays#tobacco tar# caffeine#pesticides#mustar gas#base analogues#free radicals; !re=ect radiation"

Effect of mutation (hange in the se uence of nucleotides#bases#addition#deletion#substitution; (hanged order of amino acids#different protein#different tertiary; structure; Inactive en3yme if shape of active site is changed#en3ymeDsubstrate complex does not form;

Protein "ynthesis Se uence of bases is the code; '&A strands separate#Bydrogen bonds break; 4roducing m%&A#scription !linked to m%&A production"; %ole of %&A polymerise; (omplementary base pairing; m%&A attaches to ribsome#r5%; t%&A bring amino acid; anticodons of t%&A complementary to condons on m%&A# translation; amino acids =oin by peptide bonds#condensation reaction;

DNA replication &semi conser$ati$e replication( '&A strands separate#hydrogen bonds are broken !a labelled diagram could show this"; 5ach strand forms a template#is copied#one new strand and one old ! a labelled diagram could show this"; (omplementary base pairing;