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MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

ACADEMIA DE STUDII ECONOMICE A MOLDOVEI

ECONOMICA
Revist tiinifico-didactic
An. XIX, nr.3 (77), septembrie 2011

Departamentul EditorialPoligrafic al ASEM

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3(77) 2011

MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

COLEGIUL DE REDACIE:
Prof. univ. dr. hab. Ion BOLUN, Academia de Studii Economice din Moldova Prof. univ. dr. hab. Vasile BUCUR, Academia de Studii Economice din Moldova Prof. dr. Piotr BULA, Academia de Economie din Kracovia, Polonia Prof. univ. dr. hab. Eugenia FEURA, Academia de Studii Economice din Moldova Prof. dr. hab. Iurii MACAGON, Universitatea Naional, Ucraina Prof. univ. dr. hab. Vitalii MACAROV, Academia de tiine, Rusia Prof. univ. dr., acad. Anatolie MAZARACHI, Universitatea Naional de Comer i Economie din Kiev, Ucraina Prof. univ. dr. hab. m.c. al AM Gheorghe MICOI, Academia de tiine a Moldovei Prof. univ. dr. hab. m.c. al AM Dumitru MOLDOVAN, Academia de Studii Economice din Moldova Prof. univ. dr. Ion PETRESCU, Universitatea Spiru Haret, Braov, Romnia Prof. dr. Alban RISCHARD, Universitatea Pierre Mends France de Grenoble, Frana Prof. dr. Agop SARKISEAN, Academia de Economie din Svitov, Bulgaria Prof. univ. dr. Ioan-Franc N. VALERIU, Institutul de Cercetri Economice al Academiei Romne Prof. univ. dr. Gheorghe ZAMAN, m.c. al Academiei Romne, Institutul de Economie Naional Prof. univ. dr. hab. Rodica HNCU, Academia de Studii Economice din Moldova Prof. univ. dr. Oleg STRATULAT, Academia de Studii Economice din Moldova Conf. univ. dr. Marina BELOSTECINIC, Academia de Studii Economice din Moldova Conf. univ. dr. Nadejda BOTNARI, Academia de Studii Economice din Moldova Conf. univ. dr. Oxana SAVCIUC, Academia de Studii Economice din Moldova Conf. univ. dr. Liubomir SCORIC, Universitatea de Comer, Economie i Cooperaie de Consum, Gomel, Belarus Conf. cercet. dr.Corneliu GUU, Academia de Studii Economice din Moldova

ECHIPA REDACIONAL: Redactor-ef: Grigore BELOSTECINIC,

prof. univ. dr. hab., m.c. al AM


Redactor-ef adjunct: Galina COTELEA Redactor (l. englez): Ludmila RURAC Operatori: Tatiana Vais, Natalia IVANOV Redactor tehnic: Feofan BELICOV Designer copert: Elena POPOVSCHI

ADRESA REDACIEI: Str. Mitropolit G. Bnulescu-Bodoni 59, ASEM, blocul B, b.503, tel: 402-995; 402-986 Cod: MD 2005, Chiinu, Republica Moldova E-mail: rev_economica@yahoo.com Revista este acreditat de Consiliul Naional pentru Acreditare i Atestare al RM, categoria B Certificat de nregistrare nr.112 din 25.02.2002 Index potal: PM-31627 ISSN 1810-9136

Editura ASEM, Chiinu-2011 Redacia nu este responsabil pentru coninutul articolelor publicate

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3(77) 2011

MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

ACADEMY OF ECONOMIC STUDIES OF MOLDOVA

ECONOMICA
Scientific and didactic journal
Year XIX, nr.3 (77), September 2011

Editorial-Polygraphic Department of AESM

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3(77) 2011

MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

EDITORIAL BOARD:
Univ. Prof. Dr. Hab. Ion BOLUN, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova Univ. Prof. Dr. Hab. Vasile BUCUR, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova Prof. PhD. Piotr BULA, Krakow Academy of Economy, Poland Univ. Prof. Dr. Hab. Eugenia FEURAS, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova Prof. Dr. Hab. Iurii MACAGON, National University, Ukraine Univ. Prof. Dr. Hab. Vitalii MACAROV, Academy of Science, Russia Univ. Prof. PhD, Acad. Anatolie MAZARACHI, Kyiv State University of Commerce and Economics, Ukraine Univ. Prof. Dr. Hab. c.m. of ASM Gheorghe MISCOI, Academy of Science of Moldova Univ. Prof. Dr. Hab. c.m. of ASM Dumitru MOLDOVAN, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova Univ. Prof. PhD. Ion PETRESCU Spiru Haret University, Brasov, Romania Prof. PhD. Alban RISCHARD Pierre Mends France de Grenoble University, France Prof. PhD. Agop SARKISEAN, D. A. Tsenov Academy of Economics, Svishtov, Bulgaria Univ. Prof. PhD. Ioan-Franc N. VALERIU, National Institute of Economic Research of Romanian Academy Prof. PhD. Gheorghe ZAMAN, c. m. of Romanian Academy, Institute of National Economy Univ. Prof. Dr. Hab. Rodica HANCU, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova Univ. Prof. PhD. Oleg STRATULAT, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova Assoc. Prof. PhD. Marina BELOSTECINIC, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova Assoc. Prof. PhD. Nadejda BOTNARI, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova Assoc. Prof. PhD. Oxana SAVCIUC, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova Assoc. Prof. PhD. Liubomir SCORIC, Belarusian Trade-Economic University of Consumers Cooperation, Gomel, Belarus Assoc. Prof. Researcher PhD. Corneliu GUTU, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova

EDITORIAL STAFF: Editor-in-chief: Grigore BELOSTECINIC,

Univ. Prof. Dr. Hab., c.m. of ASM


Vice-Editor-in-chief: Galina COTELEA Editor (English): Ludmila RURAC Operators: Tatiana Vais, Natalia IVANOV Technical editor: Feofan BELICOV Designer of cover: Elena POPOVSCHI ADDRESS OF PUBLISHING DEPARTMENT: 59, Mitropolit G. Banulescu-Bodoni street AESM, block B, office 503, tel: 402-995; 402-986 Postcode: MD 2005, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova E-mail: rev_economica@yahoo.com The journal is accredited by the National Certification and Accreditation Council of RM, Category B Registration certificate nr.112 of 25.02.2002 Post code: PM-31627 ISSN 1810-9136 Publishing department AESM, Chisinau-2011 The editorial is not responsible for the content of the published articles

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3(77) 2011

MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

SUMAR:
MANAGEMENT I MARKETING Piaa de asigurri i strategia de marketing n Republica Moldova Prof. univ. dr. hab. Tatiana Manole Drd. Angela Magla Interaciunea dintre managementul financiar i mediul de control factor de succes al sistemului intern de control Conf. univ. dr. Eugenia Bumachiu Drd. Olga Deli Antreprenoriatul intrafirm n cadrul sistemului modern de management Lect. univ. dr. Olga Repkina Extinderea ariei de reglementare pe piaa finanrii locuinelor n Republica Moldova Lect. sup. Aliona Lsi Reorganizarea i restructurarea funciunii de resurse umane n ntreprinderile din sectorul turismului Drd. Alexandrina-Mirela Stan ECONOMIE GENERAL Mercantilismul supranumit Mamai cel economic Prof. univ. dr. hab. Ivan Ustian Dialogul social ramural i locul lui n sistemul de relaii industriale n Republica Moldova Drd. Ala Lipciu Evaluarea personalului: teorie sau practic, procedur sau rezultat? Lect. sup. drd. Maria Carabet Abordarea gender: rolurile sociale ale brbailor i femeilor i modelele de comportament ale acestora n business-organizaii Comp. Ana Micolihina FINANE Avantaje i constrngeri ale tranzaciilor off-shore Conf. univ. dr. hab. Natalia Lobanov Promovarea securitii financiare a sistemului bancar prin intermediul implementrii Acordului Basel II Lect. sup. dr. Dorina Clichici Metodele i mecanismele mbuntirii sistemului asigurrilor facultative de acordare a ajutorului medical i corelarea acestuia cu sistemul asigurrilor medicale obligatorii Lect. sup. drd. Oxana Miron Modele de finanare a nvmntului universitar n unele ri europene Lect. sup. drd. Ala Creciun CONTABILITATE Imaginea identificat a profesiei contabile n societate Prof. univ. dr. Neculai Tabr Drd. Olga Pleco Factoringul o modalitate modern de recuperare a creanelor Conf. univ. dr. Ludmila Grabarovschi Drd. lect. sup. Olga Bordeianu 98 103 69 77 84 91 42 47 56 63 9 21

28 31 37

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RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE Practici europene de finanare a ntreprinderilor Conf. univ. dr. hab. Natalia Bncil Drd. Ruslan Mihalachi Impactul migraiei internaionale de munc asupra situaiei persoanelor vrstnice din Republica Moldova Conf. univ. dr. Dorin Vaculovschi Indicatorii competitivitii internaionale a mrfurilor i compararea datelor statistice n comerul exterior Conf. univ. dr. Larisa Dodu-Gugea Rolul integrrii europene n dezvoltarea financiar i economic a rilor n perioada de tranziie Drd. Svetlana Biloocaia INFORMATIC I CIBERNETIC Algoritmizarea distribuirii optime a mandatelor n sisteme RP Prof. univ. dr. hab. Ion Bolun ASPECTE DIDACTICE Rolul bibliotecii universitare n formarea specialitilor pentru economia naional Natalia Cheradi, Elena Railean, Galina Kostiucik Dubla actualizare n semantica frazeologismelor Lect. univ. Marina Rudenco Lect. sup. Lilia Drul RECENZII Dumitru Moldovanu Doctrine i economiti celebri Conf. univ. dr. Elina Benea-Popuoi 167 153 161 137 110

114 122 129

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CONTENT:
MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING Insurance Market and Marketing Strategy in the Republic of Moldova Univ. Prof., DrHab Tatiana Manole PhD candidate Angela Magla Proper Interaction of Financial Management and Control Environment as a Fundamental Factor in the Success of Internal Control Assoc. Prof., PhD Eugenia Busmachiu PhD candidate Olga Deli Intracompany Enterpreneurship in the Modern Management System Univ. Lect., PhD candidate Olga Repkina Extension of the House Market Financing Regulation in the Republic of Moldova Senior Lect. Aliona Lisii Reorganization and Restructuring the human Resources Function in Tourism Businesses PhD candidate Alexandrina- Mirela Stan ECONOMICS Role and Place of the Branch Social Dialogue in the Industrial Relations of Moldova PhD candidate Ala Lipciu Mercantilism called Economic Mamai Assoc. Prof., DrHab Ivan Ustian Personnel Assessment: Theory or Practice, Procedure or Result? Senior. Lect., PhD candidate Maria Karabet Gender Perspective: the Social Roles of Men and Women and Their Gender-role Behavior in Business Organizations PhD candidate Anna Micolishina FINANCE Advantages and Constraints of Offshore Transactions Assoc. Prof., Dr. Hab. Natalia Lobanov Promoting Financial Security of the Banking System through the Implementation of Basel II agreement Senior Lect., PhD Dorina Clichici The methods and Mechanisms of Improving the System of Optional Insurances of Medical Aid and Its Correlation with the Mandatory Health Insurance System Senior Lect., PhD candidate Oxana Miron Patterns of Funding University Education in Some European Countries PhD candidate Ala Creciun ACCOUNTING Identified Image of Accounting Profession in Society Univ. Prof., PhD Neculai Tabara PhD candidate Olga Plesco Factoring a Modern Way of Collecting Recievables Assoc. Prof., PhD Ludmila Grabarovschi Senior Lect. Olga Bordeianu 98 103 69 77 84 91 42 47 56 63 9

21 28 31 37

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INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS European Practices of Companies Financing Assoc. Prof., DrHab Natalia Bancila PhD candidate Ruslan Mihalachi The Impact of International Labor Migration on the Situation of Older People in the Republic of Moldova (the results of a qualitative study) Assoc. Prof., PhD Dorin Vaculovschi Indicators of International Competitiveness of Goods and Statistical Data Comparison in Foreign Trade Assoc. Prof., PhD Larisa Dodu-Gugea The Role of European Integration in The Financial and Economic Development of States in Transition Period PhD candidate Svetlana Biloocaia INFORMATICS AND CIBERNETICS Algorithmization of Optimal Allocation of Seats in PR Systems Univ. Prof. Ion Bolun DIDACTIC ASPECTS Role of University Library in Training Specialists for the National Economy Natalia Gheradi, Elena Railean, Galina Kostiucik La double actualisation dans la semantique des phraseologismes Prof. Univ. Maria Rudenco Charge de cours Lilia Dirul REVIEW Dumitru Moldovanu Doctrines and famous economists Assoc. Prof., PhD Elina Benea-Popusoi 167 153 161 137 110

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PIAA DE ASIGURRI I STRATEGIA DE MARKETING N REPUBLICA MOLDOVA


Prof. univ. dr. hab. Tatiana MANOLE; Drd. Angela MAGLA, UTM
n acest articol, autorii cerceteaz piaa de asigurri din Republica Moldova. Acest fenomen trece printr-o perioad de aprig concuren, ceea ce duce la ntrirea poziiei unor companii i slbirea altora. Acest proces este benefic pentru asigurai, fiind mai siguri n solvabilitatea companiilor de asigurri. Autorii indic c la diferite tipuri de asigurri, conform legislaiei, se aplic coeficieni de difereniere. Tendina de dezvoltare a pieei de asigurri din Moldova este determinat de o serie de indicatori, ce caracterizeaz calitatea serviciilor prestate de companiile locale de asigurare i, nainte de toate, de capacitatea financiar a acestora de a-i onora obligaiunile asumate. Cel mai reprezentativ indicator al dezvoltrii industriei asigurrilor rmne a fi volumul total al primelor de asigurare subscrise (inclusiv primele primite n reasigurare), care pe parcursul perioadei de studiu se afl n continu ascensiune. Cerinele fa de asigurtori urmresc, n primul rnd, consolidarea pieei asigurrilor, protejarea intereselor asigurailor, evaluarea prudent a riscurilor i consolidarea stabilitii companiilor de asigurri. Cuvinte-cheie: asigurtor, asigurat, piaa serviciilor de asigurare, asigurri de via, asigurri generale, coeficieni, capital social Republica Moldova se caracterizeaz printr-un proces de consolidare a pieei de asigurri. Piaa serviciilor de asigurare din R. Moldova, similar altora, este caracterizat de ritmuri dinamice de cretere. Aspectul concurenial al pieei, adaptarea cadrului juridic, introducerea unor norme obligatorii i majorarea taxelor la serviciile obligatorii existente, precum i dezvoltarea sectoarelor conexe, cum sunt serviciile leasing, comercializarea autoturismelor i creditarea ipotecar reprezint factori ce vor asigura dezvoltarea durabil i continu. O inovaie e i divizarea clar a asigurrilor de via de asigurrile generale nu doar la capitolul structurii serviciilor de asigurare, dar i a tipului de activitate pe care l poate desfura companiile de asigurri, exclusiv asigurrile de via sau asigurrile generale. Piaa asigurrilor urmeaz s suporte modificri structurale n urmtorii ani drept efect al noii Legi cu privire la asigurri nr. 407 din 21.12.2006, potrivit creia asigurtorii care, la data intrrii n vigoare a prezentei legi, dein licene pentru practicarea activitii de asigurare, vor trebui s se conformeze prevederilor art.8, art.20 alin.(1) i art.31 alin.(6) n termen de 5 ani de la

INSURANCE MARKET AND MARKETING STRATEGY IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA


Dr. Hab. Univ. Prof. Tatiana MANOLE; PhD candidate Angela MAGLA, TUM
This article contains a research on insurance market of the Republic of Moldova. It faces a period of strong competition which strengthens the position of certain companies and worsens other companies position. This process has a positive impact on insured persons, who are surer of the insurance companies solvency. The authors state that differentiation coefficients are applied to different insurance types according to legislation. The development tendency in the Moldovan insurance market is determined by a series of indicators characterizing the quality of services rendered by local insurance companies and first of all by their financial ability to fulfill assumed obligations. The most significant indicator of insurance industry development remains the total volume of subscribed insurance premiums (incl. reinsurance premiums), which was continuously growing during the research period. The requirements established for insurers are meant first of all to strengthen the insurance market, protect the insureds interests, carefully assess the risks and improve the sustainability of insurance companies. Key-words: insurer, insured, insurance market, life insurance, general insurance, coefficients, share capital. The Republic of Moldova is experiencing the strengthening of insurance market. Just like in other countries, the Moldovan insurance market is characterized by a dynamic growth. The market competition, legal framework adjustment, implementation of mandatory norms and increase in fees for existing mandatory services, as well as the development of connected arrears, such as leasing services, auto sales and mortgage lending are the factors ensuring a sustainable and continuous development. The clear separation between life insurance and general insurance is an innovation not only from the viewpoint of structure of insurance services but also from the viewpoint of activity type that can be carried out by insurance companies, excluding life insurance or general insurance. The insurance market will experience structural changes in the following years driven by the new Law on insurance no. 407 of 21.12.2006, which stipulates that insurers holding insurance licenses at the time when respective Law becomes effective will have to 9

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MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING data intrrii n vigoare a prezentei legi, urmnd s dispun de un capital social nu mai mic de: 4 milioane de MDL peste 1 an de la data intrrii n vigoare a prezentei legi (06 aprilie 2008); 6 milioane de MDL peste 2 ani de la data intrrii n vigoare a prezentei legi (06 aprilie 2009); 9 milioane de MDL peste 3 ani de la data intrrii n vigoare a prezentei legi (06 aprilie 2010); 12 milioane de MDL peste 4 ani de la data intrrii n vigoare a prezentei legi (06 aprilie 2011); 15 milioane de MDL peste 5 ani de la data intrrii n vigoare a prezentei legi (06 aprilie 2012). n acelai timp, pentru diferite tipuri de asigurri se aplic urmtorii coeficieni: coeficientul 1 pentru activitate de asigurri generale; coeficientul 1,5 pentru activitate de asigurri de via; coeficientul 2 pentru activitate de reasigurare exclusiv. Datorit acestei legi, piaa asigurrilor ar trebui s se restrng estimativ pn la 20-23 de companii. Numrul lor deja s-a diminuat de la 38 n 2004 la 24 (care practic activitate n domeniul asigurrilor) n anul 2010. Piaa Republicii Moldova este mic, dar interesant pentru operatorii internaionali. Acest fapt este certificat de practicarea investiiilor de portofoliu. O cot substanial a liderului pieei asigurrilor MOLDASIG, pe parcursul anului 2008, a fost achiziionat de ctre compania rus Rosgosstrah. n anul 2009 a fost nregistrat un nou operator pe piaa asigurrilor din RM, i anume compania GRAWE CARAT Asigurri, ca rezultat al fuziunii companiei GRAWE Asigurri de Via i CARAT. De asemenea, pe pia moldoveneasc de asigurri a intrat asigurtorul european Vienna Insurance Group (VIG) prin preluarea Societii de asigurri-reasigurri DONARIS GROUP, care este printre liderii pieei dup volumul primelor subscrise. VIG este unul dintre liderii pieei de asigurri din Europa Central i de Est, fiind prezent n 22 de ri, cu sediul central la Viena. n viitorul apropiat, se ateapt ncheierea tranzaciilor care vor implica companii strine cu renume. Un exemplu este cazul companiei EXIMASINT, care ncearc s atrag n Moldova grupul de companii din Israel HAREL. n Israel compania ocup poziia a treia pe piaa asigurrilor. Intrarea pe pia a investitorilor strini va duce la consolidarea treptat a companiilor de asigurri i ar putea crete nu doar capacitatea de asigurare i durabilitatea financiar, dar va oferi i o oportunitate de a 10 conform to provisions of art.8, art.20 paragraph (1) and art.31 paragraph (6) within 5 years after effectiveness of respective Law, meaning that they will have to posses share capitals in amounts not less than: MDL 4 Mil. 1 year after respective Law becomes effective (April 06, 2008); MDL 6 Mil. 2 years year after respective Law becomes effective (April 06, 2009); MDL 9 Mil. 3 year after respective Law becomes effective (April 06, 2010); MDL 12 Mil. 4 years year after respective Law becomes effective (April 06, 2011); MDL 15 Mil. 5 years year after respective Law becomes effective (April 06, 2012). Concomitantly, the following coefficients are applied for different types of insurances: coefficient 1 for activity implying general insurance; coefficient 1.5 for activity implying life insurance; coefficient 2 for activity implying exclusive reinsurance. Due to this Law, the insurance market will have to reduce to 20-23 companies. Their number has already decreased from 38 in 2004 to 24 (carrying out insurance activity) in 2010. The Moldovan market is small but rather interesting for international operators. This is confirmed by portfolio investments. A significant share of the markets leader MOLDASIG was purchased by the Russian company Rosgosstrah in 2008. In 2009 a new operator entered the Moldovan insurance market, and namely GRAWE CARAT Asigurri, which was founded through merger of GRAWE Asigurri de Via and CARAT. The European insurer Vienna Insurance Group (VIG) has also entered the Moldovan insurance market through takeover of insurance-reinsurance company DONARIS GROUP, which is among the market leaders by volume of subscribed premiums. VIG is one of the leaders of the insurance market from Central and Eastern Europe having presence in 22 countries and the Head Office in Vienna. The conclusion of transactions involving famous foreign companies is expected in the nearest future. An example is EXIM-ASINT which is trying to attract the Israeli group HAREL to the Republic of Moldova. It holds the third position on insurance market in Israel. The foreign investors market entry will gradually strengthen the insurance companies and will not only increase the insurance capacity and financial sustainability but will also provide an opportunity for improving the quality of insurance services in Moldova. The development tendency in the Moldovan insurance market is determined by a series of

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MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING mbunti calitatea serviciilor de asigurare locale. Tendina de dezvoltare a pieei de asigurri din R. Moldova este determinat de o serie de indicatori, ce caracterizeaz calitatea serviciilor prestate de companiile locale de asigurare i, nainte de toate, de capacitatea financiar a acestora de a-i onora obligaiunile asumate. Cel mai reprezentativ indicator al dezvoltrii industriei asigurrilor rmne a fi volumul total al primelor de asigurare subscrise (inclusiv primele primite n reasigurare), care pe parcursul perioadei de studiu se afl n continu ascensiune. Volumul total al primelor subscrise de societile de asigurri, n anul 2008, a fost de 837 228 mii lei, n cretere cu 15,6% fa de anul precedent, n conformitate cu datele Comisiei Naionale a Pieei Financiare (CNPF). n mrime absolut, valoarea primelor subscrise a consemnat o cretere cu 113 mln. lei n 2008 fa de 2007. ns att n mrimi absolute, ct i n cele relative creterea este mai redus dect n anul 2007, cnd volumul primelor subscrise a fost cu 165,2 mln. lei mai mare dect n 2006. Volumul primelor de asigurare n anul 2009 a fost de 816,5 mln. lei i la finele anului 2010 acest indicator se cifreaz la 914,7 mln. lei. ns creterea primelor ncasate este de fapt atras de conjunctura evolutiv a creterii economiei naionale integral i mai puin de aspectul calitativ de consolidare a pieei de asigurri. Astfel, prin implementarea reformei n domeniul asigurrilor se tinde spre transformarea sectorului existent de asigurri ntr-o industrie modern, care s permit realizarea funciei primare a asigurrilor: gestionarea prudent a riscurilor, astfel nct s se garanteze capacitatea de a satisface, n orice moment, angajamentele fa de deintorii de polie. Pornind de la aceast premis, consolidarea sistemului asigurrilor are o importan majora n asigurarea funcionrii stabile a acestuia. innd cont de acest fapt, se depun eforturi orientate spre sporirea supravegherii prudeniale i stabilitii companiilor de asigurri din republic prin majorarea exigenelor n special n partea ce ine de: implementarea normelor de pruden financiar, de formare i plasare a rezervelor de asigurare i normativelor de solvabilitate recunoscute la nivel internaional, care va contribui la susinerea gradului de siguran a sistemului asigurrilor; reorganizarea companiilor de asigurri n forma de societi pe aciuni, care va duce nemijlocit la ridicarea gradului de responsabilitate fa de consumatorii produselor de asigurare, instituirea procedurilor de control intern i guvernare corporativ; automatizarea i informatizarea activitii participanilor profesioniti al pieei asigurrilor, inclusiv n domeniul inerii evidenei contabile, care va permite ridicarea nivelului transparenei operaiunilor efectuate de ctre companiile de asigurri, accelerarea indicators characterizing the quality of services rendered by local insurance companies and first of all by their financial ability to fulfill assumed obligations. The most significant indicator of insurance industry development remains the total volume of subscribed insurance premiums (incl. reinsurance premiums), which was continuously growing during the research period. According to the data of the National Commission of Financial Market (CNPF) the total volume of premiums subscribed by insurance companies amounted to MDL 837 228 000 in 2008, recording an increase by 15,6% compared with previous year. In absolute terms the value of subscribed premiums increased by MDL 113 mil. in 2008 compared to 2007. But both in absolute and relative terms the increase is smaller than in 2007, when the volume of subscribed premiums increased by MDL 165,2 mil. compared with 2006. In 2009 the volume of insurance premiums was MDL 816,5 mil. and by the end of 2010 it reached MDL 914,7 mil. However, the increase in subscribed premiums was mainly driven by a general growth of national economy and less by the strengthening of insurance market. Thus, the implementation of insurance reform aims to turn the existing insurance market into a modern industry allowing the fulfillment of the insurances primary function and namely the careful risk management able to guarantee the fulfillment of obligations towards insurance policy holders any time. Starting from this precondition, the strengthening of insurance system is extremely important for its stable functioning. Taking into account the above mentioned, efforts are made in order to increase prudential supervision and sustainability of Moldovan insurance companies through more severe requirements, especially referring to: implementation of internationally recognized financial prudence norms, standards for insurance reserve formation and placement and solvency norms, which will maintain the level of insurance system security; reorganization of insurance companies into joint stock companies, which will increase the level of responsibility towards insurance product consumers and will lead to institution of internal control procedures and corporate governance; automation and informatization of the activity carried out by professional participants in insurance market, including bookkeeping, which will allow the improvement of transparency in operations performed by insurance companies, acceleration of processes involving data elaboration, processing and analysis, as well 11

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3(77) 2011

MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING proceselor de elaborare, prelucrare i analiz a informaiei, precum i crearea unei baze de date la nivel naional pentru unele tipuri de asigurri. Aceste i alte cerine, urmresc, n primul rnd, consolidarea pieei asigurrilor, protejarea intereselor asigurailor, evaluarea prudent a riscurilor i ridicarea stabilitii companiilor de asigurri.
1.000.000 900.000 800.000 700.000 600.000 500.000 400.000 300.000 200.000 100.000 121.326 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 0 29,35 34,18 191.308 32,50 32,71 413.357 235.339 273.816 44,24 35,09 361.248 119,49 109,06 135,39 157,68 837.228 129,40 123,02 724.198 816.551

as the creation of a national database for some insurance types; These and other requirements pursue first of all the strengthening of insurance market, protection of insureds rights, careful risk assessment and improvement of insurance companies sustainability.
180 160 140 115,61 116,35 131,93 112,02 97,53 89,33 80 322.694 60 40 20 100 120

914.716

559.649

Primeledeasigurare,mii.Lei/Insurancepremiums,thousandsMDL Despgubirideasigurare,mii.Lei/Insuranceindemnities,thousandsMDL Cretereaprimelor,%/Premiumincrease,% Cretereadespgubirilordeasigurare,%/Increaseofinsuranceindemnities,% Niveluldeplatadespgubirilor,%/Paymentlevelofindemnities,%

Figura 1. Dinamica primelor i despgubirilor de asigurare/ Figure1. Dynamics of insurance premiums and indemnities Sursa: Comisia Naional a Pieii Financiare (CNPF) / Source: National Commission of Financial Market (NCFM) Conform datelor prezentate n figura 1, vedem c volumul primelor brute subscrise pentru anii 20052008 a crescut cu 423 871 mii lei, de la 413 357 mii lei, n anul 2005, pn la 837 228 mii lei, n anul 2008. Volumul primelor brute subscrise n anul 2009 constituie 816 551 mii lei, nregistrnd o scdere n perioada de referin cu 20 677 mii lei fa de rezultatele anului 2008. Piaa asigurrilor n cursul anilor 2005-2008 a crescut simitor (2008/2005), i anume cu 202,54% (2008/2005), iar n perioada 20082009 nregistreaz o scdere. Din diagram (fig. 1) observm c ritmul de cretere nu a fost stabil pe parcursul ntregii perioade. Deci, se observ fluctuaii importante, n anul 2006 (creteri de 135,39%), i la fel de importante scderi ale ritmului de cretere, n anul 2007 (129,40%). According to data provided in figure 1, one can see that the gross premiums subscribed for 2005-2008 increased by MDL 423 871 000, from MDL 413 357 000 in 2005 to MDL 837 228 000 in 2008. The volume of gross premiums subscribed in 2009 was MDL 816 551 000, recording a decrease by MDL 20 677 000 in the reference period compared with 2008. In the period from 2005 to 2008 the insurance market experienced a significant increase (2008/2005) of 202,54% (2008/2005), while in the period from 2008 to 2009 it recorded a decrease. The chart no.3.1, shows that the growth rhythm was not stable at all during the whole research period. Thus, important movements can be seen in 2006 (increase of 135,39%) and decreases of same importance in the growth rhythm can be seen in 2007 (129,40%).

12

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3(77) 2011

MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING Se simte o mbuntire a ncasrii primelor la unele companii de asigurri la sfritul anului 2010. Informaia o prezentm n topul celor 10 companii dup volumul ncasrilor , expuse n tabelul 1. By the end of 2010 some insurance companies experienced an increase in premium volume. Table 1 contains information on top 10 insurance companies by premium volume.

Tabelul 1 /Table 1 Topul asigurtorilor dup volumul primelor ncasate la finele anului 2010/ Top of insurers by volume of premiums received at end 2010 Nr. crit./ No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Compania de asigurri/ Insurance company Primele ncasate, lei/ Premiums received, MDL Cota de pia, %/ Market share, % 28,66 20,89 11,45 7,60 5,25 3,76 3,51 2,42 2,38 2,30 11,75 100,00

MOLDASIG 262 202 025 ASITO 191 097 016 GRAWE CARAT ASIGURRI 104 738 882 DONARIS-GRUP 69 546 552 MOLDCARGO 48 044 925 ACORD-GRUP 34 426 311 EUROASIG -GRUP 32 146 842 EXIM-ASINT 22 172 803 MOLDOVA-ASTROVAZ SRL 21 796 236 KLASSIKA ASIGURRI 21 048 084 Ali asigurtori/ Other insurers 107 496 102 Total piaa / Total market 914 715 778 Sursa: elaborat de autori n baza informaiei de la CNPF/ Source: developed by authors based on NCFM data

Pe parcursul anului 2010, observm o cretere a primelor de asigurare subscrise corespunztor nivelului de 112,02% (vezi fig. 1). La finele anului 2010, MOLDOVA-ASTROVAZ ocup locul 9 n ceea ce privete volumul primelor ncasate. Pentru riscurile asigurate conform contractelor ncheiate, societile de asigurare achit asigurailor sume ce reprezint despgubiri de asigurare n cazul producerii unor daune asigurate. Astfel, pe parcursul anilor 2005-2008 volumul despgubirilor de asigurare a crescut cu 152 490 mii lei, de la 121 326 mii lei n anul 2005 pn la 273 816 mii lei n anul 2008. Pe parcursul anului 2010, volumul total al despgubirilor au constituit 322 694 mii lei. Creterea volumului total al despgubirilor pentru perioada de 3 ani n mrime de 225,69% depete volumul primelor de asigurare subscrise cu 23,15 p. p., ceea ce reprezint un factor indirect negativ ce indic scderea rentabilitii i creterea pierderilor pieei de asigurare n RM. n tabelul 2 prezentm topul celor 10 companii dup volumul despgubirilor la finele anului 2010. Analog ritmului de cretere a primelor de asigurare subscrise, ritmul de cretere a despgubirilor nregistreaz cea mai mic valoare n anul 2008, la nivelul de 116,35%, i cel mai nalt nivel n anul 2006 (157,68%). n anul 2005, ritmul de cretere a despgubirilor (119,49%) a depit ritmul de cretere a primelor de asigurare subscrise cu 10,43 p.p., n anul 2006 (157,68%) cu 22,29 p.p. Punctul de cotitur n aceast tendin negativ de cretere a constituit anul

The subscribed insurance premiums saw an increase of 112,02% during 2010 (see figure 1). At the end of 2010, MOLDOVA-ASTROVAZ held the 9th position by premium volume. When an insured event occurs, the insurance companies pay to insured persons, for the risks covered under concluded insurance agreements, amounts of money as insurance indemnity. Thus, during 2005 to 2008 the volume of insurance indemnities increased by MDL 152 490 000, from MDL 121 326 000 in 2005 to MDL 273 816 000 in 2008. The total volume of insurance indemnities stood at MDL 322 694 000 during 2010. The increase in the total indemnities volume for 3 years by 225,69% exceeds the volume of subscribed insurance premiums by 23,15 p.p., revealing a negative indirect factor which shows a decrease in profitability and an increase of losses on Moldovan insurance market. Table 2 contains information of top 10 insurance companies by indemnities volume by the end of 2010. Similar to the growth rhythm of subscribed insurance premiums, the growth rhythm of indemnities recorded the lowest value in 2008 with 116,35% and the highest value in 2006 (157,68%). In 2005 the indemnities growth (119,49%) exceeded the subscribed premium growth by 10,43 p.p. and in 2006 (157,68%) by 22,29 p.p. The turning point of this negative growth tendency was experienced in 2007, when the total volume of indemnities reached 13

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3(77) 2011

MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING 2007, n care volumul total al despgubirilor a atins nivelul de 123,02%, ceea ce este la un nivel mai sczut dect ritmul de cretere a primelor de asigurare subscrise cu 6,38 p.p. n anul 2008, ritmul de cretere att al primelor de asigurare subscrise (115,61%, ct i al despgubirilor de asigurare (116,35%) se gsete aproximativ la acelai nivel, cu depirea ritmului de cretere al despgubirilor de asigurare totale fa de cel al primelor subscrise cu 0,74 p.p. (vezi fig. 1). 123,02%, or by 6,38 p.p. less than the growth of subscribed insurance premiums. In 2008 the subscribed premium growth (115,61%) and indemnities growth (116,35%) were approximately at the same level, with total indemnities growth exceeding the subscribed premium growth by 0,74 p.p. (see figure 1).

Tabelul 2 /Table 2 Topul asigurtorilor dup volumul despgubirilor pltite la finele anului 2010/ Top of insurers by volume of indemnities paid at end 2010 Nr. crit./ No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Compania de asigurri / Insurance company Despgubiri pltite, lei/ Indemnities paid, MDL Cota de pia, %/ Market share, % 31,85 19,89 8,05 7,25 5,82 3,56 3,52 3,31 1,51 3,00 12,23 100,00

MOLDASIG 102 776 247 ASITO 64 185 717 DONARIS-GRUP 25 991 601 GRAWE CARAT ASIGURRI 23 383 678 MOLDCARGO 18 794 867 EXIM-ASINT 11 481 672 MOLDOVA-ASTROVAZ SRL 11 374 381 EUROASIG-GRUP 10 674 122 VICTORIA ASIGURRI 4 885 822 KLASSIKA ASIGURRI 9 684 621 Ali asigurtori/ Other insurers 39 461 427 Total piaa/ Total market 322 694 155 Sursa: elaborat de autori n baza informaiei de la CNPF/ Source: developed by authors based on NCFM data

n cursul perioadei analizate se observ o fluctuaie a nivelului de pli. n anul 2005 indicatorul respectiv constituia 29,35%, meninndu-i tendina de cretere i pe parcursul anului 2006, atingnd nivelul de 34,18%. n anul 2007, situaia sa schimbat, nregistrndu-se o uoar scdere. Astfel, acest indicator a nregistrat nivelul de 32,50% (mai mic dect n 2006 cu 1,68 p.p.). Ulterior, observm din nou o cretere, astfel nct la finele anului 2009 acest indicator a atins nivelul de 45,49% (cu 11,31 p. p. fa de nivelul nregistrat n anul 2006) (vezi fig.1) Pentru a evidenia ce factorii au influenat asupra creterii instabile a pieei i fluctuaiei indicatorilor respectivi, trebuie s examinm structura pieei i indicatorii respectivi pe tipuri de asigurri (vezi fig. 2). n structura portofoliului de prime subscrise pentru perioada anului 2009 se observ o tendin de reducere a cotei primelor subscrise pe riscurile primite n reasigurare (2005: 4,62%) i a cotei primelor subscrise pe asigurrile benevole de rspundere civil (2005: 31,28%), diminunduse respectiv cu 4,28 p. p. i 23,78 p.p. Cotele primelor subscrise pe asigurrile benevole de persoane i cel prin efectul legii sunt n continu cretere, majorndu-se comparativ cu anul 2005 respectiv cu 2,22 p.p. i 21,89 p.p. Cota primelor de asigurare subscrise pe asigurrile benevole de bunuri n totalul primelor de asigurare subscrise a nregistrat o cretere fa de anul 2005 cu 3,96 p.p., dar s-a diminuat comparativ cu anul 2008 cu 3,18 p.p. 14

The payments growth also recorded some fluctuations during the research period. In 2005 the payments growth was 29,35%, having the same positive trend in 2006, when it reached 34,18%. The situation changed in 2007, when there was a light decrease in payments. Thus, the payments growth reached 32,50% in 2007 (by 1,68 p.p. less than in 2006). Later, a new increase can be seen at the end of 2009 when this indicator reached 45,49% (by 11,31 p.p. more than in 2006) (see figure1). In order to emphasize that factors which caused instable market growth and fluctuation of respective indices, the market structure and mentioned indices must be considered by insurance type (see figure 2). The structure of subscribed premium portfolio in 2009 shows a decrease in the share of subscribed premiums on reinsurance risks (2005: 4,62%) and the share of subscribed premiums on voluntary civil liability insurance (2005: 31,28%) by 4,28 p.p. and 23,78 p.p. respectively. The share of subscribed premiums on voluntary personal insurance and compulsory insurance continued to grow and recorded an increase by 2,22 p.p. and 21,89 p.p. respectively compared with 2005. The share of subscribed premiums on voluntary insurance of goods from total subscribed premiums increased by 3,96 p.p. compared with 2005, but reduced by 3,18 p.p. compared with 2008.

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MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING


100% 90% 80% 70% 32,66 60% Cota 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 4,62 2005 2,41 2006 1,20 2007 0,52 31,28 28,00 27,46 13,70 5,80 2008 14,23 0,34 7,49 2009 12,01 11,74 12,87
Asigurribenevolede rspunderecivil/ Voluntarycivilliability insurance

19,43

25,71

22,15 40,20 41,32

Asigurriprinefectul legii/Compulsory insurance

Asigurribenevolede bunuri/Voluntary insuranceofgoods

32,14

36,32
Asigurribenevolede persoane/Voluntary personalinsurance

39,80

36,62

Primencasateprin reasigurare/Received reinsurance

Figura 2. Dinamica structurii primelor de asigurare / Figure 2. Dynamics of insurance premium structure Sursa: Comisia Naional a Pieei Financiare (CNPF) Source: National Commission of Financial Market (NCFM)
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% Cota 50% 40% 17,06 30% 20% 20,19 10% 0% 5,86 2005 3,40 2006 21,20 15,18 1,41 2007 1,62 9,84 0,66 2008 2009 13,18 11,74 21,28
Reasigurareaprimit/ Receivedreinsurance Asigurriprinefectul legii/Compulsory insurance

21,94

23,22

24,57 38,24

28,54

Asigurribenevolede bunuri/Voluntary insuranceofgoods

34,95 39,00 47,10 42,30


Asigurribenevolede persoane/Voluntary personalinsurance

51,26
Asigurribenevolede rspunderecivil/ Voluntarycivilliability insurance

7,53 0,35

Figura 3. Dinamica structurii despgubirilor de asigurare/ Figure 3. Dynamics of insurance indemnity structure Sursa: Comisia Naional a Pieei Financiare (CNPF)/ Source: National Commission of Financial Market (NCFM) Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3(77) 2011 15

MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING n structura despgubirilor de asigurare pltite se observ o reducere a cotei despgubirilor pe asigurrile benevole de persoane (2005: 17,06%) i pe asigurrile de rspundere civil (2005: 20,19%), respectiv cu 9,53 p. p. i 19,84 p.p. Cota despgubirilor pltite pe riscurile primite n reasigurare n totalul despgubirilor de asigurare pltite a nregistrat o cretere comparativ cu anul 2005, i anume cu 15,42 p.p. Cotele despgubirilor de asigurare, pltite pe asigurrile benevole de bunuri, i asigurrile prin efectul legii nregistreaz o cretere fa de anul 2005 respectiv cu 7,35 p.p. i 6,60 p.p., dar s-au diminuat comparativ cu anul 2008 respectiv cu 8,96 p.p. i 9,7 p.p. De menionat faptul c pe anumite tipuri de asigurri se observ o deviere semnificativ a valorilor att n structura primelor de asigurare subscrise, ct i n cea a despgubirilor de asigurare pltite. Astfel, cota asigurrilor benevole de bunuri n structura despgubirilor de asigurare pltite la finele anului 2009 (42,30%) depete cota acestora n structura primelor de asigurare subscrise (36,62%), i anume cu 5,68 p.p. O deviere semnificativ se atest i n cadrul activitii de reasigurare, unde cota despgubirilor (21,28%) depete cota primelor subscrise (0,34%) cu 20,94 p.p. Un indicator important pentru compania de asigurri sunt activele pe care le posed i le utilizeaz compania. Mai jos prezentm evoluia activelor totale i activelor nete ale companiilor de asigurri din RM, caracterizat printr-o trend pozitiv (vezi figura 4). Aici este prezentat evoluia activelor totale i activelor nete ale companiilor de asigurri din RM, caracterizat printr-o trend pozitiv. n perioada analizat, activele totale pe piaa asigurrilor au crescut de la 604 734, n anul 2005, pn la 1 886 398 mii lei, n perioada anului 2010. Creterea activelor totale s-a meninut la nivelul de 120-140% n an. Astfel, comparativ cu perioadele precedente, activele totale s-au majorat: n anul 2005 cu 159 652 mii lei; n anul 2006 cu 236 494 mii lei; n anul 2007 cu 173 329 mii lei; n anul 2008 cu 319 370 mii lei. n anul 2009 cu 201 370 mii lei. Potrivit datelor nregistrate la finele anului 2009, cota activelor totale ale companiei MOLDOVAASTROVAZ n totalul activelor companiilor de asigurri a constituit 3,86%, ceea ce poziioneaz compania pe locul cinci n topul celor 10 asigurtori. A decrease in the share of indemnities on voluntary personal insurance (2005: 17,06%) and civil liability insurance (2005: 20,19%) by 9.53 p.p. and 19,84 p.p. respectively can be seen in the structure of insurance indemnities paid. The share of indemnities paid on reinsured risks in total insurance indemnities increased by 15,42 p.p. compared with 2005. While the share of insurance indemnities paid on voluntary insurance of goods and compulsory insurance increased by 7,35 p.p. and 6,60 p.p. respectively compared with 2005, but decreased by 8,96 p.p. and 9,7 p.p. respectively as compared to 2008. It is worth mentioning that a significant variation of values can be seen for certain insurance types both in terms of insurance premium structure and insurance indemnity structure. Thus, the share of voluntary insurance of goods in the insurance indemnity structure at end 2009 (42,30%) exceeds by 5,68 p.p. its share in subscribed premium structure (36,62%). A significant deviation can be observed as regards reinsurance activity, where the indemnities share (21,28%) exceeds by 20,94 p.p. the share of subscribed premiums (0,34%). Important indicators for the insurance company are its possessed and used assets. Below we give the diagram on the evolution of total and net assets of the companies of the Republic of Moldova, described as being a favorable trend (see figure 4). Here is presented the evolution of total assets and net assets. In the period submitted for analysis the total assets on the insurance market have shown an increase from 604 734 in the year 2005 to 1 886 398 thousands of MDL in 2010. The growth of total assets remained at the level of 120-140% per year. So, as compared to the previous periods the total assets increased: as follows in 2005 by 159 652 thousands MDL; in 2006 by 236 494 thousands MDL; in 2007 by 173 329 thousands MDL; in 2008 by 319 370 thousands MDL; in 2009 by 201 370 thousands MDL. According to data at the end of the year 2009 the share of total assets of MOLDOVA-ASTROVAZ company in the total of insurance companies assets made up 3,86%, which is fifth place in the top 10 insurers.

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MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING


2.000.000 179,92 1.800.000 1.886.398 180 200

1.600.000 139,11 1.400.000 120,6 129,74 122,56 1.014.557 1.333.927 121,1 135,87 1.200.000 131,48 1.535.297

160

140 133,1 123,8 115,1 122,87 120 1.081.748 100 812.703 80

1.000.000

841.228

800.000

656.479 57,34 35,96 297.713 60

604.734

600.000

37,95 229.476

400.000

364.878 35,96

49,21

52,93

40

200.000

20

0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Active,miilei/Assets,thousandsMDL Cre tereaactivelor,%*/Assetsincrease,% Cotaactivelornete,%/Netassetsshare,%

Active nete,miilei/Netassets,thousandsMDL Cre tereaactivelornete,%*/Netassetsincrease,%

Figura 4. Evoluia activelor totale i activelor nete ale companiilor de asigurri din RM/ Figure 4. Evolution of total assets and net assets of insurance companies in the RM * creterea pentru perioada celor 9 luni ale anului 2009 se calculeaz n comparaie cu perioada celor 9 luni ale anului 2008/ the calculation of increase for 9 months of the year 2009 as compared to 9 months of the year 2008 Sursa: Comisia Naional a Pieei Financiare (CNPF)/ Source: National Commission of Financial Market (NCFM) Tabelul 3/Table 3 Topul asigurtorilor dup volumul activelor totale la finele anului 2009/ Top of insures by volume of total assets at the end of 2009 Nr. crit./ No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Compania de asigurri / Insurance company MOLDASIG ASITO GRAWE CARAT ASIGURRI MOLDCARGO MOLDOVA-AST ROVAZ SIGUR-ASIGUR VICTORIA ASIGURRI DONARIS-GROUP EXIM-ASINT Active locale, lei/ Total assets, MDL 393 284 825 348 501 311 161 457 779 57 824 279 55 717 224 44 800 107 41 601 442 37 134 404 30 975 817 Cota de pia, %/ Market share, % 27,22 24,12 11,18 4,00 3,86 3,10 2,88 2,57 2,14 17

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3(77) 2011

MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING 10 GARANIE Ali asigurtori/ Other insurers Total piaa/ Total market 28 852 665 244 440 739 1 444 590 592 2,00 16,92 100,00

Sursa: elaborat de autori n baza informaiei de la CNPF/ Source: developed by authors based on NCFM data n perioada analizat, activele nete ale companiilor de asigurri au continuat trendul pozitiv al anilor precedeni, nregistrnd o majorare de la 229 476 mii lei, n anul 2005, la 711 685 mii lei, la finele celor 9 luni ale anului 2009 sau cu 470 870 mii lei. n perioada 20052007, creterea activelor nete a fost la un nivel mai inferior dect creterea activelor totale, ceea ce a condus la o scdere treptat a cotei activelor nete de la nivelul de 37,95%, n anul 2005, la 35,96%, n anul 2007 sau cu 1,99 p.p. Pe parcursul anilor 2007 i 2009 creterea activelor nete, n total pe pia, a depit creterea activelor totale, ceea ce a condus la majorarea cotei activelor nete de la 35,96% la 49,27% sau cu 13,31 p.p. Acest fapt a fost influenat de implementarea noilor prevederi ale Legii cu priviri la asigurri, care stabilete expres necesitatea majorrii capitalului statutar al asigurtorilor. Totodat, nu este de neglijat i intrarea n capitalurile asigurtorilor a unor investitori strini importani, care au contribuit semnificativ la majorarea capitalurilor companiilor. Potrivit datelor nregistrate la finele anului 2009, cota activelor nete ale companiei MOLDOVAASTROVAZ n totalul activelor companiilor de asigurri a constituit 5,08%, ceea ce poziioneaz compania pe locul patru n topul celor 10 asigurtori. Conform datelor nregistrate la finele anului 2009, cota activelor nete ale companiei MOLDOVAASTROVAZ n totalul activelor companiilor de asigurri a constituit 5,08%, ceea ce poziioneaz compania pe locul patru n topul celor 10 asigurtori (vezi tabelul 4). Pentru asigurtori o foarte mare importan o are studiul asupra clienilor poteniali de a se asigura. n acest scop, cercetrile arat c auditoriul potenial de a se asigura poate fi clasificat dup diverse criterii astfel: 1) Auditoriul-int principal: Nivel mediu al veniturilor disponibile: 2 5004 500 (media lunar pe un membru al gospodriei), lei; Proprietate: autoturisme (cu pre 3 500-12 000 Euro), apartamente i case; Nivel de instruire: universitar, mediu de specialitate, mediu general, general obligatoriu; Ocupaie: n principiu funcionari, dar acest criteriu nu este semnificativ; Amplasarea geografic: municipii, localiti cu populaie stabil peste 15 mii; Preferine de consum: asigurarea autoturismelor i a rspunderii civile a deintorilor de autovehicule. Nivel de instruire: universitar, mediu de specialitate, mediu general, general obligatoriu; In the period submitted to analysis the net assets of the insurance companies kept their positive trends of the previous years showing an increase from 229 476 in 2005 to 711 685 thousands MDL at the end of 9 months of 2009 or by 470 870 thousands MDL. In 2005-2007 the increase in net assets registered a lower level as compared to the increase in total assets which lead to a step-by-step decrease in the net assets share from 37,95% in 2005 to 35,96% in 2007 or by 1,99 p.p. During 2007 and 2009 the total increase in net assets on the market exceeded the increase in total assets which lead to the increase in net assets share from 35,96% to 49,27% or by 13,31 p.p. This fact was influenced by the implementation of new provisions of the Insurance Law, which states expressly the need to increase the insurers authorized capital. At once it must be taken into account the participation of important foreign investors in the insurers capital, which made their significant contribution to the capital increase of companies. According to data end of 2009 the share in active assets of the company MOLDOVA-ASTROVAZ in the total assets of insurance companies made up 5,08%, which is 4th place in the top 10 insurers. According to data end of 2009 the share in active assets of the company MOLDOVA-ASTROVAZ in the total assets of insurance companies made up 5,08%, which is 4th place in the top 10 insurers (see table 4). The study on potential insurance customers is very important. In this sense the research shows the potential of customers can be divided by different criteria: 1) Key customers: average level of income available: 2 500 4 500 (monthly average per household member), MDL; Property: vehicles (with rates from 3 500 to 12 000), flats, and houses; Education level: high-school, specialized secondary education, general secondary education, mandatory general education; Occupation: basically clerk but is not significant; Geographical positioning: municipalities, places with stable population over 15 thousands people; Consumer preferences: vehicle insurance and civil liability of vehicle owners. Education level: high-school, specialized secondary education, general secondary education, mandatory general education;

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Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3(77) 2011

MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING Tabelul 4/Table 4 Topul asigurtorilor dup volumul activelor nete la finele anului 2009/ Top of insurers by volume of net assets end of 2009 Nr. crit./ No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Compania de asigurri/ Insurance company ASITO MOLDASIG GRAWE CARAT ASIGURRI MOLDOVA-ASTROVAZ SIGUR-ASIGUR MOLDCARGO VICTORIA-ASIGURRI AUTO-SIGURANA VICTORIASIG TRANSELIT Ali asigurtori/ Other insurers Total piaa/ Total on the market Active nete, lei/ Net assets, MDL 178 950 505 154 918 458 65 612 430 36 120 092 34 554 361 27 640 676 24 266 231 19 251 660 18 348 772 16 806 252 135 215 143 711 684 580 Cota de pia, %/ Market share, % 25,14 21,77 9,22 5,08 4,86 3,88 3,41 2,71 2,58 2,36 19,00 100

Sursa: elaborat de autori n baza informaiei de la CNPF / Source: elaborated by authors according NCFM data Ocupaie: n principiu funcionari, dar acest criteriu nu este semnificativ; Amplasare geografic: municipii, localiti cu populaie stabil peste 15 mii; Preferine de consum: asigurarea autoturismelor i a rspunderii civile a deintorilor de autovehicule. 2) Auditoriul-int complementar +: Nivel mediu al veniturilor disponibile: 4 500 lei i mai sus (media lunar pe un membru al gospodriei); Proprietate: autoturisme (cu pre 12 500 euro i mai mult), apartamente i case; Nivel de instruire: universitar, mediu de specialitate, mai rar mediu general; Ocupaie: funcionari, top management, patroni de ntreprinderi; Amplasare geografic: municipii, localiti cu populaie stabil peste 15 mii; Preferine de consum: asigurarea autoturismelor i a rspunderii civile a deintorilor de autovehicule. 3) Auditoriul-int complementar -: Nivel mediu al veniturilor disponibile: peste 2 500 (media lunar pe un membru al gospodriei); Proprietate: autoturisme (cu pre peste 3 500 euro); Nivel de instruire: universitar, mediu de specialitate, mai rar mediu general; Ocupaie: funcionari, top management, patroni de ntreprinderi; Amplasare geografic: municipii, localiti cu populaie stabil peste 15 mii; Preferine de consum: asigurarea autoturismelor i a rspunderii civile a deintorilor de autovehicule. Occupation: basically clerk but is not significant; Geographical positioning: municipalities, places with stable population over 15 thousands people; Consumer preferences: vehicle insurance and civil liability of vehicle owners. 2) Complementary customers +: Average level of available income: MDL 4 500 and over (the monthly average per household member); Property: vehicles (with rates from 12 500 and over), flats and houses; Education level: high-school, specialized secondary education, rarely general secondary education; Occupation: clerk, top management, company leaders; Geographical positioning: municipalities, places with stable population over 15 thousands people; Consumer preferences: vehicle insurance and civil liability of vehicle owners. 3) Complementary customers -: Average level of available income: over MDL 2 500 (monthly average per a household member); Property: vehicles (with rates from 3 500); Education level: high-school, specialized secondary education, rarely general secondary education; Occupation: clerk, top management, company leaders; Geographical positioning: municipalities, places with stable population over 15 thousands people; Consumer preferences: vehicle insurance and civil liability of vehicle owners.

