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Non Cooperation and Civil Disobedience Movements

by Dr. Jyotsna Kamat First Online: July 17,200 !a"e #ast $pdated: November 0%,2007 &n pursuance o' (is struggle for justice or )atya"ra(a, *and(i accepted t+o ,tools, or met(ods +(ic( +ere based on complete nonviolence. Non Cooperation +as passive +(ere civil disobedience +as active and almost revolutionary. /(e non co-operation movement aimed at brin"in" t(e "overnment to a stand still, by +it(dra+in" every support to administration. /(e civil disobedience movement +as planned to paraly0e t(e "overnment by mass support by underta1in"

acts +(ic( t(e 2ritis( "overnment considered ille"al but +ere protests a"ainst e3ploitative and suppressive measures. /(e 4Non Cooperation Movement4 5a.1.a. 46sa(a1ar47 in 1820,s included surrender o' titles, resi"nation 'rom nominated seats in local "overnment bodies, boycott o' "overnment educational institutions, la+ courts and 'orei"n "oods. )+ades(i also +as included later. /(e civil disobedience +as or"ani0ed a"ainst repressive la+s. *and(i, supported by Con"ress (ad started t(e a"itation 'or reduction in land revenue, abolition o' salt ta3, cuttin" do+n military e3penditure and levyin" duty on 'orei"n clot( etc. 2ut t(e 2ritis( *overnment did not a"ree. /(ey t(ou"(t t(ese +ere , populist, sc(emes to +in over di''erent sections o' t(e society.

9ence Civil Disobedience +as launc(ed in 18:0, +(ic( is 1no+n as )alt )atya"ra(a or Dandi Marc(. )alt la+ +as bro1en, *and(i +as arrested alon" +it( (is 'ollo+ers. &t stirred t(e +(ole nation. 6lmost all t(e coastal to+ns +itnessed brea1in" salt la+. Corbis;2ettmann;<amat,s !otpourri

Massive Rally of Protestors 6 t+o mile lon" rally o' &ndians in 2ombay protestin" t(e arrest o' *and(i, 18:0

)ide by side, t(e Jun"le )atya"ra(a 5 brea1in" 'orest rules, cuttin" trees7 started, as also nota3 campai"n. /(e ta3 levied +as too (i"(, varyin" 'rom 22= to >0=. /(e 2ardoli )atya"ra(a started under t(e leaders(ip o' ?allab(ai !atel +(ic( +on (im t(e title o' 4)ardar4 or 4/(e *eneral4. /(e "overnment (ad to bo+ be'ore popular resistance. <arnata1a +as in t(e 'ore 'ront in t(e )alt )atya"ra(a, Jun"le )atya"ra(a and No-ta3 campai"n. 2ombay presidency 5*u@arat and 'our districts o' <arnata1a +ere part o' it7. $ttar !rades( !resedency and Madras !residency +ere leadin" in t(e a"itations. /(is campai"n reac(ed t(e 'ar o'' province o' Nort( Aest. <(an 6bdul *a''ar <(an emer"ed as t(e leader o' !at(an community. 9is <(uda <(idmat"ar 5servants o' *od7 became an or"ani0ation completely based on non-

violence. /(e 'iery tempered !at(ans e3(ibited suc( restraint and sel' con'idence t(at t(ey set an e3ample to t(e +(ole nation. /(e role o' +omen in all t(ese movements +as outstandin". /(ey +ere in t(e 'ore 'ront o' Civil disobedience. /(ey e3celled as spea1ers, marc(ers, pic1eters and tireless volunteers. Famous amon" t(em +ere Mani 2en !atel, Ba@1umari 6mrit <aur, <amala Ne(ru, Dur"abai, 2(arati Devi Ban"a and <amaladevi C(attopad(yaya. /(e +(ole country +as united as never be'ore under *and(i@i,s leaders(ip. 9e +as a s(re+d @ud"e o' men and events. 6ll t(e lieutenants (e c(ose became national leaders: C.B. Das, t(e 2ose brot(ers, 6bdul <alam 60ad, t(e Ne(rus, !atel brot(ers, Ba@endra !rasad, 6c(arya <riplani, Dr. 6nsari, C. Ba@a"opalac(ari, /.

!ra1as(an, ?.O. C(idambaram and a score o' ot(ers.