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MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING Avnd n vedere tendina prognozat a evoluiei populaiei Republicii Moldova, putem construi graficul curbei, care exprim tendina de cretere / descretere a populaiei pe termen mediu (vezi figura 5).
4.400

Taking into account the forecasted trend of population evolution in the Republic of Moldova we can build the graphic of the increase/decrease of population on average term (see figure 5).

4.335,4 4.359,4 4.345,7 4.331,9 4.317,5

4.200

4.000

3.949,8

3.800

3.655,6 3.649,9 3.644,1 3.568,9


3.600

3.635,1 3.627,8 3.618,3

3.607,4 3.600,4

3.589,9 3.581,1 3.572,7

3.550,1

3.520,0 3.460,0 3.430,0

3.400

3.200

3.000

2.884,5

2.800

1959

1970

1979

1989

1990

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Figura 5. Prognoza populaiei stabile (rezidente) a Republicii Moldova pn la 2012/ Figure 5. Forecast of permanent (resident) population of the Republic of Moldova till 2012 Sursa: elaborat de autori n baza informaiei de la CNPF / Source: elaborated by authors according to NCFM data Lately it was stated a decrease in number of n ultimul timp se observ o reducere a numrului populaiei rezidente, ceea ce influeneaz resident population which negatively influences the negativ asupra auditoriului-int. n perioada 2011- key customer. During 2011-2013 is forecasted an acceleration of this trend. 2013 se prognozeaz o accelerare a acestei tendine. During 2011 2013 it is forecasted a reduction Pe parcursul anilor 2011-2013 se prevede reducerea auditoriului-int principal cu 15% i of key customers by 15% and of complementary auditoriului-int omplementar - cu 12%. n aceste customers - by 12%. Consequently the insurance condiii este necesar ca companiile de asigurri s companies must focus on performance management in pun accentul pe managementul performanei, pentru order to attract potential customers. a atrage clienii poteniali ca asigurai. But this hope could reduce to zero if employers Dar aceast speran poate s se reduc la zero, prove unproductive behavior. The performance dac angajaii nu vor da dovad de un comportament management within the company supposes evaluation performant. Managementul performanei n methods of employers activities, feedback on reaching organizaie implic metode de evaluare a activitii personal objectives, team based or organization based angajailor, feedback-uri privind atingerea obiectivelor objectives, reward and benefit systems. personale, de echip sau organizaionale, sisteme de recompense i beneficii. Bibliografie/ Bibliography 1. Legea cu privire la asigurri nr. 407 din 21.12.2006. 2. BUSINESS- PLAN al Companiei de asigurri MOLDOVA-ASTROVAZ SRL pentru anii financiari 2011-2013. 3. Comisia Naional a Pieei Financiare (CNPF). 4. Aubrey C. Daniels. Managementul performanei: strategii de obinere a rezultatelor maxime de la angajai. /traducere din l. englez de Cristina Popa. Iai: Polirom, 2007.

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Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3(77) 2011

MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

INTERACIUNEA DINTRE MANAGEMENTUL FINANCIAR I MEDIUL DE CONTROL FACTOR DE SUCCES AL SISTEMULUI INTERN DE CONTROL
Conf. univ. dr. Eugenia BUMACHIU; Drd. Olga DELI, ASEM
n ultimii ani, politica promovat de stat n domeniul finanelor publice este orientat spre sporirea responsabilitii administrative pentru optimizarea gestiunii resurselor n corespundere cu sarcinile subiectului, bazndu-se pe principiile administrrii adecvate pin intermediul implementrii sistemului managementului financiar, a controlului i activitii auditului intern n sectorul public. n prezent, n Republica Moldova crete rolul i funciile managerilor subiectului public, care sunt chemai s organizeze i s asigure sistemul necesar de management financiar i control. Integrarea european este un scop strategic ireversibil al politicii externe i interne a R. Moldova. Moldova a semnat la 22 februarie 2005, n Bruxelles, Planul de activitate RM-UE n cadrul Politicii Europene de Vecintate (PEV). Planul de activitate este un document care include scopuri i activiti concrete pentru realizarea lor. Implementarea acestui plan va permite sporirea semnificativ a ritmului de armonizare a legislaiei moldoveneti, precum i a normelor i standardelor cu cele europene. Realizarea scopurilor i a activitilor incluse n Planul de activitate va crea premise pentru promovarea unui nivel nou de relaii cu UE. Scopul Guvernului este asigurarea bunstrii rii n ntregime i a fiecrui cetean n parte. Eficiena i calitatea serviciului de stat stau la baza administrrii publice contemporane, orientate spre obinerea unor rezultate concrete. Insuficiena mijloacelor financiare dicteaz o cerin sporit fa de procesul stabilirii prioritilor, planificrii strategice i utilizrii eficiente a mijloacelor alocate. De aceea, Guvernul R. Moldova acord un rol fundamental mbuntirii calitii administrrii de stat. n sectorul de stat apare necesitatea revigorrii unui sistem integral de control financiar, care include att controlul extern, ct i cel intern. Planul de activitate UE-RM conine teze referitoare la controlul financiar intern de stat (CFIS). Guvernul a evideniat crearea sistemului CFIS drept scop n diferite strategii guvernamentale. Astfel, prin Hotrrea nr. 1143 din 04 octombrie 2006 a fost aprobat Concepia controlului financiar intern de stat,

INTERACTION OF FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL ENVIRONMENT AS A FUNDAMENTAL FACTOR IN THE SUCCESS OF INTERNAL CONTROL
Assoc. Prof., PhD Eugenia BUSMACHIU; PhD candidate Olga DELI, AESM
In recent years the state policy is aimed at increasing managerial responsibility for the optimization of resource management according to the objectives of the subject, based on the principles of management efficiency through the implementation of financial management and control, and internal audit in the public sector. At present, in the Republic of Moldova, is increasing, the role and functions of managers of public sector who have to organize and ensure proper system of financial management and control. European integration is an irreversible strategic objective of the foreign and domestic policy of the Republic of Moldova. On February 22, 2005 in Brussels, the Republic of Moldova signed the RM-EU Action plan under the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). The RM-EU Action Plan is a document which includes the strategic goals and concrete actions to achieve them. Implementation of the Action Plan will significantly increase the pace of harmonization of Moldovan legislation, norms and standards to European ones. The implementation of the objectives and actions included in the Action Plan will create prerequisites for moving to a new level of relations with the EU. The purpose of a government is to serve for the wellbeing of the whole country and every citizen. Efficiency and quality of public services lie at the heart of modern public administration, focused on achieving concrete results. Limited financial resources increase the requirements to the process offsetting priority, strategic planning and effective use of allocated funds. Therefore, the RM government allocates fundamental role to the improvement of the quality of state management. In the public sector a need to re-create an integrated system of financial control appears, including both external and internal control. The EUMoldova Action Plan contains provisions relating to the State Internal Financial Control (SIFC). The Government marked the creation of SIFC as a goal in a variety of government policies. Since October 4, 2006 the Government Resolution 1143 approved the Concept of State Internal Financial 21

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3(77) 2011

MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING care reprezint baza de creare i aplicare a responsabilitii administrative pentru funcionarea sistemului de management financiar i control, precum i audit intern. Concepia se bazeaz pe adoptarea internaional contemporan a abordrii rolului i locului controlului financiar intern de stat n asigurarea eficient i eficace a cheltuielilor mijloacelor publice. Sarcina principal const n determinarea bazei conceptuale a sistemului controlului financiar intern de stat, instruirea auditorilor interni, stabilirea sarcinilor i a organizrii sistemului, coordonarea activitii cu auditorul extern, elaborarea i implementarea standardelor naionale de audit public intern, precum i a metodologiei de aplicare a lor. Sistemul se bazeaz pe responsabilitatea conductorilor instituiilor publice pentru crearea unui model adecvat i eficient de administrare, control i audit intern; independena activitii serviciilor de audit intern din instituiile publice; precum i pe activitatea unitii centrale privind armonizarea din cadrul Ministerului Finanelor, responsabil de elaborarea i respectarea standardelor naionale referitoare la controlul intern i auditul intern din administrarea public; coordonarea i supravegherea structurilor de audit intern i contribuirea la pregtirea profesional a auditorilor interni. Unul din momentele principiale ale sistemului este trecerea de la verificarea postfactum a cheltuielilor mijloacelor bugetare la analiza i controlul curent. Dar aceasta ar fi condiionat numai de crearea unei bazei necesare n form de acte legislative, care ar coordona i reglementa activitile pentru promovarea ei. De aceea, pentru pregtirea condiiilor de creare i implementare a sistemului de control financiar intern de stat au fost rezervai mai mult de doi ani. Astfel, dup implementarea Concepiei CFIS n 2006, a urmat adoptarea unui ir de acte normative: Standardele naionale de audit intern (Hotrrea Curii de Conturi nr.82 din 29.11.2007). Codul de etic al auditorului i Carta auditului intern (Regulamentul tip de efectuare a auditului intern), aprobate prin ordinul ministrului Finanelor nr. 111 din 26.12.2007. Strategia de dezvoltare a controlului financiar intern de stat, aprobat prin Hotrrea Guvernului nr. 74 din 29.01.2008. Normele metodologice de implementare a auditului intern n sectorul public, aprobate prin ordinul Ministerului Finanelor nr. 118 din 29.12.2008. Legea despre administrarea public nr. 436-XVI din 28 decembrie 2006 (cu modificrile ulterioare din 2009). 22 Control, which represents the basis for the creation and implementation of management responsibility for the functioning of the system of financial management and control and internal audit. The concept is based on the accepted contemporary international approach to the role and place of State Internal Financial Control to ensure effective and efficient expenditure of public funds. The main task is to define the conceptual framework of State Internal Financial Control, to train internal auditors, to define objectives and organization of the system, coordinate with external audit, develop and implement national standards for the internal state audit and the methodology for their application. The system is based on the responsibility of heads of public institutions for an adequate and effective model of governance, internal control and internal audit, on independence of internal audit services in public institutions, as well as the activity of the Ministry of Finance central unit for harmonization, responsible for development and compliance with national standards of internal control and internal audit in public administration, for coordination and supervision of the internal audit structures and facilitation of the professional training of internal auditors. One of the principal aspects of the system is the transition from checking budget spending post factum to the current analysis and control. However, this transition could be caused only by creating the necessary framework in the form of legislation that would coordinate and regulate the actions of its promotion. Therefore, over two years have been allocated for preparation of conditions for the creation and implementation of State Internal Financial Control. Thus, the introduction of the PIFC Concept in 2006 was followed by a number of regulations: National standards for internal auditing by the Accounts Chamber Decision no. 82 from 29.11.2007 Code of ethics of internal auditors and internal audit card (Standard Regulations for the implementation of internal audit), approved by the Minister of Finance, order no. 111 from 26.12.2007. Strategy for development of State Internal Financial Control, approved by Government Resolution no. 74 from 29.01.2008. Methodological norms for implementation of internal audit in the public sector, approved by the Ministry of Finance no. from 29.12.2008. Law on Local Public Administration no. 436-XVI from December 28, 2006 (and subsequent amendments in 2009). The Law on Budget System and Budget Process no. 847 from 05.24.1996 (amendments made in 2008 and 2009).

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MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING Legea cu privire la sistemul bugetar i procesul bugetar nr. 847 din 24.05 1996 (cu modificri n 2008 i 2009). Legea despre controlul financiar intern de stat nr. 229 din 23.09.2010. Programul de dezvoltare a controlului financiar intern de stat, aprobat prin Hotrrea Guvernului nr. 597 din 02.07 2010, care anuleaz precedenta Strategie de dezvoltare a controlului financiar intern de stat (Hotrrea Guvernului nr. 74 din 29.01.2008). Codul de etic al auditorului intern i Carta auditorului intern (Regulamentul tip de funcionare a subdiviziunii auditului intern, aprobat prin ordinul Ministerului Finanelor nr. 139 din 20.10. 2010), care anuleaz reglementrile adoptate de precedentele Cod i Cart (adoptate prin ordinul Ministerului Finanelor nr. 111 din 26.12.2007). Aplicarea prezentelor acte normative a apropiat Guvernul Republicii Moldova de soluionarea sarcinilor naintate pentru o perioad medie privind realizarea programului de dezvoltare CFIS: remprirea competenelor i a funciilor din organele administrative centrale, ridicarea nivelului profesional al funcionarilor de stat i accelerarea dezvoltrii unui proces eficient de luare a deciziilor; optimizarea numrului de instituii publice i a funcionarilor de stat n scopul sporirii eficienii de utilizare a resurselor financiare i a direcionrii lor prioritare spre prestarea unor servicii publice mai calitative; asigurarea utilizrii eficiente a finanelor publice prin elaborarea i aplicarea unor proceduri i mecanisme unificate, transparente i incoruptibile; educarea intoleranei fa de corupia din administrarea public la toate nivelurile prin realizarea politicilor i a reformelor structurale, care nltur cauzele corupiei din sistem. n scopul realizrii sarcinilor ntr-o perioad medie, Guvernul Republicii Moldova activeaz nemijlocit n trei direcii principale: reforma administrrii publice centrale; transparena i eficiena utilizrii finanelor publice; lupta cu corupia. Cea mai mare i important direcie de activitate a Guvernului este transparena i eficiena utilizrii finanelor publice. Legea adoptat cu privirile controlul financiar intern de stat nr. 229 din Law on State Internal Financial Control no. 229 from 23.09.2010. Program of development of State Internal Financial Control, approved by Government Resolution no. 597 of 02.07.2010, which cancels the previously adopted Strategy for the Development of State Internal Financial Control, Government Decree no. 74 from 29.01.2008. Code of ethics for internal auditors and Internal Audit Card (Standard Regulations on the functioning of the internal audit department), approved by the Ministry of Finance no. 139 from 20.10.2010), which annul the provisions previously adopted in the Code of ethics of the internal auditor and internal audit cards, (Order by the Minister of Finance no. 111 from 26.12.2007). The introduction of these regulations brought the Government of the Republic of Moldova closer to the solution of the proposed objectives for mid-term period for development of the SIFC program: redistribution of competencies and functions of the central administration bodies, improvement of management of human resources, improvement of state employees professional skills and acceleration of development of decision-making effective process; optimization of the number of public institutions and state employees in order to improve the use of financial resources and their priority direction to the provision of better public services; ensure efficient use of public funds through developing and implementing unified, transparent and non-corruptive procedures and mechanisms; educating intolerance to corruption in public administration at all levels through the implementation of policies and structural reforms that eliminate the causes of corruption in the system. In order to achieve the objectives of the medterm period the Government of the Republic of Moldova executes direct activity on three main areas: the reform of central public administration; transparency and efficiency of public finances use; the fight against corruption. The most voluminous and significant direction of activity of the government is transparency and efficiency of public finances. Adopted Law on State Internal Financial Control no. 229 from 23.09.2010 established a legal framework on State Internal Financial Control. The purpose of this Act is to strengthen the management responsibility for 23

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MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING 23.09.2010 a stabilit baza legal a acestuia. Scopul legii indicate l constituie consolidarea responsabilitii administrative pentru optimizarea administrrii resurselor n corespundere cu sarcinile subiectului, bazndu-se pe principii adecvate de administrare, prin implementarea sistemului de management financiar i control i a activitii de audit intern n sectorul public. n legea dat sunt elucidate astfel de noiuni intercorelat ca: managerul subiectului public conductorul celui mai nalt nivel ierarhic al subiectului; managementul financiar i controlul sistemul, implementat i realizat de persoane responsabile de gestionare i administrare, precum i de alt personal n corespundere cu baza normativ i reglementrile interne pentru oferirea unei garanii rezonabile c la ndeplinirea sarcinilor subiectului, fondurile publice se utilizeaz legal, etic, transparent, rezultativ i eficient; mediul de control abordarea i aciunile managerului subiectului privind importana controlului intern al lui, al disciplinei i structurii necesare pentru realizarea sarcinilor date. Accentul principal n politic Guvernul l pune pe factorul uman, fiindc resursele umane sunt capabile s organizeze i s asigure un sistem necesar al managementului financiar i de control. n scopul promovrii unei administrri adecvate n sectorul public, se implementeaz controlul financiar intern de stat, care include: a) managementul financiar i controlul; b) auditul intern; c) armonizarea i coordonarea centralizat. La rndul su, responsabil pentru asigurarea primelor dou puncte este managerul subiectului public, iar responsabil pentru respectarea punctului c) Ministerul Finanelor. Managerul subiectului organizeaz sistemul managementului financiar i de control n scopul obinerii unei garanii rezonabile c sarcinile subiectului vor fi realizate prin intermediul: a) eficacitii i productivitii operaiunilor; b) corespunderii bazei normative i reglementrilor interne; c) siguranei i optimizrii activelor i pasivelor; d) siguranei i integritii informaiei. Managerul subiectului implementeaz sistemul managementului financiar i de control n conformitate cu Standardul naional de control intern n sectorul public, aprobat prin ordinul ministrului Finanelor nr. 51 din 23 iunie 2009 (Monitorul Oficial al Republicii Moldova, 2009, nr. 107-109, pag. 465), 24 optimization of resource management in accordance with the objectives of the subject, based on the principles of good governance through the implementation of financial management and control and internal audit activities in the public sector. This law provides interrelated notions such as: public entity manager a head of the highest hierarchical level of an entity; financial management and control a system introduced and implemented by those responsible for management and administration, as well as by other personnel in accordance with normative base and internal regulations in order to provide reasonable guarantee that public funds are used legally, ethically, transparently, economically, efficiently and effectively in the process of carrying out the tasks of the entity; control environment an approach and actions of a manager of an entity regarding the importance of internal control within the entity, atmosphere, discipline and structure needed to achieve the objectives of the entity. The government lays the main stress to the human factor in their policy, since it is the human resource that is able to organize and ensure proper system of financial management and control. In order to promote good governance in the public sector the State Internal Financial Control is being introduced which includes: a) financial management and control; b) internal audit; c) centralized coordination and harmonization. In turn, the manager of a public entity is responsible for the first two items, and the Ministry of Finance is responsible for compliance with the paragraph c). Manager of the entity organizes the system of financial management and control in order to obtain reasonable guarantee of achievement of the entity objectives by the means of: a) effectiveness and efficiency of operations; b) compliance with the normative base and internal regulations; c) reliability and optimization of assets and liabilities; d) reliability and integrity of information. Manager of the entity introduces a system of financial management and control in accordance with national standards for internal control in the public sector, approved by the Order of the Minister of Finance no. 51 dated June 23, 2009 (Official Monitor of the Republic of Moldova, 2009, no. 107-109, art.485), taking into account the complexity and sphere of activity of the entity, based on the components of the

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MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING innd cont de complexitatea i sfera de activitate a subiectului, n baza componentelor sistemului de control intern, recunoscut la nivel internaional. Controlul intern include cinci componente legate ntre ele: ambiana controlului, managementul caracteristicilor calitative i al riscurilor, msurile de control, informarea i comunicarea, monitoringul i evaluarea. Aceste componente sunt incluse n procesul de administrare i rezult din faptul cum managementul gestioneaz activitatea. Dei componentele enumerate se utilizeaz la toi subiecii, cei mici i mijlocii pot s le implementeze n mod diferit, spre deosebire de instituiile mari. Cu toate c procedurile controlului intern al subiectului mic pot fi mai puin formale i structurate, subiectul dat poate, totui, s dein un sistem rezultativ de management financiar i control. Subiecii publici stabilesc sarcini strategice i operaionale i pun n seama colaboratorilor responsabilitatea respectiv pentru realizarea lor. Sistemul controlului intern nu poate fi rezultativ, dac nu sunt stabilite sarcini distincte n legtur cu faptul ce trebuie realizat de subiect. Astfel, sistemul controlului intern ncepe cu determinarea unor sarcini strategice i operaionale distincte: Sarcinile strategice sunt scopuri principale, urmrite de subiect pentru atingerea scopului stabilit, de regul, pe un termen mediu sau lung (de la 3 ani) i rezult din politicile guvernamentale n domeniul dat; Sarcinile operaionale sunt sarcini legate de activitatea operaional a subiectului, necesare pentru realizarea sarcinilor sale strategice; de obicei, se stabilesc pe un termen scurt (pn la 1 an). Stabilind sarcinile strategice i operaionale, managerii trebuie s creeze un sistem de control intern n vederea asigurrii activitii operaionale rezultative a subiectului. Dezvoltarea controlului intern necesit stabilirea unor sarcini de control. Sarcinile de control reprezint sarcini ale msurilor de control, ndreptate spre asigurarea realizrii de ctre subiect a sarcinilor sale operaionale i strategice i prevenirea riscurilor principale care ar fi putut frna realizarea lor. Managerii sunt responsabili de stabilirea sarcinilor, iar asigurarea efecturii aciunilor necesare pentru realizarea lor aparine att managerilor, ct i colaboratorilor lor. Astfel, managerii trebuie s creeze mecanismele respective pentru monitoringul i evidena executrii planurilor subiectului. Este necesar a diferenia sarcinile de msurile necesare pentru realizarea scopurilor date. Msurile trebuie s fie stabilite n aa mod, nct s mbine urmtoarele caracteristici: 1) clar i concret formulate; 2) msurabile; 3) necesare pentru subiect; 4) reale i realizabile; 5) ncadrate ntr-o perioad determinat de timp, pe parcursul creia sarcina trebuie s fie realizat. Sarcinile, care nu corespund tuturor internal control system, recognized on the international level. Internal control consists of five components related to each other: control environment, management of characteristics and risks quality, control activities, information and communication, monitoring and evaluation. These components are included in the management process and derive from the way management manages an activity. Despite the fact that these components apply to all entities, small and medium-sized entities may implement them differently, comparing with large institutions. Despite the fact that internal control procedures in the small entity may be less formal and structured, the entity may still have effective systems of financial management and control. Public entities establish strategic and operational objectives and lay them on the appropriate staff responsible for achieving the objectives. The internal control system cannot be effective, if clear objectives are not set in relation to what should be implemented by the entity. Thus, the internal control system starts with setting clear strategic and operational objectives: Strategic objectives are the main aims pursued by the entity to achieve the set goal. As a rule they are set for a medium or long term (from 3 years) and result from government policies in this area; Operational objectives are tasks related to operating activities of the entity, which are necessary to achieve the strategic objectives and are usually set for a short term (up to 1 year); Having set the strategic and operational objectives, managers must create a system of internal controls to ensure effective operational activity of the entity. The development of internal control requires the establishment of control tasks. Control Objectives are the tasks of controlling activities directed to the achievement of operational and strategic objectives and prevention of the major risks that could impede their achievement. Managers are responsible for setting objectives, but ensuring the implementation of actions required to achieve these objectives, belongs to both managers and employees. Thus, managers are to establish appropriate mechanisms for monitoring and reporting on plans of the entity. It is necessary to distinguish objectives from activities required to achieve these objectives. Objectives should be defined in such a way that the following characteristics would be combined: 1) clearly and specifically couched; 2) measurable; 3) necessary for the entity; 4) realistic and achievable; 5) fitting in a certain period of time during which an objective must be achieved. Objectives that do not meet all the criteria will be most often not objectives, but rather descriptions of activities. 25

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3(77) 2011

MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING criteriilor, vor aprea cel mai des nu ca sarcini, dar mai degrab ca descrieri ale activitii. Managerii subiecilor publici deleag mputernicirile ctre managerii operaionali, pentru exercitarea obligaiunilor i a dispoziiilor funcionale ale subiectului. Managerii sunt responsabili pentru delegare i asigur ca mputernicirile s fie delegate exclusiv colaboratorilor cu competena necesar, precum i faptul c pentru soluionarea dispoziiilor delegate sunt stabilite niveluri respective de subordonare. Subiecii publici vor lucra mai eficient, dac exist direcii clare pentru delegarea mputernicirilor, care permit managerilor inferiori s adopte deciziile necesare pentru realizarea sarcinilor. Managerii sunt responsabili de ordinea n care se deleag mputernicirile. n aa mod, managerii vor delega mputerniciri colaboratorilor care dispun de cunotine necesare, experien i capaciti pentru exercitarea acestora. mputernicirile delegate pot fi subdelegate, cu acordul managerului care a efectuat delegarea iniial. Dar aceasta nu-l absolvete pe ultimul de responsabilitatea exercitrii obligaiunilor, legate de delegarea mputernicirilor. Dup cum a fost menionat mai sus, abordarea i aciunile managerului subiectului fa de importana controlului intern al subiectului, a atmosferei, disciplinei i structurii necesare pentru realizarea sarcinilor subiectului se numete mediu de control. Mai mult dect alt persoan, managerul subiectului imprim atmosfera creat de conducerea superioar, care influeneaz integritatea, etica i ali factori ai unui mediu pozitiv de control. n cadrul subiecilor mari, managerul ndeplinete aceast obligaiune, acordnd deprinderi i orientri de conducere managerilor operaionali i examinnd cum efectueaz ei monitoringul, apoi verific i activitatea. Managerii operaionali, la rndul lor, ncredineaz responsabilitatea pentru elaborarea unor politici i proceduri colaboratorilor. Mediul de control i asigur subiectului tonul, influennd contiina colaboratorilor n raport cu controlul intern. Componenta dat constituie baza tuturor celorlalte elemente de control intern i asigur disciplina i structurarea. Factorii mediului de control includ integritatea, valorile etice i competena colaboratorilor subiectului, filosofia i stilul de activitate ale administrrii, ordinea n care managementul confer impact i responsabilitate politicii i practicii n domeniul managementului personalului. Tradiional, n Republica Moldova, rolul i funciile managerilor din sectorul public au fost determinate din punctul de vedere al obligaiunilor colaboratorilor privind exercitarea activitii lor n corespundere cu baza legal stabilit. Pentru ca managerii subiecilor publici s evalueze eficiena sistemului de control intern din punctul de vedere al cheltuielilor, ei trebuie s neleag: diapazonul msurilor de control existente i prezena sarcinilor care trebuie s fie 26 Managers of public entities delegate authority to operating managers to carry out the duties and functional orders of the entity. Managers are responsible for the delegation and make sure that the authority is delegated only to employees with the necessary competence, as well as that for solution of the delegated tasks corresponding levels of subordination. Public entities will work more effectively if there are clear directions on delegation of powers, which enable lower-level managers to make necessary decisions in achieving the objectives. Managers are responsible for the order in which authorities are delegated. Thus, managers will delegate authority to the employees, who possess the necessary knowledge, experience and abilities to execute the delegated duties. Delegated tasks may be sub-delegated with the approval of the manager who made the initial delegation. However, this does not exempt the latter from responsibility from the duties associated with the delegation of authority. As stated above, the approach and actions of a manager of anentity regarding the importance of internal control within the entity, atmosphere, discipline and structure required to achieve the objectives of the subject is called control environment. More than any other person, the entity manager adds atmosphere, created by senior managers, which affects the integrity, ethics and other factors of positive controlling environment. In a large public entity a manager performs this obligation by assigning leadership and orientation skills to the operational managers, and controlling how they monitor and check activities. Operational managers, in turn, rest the responsibility for the development of some policies, internal controls and procedures to employees. In smaller entities the managers influence is usually more direct. However, within the responsibility in the form of a cascade, a manager is actually the executive officer in his/her area of responsibility. The control environment dictates a tone to the entity, influencing employees consciousness regarding internal control. This component is a foundation of all other elements of internal control, providing discipline and structuralization. Factors of the control environment include the integrity, ethical values and competence of entitys personnel; philosophy and style of management, order in which the management awards authority and responsibility, policies and practices in the field of personnel management. Traditionally, in the Republic of Moldova, managers roles and functions of a public entity were defined in terms of commitment of staff in the process of carrying out the irduties in accordance with the established legal base. In order that managers of public entities evaluate the effectiveness of the system of internal control from the point of view of the costs, they need to comprehend:

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3(77) 2011

MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING realizate; diverse tipuri de aplicare i avantajele controalelor ex-ante, curente i ex-post. Controalele ex-ante (prealabile) se organizeaz prin intermediul procedurilor interne n scopul prevenirii erorilor, nclcrilor, precum i a activitii ineficiente i necorespunztoare pn la efectuarea operaiei. Controalele curente se efectueaz n timpul realizrii operaiei de evideniere a greelilor i nclcrilor i excluderii lor. Controalele ex-post (ulterioare) se fac prin intermediul controalelor ulterioare a operaiilor. Managerul subiectului, n baza autoevalurii, estimeaz organizarea sistemului managementului financiar i de control i anual emite o declaraie despre administrarea n anul precedent. Ministerul Finanelor reglementeaz ordinea raportului privind organizarea i funcionarea sistemului managementului financiar i de control, precum i cea de autoevaluare i perfectare a declaraiei referitoare la administrarea necesar. Conform conceptului CFIS, auditul intern este o parte component a controlului intern n calitate de instrument pentru evaluarea sistemului CMF. Auditul intern, fiind o funcie care raporteaz direct managementului subiectului public, se consider ca parte integrant a sistemului controlului intern i joac un rol important n procesul de cercetare i raportare despre eficiena sistemului respectiv. Regulamentele date sunt reflectate n Legea cu privire la controlul financiar intern de stat, dar efectuarea unei evaluri a eficienei funcionrii sistemului de management financiar i de control al subiectului public este nc devreme. Legea va intra n vigoare numai la sfritul lui noiembrie 2011, iar rezultatele vor fi mult mai trziu. Guvernul R.Moldova nu se oprete la cele realizate i este intenionat s dezvolte mai departe o administrare public competent, profesionist, orientat spre acordarea unor servicii calitative societii, ce n final va apropia ara de o utilizare mai eficient a resurselor financiare limitate i prosperarea naiunii. 1. 2. 3. range of existing control measures and objectives that must be achieved; various types of uses and benefits of such controls as ex-ante, current and ex-post. Ex-ante (preliminary) checks are organized through the internal control procedures to prevent errors, violations and ineffective and inappropriate activity before a transaction; Current checks are conducted during the implementation of operations for detecting errors and irregularities, and their exclusion; Ex-post (further) checks are carried out through the further control operations. Manager of an entity assesses the system of financial management and control on the basis of selfassessment, and annually publishes the Declaration on good governance for the previous year. Ministry of Finance regulates the report on the organization and functioning of the financial management and control, as well as the process of selfassessment and is suing the declaration on good governance. According to the SIFC concept, Internal Audit is an integral part of the internal control as a tool for evaluation of the FMC. Internal audit, being a function which directly reports to the management of a public entity is regarded as an integral part of the internal control system, and plays an important role in the process of research and reporting on the effectiveness of FMC. These provisions are stated in the law on State Internal Financial Control, but it is yet premature to evaluate the effectiveness of the system of financial management and control of a public entity. The law will come into force until the end of November 2011 and results will be much later. However, the Government of the Republic of Moldova does not stop there and is committed to further develop a competent, professional and efficient public administration, aimed at providing qualified services to the public, that ultimately will bring the country to a more efficient use of limited financial resources and the prosperity and welfare of the nation.

Bibliografie/ Bibliography: , 74 29.01.2008 . 229 23.09.2010 . , 597 02.07.2010 .

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MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

ANTREPRENORIATUL INTRAFIRM N CADRUL SISTEMULUI MODERN DE MANAGEMENT


Lect. univ. dr. Olga REPKINA, Academia de antreprenoriat din Rusia
Apariia i dezvoltarea antreprenoriatului intrafirm sunt motivate de posibilitatea alegerii unor astfel de soluii inovaionale, care s asigure creterea posibilitilor economice ale ntreprinderilor i mbuntirea poziiei lor pe pia. n prezentul articol, autorul analizeaz conceptul de antreprenoriat intrafirm i principalele cerine fa de conducere, n condiiile aplicrii managementului strategic autonom; relaia dintre caracterul inovator al soluiilor i antreprenoriatul intrafirm; trage concluziile de rigoare privind legtura reciproc dintre antreprenoriatul intrafirm, soluiile inovatoare i oportunitatea dezvoltrii durabile a firmei. Cercetrii cauzelor care le determin pe ntreprinderi s promoveze i s dezvolte antreprenoriatul intrafirm i se acord o atenie sporit nu numai n domeniul teoriei organizrii, ci i n sectorul practic al economiei. Conductorii tolereaz comportamentul strategic autonom, n special, din motivul c acesta contribuie la extinderea posibilitilor economice ale ntreprinderii i la descoperirea unor rezerve sinergetice suplimentare n diverse combinaii. Acest fapt este deosebit de actual pentru tranzaciile nalt-tehnologice, ce pretind la poziia de lider pe pia. Totui, nu toi conductorii de ntreprinderi mprtesc univoc ideea unui comportament strategic ce le iese, practic, de sub control, adesea apreciindu-l drept un factor dezorganizator al funcionrii sistemului de gestiune deja constituit, deoarece este nsoit de o serie de cerine suplimentare fa de activitatea de management. Esena iniiativei private const n posibilitatea evalurii rentabilitii poteniale a afacerii concomitent cu capacitatea de distribuire avantajoas a resurselor. Conform teoriei lui B. Karloff, antreprenoriatul const n abilitatea de a pune n concordan interesele consumatorilor cu utilizarea eficient a capitalului i resurselor1. Funcia antreprenoriatului const n anticiparea rezultatelor i stabilirea unor obiective realizabile i aciuni energice n acest scop.

INTRACOMPANY ENTERPRENEURSHIP IN THE MODERN MANAGEMENT SYSTEM


Univ. Lect. PhD candidate Olga REPKINA, Russian Academy Entrepreneurship
The emergence and the development of intracompany entrepreneurship are justified by the possibility of choosing the innovative solutions, capable to expand the companys economic opportunities and to improve its market position. The paper considers the concept of intracompany entrepreneurship and the general requirements that are applied to management activity in terms of autonomous strategic management, the relationship between the innovative nature of decisions and the intracompany entrepreneurship; are drawn conclusions about the relationship between intra-company entrepreneurship, innovative solutions and the opportunities for sustainable development of the company. The research of the reasons that stimulate the companies to maintain and develop intra-company entrepreneurship is paid considerable attention not only in the organizational theory, but also in practical economy. Managers of enterprises tolerate an autonomous strategic behavior mainly due to the fact that it can expand the economic opportunities of the enterprise and identify additional synergetic effects in various combinations. This is of particular relevance for high-tech operations that claim to market leadership. However, not all managers have a univocal attitude towards the idea of practically uncontrolled strategic behavior, and often refer to it as a disruptive factor in the functioning of the existing management system, accompanied by additional requirements for management activities. The essence of entrepreneurship is the ability to assess the potential profitability of the business combined with the ability of profitable allocation of resources. According to B. Karlof entrepreneurship is the ability to harmonize the interests of consumers with efficient use of capital and resources.1 Entrepreneurship function is to predict the result, to set the available goals and active steps in the chosen direction. Significant is the fact that entrepreneurial activity should be carried out in the context of changing internal and external conditions of existence, based on the principle of flexibility and adaptability.

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MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING E semnificativ i faptul c activitatea de antreprenoriat ar trebui efectuat cu luarea n calcul a caracterului instabil al condiiilor interne i externe de via, respectnd principiul flexibilitii i adaptabilitii. n condiiile actuale, filosofia iniiativei private se transform ntr-o filosofie a non-trivialitii ideilor1. Conform teoriei autoorganizrii, sistemele se pot autoorganiza, n fond, ca urmare a nclcrii strii lor de linite deplin. Totodat, orice sistem nu numai c poate s revin la starea sa iniial, ci i s caute noi modaliti de autoperfecionare printr-o serie de stri succesive de instabilitate. Reglementarea sistemului pe termen lung impune o reducere a diversitii de opiuni pentru dezvoltarea acestuia. ntr-o perspectiv pe termen scurt, ns, posibilitatea unei dezvoltri strategice a sistemului i sporirea diversitii unor eventuale variante ale perfecionrii sale sunt preferabile. Astfel, reglementarea sistemului pe termen lung i scurt trebuie s corespund diferitelor circumstane. Sistemul formal de management strategic se confrunt cu problema suprapunerii cu rezultatele antreprenoriatului intrafirm, iar conducerea de vrf a ntreprinderii constat c este nevoie de evaluarea unor iniiative neadecvate strategiei adoptate de firm. n practic, recomandrile inovatoare, care ar putea fi considerate necorespunztoare (inadecvate) tendinelor dezvoltrii firmei, de regul, sunt ignorate. n consecin, pot fi pierdute importante piee de desfacere a mrfurilor sau ratate prioritile de lider n cadrul concurenei. Evaluarea i alegerea propunerilor inovatoare adesea necesit investiii semnificative, fapt care impune cerine suplimentare fa de lider. Nici dimensiunea, nici poziia ntreprinderii pe pia nu sunt n msur s-i asigure acesteia toate resursele de care are nevoie pentru implementarea imediat a tuturor ideilor inovatoare. n ultima perioad, nu arareori este preluat experiena companiilor japoneze, n care personalul este premiat pentru orice propuneri de raionalizare, indiferent dac acestea dau vreun rezultat economic. Fr s le pese de cheltuieli, conductorii acestor firme fac tot posibilul pentru a menine atmosfera de iniiativ i spirit ntreprinztor. Principiul de baz al activitii lor se sprijin pe faptul c cu ct exist mai multe propuneri inovatoare, cu att mai mare este probabilitatea obinerii rezultatului scontat o idee ce ar putea recupera de mai multe ori mijloacele investite. Aceast metod de abordare se aplic, n fond, n cazul inovaiilor i las deschis principala problem a alegerii recomandrilor valoroase (crora face s li se acorde prioritate) i a celor mai eficiente forme de organizare pentru implementarea noilor idei. Evaluarea rentabilitii realizrii proiectului inovaional este condiionat de posibilitatea coordonrii lui cu structura managerial existent i gradul de corespundere a specializrii firmei. Cele mai adecvate sunt
1

In present-day conditions the philosophy of entrepreneurship is transformed into the philosophy of non-trivial ideas.1 According to the theory of self-organization, the systems are self-organizing mainly due to violations of their quiescent state. At the same time, any system can not only return to its original state, but also look for new ways of development through a sequence of unstable states. Regulation of the system in the long term requires a reduction in the diversity of the development options. In the short term, the ability of system strategic development and increase of the diversity of development options are more profitable. Thus, the system regulation of long- and short-term plans must satisfy various conditions. The formal system of strategic management faces the challenge of combining the results of intracompany entrepreneurship and senior management must evaluate the initiatives that do not correspond to the adopted strategy of the firm. In practice, the forwarded innovative proposals that may be considered as non-coincident with the current trend of the firm are usually ignored. Consequently may be overlooked important perspective markets and lost the benefits of leadership in competition. Evaluation and selection of innovative proposals often require significant investment that imposes additional requirements to the manager. Neither the size, no the market position of the company is able to provide them with all resources sufficient for the immediate development of innovative ideas. In recent years it becomes a common thing to take over the experience of Japanese companies, where staff is rewarded for any rational proposal regardless of whether it produces or not economic effect. Regardless of the cost, managers of such firms are doing everything to support the atmosphere of initiative and enterprise within the organization. The main principle of their activity is based on the idea that the more ideas, the greater is the probability of achieving the desired result the idea, that can repeatedly compensate all associated costs. This approach is applicable mainly to innovation and leaves open the main issue of choice of valuable suggestions, which should be given priority, and organizational forms, the most effective for the idea implementation. The evaluation of the innovation project realization effectiveness is related to the possibility of combining it with the existing management structure and the degree of compliance with firms specialization. The most suitable are considered those projects that do not require special construction, equipment, staffing, etc. these projects are implemented within the existing production relations and are established flow of material and information resources.

. // . 1990. 3. Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3(77) 2011 29

MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING considerate acele proiecte care nu necesit noi construcii, utilaj special, asigurarea cu personal etc. Asemenea proiecte sunt implementate n cadrul relaiilor de producie existente i fluxurilor deja stabilite de resurse materiale i informaionale. Cu ajutorul asociaiilor de risc (venture) interne i altor forme de organizare a antreprenoriatului intrafirm, compania poate reui s ocupe noi nie ale pieei i s-i creeze condiii pentru extinderea unor domenii promitoare ale dezvoltrii sale. Unul din motivele rspndirii antreprenoriatului intrafirm const n legtura reciproc direct dintre soluiile inovatoare posibile, n cazul dat, ale cror rezultate ar putea ameliora avantajele concureniale i ridica gradul de stabilitate a firmei ntr-o perspectiv de lung durat. Principalii indicatori ai dezvoltrii durabile a ntreprinderii sunt: competitivitatea produselor, dinamica produciei, ponderea cercetrii i dezvoltrii experimentale n volumul total al lucrrilor, ritmul de modernizare a mijloacelor fixe, nivelul politicii investiionale, stabilitatea procesului de producie, criteriile durabilitii financiare. Comportamentul strategic autonom ar fi una din rezervele strategice ale stabilitii ntreprinderii, ce poate fi asigurat prin realizarea soluiilor inovatoare. Gestiunea procesului inovaional este determinat de aciunea unor factori precum necesitatea de producie a dezvoltrii activitii inovatoare i tendina sferei tehnico-tiinifice de a se autoorganiza. Factorul determinant al constituirii managementului inovaional este doar primul. n secolul al XX-lea, cnd concurena cptase un caracter non-valoric, fluxul de capital n noile sfere se baza, n mare msur, pe tiin. n aceeai perioad, a nceput a se cristaliza concepia de marketing al activitii de antreprenoriat, condiionat de prezena (existena) inovaiilor. Activitatea inovaional, treptat, a cptat importan strategic, iar guvernele rilor dezvoltate au elaborat un sistem de stimulare a activitilor tiinifice i tehnologice n vederea dezvoltrii spiritului antreprenorial inovator. Principalele prioriti ale managementului activitii inovatoare au devenit: elaborarea unor forme mai sofisticate de interaciune ntre tiin i producie; crearea unui sistem eficient de logistic pentru activitile inovatoare; promovarea metodelor de finanare a inovaiilor, planificarea i alocarea de fonduri; cutarea unor forme mai eficace de diviziune a muncii i de colaborare n domeniul tiinei; formarea unui sistem universal de informare pentru activitatea inovatoare. Economia activitii inovatoare a luat natere n punctul de jonciune a economiilor produciei materiale i sferei neproductive. Totodat, aceasta a impus necesitatea modificrii procesului managerial. Anume n acea perioad a nceput a se dezvolta antreprenoriatul intrafirm ca un comportament strategic autonom, care poate asigura elaborarea i realizarea soluiilor inovatoare. With the help of internal ventures and other forms of intra-company entrepreneurship organization the company is able to penetrate into new market niches and create conditions for expanding the promising areas of its development. Such activities can also identify unpromising directions, which should not be encouraged. One of the reasons for spreading intra-company entrepreneurship is the direct correlation between in a certain case innovative solutions, the results of which can improve the competitive advantage and the sustainability in the long run. The main indicators for sustainable development of the enterprise is the assessment of the competitiveness of products, production dynamics, the share of R&D in the total amount of work, the rate of fixed assets renewal, the level of investment policy, the stability of the productions process, the criteria for financial stability. Autonomous strategic behavior can be considered a strategic recourse sustainability of the enterprise through the implementation of innovative solutions. Innovation process management is determined by such factors as the need for production in the innovation development and the trend of scientific and technical areas towards selforganization. Determinant for the development of the innovation process management is the first factor. In the XX century, when competition acquired non-price character, capital flow towards new areas is increasingly based on science. At the same time was created a marketing concept of entrepreneurship, closely linked to innovation. Innovation activity gradually acquired a strategic importance, and the governments of developed countries have developed a system to stimulate scientific and technological activities for the development on innovative entrepreneurship. The main priorities of innovation management are considered the development of more sophisticated forms of interaction between science and production; the creation of an effective system of logistics innovation; development of ways of financing innovation, planning and allocation of funds; search of more efficient labor division and cooperation in science, creation of a universal information system of innovative activity. Economics of innovation activity emerged at the turn of the economies of material production and service sector. At the same time it led to the need to change the management process. At this particular time began the development of intra-company entrepreneurship as an autonomous strategic behavior that may lead to the development and implementation of innovative solutions.

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MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

EXTINDEREA ARIEI DE REGLEMENTARE PE PIAA FINANRII LOCUINELOR N REPUBLICA MOLDOVA


Lect. sup. Aliona LSI, UTM
Formarea unui sistem de creditare ipotecar civilizat n Republica Moldova se mbin cu necesitatea punerii n aplicare a evenimentelor de mare anvergur pentru formarea mediului instituional al finanrii pieei locative, un rol nu mai puin important atribuindu-se instituiilor de reglementare. Practica demonstreaz c o economie de pia funcionabil nu poate s existe fr instituii publice i de stat, care reglementeaz funcionarea pieei financiare i condiiile de prestare a serviciilor. Cu ct mai liberal este economia, cu att mai multe instituii de reglementare trebuie s existe. Cuvinte-cheie: pia ipotecar, credite ipotecare, pia a finanrii locuinei, instituii de reglementare Practica mondial de organizare a pieei ipotecare se caracterizeaz printr-o diversitate mare de instituii de creditare. Acestea pot fi clasificate n dou tipuri: modelul institutului de depozit i modelul bncii ipotecare. Potrivit primului model instituiile de depozit i concentreaz tot setul de operaii pe formarea resurselor, plasarea i refinanarea creditelor ipotecare oferite prin emisiunea titlurilor de valoare ipotecare. Al doilea model se caracterizeaz prin fragmentarea procesului de ipotecare, cu participarea mai multor instituii de creditare. Creditele ipotecare se ofer de ctre bncile ipotecare. Funciile de furnizori de resurse pe piaa creditelor ipotecare se realizeaz prin emiterea titlurilor de valoare ipotecare de ctre ageniile ipotecare, garantate de ctre Trezorerie, n credite bancare ipotecare. Nevoia de specializare a creditelor ipotecare este cauzat de o serie de factori macroeconomici. n primul rnd, piaa creditelor ipotecare rezideniale este complicat din punct de vedere juridic, al domeniului de aplicare, multifuncionalitii, termenului lung de investire, care necesit nalt calificare profesional i experien n domeniu, pentru a gestiona afacerile ipotecare. n al doilea rnd, exist diferene semnificative n raportul ofert-cerere al surselor pentru creditarea ipotecar ntre diferite regiuni ale rii, chiar i n Chiinu sau n anumite centre raionale din Republica Moldova, distribuia investitorilor primari proprietarii fondurilor temporar inactive nu ntotdeauna fiind foarte benefice. Astfel, pentru instituiile specializate de credit ipotecar sunt caracteristice urmtoarele dou tipuri de opiuni: intermediar ntre proprietarii de fonduri temporar libere i debitori; de transformare-atragere a capitalului privat disponibil i a investitorilor instituionali pentru finanarea pe termen lung. La baza conceptului de instituie specializat n credit ipotecar este inclus cerina pentru protejarea drepturilor deponenilor i creditorilor si. Aceast cerin este pus n aplicare dup urmtoarele principii:

EXTENSION OF THE HOUSE MARKET FINANCING REGULATION IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA


Senior Lect. Aliona LISII, UTM
The formation of a civilized mortgage system lending in Moldova is combined with the need to implement some large-scale events for the creation of the institutional environment of financing the housing market, no less important role having also the regulatory agencies. Practice shows that a functioning market economy can not exist without public and state institutions, that govern the operation of the financial market and the conditions of delivering services. The more liberal is the economy, the more regulatory institutions must exist. Key-words: mortgage market, mortgages, housing finance market, regulator institutions. International practice of organizing the mortgage market is characterized by a large variety of lending institutions. These can be classified in two categories: the model of a deposit institute and the mortgage bank model. Under the first model the deposit institutions focus their whole set of operations to resource formation, placement and refinancing the mortgage loans offered through issuing mortgage securities. The second model is characterized by fragmentation of mortgage lending participation of several institutions. Mortgage loans are offered by mortgage banks. The functions of the supply of resources on the mortgage market is done by issuing mortgage securities by mortgage agencies, guaranteed by the Treasury, in the mortgage bank loans. The need for specialized mortgage is caused by several macroeconomic factors. First, the residential mortgage market is complicated from the juridical perspective, in terms of the scope, multi-functionality, long-term investment that requires highly professional expertise to manage the mortgage business. Secondly, there are significant sources of demand supply ratio for mortgage lending between different regions of the country, even in Chisinau and in some district centers in Moldova the distribution of primary investorstemporarily owners of the idle funds may not be always very benefic. Thus, specialized mortgage institutions are characterized by the following two options: an intermediary between the owners of temporarily free funds and debtors; the transformation option, attracting private and institutional investors available capital for long-term financing. Underlying the concept of a specialized agency in mortgage implies the requirement to protect the rights of its depositors and creditors. This requirement is 31

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MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING - specializarea, care se manifest prin aceea c bncile ipotecare efectueaz numai anumite tipuri de operaiuni. Acest lucru face uor previzibil structura riscului bancar i reduce incertitudinea n tranzacii; eficiena economic numrul limitat de operaiuni de creditare, angajate de bncile ipotecare, promoveaz eficiena n munca lor i permite s aib un numr mai mic de personal dect n alte bnci; prin urmare, cheltuielile cu personalul i costurile materiale ale unei bnci ipotecare nu sunt att de mari (acest lucru, de asemenea, ar trebui s reduc riscul de faliment); congruena (echivalena), ceea ce nseamn necesitatea de a menine de ctre bncile ipotecare raportul cerine i obligaii n ceea ce privete volumul, maturitatea, randamentul i raportul dintre titlurile de crean emise i capitalurile proprii ale bncii. Investigarea fundamentelor teoretice specializrii instituiilor de credit de pe piaa creditelor ipotecare a permis definirea caracteristicii lor eseniale, care const n limitarea riscului prin specializarea n oferirea, n primul rnd, a creditelor ipotecare i fragmentarea acestora. Pieele emergente din R. Moldova a creditelor pentru locuine, de asemenea, se caracterizeaz printr-un grad nalt de instituionalizare. Practica de creditare ipotecar este furnizat de ctre bncile comerciale de tip clasic (universal), bncile specializate n credite ipotecare, ageniile ipotecare etc. Regulamentul Bncii Naionale pentru creditorii imobiliari pe pia nu este diferit de acel a bncilor universale. n conformitate cu scopurile de reglementare desemnate prin lege (meninerea stabilitii sistemului bancar, protejarea intereselor deponenilor i creditorilor), obiectele de reglementare sunt: nfiinarea unei instituii de credit; operaiunile bancare n procesul de funcionare a instituiei de credit; procedura de lichidare, conversia instituii de credit etc. Scopul de reglementare n crearea instituiei de credit const n monitorizarea performanei operaiunilor bancare numai de acei operatorii economici, care sunt autorizai s le pun n aplicare de ctre un organism autorizat (BNM), astfel pentru eliminarea ntreprinderilor cu risc nalt sau non-viabile n stadiul crerii acestora; abordarea selectiv pentru viitorii proprietari i manageri. Sistemul de reglementare a crerii instituiilor de credit se bazeaz pe nregistrarea lor i eliberarea licenei, cu rezerva respectrii anumitor condiii: cerinele minime pentru capitalul autorizat i a structurii acestuia, viabilitatea financiar a fondatorilor, cerinele de calificare pentru conducere etc. Cu toate acestea, credem c utilizarea reglementrii instituiilor de credit ipotecar se efectueaz dup o serie de cauze obiective, indiferent de identitatea lor ca instituii de credit specializate, care fac afacerile ipotecare nu numai economic dezavantajoase, dar n mod obiectiv ntmpin obstacole juridice. Acestea sunt, n primul rnd, constrngerile fundamentale privind crearea de instituii specializate n creditare ipotecar, legate de lipsa conceptului instituie de credit specializat n legea bancar. n al doilea rnd, n conformitate cu instruciunile BNM 109-XVI din 16.05.2008, n vigoare din 20.06.2008, art. 5, suma minim subscris i depus n capitalul bncii se 32 implemented by the following principles: - specialization, which is manifested by the fact that mortgage banks perform only certain types of operations. This makes a very predictable structure of banking risk and reduces uncertainty in transactions; - economic efficiency, the limited number of lending, mortgage banks employed, promote efficiency in their work and allow to have fewer staff than in other banks, therefore the staff and material costs of a mortgage bank is not so great (this should also reduce the risk of bankruptcy); - congruence (equivalence) which means the need to maintain the mortgage banks report requirements and obligations in terms of volume, maturity, yield and ratio of the debt issued over the equity of the bank. Investigating the foundations of the theoretical specialization of credit institutions on the mortgage market has allowed to define their essential feature, which is to limit risk by specializing in providing first mortgages, and their fragmentation. The emerging markets of mortgage loans in Moldova are also characterized by a high degree of institutionalization. The practice of mortgage lending is provided by classical (universal) commercial banks, specializing in mortgages, mortgage agencies, etc. The national Bank Regulation for estate creditors on the market is not different from that of universal banks. In accordance with regulatory purposes designated by law (banking system stability, protection of the depositors and creditors interest) the regulatory objects are: the establishment of credit institutions, banking operations in the process of functioning of the credit institutions, the liquidation procedure, the conversion of credit institutions etc. The regulatory purpose in creating the credit institution is monitoring the performance of banking operations only by those operators who are authorized to implement them by an authorized body (NBM), so, in order to eliminate the high-risk or non-viable businesses at the stage of creating their selective approach for future owners and managers. The system of regulation of credit institution building is based on their registration and license, subject to compliance with certain conditions: the minimum authorized capital structure, financial viability of founders, qualification requirements for driving, etc. However, we believe that the use of regulation for the mortgage credit institutions is made after a series of objective reasons, regardless their identity as a specialized credit institutions that make the mortgage business not only economically disadvantageous, but objectively encounter legal obstacles. These are primarily the fundamental constraints on the creation of institutions specializing in mortgage credit, related to the lack of concept of credit institution specializing in banking law. Secondly, in accordance with the instructions of the National Bank of Moldova 109-XVI from 16.05.2008, in force from 20.06.2008 art.5 the minimum amount

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MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING stabilete n cuantum de 100 milioane lei. Apariia mai multor operatori (agenii ipotecare, companii de construcii i economii) trebuie s se nfiineze i s acioneze drept creditori de tip clasici, cu toate consecinele care decurg din aceasta. Astfel, organizarea n mas a pieei creditelor ipotecare socialsemnificative, bazate pe o reea extins de instituii ipotecare non-bancare, cum ar fi casele de economii operaionale, ageniile de credit ipotecar n republic nu a fost nc posibil. Modalitatea de control de baz a activitilor curente ale instituiilor de creditare este supravegherea documentar la distan. Scopul supravegherii off-site este controlul asupra volumului preluat de riscuri de instituia de creditare; (identificarea problemelor la un stadiu incipient n activitile sale i msurile pentru depirea fenomenelor i tendinelor negative); dezvoltarea instituiilor de credit prin crearea seciilor teritoriale separate; extinderea activitii din punctul de vedere al modificrii etapelor de efectuare a anumitor proceduri; modificrile n componena membrilor, componena administraiei instituiei de credit, funcionarea sistemului de control intern n cadrul instituiei de credit. Totui, considerm c aplicarea la instituiile de creditare ipotecar a formelor tradiionale de supraveghere de la distan, specifice pentru bncile de tip universal, reduce, de asemenea, rolul instituiilor de reglementare n dezvoltarea creditarii ipotecare, n special a cerinelor pentru adaptarea capitalului, a normelor de lichiditate. Analiznd reglementrile activitii bncilor comerciale (pe aciuni), private i cooperatiste (cu modificri ulterioare),observm c nu se permite procesul de refinanare a unui credit ipotecar prin emisia hrtiilor de valoare ipotecare. n plus, rspndirea cerinelor de supraveghere bancar i reglementare a bncilor universale asupra activitii bncilor ipotecare, a caselor de economii, ageniilor ipotecare, practic, o face fr nici un sens, deoarece acestea devin punct de vedere economic ineficiente. Controlul calitii portofoliului de credite i a nivelului de management al riscului de credit, puse n aplicare n conformitate cu regulamentul BNM Cu privire la clasificarea activelor i a angajamentelor condiionale i formarea reducerilor pentru pierderi la active i a provizioanelor pentru pierderi la angajamente condiionale nr. 224 din 30.08.2007 impune instituiilor de creditare s creeze rezerve n mrime 2100% din creditele contractate. n conformitate cu aceste standarde, bncile sunt obligate s refere la costuri sume considerabile de bani. La rate ale dobnzii relativ reduse la creditele ipotecare, instituiile de credit specializate devin neprofitabile. Fiabilitatea ipotecii asigurat prin legislaia bancar nu este luat n considerare; n plus, este identificat cu constituirea rezervelor cu garanie obinuit pentru creditele de consum, cum ar fi garantarea unei persoane juridice, care nu are nici o istorie de credit, cu un capital social minim. Rezervarea obligatorie a resurselor de creditare, n conformitate cu regulamentele privind rezervele obligatorii ale instituiilor de credit depuse la Banca Naional a Moldovei, de asemenea, reduce eficiena participanilor la afacerile ipotecare. Lund n considerare aplicarea, n sistemul modern de creditare ipotecar, a principiului cotei de participare iniial obligatorie de ctre viitorii debitori (la o rat de 30 la sut sau mai mult din costul locuinelor viitoare), rezervarea subscribed and deposited in the bank capital is determined in quantum of 100 million lei. Appearance of several operators (mortgage agencies, construction and savings companies) should be set up to act as classic lenders with all the consequences arising there from. Therefore, the mass organization of social-significant mortgage credits on the market, based on an extensive network of non-bank mortgage institutions, such as operational savings, mortgage agencies in the Republic of Moldova has not yet been possible. The basic control method of the current activities of the lending institutions are documentary supervision at distance. The purpose of surveillance off-site is the control over: the volume taken by the credit risk institution, (identifying problems at an early stage in its activities and measures to overcome the negative phenomena and trends), development of credit institutions, by creating separate territorial divisions; its expansion in terms of stages of making changes to certain procedures, changes in the membership composition of the credit institution administration, operation of internal control within the credit institution. However, we believe that the application for mortgage lending institutions of traditional forms of remote surveillance, specific for universal type banks, also reduces the role of regulatory institutions in the development of mortgage lending. In particular the requirements for adjustment of capital, liquidity norms. Analyzing the regulations of private and cooperative commercial banks (stock) (as amended) does not allow enough process of refinancing a mortgage, the mortgage securities emission. In addition, the spread of banking supervision and regulation requirements of universal banks on the activity of mortgage banks, savings banks, mortgage agencies basically makes no sense because they are economically inefficient. The quality control of the credit portfolio and credit risk management, implemented in accordance with the Bank Regulation regarding the classification of assets and engagements and training allowance for assets and provisions for losses on engagements no. 224 of 30.08.2007, requires lending institutions to create reserves worth 2-100% of the loans. Under these standards, banks are required to set as costs considerable sums of money. At relatively low interest rates on mortgages, specialized credit institutions become unprofitable. Reliability ensured by mortgage banking law is not taken into account, moreover is identified with the usual reserve to guarantee consumer loans, such as guaranteeing a legal person that has no credit history with a minimum share of capital. Compulsory booking of the credit resources in accordance with the National Banks regulations on required reserves of credit institutions deposited at the National Bank also reduces the efficiency of the mortgage business participants. Considering the application of modern system of mortgage lending in the principle of compulsory initial rate of participation by 33

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3(77) 2011

MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING de fonduri atrase duce la creterea ratelor dobnzilor bancare la creditele ipotecare, n comparaie cu costul de mprumuturi ale participanilor non-bancari de pe piaa ipotecar. Necesitatea de a se conforma cerinelor de execuie transparent a tranzaciei cu creditul ipotecar cauzeaz, de asemenea, creterea costului de tranzacie pentru debitor la achitarea taxei de 1,5% din valoarea de pia a bunului achiziionat, achitarea expertului independent pentru serviciile prestate, nregistrarea tranzaciei de creditare, rambursarea plilor fiscale ctre vnztorul de locuine. Analiza doar a cteva aspecte de reglementare a participanilor pieei ipotecare face evident concluzia c nivelul dur (neflexibil) de reglementare a instituiilor de credit devine o barier, ncetinind dezvoltarea masiv a pieei ipotecare, reduce competitivitatea instituiilor de credit i, prin urmare, disponibilitatea creditelor pentru populaie. Soluia de perspectiv a acestei probleme este versiunea de dezvoltare a mediului instituional al pieei ipotecare prin adoptarea unui set nou de legi, care ar legaliza principiul specializrii activitii pieei ipotecare (de modificare a legii despre bnci i activitate bancar Cu privire la statutul unei instituii de credit specializate, de aprobare a legilor Cu privire la bncile ipotecare, Cu privire la casele de economii, Cu privire la emiterea titlurilor de valoare imobiliare), introducerea modificrilor n actele de activitate a Bncii Naionale n ceea ce privete reglementarea i supravegherea participanilor la piaa creditelor ipotecare. A doua problem (evaluarea comparativ a efectelor reglementrii participanilor de diferite tipuri de pe pia ipotecar), a fost rezolvat prin analiza reglementarii securitii i competitivitii instituiilor de credit, a companiilor financiare de construcii, cooperativelor de construcii a spaiului locativ. Analiza anterioar a reglementarii instituiilor de credit participanii la sistemul de creditare ipotecar, conduce la ncheierea unei concluzii; pe de o parte, acestea au grad ridicat de fiabilitate, pe de alt parte lipsa de competitivitate n comparaie cu ceilali participani pe pia, din cauza costurilor de tranzacie ridicate, pe care creditorii le rsfrng asupra debitorilor. Este foarte important rolul instituiilor de reglementare n activitatea companiilor de construcie (instituiilor financiare de construcie), care utilizeaz, de regul, instrumente cvaziipoterare. Relaiile dintre acestea i cumprtorii de locuine sunt constituite n baza contractului de investire n construcia de locuine , care presupune angajarea cumprtorului de a achita n avans (la o rat de 40 la sut sau mai mult) i plata n rate a sumei rmase pe parcursul perioadei de construire. Se utilizeaz i o alt posibilitate de plat n rate pe termen lung (dup darea n exploatare a locuinei) n condiii de nchiriere pe termen lung, cu drept de cumprare ulterioar. Analiza mecanismului de reglementare a acestor structuri permite de a efectua urmtoarele concluzii: Geografia pieei firmelor de construcii, practic, este nelimitat, aceasta poate fi efectuat oriunde n ar. Gama de servicii este limitat n baza contractului de investire, adic mobilizarea capitalurilor persoanelor fizice i juridice se efectueaz direct, cu toate consecinele ulterioare. 34 prospective borrowers (at a rate of 30 percent or more of the cost of future housing), reservation of funds, banks increase interest rates on loans mortgage loans compared with the cost to the participants of non-bank mortgage market. The need to comply with the requirements of implementing transparent mortgage transaction also causes increased transaction costs for the debtor to pay the fee of 1.5% of the market value of the property purchased, the independent expert paid for their services, loan transaction record , reimbursement of tax payments to the seller of homes. Analysis of only few regulatory issues of the mortgage market participants makes clear the conclusion that the tight (non flexible) governing credit institutions are a barrier, slowing the development of massive mortgage market, reducing the competitiveness of credit institutions and, therefore, the availability of crediting the population. The solution of this problem is future development version of the institutional environment of the mortgage market by adopting a new set of laws that would legalize the specialization principle of the mortgage market activity (amending the Law on banks and banking activity, regarding the status of a specialized credit institution, approval of the Law On mortgage banks. On savings, On the issue of real estate securities, the introduction of changes in regulatory acts of the National Bank, in terms of regulation and supervision of the mortgage market participants. The second problem (the comparative assessment of the effects of different types of participants reglementation from the mortgage market), was solved by analyzing the regulation of safety and competitiveness of credit institutions, financial building companies, and housing construction cooperatives. Previous analysis of regulation of credit institutions participants of mortgage lending system, leads to the conclusion, on the one hand they have high reliability, on the other hand the lack of competitiveness compared to other market participants because of the high transaction costs which creditors resides on debtors. It is very important the role of the regulatory institutions in the construction business companies (financial, construction institutions), using as a rule, quasimortgage tools. Relations between them and buyers of housing are made under the contract of investment in housing, which involves engaging the buyer to pay in advance (at a rate of 40 percent or more), and installment payment of the amount remaining during construction. It is used also, another opportunity for long term hire (after commissioning the housing maintenance) under long term lease with an option to purchase later. Analysis of regulatory mechanism of these structures allows performing the following conclusions. Geography of the construction firms market is virtually unlimited, construction can be done anywhere in the country. The range of services is limited under the investment contract, i.e. raising the capital of natural and

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3(77) 2011

MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING Funcioneaz constrngeri naturale: timpul pentru atragerea fondurilor este limitat de perioada de construcie, perioada plii ealonate: dimensiunea fondurilor proprii disponibile sau a profiturilor subiecilor economici; locul de construcie este a doua restricie. Costurile cumprtorilor chiriai ai locuinei (cu condiia rscumprrii locuinei n rate) este minim: nu exist nici o cerin de a confirma legalitatea veniturilor i necesitatea, prin urmare, declarrii impozitelor pltite, nu este nevoie de a plti taxa de stat; sunt minimizate i costurile indirecte ale companiilor de construcii n lipsa legii n privina formrii rezervelor. n ceea ce privete calitatea serviciilor din punctul de vedere al vitezei de livrare a lor, n majoritatea cazurilor aceasta este maxim, ceea ce nu dovedete fiabilitatea lor. Regulamentul fiabilitii firmelor de construcii este minim, deoarece se supun reglementrii numai serviciile de construire prin acordarea licenei de activitate; n plus, trebuie s treac prin procedura de aprobare a construciei, adoptarea unei decizii de dare n exploatare a construciei locative de ctre Comisia de Stat. Mobilizarea fondurilor, a riscurilor asociate cu construcia, practic, nu sunt obiectul unei reglementri. Capitalul social al societii, nregistrat oficial, de obicei, este minim, raportul dintre fondurile proprii i mprumutate n raportul financiar sunt aproape critice, profitul este minimilizat, pentru a se eschiva de la plata impozitelor i, n cele mai multe cazuri, situaiile financiare nu corespund realitii. Cu toate acestea, efectul prghiei financiare, din cauza lipsei plaii pentru mobilizarea resurselor financiare ale investitorilor, sunt maxime. Aceast situaie conduce la un grad ridicat, de facto, al profitului nedeclarat, obinut de agenii economici. Evalund rolul reglementarii de ctre companiile financiare de construcii a imobilului locativ pe piaa creditelor ipotecare, trebuie remarcat nivelul ridicat al competitivitii acestora, comoditatea serviciilor prestate populaiei, nivelul sczut de ncredere. Dezvoltarea creditrii ipotecare prin utilizarea economiilor bneti ale populaiei n construcii, prevede un model de autofinanare a lucrrilor de construcie ale membrilor cooperativei de ctre fondul de ajutor financiar, adic resursele financiare, utilizate de cooperativ pentru creditarea membrilor si. Formarea fondului se efectueaz din contul aciunilor membrilor cooperativei, transferate n proprietate, i a economiilor personale ale cetenilormembrilor cooperativei. Modelul de reglementare este caracterizat, n aceast schem de creditare ipotecar, prin urmtorii parametri: piaa serviciilor creditrii ipotecare prin utilizarea economiilor bneti ale populaiei n construcii este limitat, de obicei, de ocuparea forei de munc, interesele profesionale ale membrilor cooperativei. n plus, o limitare semnificativ a activitilor sale este cerina de a interzice emiterea de mprumuturi pentru cetenii care nu sunt membri ai acesteia. Gama de servicii are, de asemenea, unele limitri; este interzis s se acorde mprumuturi persoanelor juridice; de a aciona n calitate de garant pentru obligaiile membrilor si i alte pri tere; de a face proprietatea lor ca o contribuie la capitalul social al cooperativelor de producie i de a participa, n orice alt fel, la formarea activelor persoanelor juridice; legal persons can be made directly with the consequences later. There work some natural constraints: time for fundraising is limited during the construction period staggered payment the size of available own funds or profits of developers, the construction site is the second constraint. Buyers costs tenants of housing (housing provided redemption in installments) is minimal: there is no income requirement to confirm the legality and necessity, therefore, declare taxes paid, no need to pay fees, are minimized and indirect costs of the construction companies about the lack of law on reserve formation. Regarding the service quality in terms of their speed of delivery, in most cases it is maximum, which does not prove their reliability. Regulation of the reliability of construction firms is minimal, because the regulation is subject only to the construction services business license, in addition, it must pass through the approval procedure of the construction, giving a decision on maintenance of housing construction by the State Commission. Borrowing funds, risks associated with construction, are practically not subject to regulation. Officially registered capital of the company is usually at minimum ratio of own and borrowed funds in the financial report are almost critical, the profit is minimized to evade taxes, and in most cases the financial statements are inaccurate. However, the effects of the financial leverage are maximum, because of lack of payment for mobilizing the financial resources of investors. This leads to a high de facto degree, of the undeclared profits obtained by companies. Assessing the role of regulation of financial building companies on the housing mortgage market, it should be noted the high level of their competitiveness, convenience of services rendered at a low level of confidence. Development of mortgage lending by using the financial savings of the population in construction, provides a self-financing model of the construction of cooperative members by the financial aid fund, i.e. financial resources, used for crediting cooperative members. Forming is carried out at the expense of fund shares cooperative members transferred to the property, and personal savings of citizens, members of cooperative. The regulatory model is characterized by the scheme of mortgage lending by the following parameters: mortgage lending market through the use of public savings in construction is limited, usually by the employment of the labor force, professional interests of the cooperative members. In addition, a significant limitation of its activities is the requirement to prohibit the issuance of loans to citizens who are not members of the cooperative. The range of services also has some limitations, it is forbidden to lend to businesses, to act as a guarantor for the obligations of its members and other third parties, to make their property as a contribution to the capital of production of cooperatives, and to participate in any other assets to form legal entities to issue their own securities, to buy shares and other securities of other 35

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3(77) 2011

MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING de a emite titluri de valoare proprii; de a cumpra aciuni i issuers, any further transactions on financial markets and alte valori mobiliare ale altor emiteni; de a efectua alte securities, except to hold funds in current accounts and operaiuni pe pieele financiare i de valori, cu excepia de a deposits in banks and purchase state and municipal deine fonduri n conturi curente i depozite n bnci i a securities. Costs to access the cooperatives are minimal achiziiona titluri de valoare de stat i municipale. Costurile because it is able to offer an interest-free loan to the de acces la serviciile cooperativei sunt minime, deoarece este cooperative members, if the contract is for an amount not posibilitatea de a oferi membrilor cooperativei mprumut fr exceeding fifty times the minimum wage in the economy dobnd, n cazul n care contractul este pentru o sum care nu established by the state. depete de cincizeci de ori salariul minim statutar, stabilit pe Assessing the effectiveness of cooperative economie. regulation using the cash savings of population in Evaluarea eficacitii reglementrii cooperativei care housing, gives the possibility to see that there are limits to utilizeaz economiile bneti ale populaiei n construcia de the reliability and competitiveness; however, the degree of locuine d posibilitate de a observa c exist anumite limite n regulation is low, mainly because it reduces to the ceea ce privete fiabilitatea i competitivitatea; dei gradul de limitations of the internal ownership, defined by the reglementare este sczut, deoarece se reduce, n principal, la statute of the general assembly. limitrile proprietii interne, definite prin statut de adunarea Conclusion: Summarizing the results of the general a membrilor. investigation of the regulatory impact on market Concluzie. Rezumnd rezultatele de investigare a participants of different mortgage types, it was found that: impactului de reglementare asupra participanilor pieei - institutions define and limit the alternatives that creditelor ipotecare de diferite tipuri, s-a constatat: are available for each potential purchaser of housing in terms of choosing one or another c instituiile definesc i limiteaz posibilitile form of financing its application; alternative, care sunt disponibile, fiecrui cumprtor potenial a strong degree of regulatory impact on the al spaiului locativ n ceea ce privete alegerea uneia sau altei actions of one or another lender is designed to forme de finanare a cererii sale; reduce costs, first of all of the debtor, while gradul puternic a impactului de reglementare improving also the impact on creditors loss; privind aciunile unui sau altui creditor este proiectat pentru a - a low exposure degree of the creditors increases reduce costurile, mai nti de toate, ale debitorului, sporind, n the likelihood of debtors loss. In fact, it appears acelai timp, i impactul asupra pierderii creditorilor; that creditors previously examined group numrul mic al creditorilor mrete probabilitatea acquires a competitive advantage compared to pierderii debitorilor. De fapt, se dovedete c grupul de the first, thus, extending their operating range, creditori examinai anterior dobndete un avantaj competitiv and increasing the risk for the borrower. Thus, n comparaie cu primul, astfel extinznd domeniul de credit institutions, which support high funcionare a lor i crescnd riscul pentru debitor. Astfel, transaction costs due to regulation, dont gain a instituiile de credit, care suport costuri tranzacionale nalte competitive advantage in the mortgage market. ca urmare a reglementrii, nu obin un avantaj competitiv pe Obviously, that is due to the circumstances that piaa creditelor ipotecare. Evident este c anume datorit should explain the low level of activity of banks acestei circumstane ar trebui s se explice nivelul redus de and non-bank credit institutions in this market activitate a bncilor i instituiilor non-bancare de credit n segment. acest segment de pia. Institutional change processes in the banking Procesele de schimbare instituional n sistemul system, taking into account the characteristics of bancar, prin luarea n considerare a caracteristicilor creditorilor mortgage lenders as objects of regulation, are designed to ipotecari ca obiecte de reglementare, sunt menite s elimine eliminate these imperfections that appear in the moment aceste imperfeciuni care apar n momentul interaciunii of interaction of regulatory institutions and organizations. instituiilor i organizaiilor de reglementare. Creterea fiabilitii i a competitivitii altor participani pe piaa credi- Increased reliability and competitiveness of other telor ipotecare ar putea fi atins prin rspndirea impactului de participants in the mortgage market could be achieved by reglementare asupra activitii autoritilor de supraveghere spreading regulatory impact on the work of supervisors (banking), as observed in the world practice. (bancar), aa cum se observ n practica mondial. Bibliografie/ Bibliography 1. Monitorul Oficial al R.Moldova nr.67-72/168 din 30.04.2004 2. Monitorul Oficial al R.Moldova nr.110-113/334 din 02.07.2010, Monitorul Oficial al R.Moldova nr.1/2 din 01.01.1996 3. Conceptul de credit ipotecar . Fondul Romn de Garantare a Creditelor pentru ntreprinztorii Privai. World Trade Centre, 2002 4. Ghiu M. Cum s obii un credit sau mprumut de la instituiile bancare i nebancare din Republica Moldova. Ghid pentru ntreprinztori. Proiectul BIZPRO-Moldova i Asociaia primarilor i Colectivitilor locale din R.M.-Chiinu 2003 5. G.A. lina. Ipoteca: jilie i credit. Moscva: Izdatelistvo Economica. 36 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3(77) 2011

MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

REORGANIZAREA I RESTRUCTURAREA FUNCIUNII DE RESURSE UMANE N NTREPRINDERILE DIN SECTORUL TURISMULUI


Drd. Alexandrina-Mirela STAN, ASEM
Reorganizarea i restructurarea funciunii de resurse umane poate constitui o important prghie n procesul schimbrii organizaionale a unei ntreprinderi din turism. Pentru a determina ce fel de competene (interne sau externe) din domeniul resurselor umane sunt adecvate ntreprinderii din domeniul turismului, poate fi utilizat auditul resurselor umane. Acest instrument poate fi utilizat n scopul examinrii practicilor actuale din domeniu i stabilirii direciilor de mbuntire a funciunii de resurse umane. Resursele umane reprezint o component important a unei organizaii n economia actual. Organizaiile au constatat c introducerea componentei de resurse umane n rndul activitilor strategice ale firmei poate conduce la minimizarea problemelor care apar n legtur cu personalul. Un departament de resurse umane eficient determin o cretere a stabilitii i fidelitii personalului n cadrul unei organizaii, fcndu-i pe angajai s se simt pui n valoare, spunndu-le ce se ateapt de la ei, precum i ce pot atepta ei de la angajator. n cazul unor organizaii mici, cu un numr mic de persoane salariate, nu se resimte necesitatea unei persoane care s se ocupe de domeniul resurselor umane (Chivu, 2003). Cu toate acestea, orice organizaie are nevoie de o serie de competene n domeniul dat. Acestea pot proveni de la un consultant n domeniul resurselor umane din exteriorul organizaiei sau de la o persoan din cadrul organizaiei, specializat n acest sens, care ndeplinete i alte obligaii. De exemplu, multe companii din domeniul turismului (ndeosebi ageniile de turism, pensiunile ce au un numr redus de personal) confer atribuii n domeniul resurselor umane angajatului responsabil de contabilitatea firmei. n cadrul companiilor mari (hoteluri, tour-operatori) exist funcii specializate: analiti de resurse umane, inspectori de resurse umane, aflate sub coordonarea unui manager de resurse umane. Pentru determinarea ce fel de competene (interne sau externe) din domeniul resurselor umane sunt adecvate organizaiei, poate fi utilizat auditul resurselor umane. Acest instrument poate fi aplicat att n organizaiile mici, ct i n cele mari n scopul examinrii practicilor actuale din domeniul resurselor umane i stabilirii ariilor de responsabilitate, n cadrul crora trebuie acionat n sensul mbuntirii. Auditul reprezint un ghid de aciuni, care asigur pas cu pas compatibilitatea activitii de resurse umane din cadrul organizaiei cu reglementrile legale i cu practicile informale. Multe ntreprinderi din industria turistic consider c auditul se refer doar la armonizarea activitii de resurse

REORGANIZATION AND RESTRUCTURING THE HUMAN RESOURCES FUNCTION IN TOURISM BUSINESSES


PhD candidate Alexandrina Mirela STAN, AESM
Reorganization and restructuring the human resources function can be an important leverage in the process of organizational change in the tourism business. To determine what kind of skills (internal or external) are adequate human resource company can be used in tourism human resources audit. This tool can be used to examine current practices and establish human resource departments to improve the human resource function. Human resources are an important component of an organization in today's economy. Organizations have found that the introduction of human resource component among the company's strategic activities can lead to the minimization of problems arising in connection with staff. An effective human resources department increases the stability and loyalty of staff within an organization, making the employees feel the value placed by telling them what is expected of them and what they can expect from your employer. For small organizations with a small number of people employed is not felt the need for people to handle human resources (Chivu, 2003). However, every organization needs a set of competencies in human resources. They may come from a human resources consultant from outside the organization or a person within the organization specialized in this regard, which also perform other duties. For example, many companies in the tourism sector (especially travel agencies, hostels, which have a small number of staff) to confer powers on human resources employee responsible for the accounting firm. In large companies (hotels, tour operators) there are specialized functions: human resources analysts, human resources inspectors, under the direction of a human resources manager. In order to determine what kind of skills (internal or external) of the organization's human resources are adequate, human resources audit can be used. This tool can be applied to both small organizations and the larger ones in order to review current practices in human resources and establish areas of responsibility within which action must be taken in order to improve. The audit guide is a step that ensures consistency of human resources within the organization with legal regulations and informal practices. 37

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MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING umane la reglementrile legale. Pe lng aceasta, auditul trebuie s aib n vedere modul n care organizaia asigur un grad mare de satisfacie a angajailor. Salariaii unei ntreprinderi din industria turistic doresc ca angajatorul s fie consecvent i corect. Ei nu au probleme n acceptarea regulilor i recomandrilor att timp ct cunosc ce se ateapt de la ei i de la colegii lor. Implementarea rezultatelor auditului va determina crearea unei culturi organizaionale standardizate i consecvente. Totodat, auditul d posibilitatea eficientizrii managementului resurselor umane prin recompensarea performanelor i nlturarea celor care nu se ridic la standardele organizaiei. Sistemele de recunoatere a realizrilor i de recompensare a acestora permit construirea unei echipe unite i competitive prin intensificarea satisfaciilor oferite i cultivarea fidelitii salariailor (Nicolescu, 1998, p. 444). Auditul resurselor umane este esenial i constituie un fundament pentru operaiunea de reorganizare i restructurare a funciunii de resurse umane. Prin realizarea reorganizrii i restructurrii funciunii de resurse umane, organizaia trebuie s i propun atingerea urmtoarelor obiective (Gillet i Eggland, 2002): meninerea sarcinilor departamentului de resurse umane n armonie cu viziunea i cu strategiile pe termen lung ale ntreprinderii din industria turistic; clarificarea practicilor i procedurilor din domeniul resurselor umane, precum i a rolurilor diferitelor departamente sau persoane din management, din sistemele de execuie i de conducere ale ntreprinderii din industria turistic; stabilirea unor puncte de referin n vederea punerii n practic a soluiilor previzionate; mbuntirea eficienei i productivitii muncii i reducerea costurilor cu resursele umane; evaluarea situaiei curente din cadrul funciunii de resurse umane; standardizarea practicilor i procedurilor utilizate n cadrul unei ntreprinderi din industria turistic la diferite niveluri sau componente departamentale; mbuntirea comunicrii n cadrul resurselor umane proprii, crescnd credibilitatea i gradul de percepie a top-managementului n rndul personalului de execuie. Reorganizarea i restructurarea funciunii de resurse umane este extrem de util n momentele de criz, cnd productivitatea nu este cea corespunztoare i nivelul motivaiei este foarte cobort sau cnd apar situaii conflictuale, tensionate (Fleseriu, 2004). Pentru a putea stabili direciile de aciune adecvate, este necesar o diagnosticare ct mai exact a companiei din punctul de vedere al resurselor umane. Atunci cnd aciunea departamentului de resurse umane nu este suficient pentru mbuntirea eficienei i situaiei financiare a ntreprinderii din industria turistic sau n aplanarea conflictelor, auditul 38 Many businesses in the hospitality industry believe that the audit covers only the harmonization of human resources work at the legal regulations. In addition, the audit should consider how the organization ensures a high degree of employee satisfaction. Employees of businesses in the hospitality industry want to have a consistent and fair employer. They have no problem in accepting the recommendations as long as they know the rules and what is expected of them and their colleagues. Implementation of audit results will lead to the creation of a standardized and consistent corporate culture. However, the audit enables efficient management of human resources, rewarding performance and removing those who do not meet the standards of the organization. Systems recognize and reward their achievements allow us to build a united and competitive teams through increased loyalty and cultivating offered employees' satisfactions (Nicolescu, 1998, p.444). Audit of human resources is essential and is the basis for the operation of reorganization and restructuring of human resource functions. By carrying out the reorganization and restructuring of human resources duties organization should aim at achieving the following objectives (Gillet and Eggland, 2002): that the objectives of human resources are in harmony with the vision and long term business strategies in the hospitality industry; clarify the practices and procedures of human resources and the roles of different departments or individuals in management of systems implementation and management of the enterprise in the hospitality industry; establish benchmarks for the implementation of prospective solutions; improving efficiency and productivity and reduce costs of human resources; assessing the current situation in the human resources function; standardization of practices and procedures used in an enterprise in the hospitality industry at various levels or parts department; improve communication within their human resources and increasing the degree of perceived credibility of top management performance among staff. Reorganization and restructuring the human resources function is extremely useful in times of crisis, when productivity is not appropriate and the motivation level is very low or when there are conflicts, tensions (Fleseriu, 2004). To determine the appropriate course of action is necessary an accurate diagnosis of the company in terms of human resources. When the human resources department action is not sufficient to improve the efficiency and financial situation of the tourist industry or in conflict resolution, human resources audit provides a

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MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING resurselor umane ofer o analiz clar i obiectiv a funcionrii componentei de resurse umane, prescriind soluii. O auditare atent i un raport n aceasta privin pot evita multe probleme ulterioare sau le pot anticipa (Fisher i Shaw, 1999). Datorit problemelor i disfuncionalitilor care au fost deja evideniate, reorganizarea i restructurarea funciunii de resurse umane n industria turismului din Romnia este necesar i nu poate fi amnat. Conform unor specialiti n resurse umane, reorganizarea i restructurarea funciunii de resurse umane poate fi parcurs n patru etape (Armstrong, 2002, p. 269): a) definirea practicilor i procedurilor dorite a fi aplicate n domeniul resurselor umane dintr-o anumit ntreprindere din industria turistic; b) evaluarea practicilor i procedurilor curente prin prisma criteriilor stabilite n cadrul primei etape; c) analizarea rezultatelor obinute; d) actualizarea obiectivelor ntreprinderii din industria turistic, lund n considerare concluziile auditului i fundamentarea direciilor de aciune n domeniul resurselor umane. Aceast abordare poate fi repetat fie anual, odat cu activitatea de planificare i stabilire a obiectivelor anuale, fie la o perioad mai mare, n momentul stabilirii strategiilor pe termen lung ale ntreprinderii din industria turistic. Rezultatele implementrii soluiilor prevzute n urma reorganizrii i restructurrii funciunii de resurse umane vor putea fi cuantificate concomitent cu analiza ndeplinirii obiectivelor anuale, respectiv a obiectivelor strategice stabilite pentru perioadele multianuale. n opinia noastr, o modalitate eficient de desfurare a reorganizrii i restructurrii funciunii de resurse umane presupune parcurgerea urmtorilor pai: determinarea scopului procesului de reorganizare i restructurare a funciunii de resurse umane; dezvoltarea unei fie-chestionar privind domeniul resurselor umane din cadrul ntreprinderi din industria turistic; colectarea datelor; compararea rezultatelor obinute cu standardele privind resursele umane unanim acceptate; feedback-ul (crearea unui plan de aciune); instituirea unui climat de continu mbuntire a politicilor i practicilor privind resursele umane. a. Determinarea scopului procesului de reorganizare i restructurare a funciunii de resurse umane Pentru stabilirea informaiilor necesare pentru realizarea procesului de Reorganizare i restructurare a funciunii de resurse umane, este esenial stabilirea domeniilor-int care vor constitui obiectul analizei. n cazul n care ntreprinderea din industria turistic nu a realizat niciodat un audit sau ultimul audit a fost realizat n urm cu 2-3 ani, se impune o auditare complet a funciei de resurse umane. Dimpotriv, auditarea anual se va focaliza asupra domeniilor care au suferit modificri recente att din punct de vedere legislativ, ct i al practicilor acceptate; b. Dezvoltarea unei fie-chestionar privind domeniul resurselor umane din cadrul organizaiei n cazul desfurrii procesului de reorganizare i clear and objective analysis of the operation component of human resources, prescribing solutions. A careful audit and a report in this regard may avoid subsequent problems they can anticipate (Fisher and Shaw, 1999). Because of problems and failures that have already been highlighted, reorganizing and restructuring the human resources function in the tourism industry in Romania is required and may be delayed. According to specialists in human resources, reorganization and restructuring of human resource functions may be covered in four stages (Armstrong, 2002, p. 269): a) define desired practices and procedures to be applied in human resources from a particular company in the hospitality industry; b) assessment of current practices and procedures in light of the criteria set out in the first stage; c) analyzing the results obtained; d) updating of the tourism business objectives taking into account the conclusions of the foundation courses of action and human resources. This four-step approach can be repeated annually, with business planning and annual goal setting, either a longer period in establishing long term business strategies in the hospitality industry. Results expected from the implementation of solutions to reorganize and restructure the human resources function can be quantified once the analysis of annual objectives, namely the strategic objectives set for the multi-annual periods. In our opinion an effective way to conduct the reorganization and restructuring of the HR function involves the following steps: determining the purpose of the reorganization and restructuring of the HR function, developing a questionnaire on human resource records of the enterprises in the tourism industry; data collection; comparing results with the accepted standards for human resources; feedback (creating an action plan), establishing a climate of continuous improvement of human resources policies and practices. a. Determine the purpose of the reorganization and restructuring of human resources functions To ascertain the information necessary for the reorganization and restructuring of human resource functions is essential to establish target areas that will be analyzed. If the tourist industry organization has never conducted an audit or final audit was conducted 2-3 years ago requires a complete audit of the HR function. Conversely, annual audits will focus on areas that have undergone recent changes both in terms of legislation and legally accepted practices. b. Develop a questionnaire on human resource records of the organization In case of carrying out the reorganization and restructuring of human resource functions, the action to 39

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MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING restructurare a funciunii de resurse umane, aciunea de formulare a unei fie-chestionar care s vizeze toate domeniile resurselor umane prezint o importan deosebit. n acest sens, trebuie dezvoltat o list de ntrebri care s acopere toate domeniile de interes; c. Colectarea datelor n cadrul acestui pas, echipa care se ocup cu procesul de reorganizare i restructurare a funciunii de resurse umane va aduna informaiile necesare realizrii raportului de audit. Fia-chestionar reprezint o foaie de drum pentru cei care realizeaz reorganizarea i restructurarea funciunii de resurse umane, indicnd locurile din care vor fi culese datele. Tehnicile utilizate pentru colectarea datelor sunt: interviul; participarea la activitile zilnice ale hotelului sau restaurantului; consultarea documentelor; d. Compararea rezultatelor obinute cu standardele privind resursele umane unanim acceptate n vederea ntocmirii raportului de audit, este necesar compararea rezultatelor obinute prin aplicarea fiei-chestionar cu standardele (legislaia naional privind organizarea muncii i practicile privind resursele umane unanim acceptate la nivel naional i internaional). Prin aceast comparaie se vor stabili abaterile de la normele legale, precum i diferenele fa de politicile, practicile i procedurile utilizate n cadrul unor ntreprinderi similare din industria turistic, ce i desfoar activitatea n plan naional sau transnaional. De asemenea, vor fi comparai indicatorii privind resursele umane stabilii la nivelul ntreprinderii din industria turistic cu indicatorii similari ai altor ntreprinderi; 3. Feedback-ul (crearea unui plan de aciune) n cadrul raportului de audit sunt nscrise constatrile, fiind subliniate deficienele i enunate o serie de recomandri pentru corectarea acestora. Pe baza recomandrilor din raportul de audit, ntreprinderea din industria turistic trebuie s creeze un plan de aciune, care s implementeze modificrile sugerate. Aciunile prevzute n acest plan vor fi ierarhizate pe trei niveluri: aciuni pe termen scurt (deficienele trebuie remediate imediat vizeaz, de regul, abaterile de la acte normative); aciuni pe termen mediu (deficienele trebuie remediate n cteva luni vizeaz, de regul, modificarea practicilor i procedurilor din domeniul resurselor umane); aciuni pe termen lung (nlturarea deficienelor presupune un proces ndelungat i gradual vizeaz, de regul, modificarea politicilor i strategiilor din domeniul resurselor umane); f. Instituirea unui climat de continu mbuntire a politicilor i practicilor privind resursele umane Reorganizarea i restructurarea funciunii de resurse umane trebuie s conduc la instituirea unui climat care s ncurajeze observaia constant i mbuntirea continu a politicilor, practicilor i procedurilor ntreprinderii din industria turistic. Acest proces continuu i va permite organizaiei s obin i s-i menin un avantaj competitiv n domeniul resurselor umane fa de celelalte organizaii similare. formulate a questionnaire form covering all fields of human resources is of particular importance. In this respect have developed a list of questions covering all areas of interest. c. Data collection In this step the team dealing with the reorganization and restructuring of human resource functions has to gather information necessary to conduct the audit report. Questionnaire sheet is a road map for those who implement the reorganization and restructuring of human resources functions, indicating the places from which data will be gathered. Techniques used for data collection are: interview, participation in daily activities of hotel or restaurant, consultation documents. d. Comparing the results obtained with the accepted standards for human resources In preparing to audit is necessary to compare results obtained with the questionnaire sheet standards (national legislation on work organization and human resources practices widely accepted nationally and internationally). This comparison will determine deviations from legal norms, and differences with the policies, practices and procedures used in some businesses related to tourism industry operates on a national or transnational. There will also be compared to established indicators of human resources at the enterprise level in the hospitality industry with similar ratios of other companies. 3. Feedback (create an action plan) In the audit report are included findings are highlighted shortcomings and set out a series of recommendations for their correction. Based on the recommendations of the audit report, the organization of the tourist industry should create an action plan to implement the suggested changes. Actions under the plan will be ranked on three levels: short-term actions (deficiencies must be remedied immediately usually address deviations from normative acts) medium-term actions (deficiencies must be remedied in a few months usually address, changing practices and procedures of human resources), long-term measures (removal of deficiencies involves a long and gradual process usually address, change policies and strategies in human resources); f. Establish a climate of continuous improvement of human resources policies and practices Reorganization and restructuring the human resources function should lead to a climate that encourages constant observation and continuous improvement of policies, practices and procedures in the hospitality industry business. This ongoing process will enable the organization to obtain and maintain a competitive advantage in human resources from other similar organizations.

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MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING Concluzii Reorganizarea i restructurarea funciunii de resurse umane este un proces i un mare consumator de timp. El necesit consultarea unui numr mare de documente, precum i intervievarea stafului departamentului de resurse umane, a unor salariai situai n puncte-cheie ale organizaiei, precum i a managerilor de pe diferite niveluri. Durata reorganizrii i restructurrii funciunii de resurse umane va depinde de: mrimea ntreprinderi din industria turistic, tipul organizaiei (hotel, restaurant, agenie de voiaj etc.), felul informaiilor pe care organizaia sper s-l obin, scopul reorganizrii i restructurrii, numrul persoanelor incluse n echip. Realizarea reorganizrii i restructurrii funciunii de resurse umane se poate realiza cu resurse interne din cadrul departamentului de personal, n cazul n care inspectorii i analitii de personal: dein expertiza necesar, au suficient timp la dispoziie n afara sarcinilor uzuale; sunt dispui s analizeze cu obiectivitate deficienele din cadrul procedurilor i practicilor; sunt dispui s iniieze i s conduc schimbarea organizaional. n urma activitii de auditare, va rezulta raportul de audit, care va cuprinde concluziile i recomandrile ce trebuie urmate pentru asigurarea conformitii legale i procedurale. Este absolut necesar ca rezultatele procesului de reorganizare i restructurare a funciunii de resurse umane s fie comunicate personalului departamentului de resurse umane i managerilor de pe nivelul mediu i superior al ntreprinderii din industria turistic. Comunicarea rezultatelor va nltura starea de anxietate i de stres din rndul personalului, generat de frica unor aciuni disciplinare. Discutarea concluziilor i recomandrilor poate sta la baza mbuntirii domeniilor deficitare, oferind oportunitatea unui training interdepartamental. Pentru managementul ntreprinderii din industria turistic, dezbaterea raportului de audit reprezint o important surs de informaii necesare lurii deciziilor. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Conclusions Reorganization and restructuring the human resources function is a time-consuming process. It requires consultation with a large number of documents and interviews with human resources personnel, of employees located in key points of the organization, and managers at different levels. Duration of reorganization and restructuring of human resources functions will depend on: size of enterprises in the tourism industry, organization type (hotel, restaurant, travel agency, etc.), information that the organization hopes to get, the aim of reorganization and restructuring, the number of people included in the team. Implementation of the reorganization and restructuring of human resource functions can be performed with internal resources of the personnel department, in case staff inspectors and analysts have the necessary expertise, sufficient time available outside normal duties, they are willing to objectively analyze the deficiencies the procedures and practices, are willing to initiate and lead organizational change. Following the audit activity will result in the audit report will include conclusions and recommendations should be followed to ensure legal and procedural compliance. It is imperative that the results of the reorganization and restructuring of human resource functions to be communicated to Human Resources staff and managers on middle and senior level business tourism industry. Communication results will eliminate anxiety and stress among staff caused by the fear of disciplinary action. Discussion of conclusions and recommendations can be the basis for improving deficient areas offering the opportunity for interdepartmental training. For company management in the hospitality industry debates the audit report is an important source of information necessary to make decisions.

Bibliografie / Bibliography Armstrong M., A Handbook of Human Resource Management, Practice, Eighth edition, Kogan Page Limites, London, 2002. Chivu, I., Dimensiunea resurselor umane, Editura Luceafrul, Bucureti, 2003. Fisher C., Shaw. J.B., Human Resource Management, Houghton Mifflin Co, Boston, 1999. Fleseriu A., Managementul Resurselor Umane n Unitile de Turism, Editura Dacia, Cluj-Napoca, 2004. Gillet J., Eggland S., Principles of Human Resource Development, Perseus Books Group, Cambridge, 2002. Nicolescu O. (coordonator), Sistemul decizional al organizaiilor, Editura Economic, Bucureti, 1998.

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ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

MERCANTILISMUL, SUPRANUMIT MAMAI CEL ECONOMIC


Conf. univ. dr. hab. Ivan USTIAN, ASEM
n acest articol autorul a scos n eviden meritul analitic i profund, efectuat de ctre marele poet al Rusiei A.S.Pukin referitor la relaiile economice i sociale din timpul guvernrii arilor Boris Godunov, Feodor Godunov i Dmitrii Samozvane I (anii 15981606), care a intrat n istorie sub denumirea: Epoca smutei. Autorul a czut de acord cu opinia lui Pukin privind cauza smutei: aceasta a fost una lichidarea de ctre Godunov a dreptului de eliberare a ranilor de sub jugul erbiei o dat pe an n timpul srbtori numite: Ziua lui Iurie (26 noiembrie), precum i msurile neadecuate ale lui n condiiile unei duble agresii asupra Rusiei: cea a interveniei militare poloneze i cea a elementelor depite de timp ale mercantilismului precoce cu supremaia capitalului comercial-financiar (a banilor). Cuvinte-cheie: Pukin; tragedia Boris Godunov; mercantilism, Mamai cel economic ( ); rani erbi; libertate economic; spirit mercantil ( ); smuta, moral cretin; bani; aur i argint. Dup cum se tie, n anul 1380, pe cmpia Culicovo, contele Rusiei Dmitrii Donskoi a obinut o victorie epocal asupra hoardelor ttaro-mongole n frunte cu hanul Mamai, a crui ferocitate a fost imortalizat n folclorul poporului rus astfel: mai ru ca Mamai, pmnt prjolit de parc a trecut Mamai peste el etc Aceast victorie a fost cheia de aur a eliberrii Rusiei de sub jugul ttaro-mongol i piatra de temelie a constituirii a statului rus centralizat. Victoria lui Dmitrii Donskoi asupra hanului ttaro-mongol Mamai era cea mai splendid victorie a Rusiei pn la o alt victorie i mai splendid, obinut de Petru cel Mare sub Poltava, n anul 1709, asupra armatei suedeze n frunte cu regele Carol al XII-lea. n anul 1558, agresorii teutoni au declanat un nou rzboi contra Rusiei, dar nefiind siguri n fora lor militar, au gsit un aliat tot att de agresiv ca i dnii: acesta era mria sa Banul, n form de aur i argint al sistemului de gospodrire, bazat pe fora comercialfinanciar a burgheziei comerciale, cunoscut n istoria economiei mondiale sub denumirea de mercantilism (aprut n anul 1450). Armata arului rus Ivan Grozni i-a biruit pe teutoni, dar nu a reuit s elaboreze msuri economice contra invaziei mercantilismului asupra economiei Rusiei, fapt care s-a manifestat malefic pe timpul lui Boris Godunov i care a fost imortalizat de ctre marele poet rus A.S.Pukin n tragedia sa cu acelai nume. Noile relaii comercial-financiare mercantiliste au 42

MERCANTILISM, CALLED ECONOMIC MAMAI


Assoc. Prof., dr. Hab.Ivan USTIAN, AESM
In this article the author emphasized the analytical and deep merit, made by the great Russian poet and economist A.S. Pushkin on social and economic relations during the rule of tsars: Boris Godunov, Feodor Godunov and False Dmitriy I (1598-1606), that entered the history under the name of the the epoch of troubled times. The author agreed with Pushkins opinion on the cause of Time of troubles this can be one, - the abolition by Godunov of the right of deliverance of the peasants under the serfdom once a year during the holiday named: Iuriev day (26 November), as well as the inadequate measures of Godunov under the circumstances of a double aggression against Russia: the Polish military intervention and the old-fashioned elements of the early mercantilism with the domination of the commercial and financial capital (the money). Key-words: Pushkin, the tragedy Boris Godunov, mercantilism, The Economic Mamai ( ), serf peasants, economic freedom, mercantile spirit ( ), Time of troubles, Christian morality, money, gold and silver. It is well known that in 1380, on the Culicovo plain, the Russian Earl Dmitriy Donskoy won an epochal victory over the Tatar- Mongol hordes led by Khan Mamai, whose ferocity was immortalized in the Russian folklore as worse than Mamai, scorched earth as if Mamai went over it, etc. The victory of Dmitriy Donskoy was Russias golden key from the Tataro-Mongol yoke and the cornerstone for the establishment of a centralized Russian state. The victory of Dmitriy Donskoy over the Tataro-Mongol khan was Russias most splendid victory until another even more splendid victory of Peter the Great near Poltava in 1709 over the Swedish army led by the King Charles XII. In 1558 the Teutonic aggressors started a new war against Russia, but not being sure of their military force, they found an ally just as aggressive as themselves: it was Its Highness the Money in the form of gold and silver of the ruling system, based on the commercial and financial strength of the commercial bourgeoisie, in the world economic history known under the name of mercantilism, appeared in 1450. The army of the Russian tsar Ivan the Terrible defeated the Teutons, but failed to develop economic measures against invasion of mercantilism over Russian economy, which manifested in a malefic way during Boris Godunov and was immortalized by the great Russian poet A.S. Pushkin in the tragedy with the same name.

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ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS


agravat i mai mult situaia economic deplorabil a ranilor erbi, strivii de clciul de fier rigid de gospodrire al sistemului modului economic i social feudalismul monarhic. n tragedia sa Boris Godunov, Pukin a analizat la justa valoare influena malefic a mercantilismului asupra activitii economice i sociale de pe timpul guvernrii arilor Boris Godunov, Feodor Godunov i Dmitrii Samozvane I , cunoscut n istorie ca Epoca smutei (anii 1598-1606). Aceast epoc a primit o apreciere deosebit din partea scriitorului, cunoscutului pukinist-economist, profesorului din Moscova A.V.Anikin. El a observat impactul nefast al invaziei agresive a mercantilismului vest-european asupra Rusiei n timpul Epocii smutei, pe care el (Anikin) l-a numit Mamai cel economic, subnelegnd c ferocitatea mercantilismului se aseamn cu ferocitatea hanului ttresc Mamai, biruit de Dmitrii Donskoi. Profesorului A.V.Anikin, n leciile sale, rostite la Academia de tiine Sociale din Moscova, n anii 1970-1973, da citire versurile lui Pukin referitoare la tema esenei mercantilismului pe nume Mamai cel economic: Totul e la meu a zis aurul; Totul e la meu a zis pumnalul; Cumpr totul a zis aurul; Acaparez totul a zis pumnalul [1]. De la profesorul A.V. Anikin, noi, doctoranzii lui, am sesizat pentru totdeauna analiza profund, efectuat de ctre A. Pukin n tragedia sa Boris Godunov, analiz din care se ntrevede c restriciile rigide ale mercantilismului sunt tot att de feroce, ca i cele ale erbiei feudale. Aceste restricii, prin rigiditatea i asprimea lor exploatatoare, sunt antiumane i de aceea Pukin, n aceast oper, a criticat cu vehemen agresivitatea i ferocitatea mercantilismului, care l-a impulsionat pe profesorul A.V. Anikin s compare aceste principii nefaste ale mercantilismului cu comportamentul nefast agresiv al hanului Mamai, numind foarte reuit mercantilismul astfel: Mamai cel economic. Istoria a confirmat meditaiile juste ale lui Pukin. Aici amintim c nc n primii ani de studiu la liceul statal de elit arscoie Selo (1811-1817), Pukin a nsuit profund teoria economic cu cele trei coli notorii: mercantilismul, fiziocraia i teoria economic liberal a lui A.Smith. El a mprtit analiza critic a mercantilismului ca sistem de gospodrire, bazat pe supremaia comerului i a banilor, care a propulsat dezvoltarea economiei de pia n sferele comerciale, financiar-bancare, dar care a contribuit (cu ignoran) la ruinarea agriculturii i pauperizarea populaiei rurale. Aici e vorba despre sistemul mercantilist, aprut n anul 1450 simultan n rile Europei de Vest, sistem care elogia banii i metalele preioase aurul i argintul drept avuie veritabil. Clar lucru, mercantilismul bazat pe relaiile comercial-bneti a nviorat ntructva activitatea economic i a contribuit la transformarea economiei The new mercantilist commercial and financial relations have further aggravated the situation of the serf peasants, crushed by the iron heel of the rigid ruling system of the economic way and the monarchical social-feudalism. In the tragedy Boris Godunov Pushkin analyzed at fair value the malefic influence of mercantilism over economic and social activity during the rule of tsars: Boris Godunov, Feodor Godunov and False Dmitriy I, known in history as the Time of troubles (1598-1606). This epoch got a special appreciation of the writer, well-known Pushkin scholar, and economist, professor from Moscow A.V. Anikin. He noticed the bad marriage of the aggressive invasion of West European mercantilism over Russia during the Time of troubles, which Anikin called The Economic Mamai, assuming that the mercantilism ferocity is like the ferocity of the Tatar khan Mamai defeated by Dmitriy Donskoy. During his lectures, held at the Academy of Social Sciences in Moscow during 1970-1973, professor A.V. Anikin read the Pushkin verses on the essence of mercantilism called The Economic Mamai: Everything is mine said the gold; Everything is mine said the dagger; I buy everything said the gold; I capture everything said the dagger;1 As professors Anikin PhD students we realized for good the in-depth analysis, carried out by A. Pushkin in his tragedy Boris Godunov, an analysis that shows that the rigid restrictions of mercantilism are just as ferocious as the restrictions of feudal serfdom. By their exploiting rigidity and severity, these restrictions are anti-human and therefore, in his work, Pushkin vehemently criticized the aggression and ferocity of mercantilism, which prompted Professor A.V. Anikin to compare these negative principles of mercantilism with the negative and aggressive behaviour of the khan Mamai, calling it very precisely The Economic Mamai. History has confirmed Pushkins fair meditations. Here we mention that even in the early years of study at the state elite school Tsarskoye Selo 18111817 Pushkin had acquired in-depth the economic theory with the three well-known schools: mercantilism, physiocracy and liberal economic theory of A. Smith. Pushkin had shared with piety the critical analysis of mercantilism as a ruling system based on the supremacy of trade and money, which drove the development of market economy in the trade, financial and banking spheres, but has contributed (with ignorance) to the ruining of agriculture and impoverishment of rural population. This is about the mercantilist system that appeared in 1450, simultaneously in the West European countries, a system that eulogized money and precious metals, gold and silver as real wealth. Of course, mercantilism, based on commercial 43

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izolate naturale de tip feudal n economie de pia de tip capitalist, al crei idol i moral era numai banul n form de moned de aur i argint (banii de hrtie au aprut n Europa de Vest la nceputul secolului XVIII). Rigiditatea relaiilor marf-bani, declanat n economia real a rilor Europei de Vest: Portugalia, Spania, Olanda, Frana i Anglia, presupunea eliberarea ranilor de sub jugul erbiei, feudalismului i avansarea produsului agricol, necesar pentru satisfacerea necesitilor urbane industriale. Acest moment a fost unul progresiv, deoarece transformarea ranilor erbi n fermieri liberi presupunea o transformare radical a feudalilor funciari n comerciani, bancheri i capitaliti industriali. Pukin-liceistul, apoi Pukin economistulsociolog la nivel teoretic, a observat, cel puin, patru momente eseniale ale mercantilismului: Primul feudalismul indolent ca sistem economic al gospodriei naturale, bazat pe erbie, i-a epuizat fora motrice pozitiv, care nu era capabil s reziste noilor provocri istorice; Al doilea indolena feudalismului lene a fost destrmat de invazia agresiv i energic a noului sistem de gospodrire mercantilismului, al crei for motrice era banul, profitul, aurul. De acum ncolo banul devine tocmai morala sistemului nou de gospodrire i exponent al capitalismului primitiv (precoce); Al treilea mercantilismul a creat o clas economico-social nou cea a burgheziei comercialbancare, care a negat clasa cavalerilor feudali i care mai trziu a crescut n burghezie industrial. Al patrulea ct nu s-ar prea de paradoxal, dar mercantilismul a scos n eviden problema eliberrii ranilor de sub jugul erbiei i transformarea lor n rani liberi (fermieri), capabili s sporeasc volumul de produse agricole-alimentare. Ochiul analitic al lui Pukin a observat c invazia agresiv a mercantilismului vest-european asupra Rusiei, n loc de libertate economic, a adus cu sine prejudicii i mai mari, expuse n monologul lui Varlaam. Iat gndurile critice ale acestuia: Ru, foarte ru, fiule! Acum cretinii-ortodoci au devenit avari; iubesc banul, ascund banul. Puin i dau lui Dumnezeu. Eroul lui Pukin, Varlaam, continu: Vai, ce ru e, pesemne a sosit sfritul timpului nostru [2]. E locul s analizm monologul lui Varlaam. Mai nti trebuie s menionm c Pukin, conform opiniei scriitorului francez Merim, primul cititor francez al tragediei Boris Godunov, spunea: Pukin imediat a apucat zimbrul de coarne. S-o lum de la nceput. Varlaam al lui Pukin afirm: 1. Cretinii ortodoci au devenit avari, deoarece ei au nevoie de bani pentru a plti feudalului boierescul dijma n bani, n locul boierescului natural. i acest raionalism i-a fcut pe rani s dea lui Dumnezeu cu mult mai puin [3]; 44 and financial relations somehow revived the economic activity and contributed to the transformation of the isolated natural economy of feudal type in a market economy of capitalist type, whose idol and morale was only money as golden or silver coins (paper money appeared in the Western Europe at the beginning of the XVIII century). The rigidity of the good-money relationship, which started in the real economy of the West European countries Portugal, Spain, Holland, France and England assumed the release of peasants under the yoke serfdom, feudalism and promoting the agricultural products needed to satisfy the urban industrial needs. This was a progressive moment, since the transformation of serfs into free farmers meant a radical transformation of feudal landowners into traders, bankers and industrial capitalists. Pushkin the lyceum student, later Pushkin the economist and sociologist, on the theoretical level, observed at least four essential moments of mercantilism: First indolent feudalism as an economic system of natural household, based on serfdom had exhausted its positive driving force, which was not able to withstand the new historical challenges; Second the indolence of the lazy feudalism was broken by the aggressive and energetic invasion of the new household system the mercantilism whose driving force were money, profit, gold. From that time forth money became the moral of the new household system and the exponent of the primitive capitalism (early); Third mercantilism has created a new socioeconomic class the commercial and banking bourgeoisie, which denied the class of feudal knights and later grew into industrial bourgeoisie. Forth paradoxically, but mercantilism had highlighted the problem of peasants release from the yoke of serfdom and their transformation into free peasants (farmers) able to increase the volume of agricultural and food products. Pushkins penetrating and analytical eye observed the aggressive invasion of West European mercantilism over Russia instead of economic freedom, brought even greater prejudices which are exposed in Varlaams monologue. Here are the critical thoughts of Varlaam: Badly, my sons, badly! The Christians have now turned stingy; they love their money; they hide their money. They give little to God . Pushkins character Varlaam continues: Ah, it is bad! It seems our last days have come.[2] It is time to analyze Varlaams monologue. First we have to mention that Pushkin, in the opinion of the French writer Merime, the first French reader of the tragedy Boris Godunov, said: Pushkin immediately took the bull by the horns Let us take from the beginning. Pushkins Varlaam says: 1. The Christians have now turned stingy, as

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2. Cretinii ortodoci iubesc banii. Aceast dragoste fa de bani vine de la necesitatea rigid de a aduna bani pentru numeroasele impozite, de-altfel, o simpl neachitare i plasa pe ranii erbi n afara legii; 3. Ascund banii. Acest fenomen e caracteristic pentru cavalerii feudali, care colecionau baniiaur n subsolurile conacurilor feudale n form de tezaur, fapt ce sleia economia real de moneda vie n circulaie. Fenomenul tezaurizrii mai trziu a fost elucidat de ctre Pukin n drama Cavalerul avar, oper creat ndat dup tragedia Boris Godunov i de ce nu? parc o continuare a acesteia. 4. Va sosi pcatul cel mare asupra oamenilor afirma mai jos Varlaam. Pukin avea perfect dreptate. Pcatul nu s-a lsat mult ateptat. El a i sosit cu fenomenul psihologiei mercantiliste: banul hotrte totul. Banul l-a destituit pe Dumnezeu din sufletele oamenilor. Banul a devenit totul: ban-Dumnezeu; ban-avuie; ban-moral; banonoare etc. Relaiile omeneti au devenit relaii comercial-bancare. Chiar i fiorul divin-uman dragostea s-a transformat n ban din momentul n care ea devine marf i aduce profit capitalistului mercantilist. Deci Pukin regret faptul c spiritul mercantilist duneaz moralei cretine. Despre toate aceste fenomene ndureratul poet avea s spun: Toi s-au aruncat n vltoarea comerului; toi se gndesc numai la avuia material toi au uitat de salvarea sufletului (adic, au uitat de Dumnezeu I.U.)[4]. Descifrnd ideile lui Pukin, percepem c el meniona c avuia material este indicatorul psihologiei cretine i c ea s-a mprjinit cu idei mercantile, egoiste, meschine. Dac cndva oamenii mergeau la biseric, acum ei se ndreapt spre restaurante i crciume. Deci, raionalismul destituie spiritul divinuman din inima omului. Acest fenomen este redat de ctre Pukin cu ajutorul monologului eroului su clugrului pribeag Varlaam: Umbli, umbli, cereti, cereti; uneori tocmai n trei zile nu aduni nici trei bnui. Pcat, mare pcat. Peste o sptmn dou scotoceti prin buzunare, dar acolo gseti foarte puini bani de i-i mai mare ruinea s te ntorci la mnstire cu ei. Atunci, ce-i de fcut? De scrb i bei i pe acetia. Ruine, mare ruine i necaz [5]. n acest monolog al lui Varlaam Pukin a oglindit marele adevr al celei mai dificile epoci istorice a Rusiei, cea a Smutei, provocat de guvernarea rigid a lui Godunov i care a coincis cu invazia agresiv a mercantilismului precoce vest-european aliat fidel al interveniei militare poloneze n frunte cu Dmitrii Samozvane I. Pukin nu a scpat cu vederea un fapt cert: agresivitatea invaziei mercantiliste se baza pe dou postulate depite de timp ale mercantilismului precoce. E vorba de: 1. Banii sunt avuie i 2. Sursa principal they need money to pay the tribute, the tithe in money instead of natural tribute. And this rationalism made the peasants to give God much lesser[3]; 2. The Christians love money. This love for money comes from the rigid need to raise money for numerous taxes, moreover, a simple failure to pay placed the serfs outside the law; 3. Hide money. This phenomenon is characteristic to feudal knights who collected money gold in the basement of their manors as treasure, a fact that depleted the real economy of the living money in circulation. The phenomenon of hoarding was later elucidated by Pushkin in his drama The Miserly Knight, a work written soon after Boris Godunov and, why not, as its continuation. 4. The great sin will come over people further stated Varlaam. Pushkin was absolutely right. The sin was not long-awaited. It came in the phenomenon of the mercantilist psychology: money decides everything. Money deposed God out of peoples souls. Money became everything: money God; money wealth; money moral; money honour, etc. Human relations became commercial and banking relations. Even Love the divine human feeling, turned into Money as soon as it became a good and brought profit to the mercantilist capitalist. Thus, Pushkin regretted the fact that the mercantilist spirit damaged the Christian moral. About all these phenomena, Pushkin, the grieving poet, economist and sociologist, would say: They have all devoted themselves to commerce, to earthly cares; they think of worldly wealth, not of the salvation of the soul (that is they forgot about God I.U.) [4] We decipher Pushkins splendid words, who mentioned, that material wealth is the indicator of the Christian psychology and that it is full of mercantile, egoist and mean ideas. If once people went to church, now they go to restaurants and taverns. Thus, rationalism removes the divine human spirit out of peoples heart. This phenomenon is rendered by Pushkin through his characters monologue - the wandering friar Varlaam: you walk and walk; you beg and beg; sometimes in three days begging will not bring you three half-pence. What a sin! A week goes by; another week; you look into your bag, and there is so little in it that you are ashamed to show yourself at the monastery. What are you to do? From very sorrow you drink away what is left; a real calamity[5]. In Varlaams monologue Pushkin has mirrored the great truth of the most difficult period in Russian history; that of The troubled times, caused by the Godunovs rigid rule and which coincided with the aggressive invasion of early West-European mercantilism a faithful ally of polish military 45

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a avuiei este comerul, cu precdere comerul exterior. Pukin era bine instruit i cunotea un fapt cert c la acea vreme astfel de ri ca Anglia, Frana i Olanda au abandonat aceste postulate nvechite i au mbriat elemente noi ale mercantilismului timpuriu: n Anglia s-a purces la dezvoltarea industriei i a comerului exterior cu flota sa comercial; n Frana s-a purces la dezvoltarea industriei manufacturale, n Olanda s-a purces la procedeul productiv-industrial, crend o flot comercial cu un numr impuntor de circa 22 mii de nave comerciale. n aceste ri ranii erbi au primit libertate economic i au fost transformai n rani liberi gospodari. n tragedia sa Pukin ne demonstreaz elocvent faptul c Boris Godunov nici nu s-a interesat de particularitile mercantilismului vest-european, mcar din simpla cauz c acesta era aliatul intervenilor polonezi. Restriciile rigide ale decretelor lui Boris Godunov, lansate n anii 1592, 1593 i 1597, precum i msurile administrative, practicate de dnsul n anii 1598-1605 msuri derivate ale restriciilor sus-numite, i-au transformat pe ranii erbi ntr-o mas de iloi fr proprietate privat, fr drepturi economice i sociale. Pukin, n mod argumentat, a demonstrat cauza stagnrii economice n ultimii ani de guvernare a lui Godunov; ea era una exploatarea aspr a ranilor erbi de ctre proprietarii feudali n condiiile unei lipse absolute a libertilor economice i sociale. Deci, Pukin a spus un mare adevr: guvernarea rigid cu mna sa de fier a lui Godunov a contribuit la stagnarea economiei rii i la pauperizarea ranilor erbi, crora le-a rmas un singur argument: rscoala contra lui Godunov, cea ce s-a i ntmplat n anii 1605-1606, ca mai apoi s se ridice tot poporul Rusiei contra altor guvernatori-uzurpatori: Dmitrii Samozvane I, Dmitrii Samozvane II cpeteniile agresorilor polonezi i suedezi, pe care i-a biruit i n anul 1613, la iniiativa lui Minin i Pojarschi, a fost convocat Zemschii Sobor, cu participarea tuturor straturilor economice i sociale ale Rusiei, inclusiv a ranilor, unde a fost legiferat o nou dinastie a Rusiei, dinastie care avea s-l nasc pe Petru 1 cel Mare marele reformator al statului rus. Pukin pleda att pentru o eliberare echitabil a ranilor de sub jugul erbiei, ct i pentru crearea unei economii reale prospere de tip european, cu productori liberi mproprietrii, dar totodat nu accepta raionalismul rigid al economiei mercantiliste, care mcina umanismul i altruismul uman al moralei cretine n numele unui singur idol atotputernic pe nume banul n persoana aurului, capabil s trimit n rai tocmai pe cei mai pctoi oameni (cuvintele lui Columb). Pukin regreta ca nu cumva mercantilismul s afecteze sufletele ranilor nobili, a prinilor si: ddacei Arina Rodionovna Iacovleva i educatorului su Nichita Timofeevici Cozlov, i odat cu ele s nu aduc prejudicii frumoaselor cmpii, pduri, lacuri i lunci ale naturii, cntate att de frumos n geniala sa oper. 46 intervention led by False Dmitriy I. Pushkin did not overlook a clear fact: the aggressiveness of mercantilist invasion was based on two outdated postulates of early mercantilism. Namely: 1. Money is wealth and 2. The main source of wealth is trade, particularly foreign trade Pushkin was well educated and knew a clear fact, at those times, countries like England, France and Holland had abandoned the outdated postulates and had embraced new elements of the early mercantilism: England started to develop industry and foreign trade through its commercial fleet; France started to develop manufacture; Holland started the production and industrial process by creating a commercial freight fleet with a large number, of about 22.000 merchant ships. In these countries the serfs were given economic freedom and turned into free peasants. In his tragedy, Pushkin eloquently demonstrated that Boris Godunov was not even interested in the peculiarities of the West-European mercantilism, not even because he was the ally of the Polish invaders. The rigid restrictions of Boris Godunovs decrees, launched in 1592, 1593 and 1597, as well as administrative measures, practiced during 1598-1605 measures derived from the above mentioned restrictions turned the serfs into a mass of helots without private property, economic and social rights. Pushkin demonstrated that the cause of economic stagnation during the last years of Godunovs rule was the rough peasant exploitation of serfs by the feudal owners under the conditions of an absolute lack of economic and social freedoms. Thus, Pushkin said a great truth the rigid rule with Godunovs iron hand contributed to the countrys economic stagnation and impoverishment of serfs, who had only one argument rebellion against Godunov, that happened during 1605-1606, so that later, the whole Russian people rose against other governors usurpers: False Dmitriy I, False Dmitriy II the captains of the Polish and Swedish aggressors who were also defeated in 1613. At the initiative of Minin and Pojarski was convoked the Zemsky Sobor with the participation of all the economic and social strata of Russia, including peasants, which enacted a new Russian dynasty, that would later give birth to Peter I the Great the Great Russian Reformer. Pushkin pleaded for both, equitable release of serfs from the serfdom yoke, as well as for creating a real prosperous European economy with free producers and landowners, but also was against rigid rationalism of mercantilist economy, which grinds the humanism and altruism of the Christian moral in the name of a single omnipotent idol called money as gold, able to send to Heaven even the most sinful people (as Columb said). Pushkin regretted that mercantilism would affect the souls of noble peasants of his parents, his nanny Arina Rodionovna Iacovleva and his tutor Nichita Timofeevici Cozlov, and at the same time would harm the natures beautiful plains, forests, lakes and meadows, rendered so nicely in his brilliant work.

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Aadar, A. Pukin, n tragedia sa Boris Godunov, a optat pentru o libertate economic, social i personal a fiecrui om n parte. Aici e esena (smburele) nobil a acestei opere a marelui Pukin, care a fost confirmat de istorie. Thus, Pushkin, in his tragedy Boris Godunov, opted for the economic, social and personal freedom of each individual separately. This is where the noble essence (the nucleus) of the Pushkins brilliant work is hidden, essence that was confirmed by history.

Bibliografie/ Bibliography 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. A.S.Pukin. Opere alese n 10 volume. Editura . Moscova. 1981, vol. II, pag. 301. Ibidem, vol. IV pag. 207. Ibidem, vol. IV pag. 207 Ibidem, vol. IV pag. 207 Ibidem, vol. IV pag. 207 Ibidem, vol. IV pag. 286.

DIALOGUL SOCIAL RAMURAL I LOCUL LUI N SISTEMUL DE RELAII INDUSTRIALE N REPUBLICA MOLDOVA
Drd. Ala LIPCIU, ASEM
Faptul c dialogul social este un instrument comod de armonizare a intereselor principalilor factori de producere, munc i capital, a fost menionat de nenumrate ori i cu multe alte ocazii. ntr-un context microeconomic, dialogul social servete drept prghie de acomodare a intereselor i evitare a unor ocuri sociale colective, iar n aspect macroeconomic drept sinonim dintre progresul economic i justiia social. Prezentul articol reitereaz acest mesaj, doar c de ast dat obiectul supus analizei este dialogul social la nivel de ramur. Interesul, care a stat la baza cercetrilor fcute n aceast materie, a fost condiionat de rigorile impuse de ctre Uniunea European dialogului social la acest nivel, dar i de dorina de a evalua gradul de maturitate a lui n Republica Moldova. Cuvinte-cheie: dialogul social, negocierea colectiv de munc n Republica Moldova, dialogul social sectorial a aprut i a evoluat n contextul amplificrii unui regim democratic inerent tranziiei spre o economie de pia. Or, trstura intrinsec a oricrei democraii o constituie participarea membrilor societii la conducerea ei, atragerea cetenilor la rezolvarea problemelor de organizare, strategie, cogestiune i funcionare a tuturor organismelor i mecanismelor sociale la toate nivelele, ncepnd cu cele de grup, de ntreprindere, de localitate, de teritoriu, administrativ i de stat [8]. Democraia, n esena ei, presupune consultarea i implicarea cetenilor, a grupurilor

ROLE AND PLACE OF THE BRANCH SOCIAL DIALOGUE IN THE INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS OF MOLDOVA
PhD candidate Ala LIPCIU, AESM
Abstract: Social dialogue as a very convenient tool for reconciling interests of key production factors labor and capital has been mentioned many times and on various occasions. This is the very reason why we invoke social dialogue as a tool for accommodating the interests and avoiding any collective social shocks in a micro-economic context, and as a synonym between economic progress and social justice in the macro-economic context. The present article reiterates this message, with social dialogue at sector level as a key subject under analysis. The interest lying at the basis of researches was conditioned by the European Unions requirements imposed on social dialogue at this level but also by our intention to assess its maturity degree in the Republic of Moldova. Key-words: social dialogue, Collective Bargaining Social dialogue at sector level emerged and evolved in the context of amplifying a democratic regime inherent in the transition to market economy. Thus, the intrinsic feature of any democracy is the admissibility of large society to its administration, attraction of citizens in solving strategic issues, congestion and functioning of social entities and mechanisms at all levels, starting with group, enterprise, locality, territory, administrative, and government levels. [8] Democracy, in its essence, envisions consultation with and involvement of citizens and social groups in the decisions making process with

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sociale la luarea deciziilor n vederea armonizrii opiniilor i intereselor acestora. Implicarea partenerilor sociali s-a considerat relevant nu doar din perspectiva promovrii unei pci sociale, ntr-un context economic proliferat de procese inedite de privatizare, liberalizare a preurilor, cadru legislativ, edificare a sectorului privat care, luate mpreun, au contribuit la generarea unor relaii industriale noi i diversificate, dar i drept consecin a aderrii rii la un ir de standarde internaionale notorii,1 care condiionau instituionalizarea i impulsionarea dialogului social att n formul tripartit (sindicat patronat guvern), ct i sub aspect bipartit, la nivel de ramur ca relaie dintre patronat i sindicat, n contextul creia guvernul acioneaz ca partener tcut, prin fixarea parametrilor interaciunii celor dou pri [5]. Organizarea i implementarea n R.Moldova a dialogului social (DS) la nivel de ramur este consfinit prin Codul Muncii3 (Legea nr. 154XV/2003), art.18, lit.b i prin Legea nr. 245-XVI/2006 privind organizarea i funcionarea Comisiei naionale pentru consultri i negocieri colective, a comisiilor pentru consultri i negocieri colective la nivel de ramur i la nivel teritorial. Un ir de alte legi i acte normative n materie de salarii, sntate i securitate la locul de munc, condiii de munc, protecie social, ocupare ofer i ele acoperire complementar acestui subiect. Mai jos vom face referiri succinte la gradul de coeren a cadrului legislativ n materie de DS ramural, n continuare ns ne-am propus s trecem n revist un ir de trsturi ale acestui dialog, condiionate de anumite procese i fenomene. 1. Impactul restructurrii economice De-a lungul tranziiei poate fi uor urmrit interdependena crescnd dintre dinamica dialogului social i mediul economic i social. Declinul economic, restructurarea i privatizarea au afectat n mod aparte toate sectoarele industriale, chiar dac acestea din urm au fost reformate ntr-o msur mai mare sau mai mic la diferite etape. Edificarea structurilor de parteneriat social i puterea de negociere a partenerilor au progresat i ele neuniform, fiind influenate de un ir de fenomene. Unul dintre ele ar fi privatizarea i lansarea sectorului privat care, n cazul patronatelor, a condus la apariia unui grup social nou (nc n proces de consolidare), pe cnd n cel al sindicatelor au generat modificri structurale i organizaionale prin dezmembrarea federaiilor (uneori nu doar prin divizare, ci chiar prin dispariie) i apariia altor
1

the aim to harmonize their opinions and interests. The involvement of social partners was considered relevant not only from the perspective of promoting social peace in an economic context proliferated by novel processes of privatization, liberalization of prices and of legal framework, private sector development, which, taken together, contributed to the generation of new and diverse industrial relations, but also as a consequence of the countrys adherence to a number of notorious international standards2 that conditioned the institutionalization and boosting of social dialogue in both tripartite formula (trade unions employers government) and under bipartite aspect at sector level as a relation between the employers and trade unions, in which context the government acts as an arbiter, tacit partner, through fixing the parameters of interaction between the other two parties. [5] Organization and implementation of the social dialogue in Moldova, is overarched by the Labor Code4 (Law No. 154-XV/2003), article 18, letter b, and the Law No.245-XVI/2006 on Organization and Functioning of the National Commission for Consultancy and Collective Bargaining (NCCCB) and Branch and Territorial Commissions for Consultancy and Collective Bargaining. This subject is provided complementary coverage in a number of other laws and normative acts on matters, such as salaries, occupational safety and health, working conditions, social protection, and employment. Below we will briefly refer to the level of coherence within the legal framework on branch social dialogue, but will also try to depict a range of social dialogues typologies conditioned by various processes and phenomena. 1. The impact of economic restructuring. The growing interdependence between the dynamics of social dialogue and the social-economic environment can be easily traced along the transition period. Economic decline, restructuring, and privatization affected all the industrial sectors in a particular way, even though the latter were reformed more or less at various stages. The development of social partnership structures and the bargaining power of partners have progressed unevenly, under the influence of a number of phenomena. One of these phenomena would be privatization and private sector launching, which, in case of employers organizations, led to emergence of a new social group (still in process of consolidation), while in case of trade unions generated structural and organizational changes through dismantling the federations (the latter sometimes disappearing, and not only being divided), and emergence

Convenia 98 (1949) a OIM privind aplicarea principiilor dreptului de organizare i negociere colectiv; Convenia OIM144 privind consultrile tripartite; Convenia OIM 154 privind promovarea negocierii colective. 2 ILO Convention No.98 on Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining, Convention No.144 On Tripartite Consultations; ILO Convention No.154 on Collective Bargaining. 3 Actul fundamental al raporturilor de munc a afectat acestei problematici (parteneriat social n sfera muncii) un ntreg titlu (Titlul II). 4 The fundamental act for labour relations dedicates an entire chapter (Chapter II) to the social partnership 48 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3(77) 2011

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organizaii, de multe ori mai mici i mai puin consolidate, dar care au intensificat lupta intern n micarea sindical, care mai persist i astzi i care sporete vulnerabilitatea ei ca partener de dialog social. Restructurarea ntreprinderilor i mrimea lor a influenat i ea procesul. ntreprinderile mici (pn la 9 salariai) au constituit, n 2009, circa 85% din totalul ntreprinderilor din ar.1 Patronii lor sunt, de multe ori, cei mai puin entuziasmai de ideea organizrii i negocierii la nivel de ramur, considernd c au destul putere sa negocieze sau s-i impun termenele i condiiile dorite n domeniul muncii la nivelul fiecrei companii n parte. Tot ei sunt cei care nici nu prea ncurajeaz prezena sindicatelor n companii, or un sondaj efectuat la solicitarea PNUD arat c 32 la sut din patronii ntreprinderilor mici (respondeni ai sondajului) au raportat lipsa organizaiilor sindicale n unitile lor [2]. De asemenea, i ntreprinderile publice care, de regul, erau baza efectivului sindical din ar au sczut, constituind actualmente 618 din numrul total de 24883 ntreprinderi nregistrate pe ar. Procesul de restructurare, prin provocarea reducerilor n mas , a contribuit i el la reducerea efectivului sindical, afectnd densitatea sindical substan ial, dar i capacitatea de protecie a membrilor prin negocieri colective. Astfel, din anul 1990 pn n prezent, rata de sindicalizare n ar a sc zut de la 90 pn la 40 la suta [7], variind i ea diferit n diferite sectoare, cu prezen preponderent n sectorul public. Restructurarea economic a cauzat i polarizarea negocierilor prin diversificarea tehnologiilor i impactului ei asupra productivitii, n ultim instan . Tehnologiile performante, de regul , n sectorul privat coexist cu echipamente demodate, neeficiente, lucru care n procesul de negocieri se reflect clar n materiile de salarizare. Ramura construc iilor, transporturilor, industriei u oare, chimice, de obicei, stabilesc n urma negocierilor niveluri mai mari ale salariilor minime i medii (nivel de ramur ) dect cele stabilite la nivel naional i pun accent pe protecie social activ , cum ar fi securitatea muncii, instruirea angajailor. Alte ramuri, n schimb, dau predilecie m surilor de protecie pasive, cum ar fi, spre exemplu, majorarea salariilor prin compensarea pentru condiiile de munc (textile, sn tate etc.). Capacitatea redus de organizare a patronilor, lipsa lor n anumite ramuri, limiteaz posibilitatea de negociere a conveniilor colective sau chiar genereaz goluri la acest nivel. Un studiu efectuat recent la solicitarea Organizaiei Internaional a Muncii of other organizations, oftentimes smaller and less consolidated. This intensified the internal fighting in trade union movement, which is still persisting to date, increasing its vulnerability as a reliable social actor. Enterprise restructuring and their size have also influenced this process. In 2009, small enterprises (with up to 9 employees) made up to about 85% of the total number of enterprises in the country.2 Employers are oftentimes the least enthusiastic about the idea to associate and bargain at branch level, considering that they have sufficient power to negotiate or impose the desired labor related standards and conditions at each enterprise level. Neither do they encourage the presence of trade unions in their companies, as the survey commissioned by UNDP shows that 32% of small enterprise owners (respondents covered by the survey) reported the lack of a trade union in their units. [2] The number of public enterprises that used to feed the trade union movement in the country also reduced, currently constituting 618 of the total number of 24,883 enterprises registered in the country. The process of restructuring trough mass redundancies also contributed to reduction of the number of trade union members, substantially affecting the union density, as well as the capacity to protect their members through collective bargaining. Thus, from 1990 until now, the syndication rate has decreased from 90% to 40% [7], varying in different sectors, and showing a prevalent presence in the public sector. Economic restructuring caused a bargaining polarization through diversification of technologies and its impact on productivity in the last instance. Cutting edge technologies, particularly in the private sector, coexist with outdated and inefficient equipment, which fact clearly reflects on pay issues in the bargaining process. Branches, such as constructions, transports, light industry, and chemical industry usually establish higher levels of minimum and medium wages (at branch level) than those established at national level, and put emphasis on active social protection, such as labor security, and employee training. Other branches, in their turn, give predilection to passive protection measures, such as increasing wages through compensation for labor conditions (textile industry, health care system, etc). The limited capacities of employers to organize themselves in certain branches have impacted the presence and quality of collective labour agreements (CLA) in respective sectors. A research recently carried out upon request of the International Labor

1 2

BNS, Rezultatele anchetei structurale n ntreprinderi, 2008 National Bureau of Statistics, Results of structural survey on enterprises, 2008 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3(77) 2011 49

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(cercettor dl Dorin Vaculovschi, doctor n economie)1 este elocvent n acest sens. Interviurile cu lideri sindicali pun n eviden ngrijorrile lor legate de incapacitatea de negociere ca rezultat al lipsei unui partener. Este cazul Sindicatului lucrtorilor din comer, alimentaie public, cooperaie de consum, servicii, restaurante i hoteluri din Republica Moldova SindLUCAS, cel al Uniunii sindicatelor din energetic i cel al Sindicatului lucrtorilor din transportul aerian. 2. Calitatea conveniilor colective Att timp ct dialogul social nu are o finalitate constructiv (or conveniile i contractele colective de munc i sunt acel rezultat palpabil scontat), care s rezolve n mod amiabil, prin negocieri o serie de probleme dificile ale vieii economice i sociale ce frneaz progresul economic i submineaz bunstarea cetenilor, acest dialog rmne a fi un cadru gol, o form fr coninut, ineficient i inutil. Convenia colectiv, pe bun dreptate, i gsete o consacrare naional i internaional, fiind definit drept instituie fundamental n cadrul relaiilor de munc3 i calitatea clauzelor stipulate n ea denot gradul de profesionalism al parilor negociatoare n stabilirea i promovarea drepturilor i obligaiilor n materie de munc, salarizare, protecie social etc. n prezent, exist ncheiate convenii colective de munc n 18 sectoare i sub-sectoare industriale. n acest context, o analiz arat c irul de subiecte negociate i nmagazinate n convenii la nivel de ramur este unul cu mult mai extins. Coninutul este relativ similar n materii de salarizare i alte drepturi bneti (dei n anumite ramuri cuantumul minim i mediu l depete pe cel naional), de timp, munc i odihn, contract individual de munc. Negocierea sectorial introduce diferene i diversific subiectele negociate prin cele legate de libertatea i drepturile sindicale, protecia social pentru anumite categorii de angajai (tineri, femei etc.), sntatea i securitatea la locul de munc. Ele vin s depeasc tematic clauzele negociate la nivel naional i s abordeze ntr-o manier mai extins subiecte specifice activitilor din sector (de exemplu, protecia femeilor n sectorul textil). n acelai timp, sunt cunoscute cauze de eec ale negocierilor n domenii sensibile ale ramurii i pentru exemplificare poate fi adus insuccesul de a instituionaliza n ramura construciilor Casa Social a Constructorilor din Republica Moldova care, drept consecin a caracterului sezonier al lucrrilor de construcii, ar avea drept obiect de activitate protecia social a salariailor din construcii n perioada timpului nefavorabil4.
1

Organization (author Mr. Dorin Vaculovschi, PhD in economy)2 is eloquent in this regard. Interviews with union leaders highlight their concerns regarding the bargaining incapacity due to the lack of a partner. This is the case of the trade union from trade, public catering, services, restaurants, and hotels of the Republic of Moldova SindLUCAS, the trade union from the energy sector, and the trade union of air transport. 2. Quality of Collective Conventions. As long as the social dialogue targets no constructive determination (or collective labor agreements might be counted as an expected tangible result) to resolve amicably, through negotiations, a number of difficult problems related to social and economic life hindering the economic progress and undermining the welfare of citizens, the latter will remain an empty frame, a form without content, inefficient, and useless. The Collective Labour Agreement is defined as a fundamental institution within the industrial relations system5 and the quality of their provisions reveals the skills of the parties within the bargaining exercise in establishing and promoting the rights and obligations in terms of employment, wages, social protection, etc. In the given context, an analysis shows that the number of subjects negotiated and stored in agreements at branch level is much broader. The content is relatively similar in terms of wages and other remuneration related rights (although in certain branches the minimum and medium levels exceed the national level), work and rest time, and individual employment contract. Sector bargaining introduces differences and diversifies the subjects negotiated through those related to trade union freedoms and rights, social protection for certain categories of employees (youth, women, etc.), healthcare and OSH issues. They are designed to thematically exceed the clauses negotiated at national level and address the sector activity related items in a broader manner (for example women protection in textile sector). At the same time, we can report cases of bargaining failure in sensitive areas of a branch, such as the attempt to set up the Social House of Construction Workers in the sector, which, due to the seasonal character of construction works, would focus on social protection of employees during unfavorable weather periods6.

n cadrul proiectului OIM Consolidarea Bazei Legale i Instituionale a Dialogului Social n rile Balcanilor de Vest i Moldova, 2009 2 Within the ILO project Strengthening the Legal and Institutional Base of Social Dialogue in the Vestern Balcan Countries and Moldova, 2009 3 Recomandarea nr.91/1951 a OIM 4 Interviu cu dl Oleg Mirleanu, vice-preedinte al Federaiei Sindicale a Constructorilor 5 ILO Recommendation No. 91/1951
6

Interview with Mr. Oleg Mirleanu, deputy president of Trade Union Federation in Construction

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Conveniile ramurale includ deseori i clauze privind drepturile i obligaiile prilor semnatare pentru situaii aparte. Astfel, ncetarea calitii de membru al patronatelor i sindicatelor, spre exemplu, nu elibereaz prile semnatare ale conveniei de obligativitatea ndeplinirii clauzelor pe durata valabilitii ei.1 De asemenea, menionat faptul c nu toate sectoarele industriale au ncheiate convenii colective extinse ca materie de abordare, ba mai mult chiar, numrul acestora este unul relativ redus, iar conveniile colective negociate n sectorul public sunt, de regul, subordonate limitrilor financiare ale bugetelor naionale i locale, fapt care se rsfrnge asupra calitii lor. Mai mult dect att, n nicio ramur nu au fost abordate pn n prezent, n cadrul negocierilor colective, fenomene ca migraia, munca nedeclarat, protecia social n sectorul informal. Chiar i subiectul instruirii forei de munc, unul vital, de altfel, pentru pretinsa productivitate i competitivitate ntr-o economie de pia i unul de sensibilitate aparte pentru ara noastr2, nu este unul de prioritate aparte n proces. Ramura construciilor doar, ca excepie, n Convenia colectiv negociat n 2009, subliniaz necesitatea instruirii permanente a forei de munc flexibile i calificate cu scopul dezvoltrii spiritului competitiv pe piaa muncii, eliminrii deficitului forei de munc calificate, atragerii tinerilor specialiti n ramur i contribuirii la stoparea exodului forei de munc n exterior3. Astfel, angajatorii sunt obligai s creeze condiiile necesare i s favorizeze formarea profesional i tehnic a salariailor. n plus, n cadrul fiecrei uniti angajatorul, n comun cu sindicatul, trebuie s ntocmeasc i s aprobe anual planurile de formare profesional. Sigur, cel mai real ca activitate ar fi fost instituirea la nivel de ramur a unui Fond pentru instruire, aa cum arat experiena multor ri europene. Dar i iniiativa de a crea un Comitet sectorial tripartit n Construcii privind instruirea profesional a angajailor din sector (susinut financiar de prile semnatare ale conveniei) este unul plauzibil la aceast etap. Comitetul urmeaz s materializeze cadrul legislativ n materie i s prognozeze calificrile necesare n ramur, pentru o mai bun armonizare a cererii i ofertei de munc. Sperm ca acest organism s-i exercite eficient menirea si s nu rmn dect o iniiativ pe hrtie, cum s-a dovedit a fi pn n prezent. Oftentimes, branch agreement includes clauses on rights and obligations of signing parties for separate situations. Thus, the discontinuation of membership in employer and trade union organizations, for instance, doesnt relieve the signing parties of the CLA from the obligation to fulfill the clauses throughout validity term of the agreement.4 It is also worth mentioning the fact that not all industrial sectors have signed extended collective agreement in terms of approach, moreover, the number of the latter is relatively reduced, while CLA in the public sector usually depend on financial limitations of the national and local budgets, which fact influences their quality. Moreover, none of the branches has addressed phenomena, such as migration, illegal work, and social protection in the informal sector within collective bargaining until currently. Even the subject of labor force training, which is vital for the alleged productivity and competitiveness in a market economy, and particularly sensitive for our country5, is not given special priority in the process. As an exception, the constructions branch highlighted in the CLA negotiated in 2009 the need for on-going training of flexible and skilled labor force with the aim to develop a competitive spirit on the labor market, eliminate the deficit of skilled labor, attract young specialists in the branch, and contribute to halting the exodus of labor force6. Thus, employers are obligated to create necessary conditions and favor vocational and technical training of employees. Moreover, within each unit, the employer, jointly with the trade union must develop and approve annual vocational training plans. The most real activity, as the experience of many European countries shows, would be certainly to establish a Training Fund at branch level. However, the creation of a tripartite Sector Committee in Constructions for vocational training of employees (supported financially by the signing parties to the CLA) is also a plausible step at this stage. The Committee is to materialize the relevant legal framework and forecast the necessary qualifications in the branch for a better harmonization of labor demand and offer. Hopefully this body will operate efficiently and not remain just an initiative put on paper.

Convenia colectiv n agricultur pentru 2007-2008, prolongat succesiv n 2009 Instruirea la locul de munc, spre exemplu, este una chiar limitat, n ultimii ani mai puin de 10% din numrul total de angajai au participat la astfel de cursuri de instruire conform Studiului de ar al Fundaiei Europene de Instruire, 2009 3 Capitolul VII Formarea profesional, p.7.2
2
4 5

Collective Convention in Agriculture for 2007-2008, successively extended in 2009 On-the-job-training, for example, has been limited; according to the Country Survey of the European Training Fund as of 2009, less than 10% of the total number of employees has participated in such training courses over the last years.

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3. Specificul tripartit al dialogului social ramural n Moldova inem s confirmm cu toat certitudinea c cele trei componente ale laturii subiective a dialogului social salariai, angajator, reprezentani ai puterii publice nu joac i nu trebuie percepute drept simpli actori sociali, pentru c n realitate calitatea pe care le o atribuie participarea la amplul proces de dialog social este cea de parteneri sociali, ncrcai cu o misiune ce se manifest dincolo de reprezentarea unilateral a intereselor specifice, deoarece include o responsabilitate pentru bunstarea public i asigurarea pcii sociale. Am insistat pe aceast afirmaie din considerentul din care n R.Moldova delimitarea clar a mandatelor prilor la dialog social, n special la nivel de ramur, este una nc confuz. nti de toate, datorit omniprezenei statului n procesul de negocieri chiar i n afara sectorului public pe care l reprezint. Lucru paradoxal, Codul Muncii nu stipuleaz expres dreptul sau obligativitatea statului de a negocia i semna conveniile colective la nivel de ramur (sector real al economiei), fapt de altfel absolut firesc pentru nivelul tripartit naional. Dimpotriv, articolul 35 stipuleaz c o convenie colectiv este un act juridic, care stabilete principiile generale de reglementare a raporturilor de munc i social-economice ce se ncheie de ctre reprezentanii mputernicii ai salariailor i angajatorilor la nivel naional, teritorial i ramural, n limitele competenei lor. i, totui, nu vei gsi nici o convenie de ramur n care unul sau alt minister de resort nu ar veni n calitate de negociator i semnatar al ei. n acelai timp, comisiile tripartite la nivel de ramur, conform legii, sunt unele de consultri i negocieri colective, or ele, fiind tripartite prin definiie, atribuie rol de negociator guvernului chiar i acolo unde el nu trebuie s se prezinte dect ca moderator tacit al procesului bipartit, lucru la care ne-am referit i mai sus. Dar chiar i n calitatea de moderator pasiv guvernul are obligaia de a aduce la cunotin punctul su de vedere i a face o analiz a problemelor ce fac obiectul negocierilor. Experiena european vine cu exemple foarte concludente de dialog social tripartit sectorial, aceasta ns se limiteaz la informri i consultri, de regul, n cadrul unor comisii ministeriale de dialog social, prezen de acest gen fiind, de altfel, nregistrat i n Moldova. Aceste organe au o importan semnificativ, nti de toate, prin faptul c faciliteaz discuii pertinente n materii foarte specifice sectorului. n al doilea rnd, ele sunt acel mediu n care pot fi gsite soluii viabile vizavi de probleme, inndu-se cont de mai multe aspecte, cum ar fi resursele disponibile, capacitile, productivitatea sectorului etc. Acest dialog sectorial tripartit este unul benefic pentru toate prile. Guvernul este n contact permanent cu schimbrile economice i mediul social, astfel solicitrile partenerilor sociali, rspunsurile lor, iar uneori chiar i presiunile exercitate de ei pot servi drept cel mai efectiv mod de verificare a efectelor unei politici, de revedere i ajustare a programelor la nivel sectorial, dar prin succesiune i la nivel naional. n acelai context, 52 3. Specifics of tripartite social dialogue at branch level in Moldova. We would like to confirm with certainty that the three components of the social dialogues subjective part employees, employer, and public authority representatives do not play and shouldnt be perceived as simple social actors, because, in reality, the role attributed to them by participation in the broad social dialogue process is that of social partners, charged with a mission manifested beyond the unilateral representation of specific interests, as it involves responsibility for public welfare and social peace. We insisted on this statement because the delimitation of mandates of the parties to social dialogue is yet confusing, particularly at branch level. This is first of all due to the state omnipresence in the bargaining process, even outside the public sector that the latter represents. Paradoxically, the Labor Code does not stipulate expressly the right or obligation of the government to negotiate and sign collective conventions at branch level (in the real sector of economy), which is absolutely obvious for the tripartite negotiations at national level. On the contrary, article 35 stipulates that collective convention shall be a legal act establishing the general principles for regulating labor relations and social-economic relations concluded by empowered representatives of employees and employers at national, territorial, and branch level, within the limit of their competence. Yet, you will not find any branch convention to which one ministry or another would not be present as negotiating and signing party. At the same time, pursuant to the law, tripartite commissions at branch level are designed for consultations and collective bargaining, or being tripartite through definition, they attribute a negotiator role to the government even where the latter should be present as a tacit moderator of the bipartite process, to which we have already referred above. However, even in the role of passive moderator the government is obligated to share its point of view and analyze the issues constituting the subject of negotiations. European experience provides very conclusive examples of tripartite social dialogue at sector level, which limit to information and consultations, usually within some ministerial social dialogue commissions, such kind of presence being recorded in Moldova as well. Such bodies are important first of all for facilitating pertinent discussions on very sector specific issues. Secondly, they set up environments where viable solutions can be found to problems by taking into account several aspects, such as resources available, capacities, productivity of the sector, etc. Such tripartite social dialogue at sector level is benefic for all the parties. The Government is permanently aware of economic changes and social environment, while the requests

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patronii i pot adapta politicile, iniiativele, planurile de dezvoltare ale companiilor la strategiile guvernamentale sectoriale. Sindicatele i ele pot iniia i promova politici active de protecie social a membrilor lor, de rnd cu atenionarea vis--vis de eventuale inegaliti, discrepane n materie de drepturi i iniiative guvernamentale pentru reforme sociale. Dar nu putem s nu subliniem o data n plus ca aceste comisii sunt unele consultative. De altfel, i n Moldova, actualmente, funcioneaz apte atare comisii care au un caracter mai mult informativ dect consultativ. Interferena statului n negocierea bipartit n sectorul real al economiei nu este altceva dect manifestarea nencrederii fa de partenerii sociali, de calitatea lor profesional de a influena un progres la nivel de sector, de a-i spori competitivitatea, dar este cu certitudine i obinuina de prezen absolut, motenit dintr-un sistem totalitarist de comand. Acest aspect poate afecta profund imaginea rii n procesul de aderare la Uniunea European tocmai pentru faptul c statele acestei comuniti manifest o ncredere susinut partenerilor lor sociali, delegndule competente specifice pentru implementarea unor directive comunitare prin contracte colective de munc (conform art. 137 din tratatul Uniunii). Or, tocmai de acest aspect trebuie s se in cont i n ara noastr. Finalizarea procesului de privatizare ar trebui s ncurajeze retragerea gradual a statului din negocierile colective ramurale ale partenerilor sociali, oferindu-li-se astfel oportunitatea de a negocia de sine stttor ntr-un context de relaii industriale libere. Dar, de rnd cu aceasta, este absolut iminent i perceperea de ctre partenerii sociali a responsabilitii atribuite astfel, nct performana profesional n materii economice i sociale s fie una foarte actual pe agenda de lucru a lor . 4. Eficacitatea dialogului social sectorial n Moldova. Aspecte pozitive i negative Analiza funcionrii dialogului sectorial n Republica Moldova denot prezena unui ir de aspecte pozitive, inclusiv o tendin de mbuntire a calitii lui. Chiar dac procesul este unul foarte lent, anumite evoluii merit a fi menionate: n procesul negocierilor accentul se vrea a fi pus pe efecte de durat versus celor de aciune temporar, cum ar fi, spre exemplu, tendina de racordare a creterilor salariale la efortul depus i productivitate, n locul unei creteri nominale contingente, sau mbuntirea calitii locului de munc, n locul creterii plilor compensatorii; negocierile sunt mbuntite prin ancorarea dialogului ntr-un context economic i social, concret i viabil, renunndu-se la antaj i impunere. Acceptarea compromisurilor i disponibilitatea de a ceda, n special din partea sindicatelor n situaii de criz, a fost valabil, dei cu foarte mici excepii i doar arareori; of social partners, their answers, and sometimes even the pressure exercised by them can serve as the most efficient way for verifying the effects of a policy, reviewing and adjusting programs at sector level, and, subsequently at national level too. In the same context, employers can adjust their policies, initiatives, and development plans of their companies to the sector government strategies. Trade unions can also initiate and promote active policies for social protection of their members, along with warning about eventual inequalities, discrepancies in terms of rights and government initiatives for social reforms. We cannot but underline once again that such commissions are consultative. As a matter of fact, there operates six such commissions in Moldova to date, the latter having an informative rather than a consultative character. Government interference in the bipartite bargaining of real economy sector is nothing but an expression of distrust towards the social partners, and their professional skills to influence progress at sector level and increase their competitiveness; it is certainly a habit of absolute presence inherited from a totalitarian command system. This aspect can deeply affect the image of our country in the process of accession to European Union just because of the fact that the member states of this community show supported trust in their social partners, delegating specific competences to them for implementing some EU directives through collective employment agreements (pursuant to article 137 of the EU Treaty). This very aspect should be taken into consideration in our country as well. The completion of privatization process should encourage gradual government retreat from collective sector bargaining, the social partners being thus provided the opportunity to negotiate independently in a free industrial relations context. However, along with this, it is absolutely imminent that the social partners perceive the responsibility attributed to them so that professional performance in economic and social issues is one of the most current issues included in their work agenda. 4. Efficiency of social dialogue at sector level in Moldova. Positive and negative aspects. The analysis of sector dialogue functioning in Moldova indicates a number of positive aspects, including a trend towards improving its quality. Although the process is very slow, certain evolutions are worth being mentioned: there is a will for putting stress on long term effects rather than on temporary effects in the negotiation process, such as the trend towards adjusting wage increases to the effort made and productivity instead of a contingent nominal growth or improving the quality of work place instead of increasing the compensatory 53

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odat cu modificarea legislaiei n defavoarea salariailor, prevederile conveniei colective rmn n vigoare, astfel gradul de protecie rmne a fi unul garantat; poate fi atestat tendina de sporire a profesionalismului partenerilor sociali prin instruire cu suport intern, dar i asisten extern din partea organismelor europene i internaionale, inclusiv n materie de negocieri, ocupare, sntate i securitate, standarde de munc etc. n acelai timp, dialogul social la nivel de ramur las mult de dorit la anumite capitole, la care vrem s ne referim mai jos: Negocierile colective, de multe ori, sunt superficiale i conveniile colective ncheiate deseori eueaz abordarea satisfctoare a problemelor specifice sectorului, legate de salarii, condiii de munc, asigurri sociale, subocupare, segmente informale etc. Foarte multe convenii nu fac dect s transpun la acest nivel clauzele conveniilor colective naionale sau a cadrului legal existent, fr un efort de extindere i amplificare a lor. Persistena segmentrii verticale n dialogul social, prin lipsa de informare reciproc ntre sectoare i instituiile lor de dialog social, submineaz capacitile acestuia, de rnd cu lipsa de cooperare ntre respectivele organe din ntreprinderi i cele de nivel ramural i/ori naional. Conveniile colective nu stimuleaz suficient iniiativa i munca calificat. Sistemele tarifare de plat sunt preferate n continuare ca oferind venituri sigure, chiar dac reduse ca valoare, pe cnd cele non-tarifare, chiar dac sunt consfinite prin lege, nc nu sunt populare, dei sunt considerate mai competitive i au la baz performana i contribuia individual. Lipsa unor sisteme computerizate i reele informaionale, care s faciliteze comunicarea dintre parteneri, condiioneaz vacuumul informaional n materie de convenii i contracte colective negociate, numr de membri de sindicat angajai, alte date statistice. Lipsa paginilor electronice, la fel reduce capacitatea de mediatizare a conveniilor. Or, informaia este un element crucial n pregtirea i efectuarea negocierilor, n special cea oferit de patroni este una fundamental pentru motivul c aplicarea clauzelor contractelor nseamn suport financiar, cheltuieli financiare, chiar diminuarea profitului. nregistrarea conveniilor colective ramurale la Ministerul Muncii, evitarea publicrii lor limiteaz accesul la ele i astfel reduce din utilitatea lor. Capacitile reduse de organizare a patronilor, lipsa unei culturi patronale, capacitile limitate de prestare a serviciilor membrilor actuali influeneaz nefast calitatea dialogului social n unele ramuri i reduce numrul conveniilor colective. payments; negotiations are improved through anchoring the dialogue in a specific and viable socialeconomic context, giving up blackmail and obtrusion. Acceptance of compromise and availability to give in, particularly on behalf of the trade unions in crisis situations has been valid, although with minor exceptions and only a few times; the trend is obvious for increasing the professionalism of social partners through training with both internal support and foreign assistance provided by European and international organizations, including on bargaining, employment, healthcare and security, working standards, etc. At the same time, social dialogue at branch level leaves much to be desired regarding certain aspects we would like to refer to bellow: Collective negotiations are superficial in many cases, while the signed collective agreements oftentimes fail to address sector specific problems related to wages, working conditions, insurance, social assistance, under-employment, informal segments, etc. Very many conventions just transpose the clauses of national CLA at branch level without making effort to broaden and amplify them. The persistence of vertical segmentation in social dialogue through lack of mutual information between sectors and their social dialogue institutions undermine the capacities of the latter, along with the lack of cooperation between respective bodies from enterprises and those at branch and/or national level. Collective agreements fail to sufficiently stimulate initiative and skilled labor. Tariff systems continue being preferred to non-tariff ones, as the first provide secure incomes, although reduced in value, while the non-tariff systems, though provided by law, are unpopular yet, even if they are considered more competitive and based on performance and individual contribution. The lack of software and information networks that would facilitate communication between the partners lead to an information vacuum in terms of collective agreements negotiated, the number of union members employed, other statistic data. The lack of web pages also reduces the CLA coverage capacity, as information is a crucial element in the preparation and unfolding of negotiations, particularly the information provided by employers is fundamental for the reason that the application of contract clauses supposes financial support, financial expenses, and even reduction of profit. Registration of branch CLA with the Ministry of Labor and avoiding their publication limits the access to them, thus reducing their usefulness.

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Problema de baz ce conduce la lipsa unor convenii colective n anumite domenii de activitate este lipsa nu doar a unor structuri patronale consolidate, ci i a structurilor administraiei publice de specialitate ca partener pentru negocieri (de exemplu: domeniul energetic, industria constructoare de automobile, industria uoar, domeniul bancar). Concluzii Modelul Social European, pe care R. Moldova va trebui cu certitudine s-l adopte (n cazul n care decizia de integrare este una ireversibil), implic edificarea unui sistem modern i funcional de relaii industriale. Una dintre condiii, n acest sens, este prezena unui dialog sociali la nivel naional, dar i n toate domeniile de activitate posibile. Astfel, nivelul de ramur rmne unul favorizat din perspectiva din care el este cel mai benefic pentru o funcionare economic i social durabil i o mai bun protecie a salariailor prin accesul i influena sa direct asupra nivelului de ntreprindere. Impulsionarea dialogului social rmne, n acest context, esenial ntru transformarea lui ntr-un instrument important de coeziune economic i social. De aceea, perspectiva de retragere a statului din negocierile sectoriale trebuie s fie una comensurabil i real. Statul trebuie s-i cultive ncrederea n capacitile partenerilor sociali i s-i lase n cutarea proprie de compromisuri la nivel ramural, dar i local. Pentru ndreptirea acestei ncrederi, partenerii sociali, la rndul lor, ar trebui s fac dovada unui efort susinut de consolidare instituional i profesional. i aici statul ar putea fi un partener de ncredere, rolul Ministerului Muncii fiind unul incontestabil. Susinerea partenerilor prin instruiri, metodologii i mprtire de experiene europene n materie de dialog social ar fi cea mai relevant manifestare de voin politic a statului. The limited organizational capacities of employers, lack of entrepreneur culture, the limited capacities for providing services to current members have a negative impact on the quality of social dialogue in some branches, and reduces the number of CLA. Conclusions The European Social Model that Moldova will certainly have to adopt (if the decision on integration is irreversible) implies building up a modern and functional system of industrial relations. One of the conditions in this sense is the availability of a social dialogue at national level, as well as in all possible areas of activity. The branch level remains a favored one in this regard for the reason that it is the most benefic for a sustainable social and economic functioning, and for a better protection of employees through its access and direct influence at enterprise level. In this context, social dialogue boosting remains essential for its transformation into an important economic and social cohesion tool. Therefore, the perspective of government retreat from sector bargaining must be a measurable and real one. The government should cultivate its trust in the social partners capacities and let them find compromises on their own at branch level and at local level as well. To justify such trust, the social partners, in their turn, should prove a supported effort for institutional and professional consolidation. Here, the government could be a reliable partner. The role of the Ministry of Labor is incontestable in this context. Supporting the partners through trainings, methodologies, and sharing European experience in social dialogue would be the most relevant proof of the political will of the government in this respect.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Bibliografie/Bibliography Ancheta structural n ntreprinderi, BNS, 2008; Dr. Alic Brc, drd. Alexandru Gamanji, Expert-Grup. Studiul PNUD n cadrul proiectului Promovarea Responsabilitii Sociale Corporative i constituirea Reelei Locale a Pactului Global n Republica Moldova, 2008; Dr. Dorin Vaculovschi, Dialogul social la nivel de ramur Studiu OIM; Fundaia European de Instruire, Studiu de ar, 2009; Georgeta Codreanu, Dialogul social i pacea social, Editura Tribuna Economic, Bucureti, 2007, p.37; Raport privind IMM, ODIMM, 2009; Tatiana Topor, Consolidarea micrii sindicale este un proces inevitabil, Fin-Consultant, 2009; Valer Dorneanu, Dialogul social, Editura Lumina Lex, Bucureti, 2006, p.7; Convenia OIM nr. 98 (1949) privind aplicarea principiilor dreptului de organizare i negociere colectiv; Convenia OIM nr.144 (1976) privind consultrile tripartil; Convenia OIM, nr. 154 (1981) privind promovarea negocierii colective; Codul Muncii din Republica Moldova, 2003.

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EVALUAREA PERSONALULUI: TEORIE SAU PRACTIC, PROCEDUR SAU REZULTAT?


Lect. sup. drd. Maria CARABET, Universitatea de Stat din Comrat
Diferitele abordri ale evalurii personalului ne ofer posibilitatea s considerm c aceasta este o categorie att teoretic, ct i practic. De pe poziia cunoaterii, evaluarea este un proces de gndire i studiere a mediului nconjurtor. Dar, de pe cea practic, aceasta constituie rezultatul procesului de studiere, deoarece n practic este important anume produsul gndirii. Perfecionarea practicii de selectare i dislocare a cadrelor, stimularea muncii lor, promovarea lucrtorilor, ridicarea calificrii lor sunt legate de evaluarea obiectiv, construit pe baz tiinific, a angajailor. Noiunea evaluarea personalului provine de la preuirea existent, n orice activitate, a omului. La rndul su, categoria evaluare este o corelare, un raport al obiectului existent cu modelul sau norma stabilit, de regul, n baza cercetrilor i elaborrilor. Coninutul categoriei respective const n procesul de raportare, comparare a obiectului examinat cu altceva, dei se poate ntlni i o alt interpretare a acesteia. Astfel, prin evaluare uneori este neles rezultatul fenomenului sau aciunii comparate cu reprezentarea evaluatorului despre faptul cum trebuie s fie acest rezultat. Stabilind faptul c evaluarea are o importan att teoretic, ct i practic, autorul a formulat urmtoarea precizare a noiunii categoriei evaluare, n care au fost cuprinse ambele tratri menionate mai sus: evaluarea reprezint studierea obiectelor, fenomenelor i compararea rezultatelor cu anumite norme i modele. Din aceast precizare se poate deduce c evaluarea: se exprim n raport cu obiectul sau fenomenul studiat; este un proces de studiu, ce const n compararea obiectului sau fenomenului cu ceva, ca urmare atingndu-se un rezultat; se bazeaz pe anumite valori, deoarece studierea oricrui fenomen, de regul, se constituie pornind de la valoarea i importana lui; totdeauna presupune o baz, adic norme, modele cu care i are loc raportarea fenomenului sau obiectului studiat. Dup cum a fost menionat anterior, noiunea 56

PERSONNEL ASSESSMENT: THEORY OR PRACTICE, PROCEDURE OR RESULT?


Senior. Lect., PhD candidate Maria CARABET, Comrat State University
Different approaches of personnel assessment enable us to assume that assessment is both theoretical and practical category. From the cognition point of view assessment is a process of thinking and studying the environment. And from a practical position it is a result of learning process, as in practice namely the product of thought is important. Improvement of personnel selection and placement practice, stimulation of their labor, promotion of employees and their professional development is related to the objective assessment of employees, built on a scientific basis. The concept of personnel assessment is derived from the assessment existing in any human activity. In turn, the category assessment is a correlation, a comparison of the existing object with a certain model or norm, usually based on research and development. The content of this category is in the process of juxtaposition and comparison of the given object with something, though there can be found another interpretation. Thus, by assessment is sometimes understood as a phenomenon or an action result with the assessors comparable view of what the result should be. Having identified the fact that the assessment has both theoretical and practical importance, the author has formulated the following adjusted concept of the category of assessment, which combined both interpretations presented above: Assessment is the study of objects, phenomena, and comparison of results with certain norms and patterns. From the refined definition, we can see that assessment: is expressed with respect to the studied object or phenomenon; is a learning process representing comparison of an object or phenomenon with something, in the end of which a result is achieved; is based on certain values, since a study of any phenomenon, as a rule, is based on its value and significance; always assumes a base, i.e. norms, patterns, with which the comparison of a phenomenon or an object is made. As it was previously noted, the term personnel assessment is derived from the category of

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evaluare a personalului este derivat de la categoria evaluare. De aceea, definiia prezentat i caracteristicile distinctive ale acestei categorii trebuie s-i gseasc reflectare, n particular, i n noiunea dat. Examinnd sursele de literatur ce studiaz administrarea personalului i evaluarea angajailor, se poate observa c o definiie unic a categoriei evaluarea personalului lipsete. Cercetnd tratrile existente n prezent, acestea pot fi analizate de pe poziiile ctorva abordri. A devenit clasic ca toate tratrile respective s fie examinate prin prisma a trei abordri de baz: - procesual, n care evaluarea este definit nemijlocit drept un proces; - conceptual (de coninut), n care evaluarea este privit ca un rezultat; - funcional, ce determin evaluarea drept o funcie de administrare a personalului. n cadrul abordrii procesuale, evaluarea personalului se prezint sub aspectul unor proceduri de evaluare consecutive. n opinia lui E. V. Maslow, atenia principal se acord descrierii funciilor, determinrii cerinelor, aprecierii dup factori (a unui executor concret), raportrii la standard, estimrii nivelului colaboratorului, informrii despre rezultatele evalurii subordonatului1. Etapele de evaluare a personalului n organizaie au fost prezentate mai desfurat n lucrrile lui A. Vucicovici, n form de schem (fig.1)2. Deseori, n literatura de specialitate se ntlnete definiia evalurii lucrtorilor aproximativ astfel: evaluarea personalului reprezint un proces de depistare a corespunderii colaboratorilor cerinelor funciei ocupate. La abordarea procesual se poate referi i definiia n care evaluarea lucrtorului reprezint o procedur efectuat n scopul depistrii gradului de corespundere a calitilor personale ale acestuia, a rezultatelor cantitative i calitative ale activitii sale anumitor cerine3. Alic Brc consider c evaluarea posturilor reprezint o activitate sistematic de comparare ntre posturi, pentru a le evalua valoarea lor relativ, necesar pentru diferenierea salariilor angajailor unei organizaii. La rndul su, activitatea de evaluare a posturilor const n determinarea valorii sau importanei relative a funciilor din cadrul organizaiei, fr a ine cont de performanele realizate de titularii posturilor respective. assessment. Therefore, the detection and identification of the distinguishing features of the category of assessment should be reflected in particular in the concept of personnel assessment. Considering the literature studying human resource management and assessment of employees, it should be noted that there is no one single definition of the category of personnel assessment. After reviewing treatments of personnel assessment available today, they can be seen from the perspective of multiple approaches. It has become classic, to consider all available treatments of personnel assessment from the view of three main approaches: procedural approach, where the assessment is determined as a process itself; content approach, in which assessment is seen as a result; functional approach, defining assessment as a function of personnel management. As part of the procedural approach, assessment of personnel is presented as a sequence of assessment procedures. According to Maslov E. V. main attention is focused on: the description of functions, definition of requirements, assessment of factors (concrete executor), comparison with the standard, assessment of an employees level; bringing the results of the assessment to a subordinate.1 In more details, stages of personnel assessment at an organization were represented by A. Vuchkovich in his works in the form of a scheme (figure 1).2 Often in literature the definition of assessment of employees is given close to the following: personnel assessment is a process of identifying employees compliance with the requirements of their positions. For procedural approach we may also attribute a definition in which an employee assessment is a procedure carried out to identify the extent to which the personal qualities of a worker, as well as quantitative and qualitative results of his activity, comply with certain requirements.3 Alic Birca believes that assessment of positions is a systematic activity related to the comparison between the positions for permanent analysis necessary for differentiation of employees wages at an organization. In turn, activities for position assessment are to determine the value or importance of the positions within the organization without regard to the performance attained by persons occupying these posts.

.. 316 : / , .. . .: -; : , 1999. - 312 . 2 : . 3 : / ., .. . .: -; :, 1999, - 312 c. Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3(77) 2011 57

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Adoptarea deciziilor despre evaluarea colaboratorilor/ Taking decision to assess employees Crearea grupei privind elaborarea sistemului de evaluare la ntreprindere/ Formation of a group for development of an assessment system at an enterprise Prezentarea machetei elaborate a sistemului de evaluare a top-managementului / Presentation of elaborated model of assessment system to the top-managers Finisarea sistemului de evaluare i perfectare a actelor de nsoire / Adaptation of assessment system and preparation of the accompanying documents

Informarea managementului vergii medii despre sistemul de evaluare/ Informing management about the assessment system Luarea n considerare a observaiilor verigii medii/ Possible consideration of remarks from line management Instruirea colaboratorilor/ Organization of trainings for employees

Efectuarea evalurii/ Carrying out the assessment

Analiza rezultatelor/ Results of analysis

Informarea despre rezultatele evalurii subalternului/ Informing the employee about the results of the assessment

Figura 1. Etapele de evaluare a personalului n companie/ Figure 1. Stages of staff assessment in a company Aadar, evaluarea posturilor reprezint un procedeu folosit pentru a stabili ierarhii nu numai n sfera acestora, dar i n cea a salariilor, evaluarea fiind o etap prealabil de stabilire a salariilor n raport cu exigenele sau cerinele posturilor ocupate. Eliminarea tuturor nemulumirilor legate de salarizare este o sarcin imposibil, meritul evalurii posturilor este Thus, personnel assessment is a procedure used to develop the hierarchy of not only positions, but also wages. Analysis is a preliminary step in the preparation of wages in accordance with the requirements of corresponding positions. Elimination of all complaints related to wages is not possible; the merit of personnel assessment is that it allows us to establish relative wages, so that there would be

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acela c permite stabilirea unor salarii relative, astfel nct nemulumirea s fie mai mic dect n cazul n care evaluarea nu ar fi fost aplicat1. Examinnd abordarea de coninut a evalurii personalului, accentul trebuie pus nemijlocit pe rezultat, i nu pe procesul de realizare a evalurii. Aici evaluarea apare drept o etap final, adic un rezultat al procesului evaluativ. Studiind sursele respective, ntlnim definirea evalurii drept un raionament despre dezvoltarea, gradul de pregtire i corespundere, rezultatele activitii lucrtorului. Dup prerea lui E. V. Buravliova, evaluarea cadrelor demonstreaz elocvent diferenele individuale ale angajailor organizaiei la ndeplinirea obligaiunilor lor de serviciu, astfel asigurnd conducerea cu informaia necesar n domeniul de administrare a personalului2. S cercetm evaluarea personalului de pe poziia perceperii ei ca rezultat, ceea ce presupune abordarea de coninut a acesteia. n acest context, n calitate de rezultat apar diferite nsuiri, caliti i caracteristici ale colaboratorului. Dup cum s-a menionat anterior, abordarea de coninut a evalurii constituie rezultatul studierii de ctre subiect a rezultatelor muncii, a calitilor profesionale i personale i alte caracteristici ale lucrtorului. Deci interpretm caracteristica drept descrierea trsturilor specifice, a calitilor deosebite, a comportamentului, realizrilor obinute i nsuirilor colaboratorului. n acest caz, caracteristica apare n rolul de procedeu al studierii informaiei despre angajat, ce include n sine un ir de funcii susenumerate: diagnostica, evidena, controlul i analiza. Anume aici i gsete reflectarea interaciunea abordrilor de coninut i procesual, precum i funcional n studierea evalurii personalului. n cadrul abordrii funcionale, evaluarea apare drept o funcie de administrare a personalului n organizaie. Trebuie s menionm c evaluarea se examineaz aici n calitate de element-cheie al managementului de cadre. Sub aspect mai larg, managementul de cadre include n sine un sistem de reguli i norme care coreleaz resursa uman cu strategia firmei; o totalitate de reguli concrete, doleane i restricii n relaiile reciproce dintre oameni i organizaie3. Bazndu-ne pe aceasta, trebuie subliniat c toate msurile de lucru cu personalul constituie o component a politicii de cadre n ntreprindere. Msurile respective reprezint elementele principale de administrare a personalului, care pot fi prezentate astfel (fig.2):
1

fewer complaints than if the assessment was not performed.1 Considering the meaningful process of staff assessment, the focus should be made directly on the result rather than on the implementation of the assessment. In this approach the grade is the final stage, i.e. the result of assessment process. A comprehensive approach focuses not on the process of assessment, but also on its outcome. Having studied literary sources we can find a definition of assessment as judgments about the development, the degree of preparation and compliance, and performance of the employee. According to E. V. Buravleva personnel assessment demonstrates very well individual differences between workers of an organization while performing their duties, providing through this necessary information in the field of personnel management to the heads of the organization.2 Lets consider personnel assessment from the position of understanding it as a result, which implies a meaningful approach to the study of staff assessment. Here, a result is represented as various properties, qualities and characteristics of an employee. As previously noted in the comprehensive approaches, assessment is a result of studying of labor results, professional and personal qualities and other characteristics of an employee by a subject. Here we interpret characteristics as a description of specific features, distinctive qualities, behavior, achieved results and properties of an employee. In this case the characterization is presented as a procedure of studying information about an employee, which includes a number of the following functions: diagnosis, accounting, monitoring and analysis. It is here that the relationships between substantial, procedural, and functional approaches to the study of staff assessment are reflected. In the functional approach assessment is represented as a function of personnel management in an organization. It should be noted that the assessment is viewed in this approach as a key element of staff management. In the extended aspect human resources management includes a system of rules and regulations, bringing the staff in accordance with the companys strategy, as well as a set of specific rules, wishes and limitations in the relations between people and organizations.3 Based on the foregoing, it should be emphasized that all activities referring to the work with staff are the components of personnel policy of a company. These activities constitute the major elements of personnel management. The main elements of management can be represented in a diagram (figure 2).

Managementul resurselor umane/ Alic Brc; Acad. De Studii Econ. Din Moldova. Dep. Ed. Poligr. al ASEM, 2005. 522p. 2 .. .// . - 2001. 1, . 48-57. 3 .., .. .// . 2002. - 12,. 51-65. Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3(77) 2011 59

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Elementele de conducere a personalului/ Elements of personnel management

Alegerea strategiei organizaionale/ Choosing organizational strategy

Selectarea i angajarea personalului/ Selection and hiring personnel

Dezvoltarea i instruirea personalului/ Development and training of personnel

Evaluarea personalului/ Personnel Assessment

Motivarea i stimularea personalului/ Motivation and stimulation of personnel

Figura 2. Elementele de baz ale conducerii personalului/ Figure 2. The main elements of personnel management n cadrul abordrii funcionale, evaluarea Under the functional approach assessment contribuie la cea mai bun utilizare a resurselor umane n accompanies the best use of human resources in organizaie, ntr-o interaciune strns cu alte elemente organizations, in close relation with other elements of ale politicii de cadre. Totodat, evaluarea ndeplinete o personnel policy. At that assessment fulfills a key funcie-cheie i se folosete la realizarea tuturor function and is used in the implementation of all elementelor de administrare a personalului. elements of personnel management. Evaluarea personalului ca funcie mbin Assessment of personnel, as a function, connects sistemul evalurii cu alte sisteme: administrarea the assessment system with other systems - personnel personalului i gestionarea firmei. Evaluarea ca management and organization management. funcie st la intersecia intereselor intersustemice Assessment, as a function, crosses inter-system (fig.3). Astfel, sistemul de evaluare a personalului interests (figure 3). Thus, the system of personnel intr n componena unor sisteme mai complexe i assessment is a part of a complex system and a set of reprezint un set de subfuncii: de control, structural, sub-functions: controlling, structural, coordinative, de coordonare, analitic, motivaional, comunicativ. analytical, motivational, and communicative. n cadrul subfunciei de control, evaluarea As a part of the control sub-function, assessment determin corespunderea variatelor caracteristici ale determines the compliance of various characteristics of personalului cu standardele stabilite. the staff with established standards.

Sistemul de administrare al organizaiei/ System of Organization Management

Subsistemul de evaluare ca funcie/ Sub-system of Assessment as a Function

Sistemul de evaluare a personalului/ Personnel Assessment System

Sistemul de administrare a personalului / System of Personnel Management

Subsistemul de evaluare ca proces/ Sub-system of Assessment as a Process

Subsistemul de evaluare ca rezultat/ Sub-system of Assessment as a Result

Figura 3. Rolul integrativ al evalurii personalului ca funcie/ Figure 3. Integrating role of personnel assessment as a function 60 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3(77) 2011

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Subfuncia structural permite efectuarea schimbrilor n structura organizaional a ntreprinderii, de coordonare asigur conducerea operativ a personalului, cea analitic utilizarea informaiei pentru analiza strii sistemului de administrare a personalului. Subfuncia motivaional const n satisfacerea nevoilor omului, iar cea comunicativ joac un rol important n stabilirea legturii inverse ntre evaluator, colaboratorii evaluai i schimbul reciproc de informaie profesional. Autorul propune examinarea nc a unui ir de subfuncii, care se afl ntr-un stadiu incipient de manifestare: corporativ n care evaluarea personalului este capabil s influeneze asupra culturii corporative a organizaiei, pentru c este n stare s reglementeze ndeplinirea regulilor valoric-importante de comportament i standardele de activitate. Subfuncia dezvoltrii capitalului uman al organizaiei permite depistarea cauzelor utilizrii insuficiente i rezervele de dezvoltare a resurselor de munc n organizaie. Evaluarea personalului contribuie la realizarea unui cerc vast de subfuncii. Totui, cercetarea efectuat asupra situaiei sistemului de conducere a personalului la ntreprinderile din Gguzia a artat c n practic, n mare msur, se realizeaz mai ales subfunciile de control i de coordonare. Prin urmare, autorul a evideniat legitatea extinderii numrului i coninutului subfunciilor de evaluare a personalului. Monitorizarea literaturii contemporane, dedicat problemelor de administrare a personalului, a demonstrat c o atenie mare se acord calitilor funcionale de evaluare a personalului la ntreprindere. Din punctul de vedere al V.I. Caconia i N.A. Ourcova, evaluarea personalului permite studierea nivelului de pregtire a lucrtorului pentru ndeplinirea anume a acelui tip de activitate, de care el se ocup, precum i depistarea nivelului posibilitilor sale poteniale pentru evaluarea perspectivelor1. V.M. Pronin consider c evaluarea este un tip de activitate de cadre care ofer posibilitatea de a obine informaia necesar despre colaboratorii organizaiei pentru elaborarea programelor cu privire la cadre2. Examinnd cele trei abordri ale evalurii personalului, menionm c toate sunt intercorelate, iar complexitatea i caracterul sistemic al lor reflect multilateralitatea acestei categorii. n toate definiiile esenei evalurii personalului se observ mbinarea a dou aspecte de baz (procesul i rezultatul), ntlnite mai nainte n categoria evaluare. Analiznd procesul de evaluare drept o procedur care const n depistarea i stabilirea gradului de corespundere a cunotinelor i calitilor
1

Structural function allows making changes in the organizational structure of an enterprise. Coordinating sub-function provides the operational management of personnel. Analytical function allows using information for the analysis of the state of personnel management system. Motivational function consists in meeting human needs. Communicative function plays an important role in establishing feedback between an assessing and an assessed employees and a mutual exchange of professional information. The author suggests considering a number of sub-functions that are in the initial stage of manifestation. Corporative function includes the assessment of staff which is able to influence corporative culture of an organization, as it can regulate the performance of value-relevant rules of conduct and performance standards. A sub-function of human capital development of an organization enables to identify the reasons for insufficient use and reserves for the development of workforce of organizations. Personnel assessment supports the implementation of a wide range of sub-functions. However, a study of the system of personnel management at enterprises of Gagauzia has shown that in practice, the control and coordinative sub-functions are mostly implemented. Thus, the author found regularities in the expansion of the quality and content of sub-functions of personnel assessment. Monitoring of the modern literature on human resource management has shown that great attention is paid to the functional quality of the staff assessment at an enterprise. According to V. I. Kakonina and N. A. Oshurkova assessment of personnel allows us to study the degree of preparedness of a worker to perform exactly the kind of activity which he is engaged in, as well as to determine the level of his potential for assessment of the prospects.1 V. M. Pronin believes that assessment is a kind of human resource work, which enables us to obtain the necessary information about the organizations staff for development human 2 resources programs. Having considered all three approaches to personnel assessment, we can say that they are all closely related, but their complexity and system reflects many sidedness of personnel assessment category. In all definitions of the essence of personnel assessment the union of two fundamental aspects (process and outcome), previously seen in the assessment category, are observed. Considering the assessment process as a procedure, which consists in identifying and determining

.., . : ( . ) // . -2001. - 0 2 .. ?// , 1999.-3.-10-12 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3(77) 2011 61

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colaboratorului cu funcia ocupat, se poate face o paralel ntre determinarea dat a evalurii personalului i noiunea general de evaluare. Mai departe evideniem c aceasta este foarte aproape de noiunea preuire. La rndul su, preuirea este o procedur de studiere a obiectului sau fenomenului, ce se rezum la caracteristica sa prin intermediul comparrii lui cu o norm, cu un model. Caracteristica, ns, a nsui fenomenului apreciat, n cazul dat, se examineaz drept un produs al procesului de evaluare. ntr-o percepere mai vast, procesul de evaluare poate fi prezentat sub aspectul unor msuri consecutive (de pregtire, de coninut i rezultative), orientate spre depistarea ulterioar a unui rezultat final calitativ. n acest context, evaluarea apare doar drept una dintre etapele procesului de evaluare, adic se rezum la procedur. Examinnd evaluarea personalului ca un proces de evaluare n perceperea sa ampl, observm interaciunea strns i cu abordarea de coninut, caracteristicile creia au fost cercetate mai nainte. Din cele expuse mai sus, rezult c astzi este necesar o tratare mai ngust a unor noiuni, iar, analizndu-le n complex, trebuie s relevm interaciunea dintre ele. n opinia autorului, determinarea procesului de evaluare poate fi mprit n: percepere larg, la baza creia st un complex de msuri consecutive, orientate spre obinerea evalurii personalului; percepere ngust, care reprezint un procedeu de studiere a corespunderii personalitii i rezultatelor activitii sale cu funcia ocupat. Evaluarea, n acest caz, apare ca un rezultat al procesului estimativ, care se manifest n caracteristica corespunderii nsuirilor, calitilor i cunotinelor personalitii cu cerinele funciei ocupate. Pe baza celor menionate, putem concluziona c evaluarea personalului trebuie s fie examinat de pe poziiile sistemului procesual, de coninut i funcional. the extent to which an employees knowledge and qualification corresponds to his position, we can draw a parallel between the definition of personnel assessment and the general notion of rating. Then we reveal that it is very close to the concept of assessment. In turn, assessment is a process of studying an object or phenomenon, consisting in its characterization by the means of its comparison with a norm and a model. Characterization of the assessed phenomenon itself, in this case, is considered as a product of assessment process. In a broader concept, assessment process can be represented as a sequence of activities (preparatory, substantial and effective), finally aimed at identifying a high-quality result. Thus, in this case, assessment is only one step in the process of assessment, i.e. adds up to the procedure. Having considered the staff evaluation as an assessment process in its broad sense, we can also trace a close relationship with a substantial approach, characteristics of which we have examined earlier. It follows that today a more narrow interpretation of certain concepts is required, as well as, considering them in complex, it is necessary to identify the relationship between them. In the authors opinion definition of the assessment process can be divided into: - assessment process in the broadest sense, which is based on a set of consecutive actions aimed at obtaining employees rating; - assessment process in a narrow sense, which represents a procedure of studying correspondence between a person and the results of his/her activity at the occupied position. Assessment, in this case, appears as a result of the evaluation process, which manifests itself in characteristics of compliance of properties, qualities and knowledge of an individual with requirements of the occupied position. On the basis of the foregoing, it can be summarized that personnel assessment should be considered from the standpoint of substantial, procedural and functional systems.

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ABORDAREA GENDER: ROLURILE SOCIALE ALE BRBAILOR I FEMEILOR I MODELELE DE COMPORTAMENT ALE ACESTORA N BUSINESS-ORGANIZAII
Comp. Ana MICOLIHINA, ASEM
Autorul relev rolurile sociale ale brbailor i femeilor, optnd n favoarea efecturii unor cercetri ale problemelor femeilor n afaceri, pornind de la o abordare sistemic, multidisciplinar, incluznd i aspectele manageriale. O astfel de abordare ar face posibil cutarea de soluii referitoare la extinderea i consolidarea participrii femeilor la afaceri prin identificarea i sistematizarea condiiilor i factorilor de formare i realizare cu succes a potenialului antreprenorial i managerial al femeilor n business-organizaii. n prezent, n multe ri din lume, inclusiv n Republica Moldova, se contureaz o tendin de implicare a femeilor n diverse activiti, inclusiv n afaceri. Potrivit experilor, lumea se confrunt cu o adevrat explozie a activitilor antreprenoriale [2]. Moldova nu este o excepie. Astfel, conform datelor Biroului Naional de Statistic, la 01.01.2009 antreprenorii-femei constituiau 27,5% [3] din numrul total de ntreprinztori, ceea ce este comparabil cu rile UE, unde acest indicator este de aproximativ 30%. n acelai timp, continu s fie relevante i problemele care nsoesc iniierea i participarea femeilor la afaceri n calitate de antreprenori, manageri i angajai. Problemele se manifest n diferenierea ocuprii forei de munc masculine i feminine i remunerarea nu n favoarea femeilor, n asimetria participrii femeilor la administrarea afacerilor, precum i restriciile cu care se confrunt acestea n procesul de valorificare a potenialului profesional, managerial i personal, acumulat pe parcursul activitii n diverse business-organizaii. Deci, potrivit cercettorilor, chiar i n rile cu un grad sporit de dezvoltare a economiei de pia, n pofida nivelului ridicat al educaiei n rndul femeilor, comparativ cu cel al brbailor, venitul lor este aproape de dou ori mai mic dect al lor [5, 7]. Un asemenea dezechilibru se contureaz n mai multe domenii i ramuri n R. Moldova. Specialitii accentueaz c femeile din mediul de afaceri primele i ntr-o msur mai mare dect brbaii se ciocnesc de anumite dificulti n perioada de criz. Femeile, de regul, sunt reduse primele, mai repede i mai des ajung n srcie. n plus, o problem pentru femeile din domeniul afacerilor este evaluarea lor n calitate de poteniali angajai nu doar conform unor criterii de corespundere profesional, dar i

GENDER PERSPECTIVE: THE SOCIAL ROLES OF MEN AND WOMEN AND THEIR GENDERROLE BEHAVIOR IN BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS
PhD candidate Anna MICOLISHINA, AESM
The author reveals the social roles of men and women, opting in favor of conducting research on issues of women in business, starting from a systemic, multidisciplinary approach, including managerial aspects. Such an approach would enable the search for solutions for expanding and strengthening participation of women in business by identifying and systematizing the training conditions and factors, and successful implementation of womens entrepreneurial and managerial potential in business organizations. One of the main features of contemporary development of the countries around the world, including Moldova, is the involvement of women in various activities, including business. According to experts, the world is experiencing a real business boom [2] and the Republic of Moldova is not an exception. Thus, according to the National Bureau of Statistics of 01.01.2009, there are 27, 5% of women among entrepreneurs [3] which is comparable with the EU countries. In the EU this indicator reaches around 30%. At the same time continue to be relevant the challenges that accompany the entry and participation of women in business as entrepreneurs, managers and employees. Problems occur in the differentiation of male and female employment and their salaries and are not in favor of women, in the asymmetry of women's participation in business management, as well as the limitations they face in implementing the lessons of professional, managerial and personal potential in business organizations. Thus, according to many researchers, even in countries with highly developed market economy, despite higher levels of education of women compared with men, their estimated monthly income is almost 2 times lower than that of men [5, 7]. This imbalance develops in many areas and sectors of business in Moldova. Experts point out that woman in the business environment first, and more likely than men, experience limitations and difficulties at times of crisis. Women tend to fall into decline first and faster and more often turn out to be in poverty. In addition, the issue of women in business is recognized as the evaluation of women candidates to work in business organizations according to criteria of their business suitability of any activity, but also taking into account 63

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innd cont de exteriorul i vrsta acestora. Subestimarea capacitilor femeilor pentru o activitate de succes n afaceri se rsfrnge asupra acestora prin creterea tensiunii nervoase, care conduce la stres i influeneaz negativ autoaprecierea i autorealizarea. n Republica Moldova, principiul drepturilor egale pentru brbai i femei este consacrat de Constituie, n conformitate cu care acetia au drepturi i liberti egale pentru realizarea lor n practic [1]. Cu toate acestea, observm c prevederea constituional de mai sus nu este ntotdeauna susinut n practic printr-un mecanism eficient, pentru punerea sa n aplicare. n acelai timp, elaborarea i funcionarea eficient a acestuia este, de asemenea, nu sunt susinute de cercetri suficiente i relevante n acest domeniu. Acest lucru exacerbeaz problemele analizate, legate de ocuparea forei de munc, management, statutul i promovarea femeilor n business i administrarea afacerilor. Este cunoscut faptul c brbaii domin printre liderii business-organizaiilor comparativ cu femeile. O astfel de dominaie este caracteristic nu doar managerilor din domeniul afacerilor, dar i celor din sfera public i cea social i, n special, n ealoanele manageriale superioare. Asimetria brbailor i femeilor n business i management se manifest i prin faptul c ocuparea femeilor nc nu a devenit obiect al ateniei sistemice din partea managementului tiinific, teoriei organizaiei, comportamentului organizaional, leadershipului, managementului strategic, managementului resurselor umane i altor discipline manageriale. n opinia noastr, efectuarea unor cercetri ale problemelor femeilor n afaceri trebuie s porneasc de la o abordare sistemic, multidisciplinar, incluznd i disciplinele manageriale menionate mai sus. O astfel de abordare ar face posibil cutarea de soluii referitoare la extinderea i consolidarea participrii femeilor la afaceri prin identificarea i sistematizarea condiiilor i factorilor de formare i realizare cu succes a potenialului antreprenorial i managerial al femeilor n business-organizaii. Pornind de la importana sporit a temei de cercetare, desigur, nu putem sa nu menionm adresarea la aceasta tem a cercettorilor n domeniul managementului i antreprenoriatului. Printre cercetrile fundamentale, care formeaz baza tiinific a acestui articol, sunt incluse, n primul rnd, lucrrile clasicilor moderni n domeniul managementului i businessului. Astfel, savanii Mescon M., Albert M., Hedouri F. abordeaz problema participrii femeilor la afaceri i administrarea businessului n contextul fundamentrii celor mai importante aspecte ale managementului: funcii, procese, putere, structura organizaiei, leadership. n special, autorii menioneaz c aspectele analizate ale managementului i businessului, precum i concluziile i recomandrile formulate cu referin la funcionarea i administrarea businessului sunt la fel de valabile att pentru brbai, ct i pentru femei [6]. 64 the attractiveness and age. Underestimating the ability of women to work in business turns around for them in nervous tension. This causes stress and affects their self-esteem and possible self-realization. In Moldova, the principle of equal rights for men and women is enshrined by the Constitution, according to which men and women have equal rights and freedom for their implementation [1]. However, we note that the above constitutional provision is not always supported in practice by an effective mechanism for its implementation. At the same time, the successful construction and operation of the latter is not supported by sufficient and relevant research in this area. This exacerbates the analyzed problems of women, related to employment, management status and advancement of women in business and business administration. It is a known fact, that men dominate among leaders in business organizations compared to women. This domination is found not only among managers in business, but also in public and social spheres. This is especially true for the top management level. The current asymmetry between men and women in business and management appears in the fact that female employment has not yet attracted public's attention from the system of scientific management, organization theory, organizational behavior, leadership, strategic management, human resource management and other management disciplines. In our view, research of the problems of women in business should be based on a systemic approach from the standpoint of the above set of managerial sciences. This approach will allow searching for solutions related to the expansion and strengthening the participation of women in business by identifying and organizing the conditions and factors of formation and successful implementation of entrepreneurial and managerial capacities of women in business organizations. Given the increased importance of the researched subject, we should definitely note an appeal to it of scholars in the field of management and entrepreneurship. The fundamental research of the scientific basis of this article is primarily attributed to the works of modern classics in management and business. Thus, world-know scientists Mescon M., Albert M., Khedouri F. study women's participation in entrepreneurship and business administration in the context of then most important aspects of management: functions, processes, power authorities, organization structure, leadership. In particular, the authors note that the analyzed issues and recommendations on management and business management are equally valid for both men and women [6]. At the same time should be considered that not all conclusions and recommendations with respect to the prospects for the evolution of business administration are presented in this work through the

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De asemenea, trebuie inut cont de faptul c nu toate concluziile i recomandrile cu privire la evoluia perspectivelor de administrare a afacerilor sunt prezentate n aceast lucrare prin prisma particularitilor calitilor personale, psihologice i comportamentale ale femeilor antreprenori, manageri sau angajai. Totodat, acestea sunt fundamentate pentru aspectele de baz ale managementului i businessului n contextul factorilor sociali, economici, politici, precum i al provocrilor societii americane moderne, acestea reflectnd cu siguran tradiiile culturale ale businessului american, inclusiv particularitile culturii femeilor n afaceri. n acelai timp, diversitatea cultural, cum ar fi tendinele actuale i realitile moderne ale afacerilor i administrrii lor, presupune c multe dintre postulatele managementului tiinific cu referin la participarea femeilor la afaceri, necesit o clarificare i alinierea la particularitile culturale ale unei ri concrete. n studiul de fa aceasta este Republica Moldova. Pornind de la analiza problemelor ce in de administrarea afacerilor n contextul proceselor de globalizare, internetizare, diversitatea cultural i a forei de munc, este probabil o viziune i o nelegere a businessului i a administrrii afacerilor mai profund, care s permit o definire mai complet i rezonabil a particularitilor i perspectivelor pentru succesul femeilor n afaceri (vezi fig. 1) [4, p.318]. prism of the basic features of personal, psychological and behavioral characteristics of women entrepreneur, manager or employee. Moreover, being fundamentally justified, for all key management and business aspects in the context of social, economic and political factors and challenges of modern American society, they certainly reflect the cultural tradition of American business, including the distinctive culture of women in business. At the same time, cultural diversity, as current trends and reality of modern business and business administration, makes us to believe that many assumptions of the scientific management associated with the participation of women in business, require clarification and alignment with the culture of the country. In the present study it is the Republic of Moldova. Based on the analyzed subjects of business management from the standpoint of globalization, internet connectivity, cultural and workforce diversity, is possible deeper vision and understanding in the field of business administration, which allows more fully and convincingly define the characteristics and prospects of successful womens activity in business organizations (figure 1), [4 p. 318].

Raitingul femeilor este mai mare ca raitingul brbailor cu... / Rating of women is higer than rating of men by...
Satisfacerea nevoilor angajailor / Satisfaction of needs of employees Creterea eficienei / Increase inefficiency Beneficiul pentru organizaie / Benefit to the organization Grija personal / Personal care Stimularea intelectual / Intellectual stimulation Motivarea inspiraional / Inspirational motivation Influena prin idei / Ideological influence 0,19 0,33

Calitile leaderului / Leadership qualities

0,25

0,42

0,41

0,21

0,39

0,05

0,1

0,15

0,2

0,25

0,3

0,35

0,4

0,45

Figura 1. Ratingul comparativ al brbailor i femeilor/ Figure 1. Comparative rating of men and women Not: Liderii au fost evaluai pe o scar de cinci puncte. n medie, femeile au avut un rating mai mare n comparaie cu brbaii n fiecare din caracteristici / Note: The leaders were evaluated on a 5 point scale. On average, women had higher ratings of men in each of the characteristics Sursa: / Sourse: [4, p.319] Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3(77) 2011 65

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Totodat, tratarea temei femeile n afaceri, n cadrul studiilor menionate mai sus, se caracterizeaz printr-o abordare selectiv, care implic cele mai frumoase exemple i situaii n care femeile au reuit n business. Subliniem c lucrrile clasicilor moderni ai managementului le includem, cu siguran, n principalele surse ce formeaz baza teoretic i metodologic a analizei i soluionrii problemelor menionate. Argumentele lor, bazate pe o metodologie solid de cercetare a temei date, a permis s se stabileasc c nu este suficient de a recunoate drepturile egale ale femeilor i brbailor n business, dar este important ca businessul i managementul s nu funcioneze conform unui club brbtesc izolat, care este nchis pentru femei sau restricioneaz participarea lor la acesta n calitate de antreprenori i manageri. n plus, apelarea la natura fenomenelor manageriale cercetate n business-organizaii a demonstrat c femeile sunt capabile s conduc afaceri profitabile, printr-un management eficient, datorit avantajelor sale referitoare la caracteristicile personale i trsturile de comportament, experiena de executare de ctre acestea a rolurilor sociale tradiionale: de ocupare cu treburile gospodriei (casei) i de cretere i educare a copiilor. Numai pornind de la perceperea profund a naturii fenomenelor manageriale descrise n lucrrile clasicilor moderni ai businessului i managementului este posibil, n opinia noastr, luarea n considerare, ntr-un mod sistematic, a factorilor care determina potenialul, cariera i competitivitatea femeilor n cadrul business-organizaiilor. Diferenele dintre brbai i femei n afaceri nu sunt examinate ca rezultat al factorilor naturali, biologici, ci, ntro mare msur, acestea sunt considerate o consecin a factorilor sociali i acioneaz diferene de gen. Acest postulat, din prezentul articol, este recunoscut drept baz metodologic pentru identificarea problemelor femeilor n afaceri i determinarea cilor de soluionare a lor. Ultimele sunt corelate cu rolurile sociale atribuite femeilor i brbailor. De menionat c n interdependen cu diferenele dintre rolurile sociale executate de ctre brbai i femei, ar trebui analizate calitile i modelele de comportament ale brbailor i femeilor n afaceri, determinate de aceste roluri. Subliniem c, conform teoriei rolurilor sociale a lui Eagly A., Jonson B. i Mazers D., diferenele de gen sunt un produs al diferenelor rolurilor sociale ndeplinite de ctre brbai i femei, care menin sau suprim anumite comportamente. Teoria rolurilor sociale este considerat de specialiti ca fiind cea mai mare realizare a psihologiei sociale i componentelor sale constitutive psihologie de gen (Freedman N., Maccoby E.), teoria dezvoltrii cognitive de gen (Kohlberg K., Jackein C.), psihologie organizaional (Milner B.). Conform tezelor teoretice i concepiilor menionate, bazate pe diferenele rolurilor sociale ale brbailor i femeilor, autorul acestui studiu se distaneaz de la cunoscutele micri feministe, mai ales cele care s-au manifestat la nceputul anilor 1970 n SUA i ntr-un ir de ri din Europa de Vest. De menionat politizarea acestora n soluionarea problemelor femeilor n sferele: politic, 66 Along with this, should be mentioned, that appeal to the theme of "Women in Business" in the above studies is characterized by a selective approach, involving the most vivid examples and situations in which women achieve success in business. In this case, we emphasize that works of modern classics of management, we certainly include in the number of important sources that make up the theoretical and methodological basis for resolving discussed issues. Their justification, based on a robust, mentioned above methodology of study of this subject, allowed to state that it is not sufficient to recognize women's equal rights with men in order to work and succeed in business. But also make sure that business and management shall not be developed in the type of private men's club, which is closed to women or restricts their participation in it as entrepreneurs and managers. Moreover, the reference to the nature of the phenomena of the studied management processes in business organizations showed that women are able to conduct successful business through efficient management due to their advantages, related to personal characteristics and behavioral traits, with the experience of the performance of traditional social roles the houskeeping and parenting. Only based on a thorough understanding of the nature of managerial phenomena described in works of modern classics of business and management is possible, in our opinion, to take into account in a systematic way the factors that determine the potential, competitiveness and the career of women in business organizations. Differences between men and women in business are considered not as direct consequence of the natural, biological factors, but to a large extent they are considered a consequence of social factors and in this regard, they act as gender differences. The postulate in this article is recognized as the methodological basis for identifying problems of women in business and determines how to solve them. Latest are linked to the women's and mens social roles. It should be mentioned that in the relationship on differences of social roles performed by men and women should be studied the qualities and gender-role behavior of men and women in the business environment brought by these roles. We emphasize that by the theory of social roles of Eagley A., B. Johnson and Myers D., gender differences are a product of differences in social roles undertaken by men and women which support or suppress certain options in their behavior. The theory of social roles is considered by experts one of the greatest achievements of social psychology and its constituent disciplines gender psyhology (Friedman M., Maoby E.) theory of gender cognitive development (Kohlberg L., Jackeinc) Organizational Psychology (Milner B.). Following the mentioned theoretical principles and concepts that are based on differences in social roles of men and women, the author of this study distances itself from the world-known feminist movements, especially strongly manifested itself in the early 70s, in the U.S. and in other

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social, afaceri. Scopul l constituie obinerea drepturilor egale pentru brbai i femei prin redistribuirea lor n favoarea unui gen femeilor, n detrimentul altui gen al brbailor. Subliniem c, spre deosebire de direcia menionat de realizare a drepturilor femeilor n procesele sociale, autorul consider c metodologia de cercetare a temei date nu are la baz separarea, ci complementaritatea calitilor i drepturilor brbailor i femeilor n afaceri n baza interdependenei rolurilor lor sociale i interaciunii genurilor. Lund drept metodologie a acestei cercetri teoria rolurilor sociale, considerat etap semnificativ n dezbaterile cu privire la genuri n favoarea oportunitii i necesitii cooperrii i complementaritii lor, autorul a evideniat obiectul de cercetare, care const n sistematizarea factorilor i a condiiilor businessorganizaiilor, ce permit de a construi i realiza cu succes potenialul antreprenorial i managerial al femeilor, n contextul interaciunii efective dintre reprezentanii ambilor genuri. Autorul consider c acest lucru este posibil pe baza nelegerii caracteristicilor personale i comportamentale ale brbailor i femeilor implicate n afaceri. Astfel, rezolvarea problemelor femeilor n business n vederea realizrii competitivitii acestora este posibil nu prin realizarea drepturilor unui gen n detrimentul altuia, dar graie dezvoltrii i mbuntirii interaciunilor n sistemul de management al genurilor. Aplicarea oportunitilor (metodelor, mecanismelor, proceselor) managementului modern, innd cont de criteriile gender n baza interaciunii rolurilor sociale ale ambilor genuri, implic adresarea la unul din cele mai importante aspecte ale genului constructul social. n acest sens, genul este examinat drept un ansamblu de reguli determinate de cultura societii, care identific calitile personale ale brbailor i femeilor, acioneaz drept modele de comportament pentru reprezentanii ambilor genuri, prescrise de societate (Cialdini R., Eagly A., Jonson B., Inger R., Growford M.). Astfel, diferenele de gen, stabilite n societate, sunt percepute de oameni ca fiind valabile, corecte, dobndind caracter de norme de gen, manifestndu-se ca o opinie adnc nrdcinat n societate i larg rspndit despre: particularitile deosebirilor dintre caracteristicile personale i de comportament ale reprezentanilor ambilor genuri; modul n care acestea sunt identificate, percepute, interpretate, inclusiv sub aspectul corespunderii femeilor unor sau altor tipuri de activiti, cum ar fi, de exemplu, businessul i administrarea afacerilor. Este cunoscut faptul c imaginea femeilor manageri n cadrul business-organizaiilor este influenat de opinia public larg rspndit n cultura occidental de afaceri, care determin perceperea femeii n societate prin prisma unei asemenea caliti cum este feminitatea, cu caracteristicile sale inerente: empatie, comunicare, adaptabilitate etc. n general, potrivit experilor n management, anume acestea determin stilul moale de comportament (leadership) al femeii n sfera afacerilor. Western European countries. The author would like to note, that feminist movements are characterized by their politicization in solving the problems of women in political, social and business spheres. They want to achieve equal rights for men and women by their redistribution to favor one gender women at the expense of another men. We emphasize that in contrast to the named areas of women's rights in social processes, the author believes that the methodology of the study of the topic is not disconnection, but the complementarities of the qualities of men and women in business relationships based on their social roles and interaction between genders. Taking as a methodology of this study the theory of social roles, which is a significant milestone in the debate about gender in favor of the possibility and necessity of cooperation and complementarity, the author, outlined the subject of research. It is the systematization of the factors and conditions in business organizations which construct and successfully implement the entrepreneurial and managerial capacities of women in the context of the effective interaction of both genders. The author believes that this is possible on the basis of understanding of personal and behavioral characteristics of men and women engaged in business. Thus, we emphasize that to solve problems of women in business in order to achieve their competitiveness, is possible not at the expense of achieving the rights of one gender to the detriment of another, but thanks to the development and improvement of their interaction in the system of gender-based management. Using the capabilities (methods, tools, processes) of modern management with gender-based criteria on the base of the relationship of social roles of both genders, suggests an appeal to one of the most important aspects of gender social construct. In this sense, gender is seen as a set of rules defined by the culture of society, which identifies the personal qualities of men and women who act as prescribed by the public behavior of representatives of different genders (Cialdini R., Eagley R., Johnson B., Ingep R., Grouford M.). Thus, gender differences that dominate in the society are perceived by people as valid, corect that acquire the nature of gender norms, manifest them as deeply rooted in society and widely spread is the point of view about: that are the differences between personal characteristics and behavioral traits of representatives of two genders, how they are identified, perceived, interpreted, including womens competency in some activities, such as business and business administration. It is known that the image of women managers in business organizations formed under the influence of widespread public opinion in Western business culture, which determines the perception of women in business through the lens of such quality, as femininity, with its characteristics: empathy, communication, adaptability, etc. In general, according to experts on management, they are responsible for the soft style of womens behavior (leadership) in business. 67

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ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS


Iar brbailor, n conformitate cu specificul rolurilor sociale pe care le ndeplinesc aprtorii i susintorii familiei, le sunt caracteristice caliti care corespund criteriilor de masculinitate. Acestea, de asemenea, sunt percepute de oameni drept caliti corecte, altfel spus, ele capt calitatea de norme de gen. n acest context, comportamentul corect, determinat de rolurile de gen al brbailor n cadrul business-organizaiilor, are la baz aa caliti ca agresivitatea, ambiia, independena, hotrrea, orientarea spre atingerea scopurilor. Toate acestea determin stilul de conducere masculin, acesta fiind, n mare parte, un comportament rigid. Este important s subliniem faptul c, concentrndu-se pe diferenele de gen, prevzute de norme, ele din start conin particulariti ale caracteristicilor i comportamentului propriu brbailor i femeilor ca fiind antonime, ca diferene radicale: emoional raional, slab puternic, moale tare etc. Cunoscuii savani Inger R., Growford M. evideniaz urmtoarele caracteristici: la brbai ambiia, independena, neemotivitatea; la femei senzualitatea, emoionalitatea, gingia, sociabilitatea. Importana normelor i procesului de socializare drept proces de familiarizare cu aceste norme const n faptul c ele simplifica alegerea pe care o face fiecare persoan cu referin la comportamentul su i care corespunde (nu corespunde) comportamentului, acceptat de ctre societate (organizaie). n mod similar, prin intermediul normelor, fiecare individ interpreteaz calitile personale i comportamentale ale altor persoane, de asemenea, pentru corespunderea comportamentului acestora celui dorit i ateptat de grup, organizaie. n acest sens, punem accent pe nelegerea importanei motivaionale i cognitive a normelor i valorilor de gen i a ntregului proces de socializare. Acest lucru se datoreaz faptului c normele sociale, care reflect diferenele de gen, ca urmare a identitii de gen i a socializrii, reprezint un eveniment cultural. Perceperea lor, experiena nelegerii i atitudinea fa de ele, ca o modalitate de determinare a comportamentului corect personal sau al altor persoane sunt transmise din generaie n generaie i, n general, sunt percepute subcontient. n esen, normele determin perceperea noastr a femeilor i brbailor n contextul social i cultural. Cercetrile acestui aspect au permis de a formula urmtoarele concluzii: n primul rnd, prin intermediul normelor de gen, societatea acioneaz asupra gndurilor i emoiilor oamenilor, determinnd perceperea diferenelor de gen. n al doilea rnd, cine este persoana brbat sau femeie, accept sau ignor comportamentul prescris de ctre societate (grup, organizaie) pentru reprezentantul unui sau altui gen. Men, in line with the features they perform their social roles, the defenders and breadwinners, posses qualities that meet the criteria of masculinity. They are also perceived by people as the right qualities, which become gender norms. In this context, the correct gender-role behavior of men in business organizations formed the basis of an aggressive, ambitious, independent behavior, determination and dedication. All of them define masculine leadership style. This is mostly rigid behavior. It is important to emphasize that focusing on the gender differences which are secured by the rules, they consist of peculiarities of mens and womens qualities and behavior as opposites, that is the radical difference: emotional rational, weak strong, soft hard, etc. Famous scientists Inger R., Growford M. give the following characteristics: male ambition, determination, independence, not emotional, women sensual, emotional, tender (soft), and sociable. The value of norms and the socialization process as a process of initiation to these standards is that they simplify the choice, which makes every individual with respect to his conduct, appropriate (not appropriate) behavior approved by society (organization). Similarly, by means of rules, each individual interprets personal and behavioral qualities of other people, and correspondence of their behavior to the desired group, organization. In this regard, we emphasize the importance of motivational and cognitive understanding of gender norms and values in the whole process of socialization. This is due to the fact that social norms, reflecting the gender differences as a result of gender identity and socialization, are culture-phenomenon. Their perceptions, experiences and understanding the attitude towards them as a way to determine the correct behavior their own and others' behavior is passed down from generation to generation and, in general, are perceived subconsciously. In fact, the rules govern our perceptions of characteristics of men and women in social and cultural contexts. Studies of this aspect led to the conclusion: First, by gender norms society affects people's thoughts and feelings that define their perception of gender differences. Secondly, who is the person male or female; accepts or ignores the conduct prescribed by society (group, organization) of a representative of a particular gender.

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FINANE / FINANCE

AVANTAJE I CONSTRNGERI ALE TRANZACIILOR OFFSHORE


Conf. univ. dr. hab. Natalia LOBANOV, ASEM
n viziunea autorului, concepia businessului offshore este viabil, dei nu se dezvolt att de rapid precum la sfritul secolului al XX-lea. Eficiena structurilor i derularea tranzaciilor off-shore poate fi apreciat drept o form a luptei de concuren pentru atragerea clienilor poteniali. n articol se analizeaz avantajele i constrngerile tranzaciilor off-shore din punctul de vedere al intereselor urmrite de structurile de afaceri, state i comunitatea mondial. Tranzaciile off-shore sunt derulate prin intermediul structurilor ce activeaz n baza unei jurisdicii off-shore. n prezent, n lume exist peste 60 de regiuni considerate zone off-shore sau paradisuri fiscale. Acestea sunt, preponderent, situate pe arhipelaguri/insule (Insulele Britanice Virgine, Bermude, Man, Jersey, Guernsey, Nauru etc.) sau ri mici (Liechtenstein, Malta, Monaco, San Marino, Panama etc.). Unele ri, precum Elveia, au o lung istorie n pstrarea secretului bancar, pe cnd altele (Insulele Bahamas, Liechtenstein etc.) au dorit s le imit pe cele mai avansate n domeniul dat. Legislaia acestor ri sau teritorii ncurajeaz investitorii strini n nfiinarea companiilor pe teritoriul respectiv. Alegerea celei mai potrivite jurisdicii, fie c este vorba despre comer, fie de investiii internaionale, poate fi adesea dificil i necesit o analiz foarte atent. Cele mai multe jurisdicii off-shore au nlturat controlul schimburilor externe i au introdus prevederile privind activitatea companiilor, pentru a satisface o gam ct mai divers de solicitri n legtur cu tranzaciile internaionale. Aceste ari (teritorii) ofer investitorilor, pe lng avantajele fiscale privind impozitarea, i o serie de alte facilitai, i anume: garantarea i liberalizarea tranzaciilor valutare; n unele ari nu este obligatorie inerea evidenei contabile. Amplasarea geografic a zonei off-shore nu are o importan deosebit, deoarece locul derulrii afacerilor nu depinde de locul nmatriculrii (nregistrrii) persoanei juridice. Astfel, printre principalele avantaje ale companiilor off-shore pot fi enumerate: Fiscalitatea redus. n toate paradisurile fiscale regimul uor de impozitare a companiilor off-shore este garantat prin lege. Fiscalitatea este zero sau aproape de zero; Birocraia sczut. Companiile off-shore sunt scutite de obligaia de a ine contabilitatea, registrele comerciale i nu sunt obligate s prezente bilanul contabil; Anonimitatea. Datele de identificare ale

ADVANTAGES AND CONSTRAINTS OF OFFSHORE TRANSACTIONS


Assoc. Prof., Dr. Hab. Natalia LOBANOV, AESM
In the author's vision, the offshore business concept is viable, although it is not developing as quickly as at the end of the twentieth century. The structures efficiency and conducting offshore transactions can be regarded as a competitive struggle to attract potential customers. The article examines the advantages and constraints of offshore transactions in terms of the interests pursued by business structures, states and the international community. Offshore transactions are conducted through structures that operate under an offshore jurisdiction. Currently, worldwide there are more than 60 regions, which are considered offshore areas or fiscal paradises. They are mainly located on archipelagos/islands (British Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Man, Jersey, Guernsey, Nauru, etc), or small countries (Liechtenstein, Malta, Monaco, San Marino, Panama, etc). Some countries such as Switzerland have a long history of banking sector secrecy, while others (the Bahamas, Liechtenstein, etc.) wanted to imitate the more developed ones in the given domain. The legislation of these countries or territories encourages foreign investors to set up businesses in the respective territory. Choosing the appropriate jurisdictions, whether on trade or international investment, can often be difficult and require careful analysis. Most offshore jurisdictions have eliminated foreign exchange controls and have introduced provisions regarding the activity of companies to meet a wide range of requirements in connection with international business. These countries (territories) offer investors a number of other facilities, namely: ensuring and liberalizing foreign exchange transactions; in many such countries bookkeeping is not mandatory. The geographical location of the offshore area is not particularly important, because the place of doing business is not dependent on the place of registration of the entity. Thus, among the main advantages of offshore companies can be listed: Reduced taxation. In all fiscal paradises the facilitated tax regime of offshore companies is guaranteed by law. Taxation is zero or nearly zero; Reduced bureaucracy. Offshore companies are exempt from the obligation to keep accounts, commercial records and are not required to present balance sheets; 69

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FINANE / FINANCE acionarilor i administratorilor nu sunt publice; Protecia patrimoniului. Legea garanteaz dreptul de dispoziie absolut a acionarului asupra ntregului patrimoniu al companiei. Profitul companiei off-shore poate fi utilizat oricnd dup voina beneficiarului firmei. Infrastructura bine dezvoltat. Paradisurile fiscale presteaz servicii perfecte de telecomunicaii, dispun de un sistem bancar bine dezvoltat i stabil. n ceea ce privete nfiinarea firmelor off-shore, acestea sunt supuse reglementrilor din jurisdicia de origine. Cele mai populare domenii de utilizare ale companiilor off-shore: Comer exterior. n mod curent, o tranzacie comercial se deruleaz ntre dou companii. n cazul de fa apare a treia companie, compania off-shore, n registrul crei va figura profitul, transferndu-se, astfel, dintr-o jurisdicie cu taxe ridicate ntr-una cu taxe sczute sau chiar fr taxe. Compania off-shore va primi ordin de la client, iar bunurile vor continua s mearg direct de la productor ctre cumprtor. Aceast intervenie a companiei off-shore n lanul comercial este avantajoas att pentru exportator, ct pentru importator. Exportatorul poate folosi aceast schem de plat pentru a transfera profitul, care provine din diferena dintre costul bunurilor vndute de el i preul de vnzare. Importatorul poate folosi compania off-sore pentru a evita plata taxelor pe diferena dintre preul de achiziionare a bunurilor i preul cu care bunurile vor fi vndute n ara sa. Investiii internaionale. Multe ri impun taxe pe profitul obinut pe teritoriul rii respective de ctre cetenii strinii, acest venit fiind taxat la surs (15-20%) nainte de repatriere. Unele ri au semnat acorduri de evitare a dublei taxri, care permit reducerea sau chiar eliminarea acestor taxe. Dac ara folosit ca intermediar are un nivel sczut al taxelor, atunci rezultatul este evitarea plii taxelor percepute, precum i a taxrii dividendelor la primirea lor n ara investitorului. Finane. O companie off-shore poate oferi mprumuturi unei alte companii localizate ntr-o zon cu taxe ridicate, cu taxe deduse din dobnzi. n acest fel, pot fi fcute att investiiile de ctre o firm strin, ceea ce poate fi avantajos datorit legilor de protecie a investitorilor strini, ct i economiile din taxele percepute. Companii pentru servicii de personal. Multe persoane angajate n activiti de construcii, inginerie, aviaie, finane, informatic sau industria filmului i divertismentului pot face economii considerabile din scutirea de tax, prin stabilirea unei legturi cu firma offshore pentru servicii de personal. Firmele off-shore se angajeaz n prestarea de servicii pentru persoanele fizice, n afara societii n cazul n care sunt rezideni, precum i impozitele colectate pot fi acumulate off-shore, fr impozitare n acele centre off-shore. Plile persoanei 70 Anonymity. Identification data of the shareholders and directors are not public; Protection of heritage. The law guarantees the shareholder the right of absolute disposal of the entire assets of the company. The profits of the offshore company will be used at any time at will of the recipient company; Well-developed infrastructure. Fiscal paradises provide perfect telecommunications services, well developed and stable banking system. In the establishment of offshore companies, they are subject to regulations of the jurisdiction of origin. The most popular areas of use of offshore companies: External trade. Usually, a commercial transaction is conducted between two companies. In the present case emerges the 3rd company, the offshore company, which registers profit by transferring it from a high-tax jurisdiction to one with low taxes or no taxes. The offshore company receives orders from the customer, and goods continue to go directly from the manufacturer to the buyer. This intervention of offshore companies in the trade chain is advantageous for both the exporter and the importer. The exporter can use this payment scheme to transfer profits derived from the difference between the cost of goods sold by him and the cost of products. The importer may use the offshore company to avoid paying taxes on the difference between the purchase price of goods and the goods sold in his country. International investment. Many countries impose taxes on the profit obtained within the respective country by foreigners; this income is taxed at source (15-20%) before repatriation. Some countries have signed double taxation avoidance agreements that reduce or eliminate these taxes. If the country which is used as an intermediary has a low tax level, then the result is the avoidance of tax payment, as well as the avoidance of dividends taxation at their receipt in the investors country. Finance. An offshore company may offer loans to another company located in an area with high taxes, where the taxes are deducted from interest. In this way, there can be made both the foreign investment, which can be advantageous due to laws protecting foreign investors, and making savings from taxes. Companies for personnel services. Many people engaged in construction, engineering, aviation, finance, IT, film and entertainment can make considerable savings from tax exemption, by making link with the offshore company for personnel services. Offshore companies are committed to providing services to individuals outside the company if they are residents, and collected taxes can be accumulated offshore, taxfree in those offshore centers. Individual payments can be arranged so that collected taxes are minimized. Holdings. Offshore companies and trusts are

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3(77) 2011

FINANE / FINANCE fizice pot fi organizate n aa fel, nct impozitele colectate s fie minimizate. Holdinguri. Companiile off-shore i trusturile sunt adesea folosite pentru protecia investiiilor, n filiale i/sau n firme asociate, firme publice sau private i n cadrul proiectelor de cooperare ntre dou companii. n multe cazuri, veniturile de capital, rezultate din investiiile particulare, pot fi realizate fr plata impozitelor. n cazul plii dividendelor, nivelul redus de taxe n cadrul unui holding poate fi obinut prin utilizarea unei companii offshore ntr-o jurisdicie, care are acorduri privind dubla impunere cu rile contractuale. Holdingul administreaz resursele financiare ale societii principale, n special profiturile. O societate de holding deine stocuri n societile rentabile ale unui teritoriu cu taxe mari, n cele din urm poate deveni un investitor strin, cu toate avantajele acestui statut, i poate nchiria echipamente sau chiar capital cu o rat convenabil. Trusturi. Trusturile sunt o invenie britanic, prin care o persoan transfer o parte din activele sale ctre o alt persoan, care le va menine, gestiona i controla. Aceast entitate juridic administreaz drepturi de autor, invenii i licene de inovare, mrci i brevete etc., offshore acumulnd veniturile rezultate. Proprietarii bunurilor i terenurilor imobiliare. Deinerea de proprieti imobiliare printr-o companie offshore permite diminuarea plii taxelor de motenire, a taxelor pltibile n cazul vnzrii, precum i a taxelor pe venit. n multe ri nu se face diferena ntre persoane fizice i cele juridice ca deintori de proprieti i asemenea tranzacii pot fi derulate mai simplu. Companiile off-shore pot avea dreptul de proprietate asupra bunurilor i a terenurilor, obinnd o serie de avantaje legate de impozite, precum i a transferului de bunuri. Companii de angajare. Multe firme apeleaz la companiile off-shore n scopul angajrii salariailor pentru diferite posturi externe. Acest lucru contribuie la reducerea costurilor suplimentare, legate de salarii i cheltuieli de misiune, oferind, n acelai timp, posibilitatea optimizrii impozitelor i asigurrii sociale. Proprietate intelectual, licen, franciz. Companiile off-shore pot deine sau obine drepturile de proprietate intelectual, inclusiv cunotine tehnice, licene i drepturi de autor. Pe baza achiziiei acestor drepturi, ele pot semna acorduri de licen sau franciz cu firmele interesate din ntreaga lume. Veniturile obinute pot fi acumulate prin off-shore i selectarea atent a jurisdiciei. Companii de navigaie. Chiar de la nceputul secolului al XX-lea, utilizarea companiilor off-shore pentru achiziionarea navelor comerciale a fost o funcie important a unor jurisdicii off-shore. Pentru unele companii este mai profitabil aa-numitul pavilion de complezen att pentru c impozitele pltite statului pentru pavilion sunt mai mici dect n statul de origine al armatorului, ct i pentru c, n acest caz, se aplic contractul colectiv de munc de tip ITF, negociat de Federaia Internaional a Transportatorilor i companiile often used to maintain investments in subsidiaries and/or associated companies, public or private companies and within the projects of cooperation between two companies. In many cases, capital income resulting from particular investment can be made without paying taxes. If dividends are paid, low taxes in a holding can be obtained by using an offshore company in a jurisdiction that has double taxation agreements with countries of the contract. The holding manages financial resources, especially profits of the main company. A holding company owns stock in profitable companies of a territory with high taxes, eventually can become a foreign investor, taking all the advantages of that status and can rent equipment or even capital, at a convenient rate; Trusts. Trusts are a British invention in which a person transfers part of its goods to another person, who maintains, manages and controls them. This legal entity administers copyrights, invention and innovation licenses, trademarks and patents, etc., and the offshore accumulates the resulting incomes. Proprietors of real estate. Owning real estate through an offshore company permits to diminish the payment of inheritance taxes, fees payable in case of sale and income taxes. In many countries there is not made the difference between individuals and legal entities as owners of property and such transactions can be carried easily. Offshore companies can have ownership of property over goods and land, thus, they obtain a series of related tax benefits, such as legal avoidance of succession of incomes and taxation of the transfer of goods. Hiring companies. Many companies turn to offshore companies to hire workers for various foreign positions. This helps reduce additional costs related to salaries and expenses of the mission, while providing the possibility of social security and taxes optimization. Intellectual property, licensing, franchising. Offshore companies may hold or obtain intellectual property rights, including technical knowledge, licenses and copyrights. Based on the acquisition of these rights, offshore companies can sign agreements with worldwide companies interested in licensing or franchising. Gained revenues can be accumulated by offshore through careful selection of jurisdiction. Navigation companies. Right from the early twentieth century, using offshore companies to purchase commercial ships was an important function of offshore jurisdictions. For some companies is more profitable the so-called flag of convenience, because the taxes paid to the flag state are lower than in the origin country of the owner, and also because, in this case is applied the collective labor contract of ITF type, negotiated by International Transport Federation and companies which hold the vessels containing a flag of convenience, which, in many cases is more advantageous than the national one. A ship is 71

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FINANE / FINANCE care dein astfel de nave, care, deseori, este mai avantajos dect cel naional. O nav este considerat pavilion de complezen (denumit i pavilion de convenien), dac proprietatea i controlul vasului se afl n alt ar dect ara pavilionului de navigaie a navei. Circa 58,64% din navele lumii navigheaz sub pavilion de complezen. n prezent, pavilioanele de complezen nregistrate sunt deinute de numeroase state, printre care se remarc: Panama (4949 vase), Liberia (1904), Malta (1197), Bahamas (1134), Antigua i Barbuda (1021), Cipru (724) etc. n Republica Moldova, businessul off-shore se dezvolt, n special, prin derularea unor scheme off-shore n domeniul comerului exterior, investiiilor internaionale, precum i prin intermediul companiilor internaionale de secretariat, n scopul proteciei activelor, asigurrii informaiei confideniale, exodului de capital, un loc deosebit ocupndu-l oferirea dreptului de navigare sub pavilionul R.Moldova. Aici sunt nregistrate 311 de vase strine, inclusiv 45 din Rusia, 18 din Ucraina, 7 din Romnia, 8 din Bulgaria, 4 din Polonia, 3 din Azerbaidjan etc. Pentru ca un vas s fie nregistrat n Registrul de Stat i s dobndeasc dreptul de a naviga sub pavilionul Republicii Moldova, nu este obligatoriu ca nava s fie proprietate a rii sau a cetenilor ei. Limitri pentru nregistrare, proceduri deosebite legate de vechimea vasului nu exist. Este posibil nregistrarea vaselor fluviale i a celor fluvial-marine de orice vechime i tip. Aa-numitele paradisuri fiscale nu sunt n realitate dect jurisdicii cu impozite reduse i sisteme juridice care respect anonimitatea privat. Conform unui raport din 1998 al Comitetului de Afaceri Fiscale al OCDE, care militeaz pentru armonizarea fiscalitii n lume, paradisurile fiscale sunt definite n baza a trei criterii: 1. Taxele sunt extrem de reduse sau chiar inexistente, fiind percepute de nerezideni ca o modalitate de a scpa de povara fiscal din ara lor de origine; 2. Sistemul juridic sau practica administrativ previne schimbul de informaii bancare cu alte guverne; 3. Exist o lips de transparen privind plasamentele financiare externe din aceste jurisdicii. Guvernele din rile cu impozite majore pe venit, investiii, avere, prin intermediul OCDE, ncearc s dicteze politica fiscal din ntreaga lume, s reduc numrul de jurisdicii cu regim fiscal necinstit, n opinia lor. Cu rate de impozitare zero sau reduse, zonele off-shore creeaz un concurs internaional de impozitare. n prezent, OCDE particip activ la procesul de combatere a jurisdiciilor reduse de impozitare, prin publicarea n mod regulat a listelor albe, gri i negre ale jurisdiciilor, ndemnnd statele de a ncheia acorduri privind schimbul de informaii n domeniul evaziunii fraudelor fiscale. Astfel, n aprilie 2009, n lista alb OCDE a inclus statele care se conformeaz 72 considered flag of convenience if the ownership and control of the vessel is in other country than the country of navigation flag of the ship. About 58.64% of the world's ships sail under the flag of convenience. Nowadays, the registered flags of convenience are held by many countries including: Panama (4949), Liberia (1904), Malta (1197), Bahamas (1134), Antigua and Barbuda (1021), Cyprus (724) etc. Offshore business in the Republic of Moldova is developing, especially through applying offshore schemes in the field of the development of foreign trade, international investment and through the international secretariat companies in order to protect assets, ensure confidential information, capital exodus, but on a special place is offering the navigation right under the flag of Moldova. There are 311 registered foreign vessels, including 45 from Russia, 18 from Ukraine, 7 from Romania, 8 from Bulgaria, 4 from Poland, 3 from Azerbaijan etc. In order to register a vessel in the State Register and to acquire the right to navigate under the flag of the Republic of Moldova it is not mandatory for the vessel to be property of the Republic of Moldova or of its citizens. There are no limits or any special procedures concerning the age of the vessel for registration. The registration of river vessels and of river-sea vessels can be made for any age and type of the vessel. So-called fiscal paradises are actually only jurisdictions with low taxes and legal systems that respect privacy. According to a 1998 report of the OECD Committee on Fiscal Affairs, which campaigns for tax harmonization in the world, fiscal paradises are defined based on three criteria: 1. Taxes are extremely low or even nonexistent, being perceived by non-residents as a way to escape from the tax burden in their country of origin; 2. Legal system or administrative practices prevent the exchange of banking information with other governments; 3. There is a lack of transparency on placement of foreign financial investments in these jurisdictions. Through OECD governments in countries with major taxes on income, investment, and property try to dictate fiscal policy around the world, reduce the number of jurisdictions with tax system, which is in their opinion unfair. With zero or low taxes offshore zones create an international tax contest. At present the OECD actively participates in the fight against low-tax jurisdictions by publishing regular white gray and black lists of jurisdictions, urging states to conclude agreements on exchange of information on fraud avoidance tax. Thus, in April 2009, OECD included in the white list countries that comply with international tax obligations. There are included all industrially developed countries, most EU countries, Russia, China and some offshore areas:

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FINANE / FINANCE obligaiilor internaionale n domeniul fiscal. Aici figureaz toate rile industrial dezvoltate, majoritatea rilor UE, Rusia, China, precum i cteva zone off-sore: Insulele Seyshelles. Mauritius, Insula Man, Insulele Virgine Americane. Lista gri include statele care fie i-au asumat obligaiunea de implementare a normelor OCDE n legislaia untern, fie au demarat asemenea modificri, dar, ntr-o msur insuficient, au introdus normele necesare. n aceast list au fost incluse cele mai populare jurisdicii off-shore (Andorra, Anguila Antigua, Barbados, Aruba, Bahamas, Bahrein, Belize, Insulele Bermude, Insulele Virgine Britanice, Insulele Cayman, Insulele Cook, Republica Dominicana, Gibraltar, Granada, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Insulele Marshall, Monaco, Montserrat, Nauru, Antilele Olandeze, Niue, Panama, Sfntul Kitts i Nevis, Sfnta Lucia, Sfntul Vincent i Grenadine, Samoa, San Marino, Insulele Turks i Caicos, Vanuatu), precum i unele jurisdicii normale (Austria, Belgia, Elveia, Luxemburg), dar care n acordurile sale de evitare a dublei impuneri, de regul, au exclus prevederile privind schimbul de informaii. Pe lista neagr au fost incluse Costa Rica, Malaezia, Filipine i Uruguay, care nu i-au asumat nici un angajament de a se conforma standardelor internaionale n materie fiscal. Dar, pe parcursul unei sptmni dup publicare, n list nu mai rmnea nici un figurant, toate rile din ea transferndu-se n lista gri, adic au contientizat viciile ignorrii standardelor OCDE i au declarat adeziunea lor fa de aceste standarde. Totodat, spre noiembrie 2009, n lista alb au fost transferate 15 uniti administrative, care au ndeplinit cerinele OCDE, au semnat cte 12 acorduri internaionale privind impozitarea, inclusiv Liechtenstein, Monaco, San Marino, Elveia .a. n martie 2010, OCDE a publicat o nou list gri a teritoriilor care nu corespund standardelor internaionale de impozitare, care a inclus Anguila Antigua, Belize, Insulele Cook, Republica Dominicana, Granada, Liberia, Insulele Marshall, Montserrat, Nauru, Niue, Panama, Sfntul Kits i Nevis, Sfnta Lucia, Sfntul Vincent i Grenadine, Vanuatu. n lista actualizat, de asemenea, au fost incluse jurisdiciile ce nu au statut de paradis fiscal, cum ar fi Brunei (a semnat 8 acorduri din 12), Guatemala (0 acorduri), Costa Rica (1), Filipine (0), Uruguay (0). Considerm c avantajele i constrngerile tranzaciilor off-shore pot fi abordate de pe poziiile structurilor de afaceri, ale statului, precum i comunitii mondiale, ale cror interese nu coincid. Structurile de business i persoanele fizice sunt cointeresate n facilitile acordate (impozitarea, anonimitatea, confidenialitatea operaiunilor financiare, secretul bancar, repatrierea liber a profitului, lipsa controlului valutar, lipsa sau nivelul sczut al taxelor vamale, procedura simplist de nregistrare i gestiune a companiilor off-shore). Pornind de la aceste faciliti, Seychelles Islands, Mauritius, Isle of Man, U.S. Virgin Islands. The gray list includes states that either have undertaken the obligation to implement the OECD standards in the internal law, or they have started changing, but introduced the necessary rules to an insufficient extent. This list included the popular offshore jurisdictions (Andorra, Anguilla Antigua, Barbados, Aruba, Bahamas, Bahrain, Belize, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Cook Islands, Dominican Republic, Gibraltar, Grenada, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Montserrat, Nauru, Netherlands Antilles, Niue, Panama, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Turks and Caicos Islands, Vanuatu) and several normal jurisdictions (Austria, Belgium, Switzerland, Luxembourg), but which usually excluded provisions concerning the exchange of information in its agreements on double taxation avoidance. The black list included Costa Rica, Malaysia, Philippines and Uruguay, which have not undertaken any commitment to comply with international standards on tax matters. However, within a week after having been published in the blacklist, there hasnt remained any country in it, all states having been transferred to the gray list, i.e. they have realized the vices of ignoring the OECD standards and claimed their adherence to them. Meanwhile, by November 2009, 15 administrative units which have met the requirements of the OECD, signed by 12 international agreements on taxation, including Liechtenstein, Monaco, San Marino, Switzerland etc were transferred to the white list. In March 2010 the OECD published a new gray list of territories that did not meet international standards of taxation, which included Anguilla, Antigua, Belize, Cook Islands, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Liberia, Marshall Islands, Montserrat, Nauru, Niue, Panama, St. Kits and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Vanuatu. The updated list also included jurisdictions that do not have the fiscal paradise status, such as Brunei (signed eight agreements out of 12), Guatemala (0 agreements), Costa Rica (1), Philippines (0) Uruguay (0). We believe that the advantages and constraints of offshore transactions can be addressed from the standpoint of business structures, of the state and of the world community, whose interests do not coincide. Business structures and individuals are interested in the granted facilities (taxation, anonymity, confidentiality of financial transactions, banking secrecy, free repatriation of profits, lack of exchange control, low or no customs duties, simple procedure of registration and management of offshore companies). Based on these facilities, offshore companies get benefits and profits compared to firms not using offshore jurisdictions. 73

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FINANE / FINANCE companiile off-shore obin avantaje i profituri considerabile comparativ cu firmele care nu utilizeaz jurisdicii off-shore. Persoanele fizice, ce dein valuta n cont ntr-o banc off-shore, nu achit impozitul pe venit. Aceste mijloace pot fi reinvestite liber n orice ar, inclusiv acea n care persoana respectiv are statut de rezident. Aadar, n tranzacii off-shore se aplic scheme ce se bazeaz pe compararea normelor legislative fiscale, financiare, valutare, care reprezint un instrument legal de planificare i minimizare a impozitelor companiei. Totodat, schemele off-shore adesea se aplic cu nclcri, inclusiv criminale, a legislaiei. Experii consider c, n scopul obinerii unui profit maxim, organizaiile comerciale deseori utilizeaz scheme ilegale. Mai mult, teritoriile off-shore sunt folosite pentru splarea banilor murdari. Statele creeaz n teritoriile sale jurisdicii offshore n scopul atragerii capitalului strin, dezvoltrii sistemului financiar-bancar, tehnologiilor informaionale, contribuind la ocuparea forei de munc, n special de avocai, contabili n comunicaii, asigurare, bnci. De regul, rile dezvoltate presteaz servicii off-shore doar n anumite regiuni ale teritoriului sau n anumite domenii de activitate. Mai multe ri dezvoltate susin businessul off-shore n rile aflate sub influena lor (Marea Britanie Insulele Virgine Britanice, Jersey, Guernsey, Frana Monaco, Elveia Liechtenstein etc.). Prin aceste centre circul un volum considerabil al fluxurilor financiare mondiale, controlate de cercurile financiare britanice, franceze, elveiene. Totui, oficialii din rile industrializate cu rate nalte de impozitare, cu un sistem stabilit al controlului valutar i fiscal, acuz businessul off-shore, deoarece bugetele acestor ri rmn fr impozite, ce s-ar constitui din activitatea firmelor pe teritoriul lor. n plus, prin sistemul mondial off-shore are loc redistribuirea mijloacelor financiare din rile de origine nspre aceste zone, ceea ce influeneaz negativ situaia investiional, mediul economic, social i ecologic. De aceea, marile ri industrializate adopt legi anti-off-shore, n scopul de a reduce exodul de capital i de a minimiza avantajele financiare ale derulrii tranzaciilor prin zonele off-shore, a activiza lupta cu eschivarea de la plata impozitelor. Astfel, n anul 1962, preedintele Franei Charles de Gaulle a ameninat principatul Monaco cu sistarea apei i energiei electrice, dac acesta nu va introduce impozitul pe venit i va continua s ademeneasc bancheri francezi. Toate structurile de for ale principatului au fost mobilizate (80 ostai ai gardei i 207 poliiti), dar la aciuni militare nu s-a ajuns. Principatul a cedat. Un exemplu mai recent: anul 2009 marcheaz o tensionare a relaiilor dintre Germania i Liechtenstein ca urmare a aciunilor de amploare, ntreprinse de procuratura Germaniei, i publicarea datelor confideniale despre conturile bncii princiare LGT. Printre clienii bncii s-au dovedit a fi muli funcionari germani, care i scoteau veniturile tenebre prin fondurile 74 Individuals, who hold foreign currency in a bank account offshore, do not pay income taxes. These resources can be reinvested in any country freely, including the one in which the respective person has a resident status. Thus, in the offshore trading scheme are applied the legislative standards, which are based on comparing fiscal, financial and monetary legislative norms, which are a legal instrument for tax planning and minimization in the company. However, offshore schemes are often applied with violations, inclusively of the criminal law. Experts believe that in order to obtain maximum profit commercial organizations often use illegal schemes. Moreover, offshore territories are used for money laundering. States create offshore jurisdictions within their territory with the goal of attracting foreign capital, developing the banking system and information technology. They also contribute to employment, particularly of lawyers, accountants, communications, insurance, banks. Usually developed states offer offshore services only in certain parts of their territory or in certain areas of activity. Many developed countries support the offshore business in countries which are under their influence (Great Britain British Virgin Islands, Jersey, Guernsey, France Monaco, Switzerland Liechtenstein, etc). These centers run a considerable volume of the global financial flows, controlled by British, French and Swiss financial circles. However, officials from industrialized countries with high rates of taxation, with a stable system of control of exchange and taxation, accuse the offshore business, because budgets of these countries remain without taxes, which would be the result of companies activity in its territory. Moreover, through the global offshore system takes place the redistribution of financial resources from the countries of origin into the offshore areas, which adversely affects the investment situation, the economic, social and ecologic environment. Therefore, the major industrialized countries adopt anti offshore laws in order to reduce the outflow of capital, to minimize financial advantages of running transactions through offshore zones, and to activate the fight against tax exemption. Thus, in 1962, French President Charles de Gaulle threatened Monaco Principality with disconnecting water and electricity, if it does not introduce the income tax and continues to lure the French bankers. All power structures of the Principality were mobilized (80 guard soldiers and 207 policemen) but military action was not taken. The Principality surrendered. A more recent example: 2009 marks a tension in the relations between Germany and Liechtenstein as a result of extensive actions taken by the German prosecutors, and publication of confidential information about the princely LGT bank accounts. Among the banks customers there were found to be

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FINANE / FINANCE fictive n banca princiar din Liehtenstein. Guvernul principatului ameninase Germania cu msuri juridice, cci aciunile organelor de drept germane ar fi lezat nu numai suveranitatea Liechtensteinului, dar i constituia acestuia, care declar sfera privat mai sus dect interesele visieriei de stat, dei principatul este semnatar al Conveniei de la Palermo privind combaterea criminalitii internaionale, ce conine msuri concrete de combatere a corupiei i banilor murdari. n ultima perioad de timp, apar contradicii i la nivel de jurisdicii off-shore. Dac ntr-o structur offshore sporete monitoringul asupra fluxurilor financiare, se asigur o transparen mai mare, are loc colaborarea cu organele de drept, care cerceteaz ilegalitile economice i financiare, atunci fluxurile financiare se reorienteaz spre alte jurisdicii off-shore. Astfel, aceste jurisdicii se confrunt cu dilema de a intensifica controlul, de a mbunti imaginea, pierznd, totodat, o parte din clientel sau de a extinde privilegiile, contnd pe afluxul unor mijloace financiare suplimentare, ceea ce va spori atenia asupra zonei respective din partea instituiilor internaionale. Comunitatea mondial are o atitudine rezervat fa de sistemul off-shore, ceea ce se explic prin momentele negative n activitate, inclusiv utilizarea acestora de ctre elementele criminale, n scopul finanrii terorismului i narco-businessului. De aceea comunitatea mondial cere de la jurisdiciile off-shore transparen, renunarea la secretul comercial, extinderea colaborrii cu organele de dept, perfecionarea reglementrii sferei financiare. n iulie 1989, la Summitul G-7 din Paris, la care au participat i comisiile Uniunii Europene a fost creat un Grup special de combatere a infraciunilor din domeniul financiar (Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering FATF). n urma investigaiilor efectuate de ctre Grupul menionat s-a constatat c factorul decisiv n lupta mpotriva operaiunilor ilegale de transfer a banilor, prin diverse sisteme financiare, este posibilitatea instituiilor financiare de a depista clienii care practic activiti ilegale, de a fixa documentar operaiunile lor financiare i, n baza acestor documente, organele de investigare competente ar putea efectua investigaiile cuvenite. FATF i coordoneaz aciunile sale cu Organizaia Naiunilor Unite, care n ultimul timp tot mai des se implic n combaterea legalizrii banilor provenii din surse ilegale. n cadrul Summitului ONU, organizat n decembrie 2000 la Palermo, privind combaterea crimelor organizate transnaionale, la care au participat delegaii din 140 de state, a fost adoptat Convenia ONU contra Crimei Organizate Transnaionale i la 15 noiembrie 2000 la New York au fost adoptate dou protocoale ale Conveniei date: Protocolul privind prevenirea, reprimarea i pedepsirea traficului de persoane, n special al femeilor i copiilor, adiional la Convenia Naiunilor Unite mpotriva criminalitii many German officials, who drew shadow revenues through fictitious funds of Liechtenstein princely bank. Government of the Principality threatened Germany with legal action because German law enforcement action would have harmed not only Liechtenstein sovereignty, but also its constitution, which declares the private sector interests higher than of the state treasury, although the principality is a signatory of the Palermo Convention on Combating international crime, which contains concrete measures to combat corruption and money laundering. Lately, contradictions at the level of offshore jurisdictions have emerge. If an offshore structure enhances the monitoring of financial flows, then greater transparency is ensured, there is collaboration with law enforcement, which investigates economic and financial illegalities, and then financial flows shift to other offshore jurisdictions. Thus, offshore jurisdictions face the dilemma to enhance control, to improve the image, while also losing part of the customers, or to extend privileges, counting on the influx of additional financial resources, which will increase the international institutions attention to the respective area. The global community has a reserved attitude towards the offshore system, which is explained by negative instances in activity, including their use of criminal elements to finance terrorism and drug dealing. Therefore, the world community demands from the offshore jurisdictions maintaining transparency, giving up trade secrets, expanding cooperation with law enforcement, improving regulation of financial sphere. In July 1989, during G-7 summit in Paris, which was also attended by EU Commission, was created a special Group for combating financial crime (Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering FATF). As a result of investigations conducted by the aforementioned group, it was found that the decisive factor in the fight against illegal money transfer transactions through various financial systems is the ability of financial institutions to track customers, engaged in illegal activities, and to fix documentary their financial operations based on these documents so that competent investigative bodies could carry out proper investigations. FATF coordinates its actions with the United Nations, which is lately more and more involved in combating the legalization of money derived from illegal sources. During the UN Summit on combating transnational organized crimes held in December 2000 in Palermo, which was attended by delegates of 140 countries, was adopted the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, and on November 15 2000 in New York were adopted two Protocols of this Convention: Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish 75

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FINANE / FINANCE transfrontaliere organizate; Protocolul mpotriva traficului ilegal de imigrani pe calea terestr, aerian i maritim, adiional la Convenia Naiunilor Unite mpotriva criminalitii transnaionale organizate. La nivel internaional, de combaterea splrii banilor se preocup i organizaiile regionale, create dup modelul FATF, n particular, aa organizaii ca Grupul Pacifico-Asiatic, Grupul statelor bazinului Caraibian, Grupul Statelor Africii de Sud-Vest i Comitetul experilor Consiliului Uniunii Europene ce evalueaz msurile de combatere a splrii banilor. Un rol important n sistemul organizaiilor internaionale l ocup Interpolul un organ care n procesul combaterii splrii banilor aplic un efort considerabil i care se ocup cu investigarea diferitelor infraciuni economice internaionale i, totodat, acumuleaz i cerceteaz informaii privind diverse escrocherii de proporii mari, comise n diferite ri ale lumii. Putem meniona i alte organizaii internaionale cu un rol semnificativ n domeniul dat, i anume: 1. Organizaia statelor Uniunii Europene privind combaterea infraciunilor economice, cu 49 de state-membre. 2. Grupul off-shore privind controlul bancar, care asigur cooperarea n combaterea splrii banilor n centrele internaionale off-shore i zonele economice libere. 3. Clubul de la Berna, care include reprezentani ai organelor de investigaie a statelor est-europene. 4. Organizaia Internaional a Comisiilor Valorilor Mobiliare, care reunete reprezentani ai organelor de control ale pieei valorilor mobiliare (136 membri din 70 de state). 5. Biroul Maritim Internaional, sarcina sa fiind de a contracara fraudele n comerul internaional i transportul maritim, n primul rnd, de a combate contrabanda, inclusiv cu valut. 6. Serviciul de asigurare a securitii businessului, pe lng Camera de Comer Internaional, care activeaz n sfera combaterii infraciunilor economice internaionale. Este de ateptat c marile ri industrializate vor impune actualelor centre off-shore s adopte legi care vor interzice nregistrarea companiilor respective, libere de impozite din activitatea din afara acestor zone. Companiile vor trebui s fie amplasate, realmente, n locul nregistrrii, s aib oficiu, colaboratori, ceea ce va mri esenial costurile schemei de activitate. Putem presupune c periodic vor aprea situaii n care unele ri vor acorda avantaje considerabile pentru investitori externi, n special rile islamice sau alte sisteme politice care nu depind de SUA i UE. Dar posibilitatea de 76 Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime; Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by land, air and sea, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. At the international level, regional organizations modeled on the FATF are concerned with combating money laundering. Particularly, it includes organizations such as Asia-Pacific Group on Money Laundering, Caribbean Basin Group of States, The Eastern and South African Anti Money Laundering Group and Committee of Experts on the Evaluation of Anti-Money Laundering Measures. An important role in the system of international organizations occupies Interpol - a body, which applies considerable effort in the fight against money laundering, which investigates and deals with various international economic crimes, and also accumulates and studies information on various large-scale fraud committed in different countries worldwide. We mention and other international organizations with a significant role in this field, namely: 1. Commonwealth Commercial Crime Unit, which includes 49 member states. 2. Offshore Group of Banking Supervisors, which ensures cooperation on combating money laundering in international offshore centers and in free economic zones. 3. Bern Club, which includes representatives of the investigation organs of Eastern European states. 4. International Organization of Securities Commissions, bringing together representatives of the audit of the stock market (136 members from 70 countries). 5. International Maritime Bureau, its task is to prevent fraud in international trade and shipping, primarily smuggling and currency smuggling. 6. Business Security Service of the International Chamber of Commerce, working in the field of combating international economic crimes. It is expected that the major industrialized countries will require current offshore centers to adopt laws that prohibit the registration of offshore companies, tax free from activities outside these areas. Companies will have to be located in the actual registration place, to have office, collaborators, which will increase the activity scheme's costs. We suppose that periodically will appear situations when some countries will bring considerable benefits for foreign investors, especially Islamic countries or other political systems that do not depend

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FINANE / FINANCE a utiliza asemenea faciliti va fi blocat de legislaia rilor, pentru rezidenii crora aceste faciliti prezint interes. Va fi perfecionat legislaia n SUA i UE astfel, nct n cadrul comerului internaional s fie imposibil de a transfera locul de obinere a profitului ntr-un paradis fiscal; va fi minimizat diferena n impozitarea structurilor de afaceri locale i nerezidente. n concluzie menionm c eficiena unor regimuri fiscale i de activitate deosebite, precum zonele offshore, poate fi apreciat drept o form a luptei de concuren a unor state pentru consumtorii poteniali. Dei, n ultimele decenii ale secolului al XX-lea, s-a declanat o adevrat curs dup instrumente de planificare i minimizare a impozitelor, feeria offshorului s-a terminat cu liste negre i msuri contra centrelor off-shore. Concepia businessului off-shore este nc viabil, dar nu se mai dezvolt. Cu ct mai puine centre off-shore ofer avantaje speciale, cu att este mai mare numrul companiilor ce tind s fie nregistrate n aceste centre, cu att mai mult acest fapt atrage atenia oponenilor off-shorului i cu att mai rapide i riguroase vor fi msurile de contracarare aplicate. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. on US and EU. But the possibility of using such facilities will be blocked by the laws of the countries for whose residents these facilities are of interest. The legislation will be improved in the US and EU so that in international trade it would be impossible to transfer the place of obtaining profits in a fiscal paradise; the difference in taxation in local and non-residence business structures will be minimized. Finally, we note that the efficiency of fiscal and special activities regimes, such as offshore areas can be considered as a form of competitive struggle of states for potential consumers. Although the last decades of the twentieth century have triggered a real race for planning tools and minimizing taxes, the offshore enchantment ended with blacklists and measures against offshore centers. Offshore business concept is still viable, but no longer develops. The less offshore centers offer special advantages, the greater is the number of companies which tend to be registered in these centers, the more attention of offshore opponents this attracts and the faster and more rigorous countermeasures will be applied.

Bibliografie/Bibliography Buziernescu, R., Antonescu, M. Paradisurile fiscale internaionale. n: Finane provocrile viitorului. 2007, nr. 6, p. 178-189. Caraiani, G. Zonele libere i paradisurile fiscale. Editura Lumina Lex, 1999, 269 p. Gilpin, R. Economia mondial n secolul XXI. Provocarea capitalismului global. Iai: Polirom, 2004. 280 p. , . . --: , 2004, 315 . "", 60 (4115), 04.04.2009 www.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=CSP2009 www.business.f1-soft.ru www.wall-street.ro/articol/International/62266/Listele-cu-paradisuri-fiscale-publicate-dupasummitul-G20.html

PROMOVAREA SECURITII FINANCIARE A SISTEMULUI BANCAR PRIN INTERMEDIUL IMPLEMENTRII ACORDULUI BASEL II
Lect. sup. dr. Dorina CLICHICI, ASEM
Criza financiar mondial recent a scos n eviden deficienele abordrilor privind securitatea financiar. Noul regim de adecvare a capitalului Basel II urmrete valorificarea celor mai bune practici privind managementul riscului n procesul de reglementare bancar. Prin furnizarea unui spectru larg de abordri de determinare a gradului de adecvare a capitalului bancar, cadrul revizuit al Acordului urmrete s ofere cerine de reglementare a capitalului,

PROMOTING FINANCIAL SECURITY OF THE BANKING SYSTEM THROUGH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF BASEL II AGREEMENT
Senior Lect., PhD Dorina CLICHICI, AESM
The recent global financial crisis has revealed weaknesses in the whole approach to financial security. The new Basel II capital adequacy regime seeks to harness into the regulatory process best practices in risk management. By providing a spectrum of approaches to measuring capital adequacy of banks, the Revised Framework seeks to provide regulatory capital requirements that are both more comprehensive and more sensitive to risk and, as such, more closely 77

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FINANE / FINANCE care sunt mai comprehensive i mai sensibile la risc, adaptate la apetitul fa de risc al instituiilor bancare individuale. Basel II i propune s construiasc pe o fundaie solid cerine de reglementare prudenial a capitalului, de supraveghere i disciplin de pia; s mbunteasc n continuare managementul riscurilor i s asigure securitatea financiar. Cuvinte-cheie: securitate financiar, criz financiar, sistem bancar, Comitetul Basel pentru Supravegherea Bancar, cerine prudeniale, managementul riscurilor, riscul de credit, riscul de pia, riscul operaional, riscul de lichiditate, ratinguri interne etc. Crizele financiare au efecte negative de mare amploare asupra economiilor naionale din rile unde se produc; mai mult ca att, datorit interdependenelor crescnde, cauzate de procesul de globalizare, au chiar tendina de a contamina i alte economii, afectnd astfel securitatea financiar la nivel global. Din aceste considerente, eforturile autoritilor naionale de supraveghere bancar au fost suplimentate ntr-un mod tot mai pronunat, n ultimii ani, de aciuni de mbuntire a cadrului de reglementare a activitii bancare la nivel internaional. Pentru rezolvarea deficienelor pieei revelate de criz, Comitetul Basel pentru Supravegherea Bancar a introdus un ir de reforme fundamentale privind cadrul de reglementare internaional. Reformele contribuie la consolidarea bncilor, fiind vorba despre aplicarea reglementrii microprudeniale, ceea ce va contribui la creterea rezistenei instituiilor individuale bancare n perioadele de stres, i reglementarea macroprudenial, ce const n abordarea riscurilor la nivel de sistem. Ca urmare a crizei financiare, Comitetul Basel, n decembrie 2010, a formulat un nou cadru [1] de reglementare bancar Basel III. Acest document, mpreun cu Cadrul internaional pentru msurarea riscului de lichiditate, standarde i monitorizare, prezint reformele Comitetul de la Basel, promovate cu scopul de a consolida normele mondiale de capital i de lichiditate pentru a promova un sector bancar mai rezistent. Obiectivul reformelor este de a mbunti capacitatea sectorului bancar de a absorbi ocurile generate de stresurile economice i financiare, indiferent de surs, reducnd astfel riscul de contagiune din cadrul sectorului financiar al economiei reale. Cu toate neajunsurile relevate de criza financiar recent, cadrul de reglementare bancar, ce contribuie la creterea rezistenei i securitii sectorului bancar, rmne a fi Basel II, publicat la 26 iunie 2004 [2], ultima variant revizuit a Acordului Basel II fiind formulat n iunie 2006. Reformele promovate n urma aplicrii principiilor acestui document au mbuntit att calitatea, ct i cantitatea bazei de reglementare a capitalului i au majorat posibilitile de acoperire a riscului din contul capitalului, sporind semnificativ securitatea sistemului financiar-bancar. O strategie bancar performant trebuie s cuprind programe de gestiune a riscurilor bancare, care vizeaz minimalizarea expunerii poteniale a bncii la risc. Ceea ce i propune noul 78 aligned to the risk appetites of individual institutions. Basel II aims to build on a solid foundation of prudent capital regulation, supervision, and market discipline, and to enhance further risk management and financial security. Key-words: financial security, financial crisis, banking system, Basel committee on Banking Supervision, Prudential requirements, risk management, credit risk, market risk, operational risk, liquidity risk, internal rating, etc. Financial crises have negative effects on national economies within the countries where they take place, moreover, because of growing interdependence caused by globalization, they even tend to contaminate other economies, thus affecting global financial security. Therefore, during the last years the efforts of national banking authorities were supplemented especially by actions coming to improve the regulatory framework for banking at the international level. To address market failures revealed by the crisis, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision has introduced a series of fundamental reforms of the international regulatory framework. Reforms contribute to banks consolidation, it is about the application of micro-regulation, which will help to increase strength of individual institutions during the periods of stress, and macro-prudential regulation, which is addressing the risks at the system level. Taking into consideration the recent financial crisis effects, the Basel Committee in December 2010, has formulated a new banking regulatory framework Basel III [1]. This document, together with International framework for liquidity risk measurement, monitoring and Standards, are the main reforms promoted by Basel Committee in order to strengthen capital and global norms of liquidity for assuring a more resilient banking sector. The objective of reforms is to improve the banking sectors ability to absorb shocks caused by economic and financial stresses, regardless of source, reducing the risk of contagion from the financial sector to real economy. Despite the shortcomings revealed by the recent financial crisis, the banking regulatory framework that contributes to increased strength and security of the banking sector, remains Basel II Agreement, published on June 26, 2004 [2], and last document revised in June 2006. The reforms promoted following the principles of this document, have improved both the quality and quantity of regulatory capital base and increased opportunities for hedging the capital account, significantly increasing the financial and banking system safety. A powerful banking strategy should include banking risk management programs aimed to minimize the potential exposure of the bank to risks. The new

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FINANE / FINANCE Acord este ca instituiile financiare s devin mai contiente de riscurile a cror manifestare le poate afecta, fiind vorba despre managementul unei game mai largi de riscuri dect se prevedea n mai vechiul Acord, incluznd riscul de credit, de pia i operaional (figura 1). Basel I (1988) Managementul riscului de credit/ Credit risk management (1993) Managementul riscului financiar (riscul de pia i de credit)/ Financial risk management (market and credit risk) Simplu n aplicare / Easy to be applied. Uor de realizat o reducere semnificativ de capital, fr transfer al riscului / Possibility to reduce significantly the capital without a risk transfer agreement pursues financial institutions to become more aware of the risks which may affect them and is about managing a wider range of risks than expected in the old agreement, including credit risk, market and operational risk (figure 1). Basel III (2010) Managementul riscului de lichiditate/ Management of liquidity risk Introdus ca urmare a crizei financiare / Elaborated as a result of the recent financial crisis. Sporete calitatea i cantitatea capitalului / Increases quality and quantity of capital. Stabilete standardele de lichiditate la nivel global (pentru a fi puse n aplicare n urmtorii 5 ani, din 2013) / Establishes standards for global liquidity (to be implemented over the next five years, from 2013). Perspectiv macroprudenial / Macroprudential perspective

Basel II (2004) Managementul riscurilor de credit, de pia, operaional/ Management of credit, market and operational risks Mai sensibil din punctul de vedere al riscului / More risk sensitive. Particularitile expunerii la risc dicteaz tipul de abordare / Peculiarities of risk exposure impose the approach. Ia n considerare calitatea sistemului de gestionare a riscurilor / Takes into consideration the quality of the risk management system

Figura 1. Transformrile cadrului privind managementul riscurilor n Acordul Basel / Figure 1. Transformations regarding the Risk Management Framework of the Basel Agreement Sursa/Source: elaborat n baza/developed by the authors on the basis of Basel Committee, International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital Standards. July 1988; International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital Standards (Revised Framework). November 2005; Basel III: A global regulatory framework for more resilient banks and banking systems December 2010 (rev June 2011). Fa de acordul precedent, Basel II aduce urmtoarele nouti principale: existena unei structuri care se sprijin pe trei piloni; modul de calcul al cerinelor de capital, bazat pe o senzitivitate sporit la risc, care pune accentul, ntr-o msur mai mare, pe propriul sistem de msurare a riscului instituiilor de credit; recunoaterea mai extins a instrumentelor de acoperire a riscului; introducerea unor cerine de capital suplimentar pentru riscul operaional [3]. Noul document-cadru prevede standarde, potrivit crora bncile vor avea de estimat suficiena capitalului n raport cu profilul de risc i conine cluze pentru: (1) estimarea de ctre instituiile financiare a suficienei capitalului; (2) regulatorii care revizuiesc astfel de estimri i (3) comunitatea investiional pentru mbuntirea disciplinei de pia, ca rezultat al transparenei majore n activitatea instituiilor financiare [4]. Compared to the previous agreement, Basel II provides the following new aspects: there is a structure that rests on three pillars; calculation of capital requirements based on an increased sensitivity to risk, based on the credit institutions own system of risk measurement; a wider recognition of hedging instruments, and additional capital requirements for operational risk [3]. The new Framework provides standards according to which banks will have to assess capital adequacy in relation to risk profile and contains guides for: (1) estimation of the financial institutions capital adequacy, (2) authorities that monitor such estimations, (3) investment community to improve market discipline as a result of financial institutions transparency [4].

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FINANE / FINANCE Astfel, implementarea principiilor [5] noului Acord Basel II are drept scop asigurarea stabilitii financiare prin sisteme avansate de gestiune a riscului n bnci, supravegherea mai bun n statele-membre, precum i o disciplin de pia mai dur. Basel II, de asemenea, susine tot mai mult cooperarea transfrontalier i schimbul de informaii dintre supraveghetorii din ara-gazd i supraveghetorii din ara de origine, ndeosebi n acele sisteme financiare, n care bncile strine opereaz n diferite sisteme de reglementare a capitalului comparativ cu bncile locale. Noul cadru constituie o etap important pentru soluionarea punctelor slabe din Basel I, n special pentru mbuntirea gestiunii riscului n instituiile financiare. Implementarea cu succes a Basel II va ntri sistemul financiar al fiecrei ri, n particular, i sistemul financiar internaional, n general, contribuind la asigurarea stabilitii financiare globale. Pentru calcularea capitalului necesar, Acordul Basel II propune dou abordri diferite [6]: a) Abordarea standard, care este similar cu cea propus de Acordul Basel I, dar folosete ponderi mai rafinate1. n plus fa de acordul anterior, aceast abordare permite utilizarea instrumentelor financiare derivate pentru limitarea riscului de credit i reducerea cerinelor de capital. Abordarea standard este destinat unor bnci mici i mai puin sofisticate, care nu dispun de experien n dezvoltarea modelelor tehnice de evaluare a riscurilor de credit. Ea se bazeaz foarte mult pe ratinguri externe acordate de agenii externe de rating, recunoscute de instituiile naionale de supraveghere. b) Abordarea bazat pe ratinguri generate intern: 1. Metodologia bazat pe ratinguri interne de baz (foundation Internal Rating Based IRB approach), care permite unei bnci s utilizeze propriul sistem de rating, inclusiv utilizarea calculelor privind probabilitile de intrare n incapacitate de plat, dar pierderile nregistrate atunci cnd contrapartida intr n incapacitate de plat sunt furnizate de ctre instituia de supraveghere. 2. Metodologia bazat pe ratinguri interne avansat (advanced IRB approach), n care bncile i calculeaz cerinele de capital pe baza propriilor modele, prin utilizarea metodologiei proprii de estimare a componentelor riscului de credit. Iar n anumite cazuri bncile vor trebui s foloseasc, pentru una sau mai multe dintre componentele riscului, valori furnizate de autoritatea de supraveghere. Noul Cadru intenioneaz s creasc nivelul de siguran al sistemului financiar i s armonizeze cerinele de management al riscului adresate bncilor. Basel II are la baz 3 piloni [7], care mbin abordarea cantitativ a cerinelor prudeniale cu abordarea calitativ a acestora (figura 2).
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Thus, implementation of the new Basel II principles [5], aims to ensure financial stability through advanced risk management systems in banks, a better surveillance in the Member States, as well as a tougher market discipline. Basel II also supports the increasingly cross-border cooperation and information exchange between supervisors in the host country and home country supervisors, particularly in those financial systems in which foreign banks operate in different regulatory capital compared to local banks. The new framework is an important step to address weaknesses in Basel I, in particular to improve risk management within financial institutions. Successful implementation of Basel II will strengthen the financial system of each country in particular and the international financial system in general, helping to ensure global financial stability. In order to calculate the required capital, Basel II proposes two different approaches [6]: a) Standardized Approach, which is similar to that proposed by Basel I, but using more refined weights2. In addition to the previous agreement, this approach allows the use of derivatives to mitigate credit risk and reduce capital requirements. Standard approach is designed for smaller and less sophisticated banks that have no technical experience in developing models for assessing credit risks. It relies on external ratings provided by external rating agencies recognized by the national supervisory institutions. b) Approach based on internally generated ratings: 1. Methodology based on internal ratings-based approach (IRB approach), which allows a bank to use its own rating system, including using their own calculations on the probability of default, but losses when the counterparties enter the default are provided by the supervising institution. 2. Methodology based on advanced internal rating-based approach (IRB advanced approach), according to which banks calculate their capital requirements based on their own models, using their methodology for estimating credit risk components. In some cases banks will have to use one or more of the components of risk, values provided by the supervisory authority. The new framework intends to increase the safety of the financial system and to align risk management requirements to the banks. Basel II is based on three pillars [7] which combine quantitative approach of prudential requirements with their qualitative approach (figure 2).

Elementul nout ii, adus de Basel II const i n lrgirea gamei ponderrilor la risc de credit, de la patru (0%, 20%, 50%, 100%) la opt categorii (0%, 10%, 20%, 35%, 50%, 75%, 100%, 150%) 2 The new element of Basel II is the widening range of credit risk weightings from four weights (0%, 20%, 50%, 100%) to eight categories (0% 10% 20% 35% 50% 75% 100% 150%). 80 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3(77) 2011

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Pilonul I Meninerea gradului de adecvare al capitalului calculat pentru trei componente ale riscului la care este expus instituia/ The minimum capital requirement calculated for three major components of risk that a bank faces: Riscul de credit/ Credit risk - abordare standardizat/ Standardized Approach - abordare bazat pe rating intern/ Foundation internal ratings-based approach - abordare bazat pe rating intern (avansat)/ Advanced internal rating-based approach Riscul operaional/ Operational Risk - Indicatorul de baz/ Basic indicator approach - standardizat/ Standardized Approach - abordare de msurare avansat/ Advanced Measurement Approach Riscul de pia/ Market risk - metoda Value at Risk/ VaR

Pilonul III/ Pillar III Pilonii Basel II/ Pillars of Basel II Disciplina de pia/ Market discipline Accentul se pune pe dezvluirea de informaii privind practicile de management al riscului i pe diferite tipuri de expuneri la risc, mpreun cu divulgarea altor tipuri de informaii, precum performanele financiare ale bncilor i poziia financiar / Emphasis is put on disclosure of information on risk management practices and on different types of risk exposures, along with disclosure of other types of information, such as banks financial performance and financial position

Pilonul II/ Pillar II Raportul de Supraveghere/ The supervisory relation Accentul este pus pe supravegherea calitii sistemelor noi ale bncilor privind evaluarea riscurilor / Emphasis is put on supervising the quality of banks new systems for risk assessment

Figura 2. Pilonii noului Cadru Basel II/ Pillars of the Basel II revised framework Sursa/Source: elaborat n baza/developed by the authors on the basis of Bank of International Settlements. Basel II: International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital Standards (Revised Framework). Basel Committee. Switzerland, November 2005. Disciplina de pia joac un rol deosebit n meninerea capitalului instituiilor bancare la un nivel adecvat, iar implementarea Basel II va contribui la stimularea performanelor i disciplinei de pia [8]. Dezvluirea public, conform noului Acord, sporete disciplina de pia i permite participanilor acesteia s estimeze suficiena capitalului bncilor, constituind o premis major pentru instituiile bancare n desfurarea afacerilor ntr-un mod eficient i sigur. Exist o serie de avantaje incontestabile pe care lear furniza implementarea Acordului Basel II societilor bancare, precum i sectorului bancar n care acestea opereaz [9]: Bncile nu vor mai fi tentate s-i creeze portofolii de credite de calitate mai redus, Market discipline plays an important role in maintaining banking capital at an appropriate level and Basel II contributes to stimulate performance and market discipline [8]. Public disclosure under the new agreement increases market discipline, and allows its participants to assess capital adequacy of banks, it is a prerequisite for major banking institutions doing business in an efficient and safe way. There are some undeniable advantages that would provide implementation of Basel II for banking companies and banking sector in which they operate [9]: Banks will not be tempted to create lower quality credit portfolios, situations induced 81

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FINANE / FINANCE situaie indus uneori de reglementrile curente, cnd cerinele de capital depesc nivelul real necesar; Se ine cont de avansul tehnologiei n ceea ce privete evaluarea riscurilor. Ratingurile (externe sau interne) iau n calcul din ce n ce mai multe variabile i devin astfel mult mai sigure i credibile; Motiveaz bncile s dezvolte modalitile de msurare a riscului, pentru a putea beneficia de cerine de capital mai favorabile; Pieele financiare ofer cea mai corect evaluare a riscurilor i a valorii, cu condiia, ns, a disponibilitii, n timp real, a informaiilor. Modificrile aduse prin Basel II n cadrul pilonului III (transparena) ar putea, astfel, constitui cea mai important schimbare a Acordului; Adapteaz permanent practicile bancare la realitile pieelor. Acordul Basel II nu este o reglementare imperativ pentru sistemele bancare naionale. Cu toate acestea, reglementrile Comitetului de la Basel sunt preluate n norme internaionale sau naionale obligatorii de aplicat. Recomandrile Acordului Basel II sunt preluate de Directiva European cunoscut cu denumirea CAD III Directiva asupra Adecvrii Capitalului [10]1. CAD III preia Directiva Bancar Consolidat 2000/12/EEC i Directiva de adecvare a capitalului societilor de investiii i al instituiilor de credit 93/6/EEC [11]2, reconfigurate. Uniunea European este foarte activ n implementarea Acordului Basel II. La nivelul statelor Uniunii Europene, Directiva CAD III se aplic imperativ din anul 2007. Pentru bncile din Europa Central i de Est, aplicarea Acordului de la Basel a constituit un test al capacitii lor de integrare ntr-o pia financiar lrgit, european i apoi mondial. Zonele majore de impact ale Acordului Basel II sunt: Recalcularea rezervelor de capital poate crea o relansare a capitalului pentru bncile care adopt tehnici sofisticate. Mediul de reglementare devine mai coercitiv i mai complex. Se creeaz o barier pentru noii venii pe pieele financiare datorit cerinelor investiionale mai mari, proceselor i sistemelor complexe i costisitoare i specializrii personalului care le gestioneaz, ceea ce multe instituii financiare nu-i permit.
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sometimes by current regulation, when capital requirements exceed the actual necessity. It is taken into account the technological development in terms of risk assessment. Ratings (external or internal) take into consideration more variables and thus become more reliable and credible. Motivate banks to develop ways of risk evaluation for benefiting from more favorable capital requirements. Financial markets provide the most accurate risk and value assessment in case of availability and real-time provided information. Changes made within Basel II - Pillar III (transparency) could thus be the most important change of the Agreement. It helps to adapt continuously banking practices to the markets realities. Basel II regulation is not an imperative for national banking systems. However, the Basel Committee regulations are taken as international or national norms required to be applied. Basel II norms are taken by the European Directive known as CAD III Directive on capital adequacy [10]1. CAD III takes reconfigured Banking Consolidated Directive 2000/12/EEC and Directive on capital adequacy of investment firms and credit institutions 93/6/EC [11]2. The European Union is very active in implementing Basel II. In the EU countries, CAD III Directive is applied imperative from 2007. For banks from Central and Eastern Europe, applying the Basel Agreement was a test of their ability to integrate an enlarged financial market, the European and the international one. Major areas of impact on banks of Basel II are: Recalculation of capital reserves can stimulate a revival of capital for banks that adopt sophisticated techniques. The regulatory environment becomes more coercive and more complex. Is created a barrier for the new participants of the financial markets, due to higher investment requirements, complex and costly processes and systems, and staff specialization who manage them, conditions which many financial institutions can not afford.

Directive 2006/49/CE of the European Parliament and of the Council on the capital adequacy of investment firms and credit institutions (recast), Official Journal of the European Union L 177/30.06.2006 2 EU Directive ( 93/6/EEC ) on the Capital Adequacy of Investment Firms and Credit Institutions (CAD I), DIRECTIVES THE 98/31/EC AND 98/33/EC, ON THE CAPITAL ADEQUACY OF INVESTMENT FIRMS AND CREDIT INSTITUTIONS (CAD II) 82 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3(77) 2011

FINANE / FINANCE Va crete distana dintre liderii financiari prezeni pe pia, adncind competiia i distana dintre marile bnci sofisticate n portofoliu i micile bnci de pe pia. Obiectivele necesare de atins pentru implementarea Acordului Basel II sunt: Armonizarea implicaiilor Acordului cu organismele de reglementare a activitii bancare. Diagnosticarea situaiei practicilor existente n domeniu i evaluarea diferenei dintre practica curent i cea impus de Acordul Basel, precum i a modalitilor de parcurgere a acestei distane, traduse n planificarea bugetelor financiare necesare, a personalului mobilizat i specializat, a perioadelor de timp alocate fiecrei faze a proiectului. Evaluarea gradului de pregtire al fiecrei instituii pentru aplicarea standardelor Basel II. Exist un numr de factori care ncurajeaz i bncile naionale nc neprivatizate s se adapteze la Basel II ct mai repede [12]: n primul rnd, o banc deja pe cale sa implementeze Basel II este mult mai atractiv pentru potenialii investitori strini i poate obine un pre mai mare pentru aciunile sale. De asemenea, se poate integra mai uor ntr-o reea mondial. n al doilea rnd, n urma aplicrii Basel II, pieele bancare naionale vor deveni mai concureniale, dei exist riscul unei mai mari sensibiliti la ocurile externe. Cu toate acestea, beneficiile aduse de un risc management modern s-au fcut simite, n ultimii zece ani, n ntreaga lume . Pentru bncile central i est-europene, principala problem este drumul nc lung de parcurs pn la compatibilitatea cu cerinele Basel II. n plus, bncile se confrunt att cu o lips de fonduri, costurile fiind cea mai frn pentru implementarea Basel II; ct i de expertiz, dei au avantajul unei noi generaii de manageri, tineri i foarte bine pregtii. n afar de costuri, apar i limite tehnice. Chiar i n bncile cele mai avansate, modelele interne folosite nu sunt foarte complexe, iar datele istorice sunt relativ incomplete. Foarte puine bnci, chiar i din cele cu proprietari strini, au un sistem transparent de rating, aplicabil tuturor claselor de active. Implementarea standardelor specifice Acordului Basel II n Republica Moldova presupune pregtirea din timp pentru aceasta a sistemului bancar naional. n primul rnd, sistemul bancar naional, prin factorii de decizie la nivelul bncii centrale i al instituiilor de credit, trebuie s cunoasc prevederile noului Acord. Se impune apoi o pertinent evaluare a stadiului actual de dezvoltare a sistemului bancar i, nu n ultimul rnd, configurarea i aplicarea unui set de msuri coerente de adaptare a sistemului bancar autohton, care s permit viitoarea aplicare a Acordului Basel II. The distance between the present financial market leaders will increase, by deepening competition and the distance between large banks with sophisticated portfolio and small banks on the market. Objectives needed to be achieved for implementation of Basel II norms are: Harmonization of the Agreement implications with banking regulation authorities; Evaluation of existing practices in the field and assess the difference between current practice and the Basel norms, by planning the necessary financial budget, mobilized and specialized personnel, the time periods allocated to each phase of project. Evaluation of each financial institution readiness to implement Basel II. There is a number of factors that encourage national banks not privatized yet to take Basel II norms as soon as possible [12]: First, a bank about to implement already Basel II is more attractive to potential investors, and obtains a higher price for its stocks. It also can easily integrate into a global financial network. Second, following the application of Basel II, national banking markets become more competitive, although there is a risk of greater sensitivity to external shocks. However, the benefits of a modern risk management have been felt worldwide in the past decade. For central and eastern European banks, the main problem remains the long way to go up to compatibility with Basel II. In addition, banks face a shortage of funds, costs are the biggest obstacle to implementation of Basel II norms, as well as lack of expertise, although they have the advantage of a new generation of young and highly trained managers. In addition to costs arise technical limitations. Even within the most advanced banks, internal models used are not very complex and historical data are relatively incomplete. Very few banks, even with foreign investors, have a transparent system of rating, applied to all categories of assets. Implementation of Basel II specific norms in the Republic of Moldova needs an early adapting of the national banking system to them. First, the national banking system, through the authorities and credit institutions decision-making bodies must be aware of the provisions of the new agreement. It also requires a deep evaluation of the current stage of development of the banking system and, last but not least, to configure and to implement a coherent set of measures for adapting the domestic banking system to allow future implementation of Basel II.

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FINANE / FINANCE Bibliografie/Bibliography Bank of International Settlements, Basel III: A global regulatory framework for more resilient banks and banking systems. Basel Committee. Switzerland, December 2010 (rev June 2011). 2. Bank of International Settlements, International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital Standards a Revised Framework. Basel Committee. Switzerland, June 2004, www.bis.org. 3. Bank of International Settlements. Operational Risk Transfer across Financial Sectors. Basel Committee. Switzerland, August 2003. 4. Georgescu F. BASEL II REDEFINIREA STRATEGIILOR// A 8-a ediie a conferinelor organizate de FINMEDIA n colaborare cu Institutul Bancar Romn, 2009. 5. Bank of International Settlements, Basel Core principles Methodology. Basel Committee, Switzerland, October 2006. 6. DEDU Roxana NECHIF. Gestiunea riscurilor bancare prin prisma acordului Basel I.// Economie teoretic i aplicat, Bucureti: ASE,Volumul XVII (2010), No. 2(543), p. 90 7. Bank of International Settlements. Basel II: International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital Standards: A Revised Framework Comprehensive Version. Basel Committee. Switzerland, June 2006. 8. Isarescu M. Piaa creditului din Romnia i reglementrile noului Acord Basel II// Seminarul ntitulat Activitile de creditare i management al riscurilor n contextul Basel II, 2007. 9. Lzrescu S. Noul Acord de la Basel prezentare de ansamblu// Tribuna Economic, nr. 21, 2005. 10. Directive 2006/49/CE of the European Parliament and of the Council on the capital adequacy of investment firms and credit institutions (recast), Official Journal of the European Union L 177/30.06.2006. 11. EU Directive ( 93/6/EEC ) on the Capital Adequacy of Investment Firms and Credit Institutions (CAD I), DIRECTIVES THE 98/31/EC AND 98/33/EC, ON THE CAPITAL ADEQUACY OF INVESTMENT FIRMS AND CREDIT INSTITUTIONS (CAD II). 12. Tanasa A.; Dautais, Y. Basel II contributes to the changing face of central and eastern Europe// Credit Risk International, Mai 2004. 1.

METODELE I MECANISMELE MBUNTIRII SISTEMULUI ASIGURRILOR FACULTATIVE DE ACORDARE A AJUTORULUI MEDICAL I CORELAREA ACESTUIA CU SISTEMUL ASIGURRILOR MEDICALE OBLIGATORII

THE METHODS AND MECHANISMS OF IMPROVING THE SYSTEM OF OPTIONAL INSURANCES OF MEDICAL AID AND ITS CORRELATION WITH THE MANDATORY HEALTH INSURANCE SYSTEM

Senior Lect., PhD candidate Oxana MIRON, USC B.P.Hasdeu Lect. sup. USC B.P.Hasdeu, Oxana MIRON, drd. ASEM

Veniturile mici ale populaiei Republicii Moldova i situaia nestabil a ntreprinderilor, caracterul aleatoriu al evenimentelor n domeniul economic i politic limiteaz dezvoltarea asigurrilor medicale facultative. nc un motiv important de neatractivitate a asigurrilor medicale facultative poate fi i implementarea i rspndirea larg a asigurrii medicale obligatorii. Pentru creterea stabil a prii asigurrilor medicale facultative n R. Moldova sunt necesare unele msuri radicale.

Low income of the population of Moldova, the unstable situation of enterprises, the randomness of events in the economic and political development limit the voluntary medical insurance development. Another important reason may be the implementation and wide spread of compulsory/mandatory medical insurance. In order to have a stable increase of voluntary health insurance in Moldova radical measures are needed. Optional medical insurance at present, unfortunately, is one of the less requested type of optional insurance and differs from the optional

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FINANE / FINANCE Asigurarea medical facultativ, la etapa actual, cu prere de ru, este unul din cele mai slab solicitate tipuri de asigurare facultativ i difer de asigurarea medical facultativ din rile dezvoltate, populaia crora se caracterizeaz prin capacitate nalt de plat. Veniturile mici ale populaiei R. Moldova, instabilitatea financiar, imprevizibilitatea evenimentelor n domeniul politic i economic stopeaz dezvoltarea asigurrilor medicale facultative. Aceasta se extinde, n special, asupra persoanelor fizice i juridice, care obin venituri destul de mari. Un motiv, nu mai puin important, pentru care asigurrile medicale facultative sunt neatrgtoare, este implementarea i rspndirea larg a serviciilor de asigurare medical obligatorie. Sistemul asigurrilor medicale obligatorii a inclus, practic, toate instituiile medicale de stat i o parte din clinicile private. Din aceste motive, argumentul principal n folosul procurrii poliei de asigurare medical facultativ servicii medicale de calitate ntr-o clinic privat, real nu este eficient din cauza numrului mic de astfel de instituii medicale, n special la nivel raional. Pe plan financiar se observ nedorina asiguratului de a procura o asigurare medical suplimentar pentru deservirea n spitalele raionale sau n centrele medicilor de familie, dac el, practic, beneficiaz de aceleai servicii medicale conform poliei de asigurare medical obligatorie. Dezvoltarea i creterea serviciilor de asigurare medical facultativ sunt strns legate de mbuntirea continu a calitii serviciilor medicale i creterea numrului de instituii medicale ce presteaz aceste servicii. Contradicia de baz a situaiei actuale n domeniul asigurrii medicale este nivelul redus al capacitii de plat a populaiei i riscul nalt de apariie a necesitii cheltuielilor suplimentare pentru tratament, care nu se includ n programul unic al asigurrii medicale obligatorii. Astfel, un cetean al Republicii Moldova cu venituri medii va fi nevoit anual s achite o sum de bani instituiilor medicale i farmaciilor pentru ntreinerea sntii sale. n aceast situaie, companiile de asigurri ofer populaiei o schem clasic a asigurrii medicale facultative, dar care nu prea este solicitat pe piaa asigurrilor. Pentru nelegerea esenei modificrilor propuse de autor, este necesar a analiza relaiile clasice dintre participanii la asigurarea medical facultativ, ce sunt prezentate n urmtoarea schem: medical insurance from the developed countries, where the population is characterized by high capacity of payment. Low incomes of the Republic of Moldovas population, the financial instability, the unpredictability of political and economic events reduce the development of the optional medical insurances. It is spreading, especially, on physical and juridical persons who have high enough income. Another reason, not less important, why the optional medical insurance became unattractive, is because of the implementation and spreading of the mandatory medical insurance services. The mandatory medical insurances system has included almost all the public medical institutions and some of the private clinics. That is why, the main argument in favor of purchasing the optional medical insurance policy high quality medical services in a private clinic, is not efficient anymore, because of the few private centers, especially in districts. At financial level it is being noticed the unwillingness of the insured person to purchase an additional medical insurance for being served in district hospitals, family doctors centers, if he basically, beneficiates of the same medical services due to the mandatory medical insurance. The development and growth of optional medical insurance services is closely related to continuous improvement of medical services quality and increase in the number of medical institutions that would provide these services. The basic contradiction in the current health insurance situation is the low payment capacity of population and the high risk of developing additional costs needed for treatment and not included in the unique program of the mandatory medical insurance. Thus, a Moldovan who has got a national average income will have to pay an annual amount of money to medical institutions and pharmacies in order to maintain his health. In this situation, insurance companies offer people a classical scheme of optional medical insurance, but it is not so required in the insurance market. For full service changes proposed by the author it is necessary to analyze the classical relations between participants in optional health insurance, which are presented in the following scheme:

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Corelaia dintre participanii la asigurarea medical facultativ (varianta clasic)/ Correlation between the participants in optional medical insurance (classic version) Asiguratul (persoana fizic sau juridic)/ Insurer (physical orjuridical person)

Apariia riscului/ Appearance of the risk

Instituia medical/ Medical institution

ncheierea contractului de asigurare/ Closing the insurance contract Compania de asigurri/ Insurance company

ncheierea contractului de deservire/ Closing the serving contract

Figura 1. Schema clasic de corelare dintre participanii asigurrii medicale facultative/ Figure 1. The clasical scheme of correlation between the participants of the optional medical insurance Sursa: elaborat de autor/ Source: elaborated by the author Conform schemei prezentate, persoana fizic sau juridic ncheie un contract de asigurare cu compania de asigurri, achit primele de asigurare, dar n cazul apariiei riscului (de exemplu, mbolnvire) se adreseaz instituiei medicale. Instituia medical dat are contract cu compania de asigurri, conform cruia deservete gratis persoanele asigurate de compania respectiv. Ulterior, compania de asigurri despgubete instituiei medicale costul tratamentului persoanei asigurate. Astfel, asigurtorul, achitnd prime de asigurare destul de mici, are posibilitatea, n caz de necesitate, s primeasc servicii i ajutor medical n mrimea sumei asigurate, stipulate n contractul de asigurare. Instituia medical, n limitele acestei sume, are posibilitatea de acordare a unui spectru mai larg de servicii medicale, altele dect cele specificate n programul unic al asigurrii medicale obligatorii, cu compensarea ulterioar a costului lor companiei de asigurri. Asigurtorii, la rndul su, mrind numrul persoanelor asigurate, majoreaz fondurile i pot presta un spectru mai larg de servicii de asigurare medical facultativ. Dar, n condiiile Republicii Moldova, schema dat este ineficient, deoarece existena asigurrii medicale obligatorii, numrului redus de clinici private i capacitii de pia redus a populaiei conduc la zero toate prioritile unei asigurri clasice. n acest caz, sistemul naional de finanare a ocrotirii sntii trebuie s preia experiena altor ri dezvoltate n organizarea acestui sistem, cu adaptarea ei la situaia economic i social a R. Moldova. Cel mai optimal, n situaia creat, poate fi studierea i implementarea experienei Franei i Germaniei. 86 According to the scheme, the physical or legal person concludes a contract of insurance with the insurance company, pays the premiums, but in case the event risk takes place (eg. getting sick) he/she addresses to the medical institution. That medical institution has a contract with the insurance company, which serves for free the persons insured by that company. Subsequently, the insurance company compensates to the medical institution the cost of treatment. Thus, the insurer, paying relatively low insurance premiums, may, if necessary, receive medical services in concordance with the sum insured, the amount stipulated in the contract of insurance. Medical institution within this amount, is able to give a broader spectrum of medical services other than those specified in the unique program of mandatory medical insurance, with the future compensation of the cost by their insurance company. Insurers, in turn, increasing the number of insured persons, increase funding and provide a wider range of optional health insurance services. But in the Republic of Moldova, the scheme is inefficient, because of the existence of mandatory medical insurance, the small number of private clinics and low market capacity of the population leading to zero all the priorities of traditional insurance. In this case, the national system of financing health care must take the experience of other developed countries in organizing the system and adapting it to the economic and social situation in Moldova. The optimal in this situation may be studying and implementing the experience of France and Germany. In France, as described above, in the health care

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FINANE / FINANCE n Frana, cum a fost descris anterior, n sistemul finanrii ocrotirii sntii este prezent combinarea achitrii serviciilor medicale prin asigurarea medical facultativ i asigurarea medical obligatorie, aa cum societatea de asigurare acoper costul serviciilor medicale, care nu se includ n polia de asigurare medical obligatorie. Astfel, asigurarea medical facultativ exist ca o anex la asigurarea medical obligatorie. Pornind de la experiena achitrii serviciilor medicale n Frana, se propune drept una din posibilele variante de mbuntire a finanrii ocrotirii sntii naionale o combinaie de sisteme ale asigurrii medicale obligatorii i facultative. Acest proces este reflectat n figura 2. financing system it is present the combining of medical services paid by voluntary/optional health insurance and compulsory/mandatory health insurance as the insurance company covers the cost of medical services that are not included in the mandatory health insurance policy. Thus, the voluntary health insurance is a supplement to the compulsory medical insurance. Proceeding from the experience of paid medical services in France, it is proposed one of the possible options for improving national health care funding a combination of compulsory medical insurance and voluntary medical insurance systems. This process is refleted in figure 2.

Corelarea sistemelor de asigurare medical facultativ i asigurare medical obligatorie n Republica Moldova (proiect)/ Correlation of the optional medical insurance systems and the mandatory medical insurance in Republic of Moldova(project) Polia de asigurare medical obligatorie (prime AMO)/ Mandatory medical insurance policy (prime MMI) Asiguratul: pesoana fizic sau juridic / Insured physical or legal person Apariia riscului/ Risk event Instituia medical/ Medical institution Oferirea serviciilor medicale n limitele programului unic de asigurare medical obligatorie;/ Offering of services within the unique program of the mandatory medical insurance; Oferirea serviciilor medicale n limitele programelor de asigurare medical facultativ;/ Offering of medical services within the program of voluntary/optional medical insurance; Agenia teritorial Compania Naional de Asigurri n Medicin/ The territorial agency The National Health Insurance

Polia de asigurare medical facultativ (prime AMF) / Optional medical insurance (prime VMI)

Compania de asigurri/ Insurance company

Figura 2. Combinarea sistemelor de asigurare medical obligatorie i asigurare medical facultativ (corelarea)/ Figure 2. Combining mandatory medical insurance systems with the voluntary medical insurance (correlation) Sursa: elaborat de autor/ Source: elaborated by the author Conform schemei propuse, orice persoan fizic sau juridic, ce achit prima la asigurarea medical obligatorie, poate, n acelai timp, s ncheie i un contract de asigurare medical facultativ la o companie de asigurri, care are acord cu instituiile medicale de prestare a serviciilor medicale persoanelor asigurate. n acest caz, persoanele asigurate achit att prime de asigurare obligatorie, ct i prime de asigurare facultativ, dispunnd de dou polie de asigurare medical. La solicitare, n instituia medical, pacientul are posibilitatea s primeasc tratament n limitele programului unic de asigurri medicale obligatorii, dar i Under the proposed scheme, any physical or legal person, who pays the mandatory health insurance premium may at the same time conclude a contract of voluntary health insurance with an insurance company that has agreed with medical institutions to offer medical services to insured persons. In this case the insured pays 2 insurance premiums, the compulsory insurance premium as well as the voluntary insurance premium having two medical insurance policies. On request in the medical institution, the patient is able to receive treatment within the unique mandatory health insurance program, but may request additional 87

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FINANE / FINANCE suplimentar, n limitele sumei de asigurare, conform contractului de asigurare medical facultativ. Instituia medical are posibilitatea de a oferi servicii mai costisitoare i tratament eficient persoanelor care prezint ambele polie. Dup prestarea serviciilor medicale necesare, instituia medical expediaz datele despre serviciile oferite Companiei Naionale de Asigurri n Medicin, care, achitnd costul serviciilor medicale ce se includ n lista programului unic de asigurare medical obligatorie, transmite informaia respectiv companiei de asigurri. Compania de asigurri, verificnd documentele prezentate pentru achitare, transfer instituiei medicale suma rmas necesar pentru achitarea serviciilor medicale ce nu se includ n programul unic de asigurare medical obligatorie. Schema propus de colaborare a sistemelor de asigurare medical obligatorie i asigurare medical facultativ are avantaje i dezavantaje determinate. Drept avantaje putem meniona: lrgirea numrului serviciilor medicale accesibile, care pot fi oferite populaiei; extinderea posibilitilor instituiilor medicale n planul mbuntirii calitii i modernizrii procesului de acordare a ajutorului medical; apariia surselor suplimentare de finanare a sistemului ocrotirii sntii din contul sumelor achitate n limitele contractului de asigurare medical facultativ n vigoare; reducerea poverii financiare a statului i, totodat, mbuntirea strii sntii populaiei republicii. Dar varianta propus de combinare a sistemelor de asigurare medical obligatorie i facultativ are i o serie de neajunsuri: complexitatea limitrii clare a obligaiunilor financiare la achitarea serviciilor medicale; necesitatea ncadrrii n sistemul organizaional al instituiilor medicale a unui specialist independent n achitarea cu Compania Naional de Asigurri n Medicin i cu companiile de asigurri; necesitatea consolidrii controlului intern i extern asupra utilizrii resurselor financiare ale fondurilor de asigurare obligatorie i facultativ. O alt variant a posibilei coordonri dintre asigurarea medical obligatorie i facultativ n domeniul ocrotirii sntii n Republica Moldova poate fi bazat pe experiena Germaniei. Dup cum tim, sistemul naional de asigurare medical obligatorie se aseamn mult cu cea implementat n Germania. ns acolo se utilizeaz pe larg i sistemul asigurrilor medicale facultative. n linii mari, finanarea sistemului ocrotirii sntii german are loc att din contul fondurilor asigurrilor medicale de stat, ct i din cel al companiilor de asigurri. Este necesar de remarcat c asigurarea medical n ara analizat 88 treatment within the limits of the voluntary health insurance, under the contract dee. Medical institution is able to offer more expensive and effective treatment to persons who have both policies. After providing necessary medical services, the medical institution sends the data about the services offered to the National Health Insurance Company, which pays the cost of medical services that are included in the list of the mandatory health insurance program, and sends forward that information to the insurance company. The insurance company, verifies the documents submitted for payment, transfers to the medical institution the remaining amount needed for the medical services that are not included in the mandatory health insurance program. The proposed scheme of collaboration between obligatory medical insurance systems and voluntary health insurance has got advantages and disadvantages determined. As advantages we could mention the followings: expanding the number of accessible health services offered to the population; widening the opportunities of the Medical Institutions in order to modernize and improve the quality of the medical aid process; appearance of additional sources of financing health care system, from the money paid as premiums according to the voluntary health insurance contract in force; reduce the financial burden of state and also improve the health qualityof the populatiion of the republic. But the version proposed to combine the mandatory medical insurance schemes and voluntary health insurance has a number of shortcomings: the complexity of the clearly limit of the financial obligations while paying of health services; the need for employment in the organizational system of medical institutions of an independent expert for the payment of the National Health Insurance Company and insurance companies; the need to strengthen the internal and external control of the use of financial resources from compulsory insurance and voluntary. Another variant of the possible coordination of the mandatory health insurance and voluntary health insurance in health care in Moldova may be based on the experience of Germany. As we know, national health insurance system closely resembles the one implemented in Germany. However, in Germany is widely used voluntary medical insurance system. In general, the financing of health care system in Germany takes place both at the expense of state medical insurance funds and from the account of insurance companies. It should be noted that health

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FINANE / FINANCE este obligatorie pentru toi cetenii, indiferent de tipul companiei de asigurri de stat sau privat. n baza experienei seculare a Germaniei n domeniul finanrii ocrotirii sntii din contul primelor de asigurare, detaliate anterior, autorul propune preluarea unor elemente din sistemul asigurrilor medicale obligatorii i adaptarea lor pentru ncadrarea i implementarea acestora n Republica Moldova. Astfel, schema propus de corelare dintre participanii la asigurri medicale, bazat pe concurena dintre Compania Naional de Asigurri n Medicin i companiile de asigurri, este prezentat n figura 3. insurance in the country is considered mandatory for all citizens, irrespective of the insurance company, state or private. Based on the experience of Germany in the financing of health care at the expense of insurance premiums, detailed above, the author suggests taking over some elements of mandatory medical insurance system and adapt them for implementation in Moldova. Thus, the scheme of correlation proposed by the participants in medical insurance, based on competition among National Health Insurance Company and insurance companies can be presented in the figure 3.

Concurena sistemelor de asigurare medical facultativ i asigurare medical obligatorie (proiect)/ Competition of voluntary health insurance and mandatory medical insurance systems (project) Polia AMF ncasri AMF / VMI policy Proceeds VMI Asigurat: persoana fizic sau juridic / Insured: physical or legal person Agenia teritorial CNAM/ Territorial Agency NHIC Instituia medical Oferirea serviciilor medicale conform Programului Unic de AMO/ Medical Institution Providing medical services under the unique program of MMI

Apariia riscului/ Risk appearance

Asigurat: persoana fizic sau juridic / Insured: physical o rlegal person

Apariia riscului/ Risk appearance

Instituia medical Oferirea serviciilor medicale n limitele programului AMF/ Medical Institution Providing medical services under the unique program of VMI Compania de asigurri/ Insurance company

Polia AMF ncasri AMF/ VMI policy Proceeds VMI

Figura 3. Combinarea sistemelor de asigurare medical obligatorie i asigurare medical facultativ (concurena)/ Figure 3. Combining the systems of mandatory medical insurance (MMI) and voluntary medical insurance(VMI) [competition] Sursa: elaborat de autor/ Source: elaborated by the author Conform schemei prezentate de corelare a instituiilor medicale, persoanelor asigurare, ageniilor teritoriale i companiilor de asigurri, bazat pe concuren, va aprea diferenierea clar de utilizare a polielor de asigurare medical obligatorie i asigurare medical facultativ. Utilizarea n practic a acestui model poate nclca principiul solidaritii caracteristic sistemului social al asigurrilor medicale. ns acest fapt poate fi parial modificat, oblignd companiile de asigurri s includ n programul de asigurare medical lista minimal de servicii According to the scheme of correlation of medical institutions, insured people, local agencies and insurance companies, based on competition, will defend the obvious difference of using mandatory health insurance policy and voluntary health insurance. Using this model into practice may violate the principle of solidarity characteristic to the social system of health insurance. But this may be partially changed, forcing insurance companies to include in the health insurance program the minimum list of health 89

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FINANE / FINANCE medicale, specificate n programul unic de asigurri medicale obligatorii. Astfel i cumprtorul poliei de la agenia teritorial i asiguratul companiei de asigurri vor beneficia de minimul necesar de servicii medicale la apariia riscului. Un avantaj principal al poliei de asigurare medical de stat este costul acesteia, destul de mic i accesibil pentru toi cetenii republicii. Avantajul aceleai polie de asigurare medical propuse de o companie de asigurri poate fi un spectrul mai larg de posibiliti de primire a serviciilor medicale calitative, dar achitnd o prim mai mare. Astfel populaia are posibilitatea de a alege numrul i calitatea serviciilor medicale n funcie de starea sntii i posibilitile financiare ale fiecruia. n acelai timp, obligativitatea cetenilor de a deine polia de asigurare medical i includerea n programul unic de asigurare, aprobat n Republica Moldova, va permite statului s asigure nivelul ridicat al serviciilor medicale i ca rezultat nsntoirea populaiei. Dezavantajele schemei propuse de combinare a asigurrilor medicale obligatorii i cele facultative pot fi considerate: nclcarea principiului solidaritii dintre cei bogai i cei sraci; fluxul ncasrilor financiare n fondurile Companiei Naionale de Asigurri n Medicin; creterea dificultilor n gestiunea i controlul asupra fluxurilor financiare dintre instituiile medicale, persoanele asigurate i asigurtorii de stat sau privai. Dar neajunsurile enumerate mai sus pot fi compensate prin: cuprinderea total a populaiei prin asigurri medicale i oferirea ajutorului medical necesar; finanarea suplimentar a instituiilor medicale din contul contractelor ncheiate cu companiile de asigurri, de oferire a ajutorului medical mai costisitor; mbuntirea calitii programelor propuse de asigurare medical ca urmare a concurenei dintre ageniile teritoriale ale Companiei Naionale de Asigurri n Medicin i companiile de asigurri; limitarea susinerii financiare din partea statului numai a pturilor vulnerabile ale societii; perfecionarea deservirii medicale i modernizarea bazei tehnico-materiale a instituiilor medicale; economisirea resurselor bugetare ale statului prin implementarea n piaa asigurrilor medicale a capitalului propriu. Orice schem propus de autor de modificare a procesului organizrii, gestiunii i finanrii instituiilor medicale prin intermediul mecanismului asigurrilor medicale, obligatorii i facultative, va permite mbuntirea nivelului finanrii sistemului ocrotirii sntii i prestarea serviciilor medicale mai moderne i mai calitative populaiei. services specified in the mandatory health insurance unique program. Thus, the buyer of the policy from the territorial agency and the policy-holder will receive the minimum necessary health care to the appearance of the risk. A main advantage of the state medical insurance is the quite low cost that makes it affordable for all citizens of the republic. The advantage of the same health insurance policy offered by an insurance company may be wider spectrum of opportunities to receive higher quality of medical services, but paying a higher premium. In this way, the population has the possibility to choose the number and the quality of health care depending on their health and financial possibilities. At the same time, the obligation of citizens to have health insurance policy and incorporate the unique insurance program approved in Moldova, will allow the state to ensure a higher level of medical services and as a result have a healthier population. Disadvantages of the proposed scheme of combining compulsory and voluntary health insurance may be considered: violation of the principle of solidarity between the rich and the poor; financial revenue flow of the National Health Insurance Company funds; increasing the difficulties in the management and control of financial flows between health care institutions, the insured and insurers, public or private. The shortcomings listed above can be compensatedt by: total population coverage by medical insurance and providing of necessary medical aid; additional financing of medical institutions from the account of contracts with insurance companies, offering a more expensive medical aid; increasing the quality of healthinsurance programs proposed as a result of competition between local agencies of the National Health Insurance Company and insurance companies; limiting financial support from the state oonly for the vulnerable members of the society; improvement of medical servicing and modernization of technical equipment of medical institutions; savings of the state budget resources by implementing in the health insurance market equity. Any scheme proposed by the author, on changing the process of organization, management and financing of medical institutions through the mechanism of health insurance, mandatory and voluntary, will enhance the level of funding health care system and providing more modern and higher quality health services to the population.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Referine/ References Busse, R.; Riesberg, A. Health care systems in transition: Germany. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe on behalf of the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, 2004. Ellet, Stefanie. . . . , . : , 2009, 64 . Ciurel, V., Asigurri i reasigurri: Abordri teoretice i practici internaionale. Bucureti: AII Beck, 2000. Fotescu, S. Particularitile gestionrii asigurrilor. Economica. 2000, nr.2, p.131-137. Fotescu, S. Eficiena asigurrilor n Republica Moldova: Monografie. Chiinu: Editura ASEM, 2001, 98p. Sander, S.; Paris, V.; Polton, D. Health care systems in transition: France. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe on behalf of the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, 2004.

MODELE DE FINANARE A NVMNTULUI UNIVERSITAR N UNELE RI EUROPENE


Lect. sup. drd. Ala CRECIUN, ASEM
Prezentul articol ne ofer anumite reflecii vis--vis de specificul finanrii sistemului de nvmnt superior european n strintate. Managementul financiar universitar este caracterizat prin mecanismul mixt de finanare public-privat i existena unei mari varieti de metode de determinare i de alocare a sumelor cuvenite instituiilor de nvmnt superior. n condiiile actuale de dezvoltare socialeconomic, instituia de nvmnt superior devine resurs instituional absolut indispensabil economiei pentru construirea societii bazate pe cunoatere i realizarea obiectivelor de redefinire a fundamentelor competitivitii, iar dezvoltarea nvmntului apare ca o cerin a progresului de ansamblu a societii. Investiiile n educaie, cu precdere n cea superioar, au solicitat i sau realizat dintotdeauna cu un consum important de resurse financiare. Asigurarea resurselor de finanare reprezint, pentru sistemul de nvmnt, un aspect de o importan vital n realizarea obiectivelor i a misiunilor economico-sociale cu care instituiile de nvmnt sunt investite. Fr o susinere financiar corespunztoare, acestea sunt imposibil sau foarte greu de atins. nvmntul superior, n decursul existenei sale, a primit resurse financiare de la stat, de la comunitile locale, de la firmele private, de la persoanele fizice etc. n acest context, considerm c gradul de profitabilitate i eficien a nvmntului superior este reflectat de capacitatea unei instituii de nvmnt superior de a-i asigura fondurile necesare acoperirii cheltuielilor n mod continuu, fr a se afecta procesul de nvmnt i

PATTERNS OF FUNDING UNIVERSITY EDUCATION IN SOME EUROPEAN COUNTRIES


Senior Lect., PhD candidate Ala CRECIUN, AESM
The article highlights certain reflections on the peculiarities of the funding of higher education system. University financial management is characterized by the mixed mechanism of government-private funding and the availability of a wide range of methods of identifying and allocating the sums of money to higher education institutions. Under present conditions of social and economic development, a higher education institution becomes an institutional source necessary for the economy in order to build up a society based on knowledge and accomplishment of objectives of redefining the fundamentals of competitiveness. The development of education is a requirement for the overall progress of society. Investments in education, especially in the higher one, have required and have always been made by consuming financial resources. Providing financial resources for the educational system is a crucial aspect for achieving the objectives and accomplishing the economic and social missions that educational institutions have. Without the necessary financial support it is impossible or very hard to accomplish them. Higher education, since its existence has received financial resources from the government, local communities, private firms, natural persons, etc. In this context, we think that the level of profitability and efficiency of higher education is reflected by the capacity of a higher education institution to continually ensure funds for covering expenses without affecting 91

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FINANE / FINANCE respectarea standardelor de calitate, impuse de imperativele perioadei de dezvoltare a societii. Suportul financiar de la bugetul de stat nu mai este suficient, nici mcar n rile dezvoltate, pentru a susine educaia unui numr att de mare de studeni. Provocarea adresat, n acest context, universitilor este de a gsi surse alternative de finanare, n primul rnd din sectorul privat, care s ofere fonduri de care instituiile de nvmnt superior s dispun n mod autonom, n funcie de cerine. Este vorba despre acea direcie de transformare n care universitile se adapteaz la cerinele pieei, i anume existena unei baze diversificate de finanare. n aceste condiii complexe i nesigure, universitile sunt obligate s-i modifice interfaa cu mediul, dar, n acelai timp, au datoria s-i menin caracterul de universiti, dominate de valori perene nrdcinate n activitile de cercetare, instruire i dezvoltare. Universitile tradiionale ajung la un punct de rscruce n privina problemelor financiare: fie se menin pasive i suport creteri i descreteri paralele ale fondurilor alocate, urmnd fidel guvernul, stimulentele financiare ale acestuia determinnd reacia universitilor; fie intervin activ prin dezvoltarea unor linii de finanare suplimentare, provenite din surse teriare. Din aceste considerente, etapa actual se caracterizeaz, pe de o parte, prin preocuparea crescnd a instituiilor de nvmnt superior de pretutindeni de a identifica surse alternative de finanare, ca rspuns la diminuarea contribuiei statului la finanarea educaiei superioare, precum i utilizarea ct mai eficient a resurselor disponibile, iar, pe de alt parte, prin utilizarea de ctre guverne pe scar tot mai larg, n dimensionarea alocaiilor destinate nvmntului superior, a formulelor de finanare. Folosirea acestora conduce la reducerea sumelor alocate nvmntului superior, deoarece ele nu mai sunt fundamentate pe costurile istorice ale lui, ci au la baz o serie de criterii, n special de eficien, care ngrdesc accesul liber automat la resursele bugetare. Majoritatea rilor europene urmresc o politic de sprijinire a diversificrii surselor de finanare. Autoritile centrale ncurajeaz instituiile de nvmnt superior s caute noi resurse financiare, precum investiiile companiilor private, contractele de cercetare i alte activiti comerciale, donaii, mprumuturi etc. n majoritatea rilor, instituiile publice de nvmnt superior au voie s perceap taxe de colarizare i, in unele cazuri, au un anumit nivel de autonomie n fixarea sumelor propriu-zise. Aceast politic face parte din msurile destinate promovrii strngerii de fonduri suplimentare i deplasrii unei mari pri din cuantumul financiar ctre utilizatorii universitari. Noul accent asupra contribuiilor studenilor este adesea nsoit de msuri destinate a trata chestiunea accesului egal la nvmntul superior, n special prin micorarea cuantumului financiar impus prin taxele aplicate studenilor i prin lrgirea participrii grupurilor slab reprezentate. Astfel, n Ungaria, a fost planificat faptul ca, ncepnd cu anul academic 2008-2009, taxele de 92 the educational process and complying with the quality standards required by developing society. Financial support from the government budget is not sufficient any more to back up the education of so many students even in developed countries. The challenge of the universities in this context is to find alternative sources of funding, primarily in the private sector, which will offer funds that will be used by universities in an autonomous way and when and how they see it fit. Here we speak about that direction of transformation in which the universities adapt to market requirements, and namely the existence of the diversified base of funding. Under these complex and uncertain conditions the universities are obliged to modify their interface with the environment, but at the same time they have to maintain the characteristics of universities dominated by the longstanding values rooted in research, instruction and development activities. Traditional universities reach crossroads regarding financial problems. Either they stay passive and endure parallel increases and decreases of the allocated funds, following loyally the government whose financial incentives determine the reaction of the universities, or they are active in developing additional funding lines coming from tertiary sources. For this reason, the present stage is characterized on the one hand by the growing concern of the higher education institutions all over the world about identifying alternative sources of funding in response to the diminished government contribution to the funding of higher education as well as using efficiently the available sources, and on the other hand by the governments using on a larger scale funding formulae in gauging the allocations to higher education. The usage of funding formulae leads to the reduction of the sums allocated to higher education, as they are not based any more on historical costs, but rather on a series of criteria that limit free automatic access to budget funds. Most of the European countries follow the policy of supporting the diversification of funding sources. Central authorities encourage higher education institutions to seek new financial resources such as private companies investments, research contracts and other commercial activities, donations, loans, etc. In most countries, public institutions of higher education have the right to charge tuition fees, and in some cases they have a certain level of autonomy in establishing the amount of these fees. This policy is a part of the measures intended to promote the raising of additional funds and allotting a greater part of financial volume to university users. A new emphasis on students fees is usually accompanied by the measures intended to study the issue concerning equal access to higher education, especially by reducing the financial volume of students fees and by increasing the participation of poorly represented groups. Thus, in Hungary, it is planned that starting with the academic year 2008-2009, tuition

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FINANE / FINANCE colarizare pltite de studenii finanai de stat s fie folosite parial pentru granturi studeneti i burse i parial drept fonduri instituionale de dezvoltare. Studenii cu rezultate deosebite i cei cu o situaie social precar au fost scutii de plata taxelor de colarizare. n Slovacia, cel puin 40% din veniturile instituionale provenind din taxe de colarizare au fost folosite pentru burse. n Regatul Unit (Anglia i Irlanda de Nord), instituiile au modificat taxele de colarizare percepute la un maximum de 3000 de lire sterline pe an, ncepnd cu anul universitar 2006/2007. Aceast modificare, care ia n calcul doar pe studenii la zi, deoarece instituiile au perceput ntotdeauna taxe pentru cursurile postuniversitare de la studenii la fr frecven sau cei strini, aceasta fiind nsoit de msuri destinate pstrrii i promovrii accesului egal la nvmntul superior, n special al grupurile sociale cu venituri mici i cele slab reprezentate. Metoda tradiional de finanare n Anglia suferea de pe urma unor insuficiene majore. n primul rnd, ea era neechitabil prin aceea c universitile care furnizau servicii de nvmnt foarte asemntoare primeau sume foarte diferite. n al doilea rnd, metoda tradiional nu reuea s promoveze eficiena, din moment ce alocarea fondurilor pe baza costurilor istorice nu oferea stimulente pentru ca universitile s devin mai eficiente n raport cu costurile. n al treilea rnd, aceast metod mpiedic managementul schimbrii prin faptul c universitile angajate n restructurare sunt nesigure n privina modului n care va fi afectat finanarea lor. Actualmente se aplic o nou metod de finanare, prin care se ncearc depirea insuficienelor modelului tradiional. Dac n modelul tradiional, Consiliul Finanrii nvmntului Superior din Anglia aciona ca o autoritate care aloc sumele i al crui rol este de a canaliza subsidiile statului ctre universiti, n noua metod, Consiliul devine o societate de achiziionare care folosete fondurile publice pentru a cumpra de la furnizori (universitile) servicii educaionale n contul utilizatorilor acestora. n acest context, utilizatorii direci sunt studenii, iar n categoria celor indireci intr ntreprinderile sectorului public sau privat, care obin beneficii de pe urma angajrii ulterioare a studenilor. Elementul-cheie al noii metode este distribuirea fondurilor naionale pe criterii de pre mai degrab dect pe acelea de costuri istorice. Folosind aceast metod, Consiliul Finanrii nvmntului Superior a stabilit un pre standard pentru fiecare din cele patru grupe de profil academic. Preulstandard este echivalentul pe care universitile l vor primi n schimbul furnizrii de servicii de nvmnt pentru un student full-time pe grupa de profil. Acest pre este alctuit din suma taxelor de studiu pltit pentru fiecare student plus contribuia Consiliului Finanrii nvmntului Superior din Anglia. Conform principiilor economiei sociale de pia a Germaniei, autoritile publice sunt, n general, responsabile pentru finanarea nvmntului superior. Urmnd structura federal a rii, finanarea nvmntului este n grad nalt descentralizat, aa nct fees paid by the students funded by the government are to be partially used for grants and scholarships and partially as institutional funds for development. Students with excellent marks and those in a difficult social situation will be exempt from tuition fees. In Slovakia, at least 40% of institutional revenues coming from tuition fees are to be used for scholarships. In the United Kingdom (England and Northern Ireland) the institutions have modified the tuition fees charged at the maximum of 3,000 per year starting with the academic year 2006-2007. This modification, which takes into account only full-time students in the United Kingdom (as the institutions have always charged tuition fees for postgraduate courses, from extra-mural students and foreign students) has been accompanied by the measures intended to preserve and promote equal access to higher education, especially for social groups with low income and those poorly represented. The traditional method of funding in England suffers from major drawbacks. First of all, it was inequitable by the fact that the universities that rendered similar educational services received rather different sums of money. Secondly, the traditional method didnt manage with promoting efficiency, as the allocation of funds based on historical costs didnt provide incentives for the universities to become efficient with regard to costs. Thirdly, this method hinders the modification management, as the universities engaged in restructuring are unsure about the way their funding will be affected. At present there is used a new method of funding which tries to overcome the drawbacks of the traditional method. If in the traditional method, the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) acted as an authority that allocated sums of money and whose role was to allot government subsidies to universities, then in a new method HEFCE becomes an acquisition company that uses government funds to buy from suppliers (universities) educational services in favour of their users. In this context, the direct users are students, and those indirect ones include enterprises of public and private sector that benefit from further employment of students. The key element of the new method is the distribution of national funds centering on the price rather than on historical costs. By using this method, HEFCE has established a standard price for each of the four academic groups. The standard price is an equivalent that the universities will receive in exchange for rendering educational services to a full-time student in a profiled group. This price consists of the amount of students fees plus the funding from HEFCE. According to the principles of social market economy in Germany, the public authorities are generally responsible for funding higher education. Following the federal structure of the country, the funding of education is highly decentralized in such a way that the greatest part of the funding sources comes 93

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FINANE / FINANCE cea mai mare parte a surselor de finanare provin de la cele 16 landuri (peste 70%). Landurile, n virtutea suveranitii lor culturale, sunt acelea care au n grij instituiile de nvmnt superior. n scopul asigurrii standardelor academice similare pentru nvmntul superior, exist o lege-cadru care stipuleaz nu doar aceste standarde, ci i o cofinanare din partea guvernului central, stipulare al crei scop principal este dezvoltarea regional similar a nvmntului superior. Dei majoritatea politicilor naionale europene ncurajeaz n momentul de fa instituiile de nvmnt superior s se bazeze din ce n ce mai mult pe sursele private de finanare, finanarea public direct continu s reprezinte o parte substanial din bugetul nvmntului superior. Consiliul Uniunii Europene, ntr-un Proiect de raport comun al Consiliului si al Comisiei pentru 2008, precizeaz c cheltuielile publice destinate instituiilor din nvmntul superior din UE, inclusiv al educaiei i cercetrii, au reprezentat 1.1% din PIB la nivelul UE-27 n anul 2004. Totalul cheltuielilor rmne, totui, mult sub nivelul nregistrat n Statele Unite. Acest lucru se datoreaz, n mare parte, faptului c nivelul de finanare privat n Statele Unite este de apte ori mai ridicat. Investiiile publice pentru educaie i formare profesional au crescut de la momentul adoptrii strategiei Lisabona i sunt comparabile cu cele din SUA (mai mari dect n Japonia). Bazndu-ne pe un studiu OECD din 2008, putem remarca c Danemarca, Olanda, Slovacia i Suedia au nregistrat cele mai importante creteri ale ponderii cheltuielilor pentru educaie n cheltuielile publice. Cele mai sczute ponderi ale acestor cheltuieli se ntlnesc n Grecia, Italia, Germania i Republica Ceha (sub 10%). Cheltuielile curente au rmas, n linii mari, neschimbate ca pondere n PIB. n Europa, actualmente, persist cteva modele de finanare a instituiilor de nvmnt superior. Conform unui model de acest tip, finanarea instituiilor provine, n principal, din surse publice. Modelul se bazeaz pe presupunerea c reglementarea activitilor operaionale ale instituiilor se face detaliat de ctre autoritile publice, iar respectarea lor este asigurat prin mecanisme precum inspeciile sau formalitile birocratice. Modelul statului care reglementeaz este, n general, prezentat n antitez cu cel al statului care supervizeaz (sau al ndrumrii externe). Conform acestui model, instituiilor li se acord o larg autonomie n diferite domenii. Controlul se manifest prin stabilirea obiectivelor naionale care trebuie respectate de ctre instituii, transparena politicilor instituionale, precum i diferite msuri de responsabilizare pentru instituii i personalul acestora. Se observ fenomenul de ndrumare extern i n influena crescnd a prilor implicate externe, mai ales n cadrul organelor de guvernare a instituiilor. Modelul statului care supervizeaz presupune, deseori, stimularea concurenei dintre instituii. Se 94 from those 16 Land(s) (over 70%), which due to their cultural sovereignty take care of higher education institutions. With a view to ensure similar academic standards for higher education there exists a legal framework that stipulates not only these standards but also the co-funding from the central government, the stipulation whose aim is the similar regional development of higher education. Although most of the European national policies encourage at the moment higher education institutions to increasingly depend on private funding sources, the direct government funding remains to be a substantial part of higher education budget. The Council of the European Union in a Project of common relations between the Council and the Committee for 2008 ascertain that the government expenses intended for the EU higher education institutions, including education and research accounted for 1.1% from GDP at the level of EU-27. The total of expenses remains far below the level registered in the United States. This situation owes to a greater extent to the fact that the level of private funding in the United States is seven times higher. Government investments in education and professional skills training have risen since the time of adopting Lisbon strategy and are comparable to those in the USA (they are higher than in Japan). On the basis of the OECD survey of 2008 we can mention that Denmark, the Netherlands, Slovakia and Sweden registered the most significant increases in the percentage of education expenses from the total amount of government expenses. The smallest percentage of these expenses is in Greece, Italy, Germany and the Czech Republic (under 10%). Current expenses remained generally unchanged as a percentage from GDP. At present in Europe there are several patterns of funding higher education institutions. According to one of these patterns the institutions funding comes mainly from government sources. The pattern is based on the assumption that the regulation of the operating activities of the institutions is carried out thoroughly by public authorities, and their execution is ensured through the mechanisms such as inspections or bureaucratic formalities. The pattern of the state that regulates is generally presented in opposition to the one of the state that supervises (exterior guidance). According to this pattern, the institutions are given autonomy in different fields. The control is carried out through setting national objectives that have to be followed by the institutions, the transparency of institutional policies, as well as some other measures of making the institutions and their staff bear responsibility. There has been noticed the phenomenon of exterior guidance and the rise in involvement of the parties from exterior with the administrative bodies of the institutions.

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FINANE / FINANCE utilizeaz, de asemenea, trei tipuri principale de guvernare, ndeosebi la nivel instituional. Acestea sunt: modelul de autoguvernare academic; modelul de autoguvernare a conducerii, n care cadrele administrative ale instituiei au competene sporite n materie decizional i de stabilire a obiectivelor; modelul universitar antreprenorial, care presupune surse de finanare diversificate i dezvoltarea de parteneriate cu sectorul privat. Actualmente, nu putem confirma c exist un model ideal de finanare, ci, dimpotriv, diversitatea i complexitatea caracterizeaz fenomenul finanrii nvmntului superior de pretutindeni. Ceea ce este caracteristic, totui, managementului financiar universitar este existena unui mecanism mixt de finanare, cu o repartiie inechitabil a contribuiilor dinte public i privat, n sensul ponderii prea reduse a alocaiilor sectorului privat la finanarea nvmntului superior; existena unei mari varieti de metode de determinare, respectiv de alocare a sumelor cuvenite instituiilor de nvmnt superior din fondurile bugetare, bazate att pe criterii cantitative, ct i pe criterii calitative; creterea veniturilor proprii n ponderea total a veniturilor unei instituii, provenit n special din perceperea de taxe pentru serviciile universitare. n baza celor relatate, devine evident c diversitatea situaiilor din Europa prezint diferite aspecte din fiecare dintre aceste modele. Acestea sunt, deci, influenate i de reliefarea unor situaii naionale care se nscriu mai clar intr-un dintre modele. n acest context, dac este s ne referim la experiena Republicii Moldova n domeniu, trebuie s menionm c managementul financiar la nivelul instituiilor de nvmnt au aprut i s-a dezvoltat n perioada tranziiei, fiind o consecin direct a aciunii unui complex de factori, din care decisivi au fost: procesul de restructurare a nvmntului superior i reducerea treptat a finanrii bugetare; amplificarea concurenei, chiar n interiorul sistemului nvmntului superior de stat, orientarea tot mai pregnant a proceselor instructiveducative i de cercetare ctre satisfacerea cerinelor unui mediu economico-social tot mai globalizat. Dac n anul 1997, n R. Moldova funcionau 25 de instituii de nvmnt superior, finanare de la bugetul de stat, apoi n anul 2003 numrul lor a crescut, ajungnd la 34. ns, ncepnd cu anul 2004 pn n anul 2010, numrul lor a sczut, ajungnd pn la 11 instituii respective finanate de la bugetul de stat (vezi figura 1). Putem meniona c, n ultimii ani, se contientizeaz tot mai mult necesitatea unor schimbri n nvmntul superior, dar, n acelai timp se manifest i o anumit rezisten i rezerve fa de schimbare att din partea structurilor administrative, ct i a instituiilor de nvmnt superior. Resursele financiare, necesare finanrii nvmntului superior public, se formeaz reieind din structura i destinaia cheltuielilor pentru nvmnt, care, conform clasificaiei bugetare, includ cheltuieli curente i capitale. Cheltuielile curente constituie retribuirea muncii i contribuiile pentru cadrele The pattern of the state that supervises usually implies the promotion of competition between institutions. There are also used three main types of governance, especially at the institutional level. These are: academic self-governance pattern; the pattern of the self-governance of management, in which the managerial staff of the institution has a high level of competence in decision-making and setting the objectives; entrepreneurial university pattern, which implies diversified sources of funding and going into partnerships with private sector. At the moment we cannot confirm that there is an ideal funding pattern, but we can say that this is the diversity and complexity that characterize the phenomenon of funding higher education all over the world. What characterizes the university financial management is the existence of the mixed mechanism of funding with the inequitable ratio of government to private funds, meaning that the percentage of private funds is too low in funding higher education; the existence of a wide range of methods of identifying and allocating sums of money to higher education institutions from budget funds based both on quantitative and qualitative criteria; the rise in direct receipts from the total amount of the institution revenues generated from charging educational fees. On the basis of the above-mentioned it is obvious that the diversity of situations in Europe presents different aspects from each of these patterns. These are also influenced by the emphasis of some national situations that clearly fit one of the patterns. In this context, if we are going to refer to the experience of the Republic of Moldova in this sphere, we have to mention that the financial management at the level of educational institutions appeared and developed during the period of transition as a consequence of such decisive factors as: the restructuring process of higher education and gradual reduction of budget funding; promotion of competition even within the public higher education, more obvious orientation of instructive and educational and research processes to meeting the requirements of a more globalized social and economic environment. If in 1997 in the Republic of Moldova there functioned 25 higher education institutions funded from the government budget, then in 2003 their number went up and reached 34. However, from 2004 to 2010 their number went down reaching 11 institutions funded from the government budget (see figure 1). Over the last years it has been recognized the greater need for the changes in higher education, but at the same time the administrative authorities and higher education institutions put up a resistance and display alertness to the change. Financial resources necessary for funding public higher education are accumulated on the basis of the structure and destination of education expenses, which according to the budget classification include current and capital expenses. Current expenses comprise remuneration of labour and 95

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FINANE / FINANCE didactice, auxiliare i de conducere; cheltuielile pentru procurarea bunurilor materiale; cheltuielile administrative i gospodreti (energia electric i termic, gaz, rechizite de birou .a.); burse; deplasri etc. Cheltuielile capitale reprezint cheltuieli pentru construcia blocurilor de studii i auxiliare, procurarea utilajului i a mijloacelor de transport, a mobilierului i utilajului, construcia de terenuri sportive i a cminelor studeneti etc. Odat cu introducerea sistemului trezorerial de dirijare a bugetului public naional, s-a schimbat radical i modalitatea de finanare a executorilor de bugete, precum i direciile de circulaie a mijloacelor bneti din finanri. payments to teaching staff, auxiliary and management staff; expenses for buying material goods; administrative expenses and utilities (electricity, heating, gas, stationeries and others); scholarships, business trips, etc. Capital expenses represent the expenses for building blocks for studies and auxiliary ones, the purchase of equipment and of means of transport, furniture and appliances, building sports grounds and student hostels, etc. Once there was introduced the treasury system of managing the National Public Budget, the budget executors changed their way of funding and the directions of cash flow from funding also changed.

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010

Series1

Figura 1.Instituii de nvmnt superior finanate de la bugetul de stat/ Figure 1. Higher Education Istitutions Funded from the Government Budget Sursa: Ministerul Finanelor, Departamentul Finanarea nvmntului./ Source: Ministry of Finance, Department of Education Funding. n atitudinea fa de reforma nvmntului superior se contureaz dou tendine extreme: 1) dei statul pledeaz prin actele sale de guvernare pentru autonomie universitar, totui persist nc un management centralizat, n care deciziile importante se iau la nivel central, iar universitilor le revine rolul de a le aplica; 2) universitile se pronun pentru un management descentralizat, bazat pe autonomia universitar nelimitat. Niciuna din aceste poziii nu a atins acel prag de credibilitate care s le demonstreze prioritatea. Autonomia universitar stipulat n actele guvernamentale nc nu a devenit o realitate. Instituiile de nvmnt superior nu dispun de experiena necesar funcionrii autonome n condiiile aplicrii unor politici universitare eficiente. Totui, trebuie s recunoatem c, n ultimii ani, sau diversificat sursele de finanare i s-au introdus unele modificri n mecanismele de finanare ale instituiilor de nvmnt superior. Cu toate acestea, nu se pot ignora astfel de tendine negative ca scderea finanrii reale a nvmntului superior, lipsa de fonduri pentru acoperirea cheltuielilor materiale curente, reparaii i ntreinere etc. 96 As a reaction to the higher education reform there are outlined two extreme tendencies: 1) though the government is pleading through its governing acts for university autonomy, there still exists the centralized management in which the important decisions are taken at the central level and the universities have just to apply them; 2) the universities declare for the decentralized management based on unlimited university autonomy. None of these positions reached that level of credibility that can demonstrate priority. University autonomy stipulated in governing acts hasnt become a reality yet. Higher education institutions lack experience necessary for autonomous functioning in conditions of applying efficient university policies. However, we have to recognize that over the last years the funding sources have been diversified and there have been introduced some modifications in the mechanisms of funding higher education institutions. At the same time we cannot disregard such negative tendencies as the reduction of real funding of higher education, lack of funds for covering current material

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FINANE / FINANCE Instituiile de nvmnt superior nu dispun de mecanisme adecvate de colectare de noi fonduri i de gestionare eficient a acestora. Caracteristica actual reprezint o stagnare; dac nu, de cele mai multe ori, o reducere a fondurilor bugetare alocate instituiilor de nvmnt superior grefate, pe de o parte, de declinul economiei mondiale, iar, pe de alt parte, de declinarea de ctre stat a calitii sale de beneficiar unic al serviciilor nvmntului. Actualmente sunt necesare i oportune un ir de msuri care sunt menite att s elimine starea de subfinanare a nvmntului superior, iar, ct i s diversifice sursele de finanare, s aplice criterii stricte de promovare a justiiei sociale pentru studeni, concomitent cu stimularea inovaiilor competitive. Se impune cu vehemen gestionarea fondurilor alocate de la buget sau obinute din alte surse, care, n ultim instan, se va reflecta n creterea eficienei folosirii resurselor pentru a asigura ndeplinirea urmtoarelor prerogative: diversificarea transparent a surselor de finanare; efectuarea unui control financiar riguros i eficient prin implementarea unui sistem de audit intern; descentralizarea fondurilor i controlului asupra acestui proces; elaborarea unor politici financiare de ncurajare i stabilizare a personalului tnr etc. n final, putem concluziona c managementul financiar universitar are drept obiectiv major utilizarea acelor mecanisme prin care se realizeaz creterea eficienei n identificarea, mobilizarea i alocarea resurselor de finanare. Managementul financiar performant n domeniul nvmntului superior trebuie s instituie msuri de ncurajare a acelor aciuni menite s duc la o utilizare eficient a resurselor alocate, s acorde autonomie n utilizarea resurselor financiare i s identifice ci de diversificare a resurselor de finanare pentru nvmnt. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. expenses, for reparation and maintenance, etc. Higher education institutions lack adequate mechanisms of raising new funds and managing them efficiently. The present characteristic is represented by stagnation, and if not, then by a reduction of budget funds allotted to higher education institutions sparked on the one hand by the world economy decline, and on the other hand by the denial of the government to be the only beneficiary of educational services. At present there is a need for measures that on the one hand will eliminate the state of underfunding higher education, and on the other hand will diversify funding sources and will apply stringent criteria of promoting social justice for students by stimulating meanwhile competitive innovations. There is insistently imposed the management of funds generated from the budget and other sources, which finally will be reflected in the rise of efficiency in using the resources for ensuring the accomplishing of the following prerogatives: transparent diversification of funding sources; carrying out a strict and efficient financial control by implementing internal auditing system; decentralization of funds and of the control over this process; adopting financial policies on encouraging and stabilizing the situation of the young staff. To sum up, we can conclude that the university financial management has as its major objective the usage of those mechanisms through which there rises efficiency in identifying, raising and allocating funding resources. The efficient financial management within higher education is to provide measures of encouraging those activities that lead to the efficient usage of allotted resources, give autonomy in using financial resources and identify ways of diversification of funding resources for education.

Bibliografie/ Bibliography Brtianu, C., Lefter, V. Management strategic universitar, Editura Rao, Bucureti, 2001. Clark R. Crearea universitilor antreprenoriale: direcii de transformare organizaional, Ed. Pleiade, Bucureti, 2000. Poll, P. (). Regards croises sur le management international des universites et des entreprises, Conference des Presidents dUniversites, Nantes, 15-17 martie, 2006. http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/education/policies/2010/lisbon_en.html. http://eacea.ec.europa.eu.

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97

CONTABILITATE / ACCOUNTING

IMAGINEA IDENTIFICAT A PROFESIEI CONTABILE N SOCIETATE


Prof. univ. dr. Neculai TABR; Drd. Olga PLECO, Universitatea Al.I. Cuza, Iai, Romnia
Contabilitatea reprezint un domeniu greu de perceput de mediul social, deoarece este dificil, cu o interfa pentru asimilare deloc interactiv, iar baza cunotinelor eseniale trebuie s fie solid, pentru a putea face fa nelegerii corecte i aplicrii cu utilitate. Rolul acestui domeniu n economia unei ri este determinant i foarte important, fapt demonstrat de gradul de evoluie al omenirii dup conturarea clar a rolului i limitelor acestuia. Realizrile n domeniul contabil sunt caracterizate simultan de succes i critic negativ. Tentativele de a cerceta ceva din punct de vedere contabil sunt recepionate asemenea lipsei de ocupaie i exces de zel. Din cauza dificultilor sociale ntlnite n activitatea profesional a contabililor, este necesar o incursiune n studiile realizate de diveri cercettori, fapt ce constituie scopul primordial al acestei lucrri, n vederea evidenierii, la nivelul unui eantion aleatoriu, a imaginii percepute a profesiei contabile, respectiv a profesionistului contabil. Cuvinte-cheie: profesie contabil, profesionist contabil, imagine, studiu. Introducere Modificarea continu a evenimentelor i proceselor care au loc n lume transform oamenii, mediile, profesiile i tendinele. Vina nu este a nimnui, deoarece este cu certitudine normal evoluia n toate domeniile. Aspiraiile omenirii devin fie fapte reale, fie nerealizri uitate, iar factorii determinani sunt contextul socio-economic n care aspiraiile se manifest, precum i momentul psihologic perceput de intele activitilor. Profesionistul contabil este unul dintre actorii societii n domeniul economic, al crui rol i importan sunt percepute difereniat la nivel mondial, din cauza unor factori preponderent subiectivi. Literatura de specialitate este gazda unor veritabile studii, care au drept scop determinarea imaginii pe care o are n lume profesia contabil, implicit profesionistul contabil. Cercetrile asupra profesionitilor contabili sunt importante pentru nelegerea societii moderne, deoarece acetia au devenit o for economic i social puternic (Cooper i Robson, 2006). Studiile naionale i internaionale arat c impresia general despre contabil este o persoan 98

THE IDENTIFIED IMAGE OF ACCOUNTING PROFESSION IN SOCIETY


Univ. Prof. PhD Neculai TABARA; PhD candidate Olga PLESCO, Al. I. Cuza University, Iasi, Romania
Accounting represents an area difficult to perceive by the social environment, because it is difficult, with an interface for assimilation not quite interactive, and the basis of the essential knowledge must be solid in order to deal with understanding and useful proper application. The role of the field in the economy of countries is conducive and very important, this being demonstrated by the degree of evolution of humanity after clearing up its role and its limits. Developments in the field of accounting are characterized simultaneously by its success and negative criticism. Attempts to investigate something from the point of view of accounting are accepted as lack of occupation and excessive zeal. Because of the social difficulties encountered in the professional activity of accountants there is a need for an insight into the studies made by various researchers, which is the primary aim of this paper in order to identify, for a random sample, which is the image perceived on the accounting profession and on the professional accountant. Key-words: accounting profession, professional accountant, image, study. Introduction The continuous change of events and processes taking place in the world affects people, backgrounds, professions and trends. The fault does not belong to anyone, because development in all areas is definitely normal. The aspirations of humanity are either factual or forgotten failures and those which determine these are the socio-economic climate in which aspirations manifest, and also the psychological period perceived by the target of psychological activities. The professional accountant is one of the actors in the economic society, whose role and importance in the world are perceived differently because of factors largely subjective. Literature in this domain is the host of genuine studies which aim to determine the image that the accounting profession has in the world and thus the professional accountant. Research on professional accountants are important to understand the modern society as they have become a strong social and economic force (Cooper and Robson, 2006). National and international studies show that the general impression about the accountant is that of a person obsessed with numbers, conservative and

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CONTABILITATE / ACCOUNTING obsedat de cifre, prudent i moderat, dar de multe ori lipsit de creativitate i iniiativ. Astfel, se contureaz dou tipuri de imagini ale profesiei contabile: pozitiv i negativ. n diferite ri ale lumii situaia este pe ct de normal, pe att de demoralizatoare pentru succesorii n domeniu. Dar o analiz ntr-o proporie majoritar subiectiv a fiecruia determin identificarea unor argumente susintoare ale prerii, iar credibilitatea lor crete pe msur ce acestea sunt fcute cunoscute prin intermediul literaturii de specialitate. Latura evolutiv a profesiei contabile Tabr (2010) consider c mediul sociopolitic, extern, cultural, juridic, nivelul dezvoltrii economice, sursele de finanare, legtura dintre contabilitate i fiscalitate, precum i inflaia influeneaz importana i competena profesiei contabile ntr-o anumit ar. Aceast idee a fost susinut i demonstrat de-a lungul timpului, noutatea nefiindu-i caracteristic. Se percepe un aspect, oarecum, dramatic n momentul n care se ncearc nvinuirea tuturor factorilor determinani ai evoluiei umane, pentru justificarea imaginii pozitive sau negative a profesiei contabile ntr-o anumit ar. Ajungem n aceast situaie, deoarece percepia negativ a profesiei contabile a oamenilor este uneori deranjabil pentru reprezentanii domeniului, care scriu pentru a convinge de importana i utilitatea acceptrii drept domeniu tiinific creativ, cu perspective de dezvoltare incontestabile, deoarece contabilitatea, asemenea altor arii de cercetare i manifestare pe plan socio-economic, este n continu cretere. Astfel, Holtzman (2004) a demonstrat c evoluia continu a profesiei contabile este un rspuns la probleme majore economico-sociale, care au loc n secolul XXI, schimbarea fiind dramatic de la un rol de contabilitate i pregtire a declaraiilor fiscale la rolul de consultant de management strategic. Profesionistul contabil este identificat i plasat de literatura de specialitate ca membru evolutiv al tiinei, dar i a societii. Aa l identific i Baldvinsdottir, Burns, Nrreklit i Scapens (2009), care au scos n eviden n lucrrile lor de cercetare evoluia social a contabilului, i anume: n perioada 1970-1980 contabilul era o persoan responsabil i raional; ncepnd cu 1990, era un om de aciune instruit, identificnd ntr-o publicaie recent imaginea hedonist a profesionistului contabil. Dar profesionitii contabili au nvat s evite s fac judeci independente despre corectitudine, devenind astfel verificatori de reguli, situaie ce duneaz grav domeniului ca tiin i, n special, ca profesie. Percepia profesiei contabile n lume n Romnia, imaginea profesiei contabile este mprit neproporional n una pozitiv (circa 30%), degajat de practicieni devotai n domeniu i cei care consider activitatea specialitilor contabili notorie pentru evoluia afacerii i alta negativ, afirmat fr moderate, but often lacked of creativity and initiative. Thus, two types of images of the accounting profession are outlined: positive and negative. In different countries the situation is as normal as it is demoralizing for successors in the field. But an analysis in a subjective average proportion of each determines the identification of arguments supporting the belief and their credibility increases as they are made known through literature. The developmental side of the accounting profession Tabara (2010) considers that the socio-political, external, cultural, legal, economic environment, the level of the economic development, the funding sources, the link between accounting and taxation, and the inflation affect the importance and power of the accounting profession in a given country. This idea was presented and demonstrated over time and does not contain any element of novelty. It is perceived a somehow dramatic look when trying to blame all the determinants of human development to justify the positive or negative image of the accounting profession in a given country. We get in this situation because the negative perception of accounting profession of people is sometimes disturbing for the representatives of this field, who are writing to persuade on the importance and usefulness of its scientific acceptance as a creative industry with compelling growth prospects, because the accounts, like other areas of research and socioeconomic manifestation is growing. Thus, Holtzman (2004) demonstrated that the continuous development of the accountancy profession is a response to major economic and social problems that occur in this century, dramatically changing the role of accounting and tax preparation into the role of a strategic management consultant. The professional accountant is identified and placed in the literature as part of evolutionary science and society. So it is identified by Baldvinsdottir, Burns, Nrreklit and Scapens (2009) who have emphasized in their research the social development of the accountant namely: between 1970-1980 the accountant was a responsible and sensible person, beginning with 1990, he was a trained as a man of action, in a recent publication being identified a hedonistic image of the professional accountant. But professional accountants have learned to avoid making independent judgments about fairness, thus becoming checkers of rules, this situation seriously damaging the field as a science and, in particular, as a profession. The perception of the accounting profession in the world In Romania, the image of the accounting profession is divided disproportionately into a positive one (30%) demonstrated by dedicated practitioners in the field and those who consider accounting professionals activity notorious for the evolution of 99

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CONTABILITATE / ACCOUNTING jen de aproximativ 70% din populaia rii. n acest sens, Albu i Albu (2009) au realizat un studiu ce a permis identificarea imaginii profesionistului contabil n Romnia, catalogat drept om de corvoad, precum i stabilirea premiselor schimbrii acesteia n vederea obinerii unei percepii mai favorabile, n special n cadrul membrilor de conducere ai companiilor. Astfel, implementarea unor soluii informatice avansate, tip ERP Entreprise Resourse Planning, precum i aplicarea Standardelor Internaionale de Raportare Financiar IFRS, transform rolul plictisitor al contabilului ntr-un rol mai responsabil fa de afacerea n care este implicat. Dar dezvoltarea tehnologico-informaional a unei ntreprinderi este cu adevrat premisa unei percepii mai favorabile a profesiei contabile? Rspunsul este, oarecum, previzibil. Imaginea de om de corvoad a contabilului nu este doar n Romnia, ci n cele mai multe ri. Stereotipul exist, fapt argumentat n studiul realizat de Dimnik i Felton (2006), n care au fost precizate cinci stereotipuri pentru profesionistul contabil: vistor, muncitor, excentric, erou i rufctor. Chiar dac a fost realizat n urma unei analize a cinematografiei americane, caracteristicile nu pot fi contestate, fiind dovedite de alte studii de cercetare. Deoarece studenii sunt potenialii adepi ai unei viziuni ce va fi susinut n urmtorii ani, exist multe studii care prezint poziia acestora fa de profesia contabil. Astfel, n Japonia, Sugahara i Boland (2006) se constat existena diferenelor semnificative n perceperea profesiei contabile de ctre studenii care studiaz contabilitatea i cei care nu o studiaz, ajungndu-se la concluzia ngrijortoare precum c rezultatele studiului creeaz implicaii variate care trebuie tratate pentru a schimba situaia problematic actual referitoare la nepopularitatea sectorului contabil n Japonia. O alt ar n care se identific o situaie neplcut la nivelul percepiei profesiei contabile este Noua Zeeland, unde Malthus i Fowler (2009) au realizat o cercetare n care au prezentat faptul c atitudinea studenilor fa de contabilitate i, implicit, fa de contabil este mprit pe categorii: liceenii i studenii din primul an de facultate au o percepie a stereotipului existent de plictiseal tipic, iar cei din ultimul an de facultate, datorit gradului de nelegere asimilat n anii de studiu, nu au o imagine negativ despre contabil; de asemenea, profesorii din licee au o imagine favorabil despre profesia contabil i sunt pozitivi fa de o carier n acest domeniu, n comparaie cu reprezentanii consultanilor n carier, care o percep ca fiind una plictisitoare i un impediment pentru domenii mai interesante. O situaie mai plcut este n Malaysia i Anglia, unde Germanou, Hassall i Tournas (2009) au determinat faptul c studenii din aceste dou ri au o percepie pozitiv a profesiei contabile, ns aceste dou grupuri de 100 the business, and another, a negative one, stated without embarrassment by about 70% of the population. In this respect, Albu and Albu (2009) conducted a study that allowed the identification of the image of the professional accountant in Romania, branded as a plodder and also the setting of premises in order to change this image to achieve a more odelled perception, particularly in the leading members of the company. Thus, the implementation of advanced IT solutions, ERP Enterprise Resource Planning and the implementation of International Financial Reporting Standards IFRS changes the boring role of the accountant into a more responsible role towards the business he is involved in. But is the technological and informational development of an enterprise a real premise of a more odelled perception of the accounting profession? The answer is somewhat predictable. The image of a plodder of the accountant does not only exist in Romania, but in most countries. The stereotype exists, this fact being argued in the study made by Dimnik and Felton (2006) in which they stated five stereotypes for the professional accountant: dreamer, employee, eccentric, hero and villain. Even if it was made after an analysis of American cinema, these characteristics cannot be disputed, having been evidenced by other research studies. Because students are potential supporters of a vision which will be held in the forthcoming years, there are many studies showing their position to the accounting profession. Thus, in Japan, Sugahara and Boland (2006) show that there are significant differences in the perception of the accounting profession between the students who major in accounting and those who do not study it, leading to the worrying conclusion that the results of the survey creates various implications which have to be addressed in order to change the current problematic situation related to the unpopularity of the accounting field in Japan. Another country where there can be perceived a negative, unpleasant perception of the accounting profession is New Zeeland, where Malthus and Fowler (2009) set up a research in which they presented the idea that the image that the students have over accountancy and accountants is divided in categories: pupils and students in the first year of college perceive the existent stereotype of typical boredom, on the other hand, students in the last year of college, due to the experience and understanding gained over years of study, dont have a negative perception of the accountant; all the same, high school teachers perceive a odelled image of the accounting profession and they think positively towards a career in this domain, compared to the consultants representatives in this career who start practicing it as being a boring one, an impediment to more interesting areas. The situation is more enjoyable in Malaysia and

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CONTABILITATE / ACCOUNTING studeni identific n mod diferit atributele i rezultatele activitii profesionistului contabil. De asmenea, Hammami i Hossain (2010) au observat, n urma unui studiu n Qatar, c atitudinea studenilor fa de profesia contabil este mai pozitiv dect cea a profesionalitilor. Acest lucru se ntmpl din cauza problemelor ntlnite n timpul exercitrii funciilor n domeniul contabil, probleme generate de incapacitatea de adaptare la diferite situaii, incompatibilitatea cu anumite principii de via impuse de propria contiin. Nu toi pot fi profesioniti contabili... Din cauza comportamentului rigid i a gndirii focalizat pe cifre, Nrreklit, Nrreklit i Mitchell (2010) ncurajeaz profesionistul contabil s utilizeze o paradigm mai mult reducionist dect realist n crearea de raiuni i n practic. Simplificarea atitudinii i a modului de expunere a datelor i informaiilor, prin reducerea la elemente eseniale pe nelesul majoritii oamenilor, este ceea de ce are nevoie mediul nconjurtor al profesiei contabile. Vinovaii unei imagini greite Contabilitatea este modelat ca o cultur de spini (Gallhofer, Haslam, Morrow, Sydserff, 1999); din aceast cauz nimeni nu poart rspunderea pentru situaia creat la nivel mondial, al crei efect este existena a dou percepii total opuse, pentru care sunt de fiecare dat argumente descurajatoare pentru o reconciliere amical. Marile scandaluri financiare sunt ntr-o msur semnificativ responsabile pentru evoluia negativ a percepiei profesiei contabile din ultimii 6-8 ani. Comunale, Sexton i Gara (2006) au ajuns la concluzia c, din pcate, studenii care aleg acest domeniu de studiu au cunotine generale despre scandalurile financiare, dar par s tie din ce n ce mai puin despre profesia contabil, inculpnd astfel pentru dezastrele care au avut loc profesionitii contabili mai mult dect pe managerii corporaiilor. Greit! Independena profesionistului contabil este asigurat de titlul de profesionist acordat de organismul acreditat n domeniu din fiecare ar, iar nclcarea acestei caliti este determinat de nevoia de disimulare a informaiilor financiar-contabile a conducerii firmelor-client. Un dezavantaj identificat pentru imaginea profesiei contabile este dat de modul n care este perceput contabilitatea un mediu dominat de o cultura de tipul lucreaz mult, joac intens (Lightbody, 2008). Chiar i aa, Warren i Parker (2009), citnd pe Jeacle (2008), prezint schimbri interesante n portretizarea contabilitii, ce poate fi vzut n literatura de recrutare a firmelor de contabilitate ce fac parte din The Big Four, i de ctre organismele profesionale de contabilitate, unde accentul cade pe vnzarea contabilitii absolvenilor drept o distracie i o alegere captivant a carierei. Dar rzboiul nu se oprete aici. McDowall i Jackling (2010) au curajul s strneasc controverse, England, where Germanou, Hassall and Tournas (2009) determined that students in these two countries have a positive perception about the accounting profession, but these two groups of students identify differently the attributes and results of the professional accountant. In the same way, Hammam and Hossain (2010) found, from a study in Qatar, that the perception of students of the accounting profession is more positive than that of professionals. This happens because of the problems encountered during the performance of accounting, problems arising from the inability to adapt to different situations the incompatibility with certain principles of life imposed by their own conscience. Not every person can be a professional accountant. Because of the rigid odelled and thinking that focuses on numbers, Nrreklit, Nrreklit and Mitchell (2010) encourages the professional accountant to use a reductionist paradigm rather than using a realistic one in creating conceptions and in practice. The simplification of attitudes and of the exposure of data and information by reducing them to essential elements which most people can understand is what the accounting profession needs. Guilty of a wrong image Accounting is odelled as a crop of thorns (Gallhofer, Haslam, Morrow, Sydserff, 1999); in this case no one bears any responsibility for the global situation, the effect of which is that there are two entirely different perceptions, which are every time daunting arguments for a friendly reconciliation. The great major financial scandals are in a significant measure, responsible for the negative perception of the accounting profession in the last 6-8 years. Comunale, Sexton and Gara (2006) concluded that, unfortunately, students who choose this field of study have general knowledge about financial scandals, but they seem to know increasingly less about the accounting profession thus prosecuting for such disasters the professional accountants more than the corporate managers. Wrong! Professional accountants independence is ensured by the professional title awarded by an accredited body in the area of each country, and the breach of this quality is determined by the need to hide the financial and accounting information held by the managers of the client companies. A disadvantage identified for the proper picture of the accounting profession is given by the perception of the accounting an environment dominated by a culture as work more, play hard (Lightbody, 2008). Even so, Warren and Parker (2009), citing Jeacle (2008) reveal interesting changes in characterizing the accountancy, which can be seen in the literature related to the recruitment of accounting firms that are part of The Big Four and by the professional accounting bodies, where the emphasis is put on the sale of accountancy as a way of having fun and also as an exciting choice of the career. 101

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CONTABILITATE / ACCOUNTING afirmnd c n Australia universitatea este cea care expune contabilitatea i profesia contabil ntr-o lumin nefavorabil, ntrind regula privind memorarea i lipsa de implicare cu aptitudini conceptuale sau de judecat. Considerm c acest lucru se ntmpl nu doar n Australia, ci ntr-un numr mare de ri, pornind de la Romnia. Discrepanele i nenelegerile dintre generaii creeaz situaii inacceptabile att pentru profesori, din cauza manifestrii nevoii de cunoatere ntr-o manier diferit de ctre studeni, dar i pentru studeni, care, lsndu-se pgubai fr lupt, se reorienteaz spre domenii n care i pot arta mai evident setea de cunoatere i munca pentru a evolua continuu. Concluzii Cu siguran, profesia contabil se confrunt cu o problem major, fiind reprezentat de (in)capacitatea de a-i demonstra latura pozitiv n mediul social. Calitatea profesiei n viitor este direct influenat de modul de manifestare a profesionitilor contabili n mediul socio-economic. Studiile utilizate n realizarea prezentei lucrri confer probe solide privind existena i necesitatea profesiei contabile n mediul socio-economic, iar imaginea acestei profesii n lume este determinat de nivelul de pregtire al oamenilor participani la studii, ntr-o msur semnificativ, precum i de modalitatea de instruire a viitorilor profesioniti contabili. Cele mai nefavorabile reacii fa de profesia contabil sunt n Japonia, unde specialitii remarc o situaie ngrijortoare, precum i n Romnia i Noua Zeeland. Anglia, Malaysia i Qatar sunt trei ri fericite din acest punct de vedere, deoarece imaginea general este una pozitiv. Responsabilitatea pentru imaginea negativ, considerat a fi greit, o poart evenimentele neplcute care au avut loc de-a lungul timpului, asemenea marilor scandaluri financiare, dar i calitatea i modalitatea de instruire a studenilor n universiti. Totui, nimic semnificativ nu se ntreprinde pentru a schimba percepia. Societatea continu s suporte i s critice profesia contabil, indiferent de imaginea pe care o are, deoarece stereotipul rmne infiltrat n mentalitatea oamenilor, fiind transmis din generaie n generaie. 1. 2. 3. 4. But the war does not stop there. McDowall and Jackling (2010) have the courage to stir controversy in Australia saying that the university is setting accounting and the accounting profession in a bad light, enhancing the rule of memorizing and the lack of involvement with pleadings or conceptual skills. I believe that this happens not just in Australia but in many countries, starting with Romania. Discrepancies and misunderstandings between generations create an unacceptable situation for teachers, because of the differences in the need of knowledge of different students as well as for students who, becoming a victim without a fight, fall back into areas where they can show obvious thirst for knowledge and work to continually evolve. Conclusions Certainly, the accounting profession faces a major problem represented by its (in)ability to demonstrate its positive side in the social environment. The quality of this profession in the future is directly influenced by the expression of professional accountants in the socio-economic environment. The studies used in the present work provide strong evidence of the existence and necessity of the accounting profession in the socio-economic field and the image of the profession in the world is determined by the level of professionalism of people participating to the study in a significant extent, and by the education of the future accountants. The most adverse reactions to the accounting profession are in Japan where specialist note a worrying situation, and also in Romania and New Zealand. England, Malaysia and Qatar are three countries which can be considered fortunate in this regard, because the overall picture is positive. The responsibility for the negative image, considered to be wrong, is born by the unpleasant events that have occurred over time, such as major financial scandals, but also the quality and the way of students education in universities. However, nothing significant is being done to change perceptions. The society continues to support and criticize the accounting profession, regardless of the picture it has, because the stereotype stays rooted in peoples mentality, being transmitted from one generation to the other.

Bibliografie/Bibliography Albu, C. N, Albu, N., How does organizational change affect the accountants role? An institutional approach on two Romanian settings, International Journal of Accounting and Information Management, Volume 17, Issue 1, 2009. Baldvinsdottir, G., Burns, Jh., Nrreklit, H., Scapens, R.W., The image of accountants: from bean counters to extreme accountants, Accounting, Auditing&Accountability Journal, Volume 22, Issue 6, 2009. Comunale, C.L., Sexton, T.R., Gara, S.C., Professional ethical crises: A case study of accounting majors, Managerial Auditing Journal, Volume 21, Issue: 6, 2006. Cooper, D.J., Robson, K., Accounting, professions and regulation: Locating the sites of professionalization, Accounting, Organizations and Society Volume 31, Issues 4-5, 2006. Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3(77) 2011

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CONTABILITATE / ACCOUNTING 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Dimnik, T., Felton, S., Accountant stereotypes in movies distributed in North America in the twentieth century, Accounting, Organizations and Society, Volume 31, Issue 2, 2006. Gallhofer, S., Haslam, J., Morrow, S., Sydserff, R., Accounting, Transparency and the Culture of Spin: Re-Orientating Accounting Communication in the New Millennium, Pacific Accounting Review, Volume 11, Issue , 1999. Hammami, H., Hossain, M., Perceptions of the accountant held by business students and business professionals in an emerging country: The case of Qatar, Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, Volume 3, Issue 1, 2010. Hassall, E., Tournas, T., Students' perceptions of accounting profession: work value approach, Asian Review of Accounting, Volume 17, Issue 2, 2009. Holtzman, Y., The transformation of the accounting profession in the United States: From information processing to strategic business advising, Journal of Management Development, Volume 23, Issue 10, 2004. Lightbody, M., No time to stand and stare: Imagery of flexible work arrangements in Australian professional accounting journals, Pacific Accounting Review, Volume 20, Issue 2, 2008. Malthus, S., Fowler, C., Perceptions of accounting: a qualitative New Zealand study, Pacific Accounting Review, Volume 21, Issue 1, 2009. McDowall, T., Jackling, B., Attitudes towards the accounting profession: an Australian perspective, Asian Review of Accounting, Volume 18, Issue 1, 2010. Nrreklit, H., Nrreklit, L., Mitchell, F., Towards a paradigmatic foundation for accounting practice, Accounting, Auditing&Accountability Journal, Volume 23, Issue 6, 2010. Sugahara, S., Boland, G., Perceptions of the certified public accountants by accounting and nonaccounting tertiary students in Japan, Asian Review of Accounting, Volume 14, Issue , 2006. Tabr, N., Sisteme contabile n Uniunea European, Editura Wolters Kluwer, Bucureti, 2010. Warren, S., Parker, L., Bean counters or bright young things?Towards the visual study of identity construction among professional accountants, Qualitative Research in Accounting&Management, Volume 6, Issue 4, 2009.

FACTORINGUL O MODALITATE MODERN DE RECUPERARE A CREANELOR


Conf. univ. dr. Ludmila GRABAROVSCHI; Lect. sup. drd. Olga BORDEIANU, ASEM
Factoringul este o metod de recuperare a creanelor, utilizat de ctre entitate n vederea transformrii n lichiditi a creanelor rezultate n urma livrrii bunurilor sau prestrii serviciilor. Pe lng definiia factoringului, articolul conine criteriile de clasificare a operaiunilor de factoring, reglementarea normativ, precum i modul de reflectare n contabilitate a operaiunilor de factoring n Republica Moldova. Cuvinte-cheie: factoring, creane, aderent, contabilitatea creanelor, recuperarea creanelor Utilizarea pe larg a finanrii prin intermediul factoringului a fost condiionat de intensificarea proceselor inflaioniste n anii 70 ai sec. XX i de instabilitatea economic ntr-un ir de ri industrializate din perioada menionat. Anume din aceste motive a aprut necesitatea de a lichida ct mai repede stocurile de produse finite, adic de a majora viteza de transformare a capitalului din forma natural n bneasc.

FACTORING A MODERN WAY OF COLLECTING RECIEVABLES


Assoc. Prof. PhD Ludmila GRABAROVSCHI; Senior Lect. Olga BORDEIANU, AESM
Factoring is a method used by a firm to obtain cash when the available cash balance held by the firm is insufficient to meet current obligations and accommodate its other cash needs, such as new orders or contracts. Besides factoring definition, this article contains the description of types of factoring and the legal framework governing factoring, as well as accounting methodology of factoring operations in the Republic of Moldova. Key-words: factoring, debts, adherent, debt assignment, accounting of receivables The wide use of financing throughout factoring was conditioned by the inflation processes in the 70 s of the XX century and by the economic instability in a number of industrialized countries in that period. Mainly due to these reasons appeared the need to clear the stock of finished goods, i.e. increase the turnover of capital transformation from its natural form into money. 103

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CONTABILITATE / ACCOUNTING Din perspectiva serviciilor incluse, factoringul este definit drept un produs financiar complex, care combin creditarea, asumarea riscului de nencasare a creanelor, serviciile de urmrire i ncasare a acestora, precum i evidena contabil a lor. Factoringul este nu doar o tehnic de finanare n faza de postlivrare, ci i una de transformare n lichiditi a creanelor rezultate n urma livrrii bunurilor sau prestrii serviciilor. Acesta este privit i cu un contract ncheiat ntre furnizorul de mrfuri sau prestatorul de servicii (denumit aderent n cadrul acestui contract) i factor (instituie financiar ce deine licena ce-i acord dreptul de prestare a serviciilor de factoring), prin care creanele aderentului din vnzri de bunuri sau prestri de servicii sunt preluate de ultimul spre a fi mai apoi ncasate de ctre acesta de la debitori. Toate aceste aspecte ale factoringului sunt prevzute n Codul Civil al Republicii Moldova din 06.06.2002, conform cruia (art. 1290) prin contract de factoring, o parte, care este furnizorul de bunuri i servicii (aderent), se oblig s cedeze celeilalte pri, care este o ntreprindere de factoring (factor), creanele aprute sau care vor aprea n viitor din contracte de vnzri de bunuri, prestri de servicii i efectuare de lucrri ctre teri, iar factorul i asum, cel puin, dou din urmtoarele obligaii: a) finanarea aderentului, inclusiv prin mprumuturi i pli n avans; b) inerea contabilitii creanelor; c) asigurarea efecturii procedurilor de somare i de ncasare a creanelor; d) asumarea riscului insolvabilitii debitorului pentru creanele preluate (delcredere). Eficiena economic a operaiunilor de factoring rezult din faptul c la entitile ce apeleaz la astfel de servicii crete lichiditatea activelor, viteza de circulaie a capitalului i rentabilitatea economic. Mecanismul de derulare a operaiilor de factoring poate fi urmrit n figura 1. ADERENT (vnztor)/ INVOICE SELLER (seller) 5 3 2
FACTOR (instituia financiar)/

From the perspective of included services, factoring is defined as a complex financial product which combines crediting, risk assuming of not collecting the receivables, services of monitoring and recovery of debts, as well as accounting of receivables. Factoring is not just a financing technique in the postdelivery phase but it is also a transformation of receivables resulted after the delivery of goods and service rendering. Factoring is seen as a contract signed between the seller of goods or services and the factor (financial institution licensed to perform factoring services), through which the sellers receivables from goods sold or services provided are taken by the factor to be afterwards cashed from the debtors. All these factoring aspects are provided in the Civil Code of the Republic of Moldova from 06.06.2002, according to which (article 1290) via a factoring contract, a part who is the provider of goods and services (seller) commits to hand over to the other part that is a factoring enterprise (factor) its current debts or that are to occur in the future as a result of contracts on selling goods and services and performing works to third parties, while the factor assumes at least 2 of the following obligations: a) finance the seller, including via loans and payments in advance; b) provide accounting of debts; c) assure the execution of warning procedures and debt collection; d) assume the risk of debtors insolvency for the overtaken debts (del credere). The economic efficiency of factoring operations result from the fact that for entities who apply for these kind of services, the liquidity of assets, capital turnover and economic profitability increases. The factoring mechanism is shown in figure 1.

DEBITOR (cumprtor)/

DEBTOR (buyer)

FACTOR (financial institution)

Figura 1. Schema derulrii operaiunii de factoring/ Figure 1. Factoring operation mechanism

104

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CONTABILITATE / ACCOUNTING Semnificaia liniilor de legtur n schema 1 e urmtoarea: 1. Livrarea mrfurilor, serviciilor n credit, cu amnarea plii; 2. Cedarea dreptului de ncasare a mijloacelor bneti de la debitor organizaiei ce presteaz serviciul de factoring; 3. ncasarea plii n avans de la organizaia de factoring, n contul stingerii creanei (max. 90%); 4. Transferarea de ctre cumprtor (debitor) a mijloacelor bneti n contul stingerii datoriei; 5. Achitarea final de ctre organizaia de factoring a mijloacelor bneti clientului (diferena de sum dintre suma de achitat n documentele ce atest apariia creanei i suma deja transferat de ctre organizaia de factoring beneficiarului). n mecanismul de aplicare a operaiunilor de factoring sunt implicate trei pri: a) aderentul un productor-vnztor de mrfuri, prestator de servicii sau executant de lucrri, care, n baza contractului cu factorul, i remite acestuia toate creanele materializate n facturi, cu meniunea c au fost cedate, plata lor urmnd a fi efectuat de factor; b) factorul un stabiliment financiar (banc comercial, societate de asigurare sau reasigurare, alt instituie financiar) n schimbul comisionului pltete aderentului toate creanele acceptate i, subrogndu-se n drepturile aderentului, urmeaz s ncaseze la scaden creanele de la debitorii aderentului; c) debitorii clienii aderentului, cumprtorii de mrfuri, beneficiarii serviciilor sau lucrrilor, care sunt notificai asupra subrogrii factorului n drepturile aderentului, precum i asupra obligaiei de a face plata facturii direct i numai factorului. De-a lungul istoriei, operaiunilor de factoring sau conturat urmtoarele tipuri de factoring: a) n funcie de sfera de cuprindere, modalitatea de preluare i administrare a creanelor: - factoringul parial facturile sunt supuse unui proces de selecionare, nu toate sunt acceptate la cumprare; obligaia ncasrii facturilor i revine aderentului, deoarece factorul nu preia administrarea acestora; - factoringul total toate facturile sunt preluate de la aderent i administrate de ctre factor. Factorul ncaseaz facturile de la debitor, finaneaz operaiunea i acoper riscul de credit; b) n funcie de momentul efecturii plii creanelor de ctre factor: - factoringul cu plata imediat factorul pltete contravaloarea facturilor n momentul prelurii acestora; The meaning of linkages in scheme 1 is the following: 1. delivery of goods, crediting services with delayed payment; 2. assign the right to collect cash from debtor to the organisation performing the factoring; 3. advance cash collection from the factoring institution in the account of receivables offset (max.90%); 4. transfer of cash by the buyer (debtor) in the account of offset of debt; 5. final payment of cash by the factoring institution to the client (the difference between the price paid in the invoice and the money transferred by the factor to the beneficiary). There are three parts involved in the factoring operations: a) producer-seller of goods (adherent), services or work performer who based on the contract with the factor hands over overall invoices of receivables with the remark that these were assigned and their payment is to be made by the factor; b) factor financial establishment (commercial bank, insurance or reinsurance company, other financial institution) in exchange of a commission pays to the seller all accepted receivables and subrogating in sellers rights is to cash the receivables from the sellers debtors in due time; c) debtors sellers clients, buyers of goods, beneficiaries of services or works who are notified regarding the factors subrogation in the sellers rights, as well as regarding the obligation to make the payment directly and only to the factor. During the history of factoring operations the following types of factoring are outlined: a) depending on the coverage, mode of overtaking and administration of receivables: - partial factoring invoices are selected, not all of them are accepted for purchase; obligation to cash invoices is given to the seller due to the fact that factor does not undertake their administration; - total factoring all invoices are taken from the seller and are administered by the factor. The factor cashes the invoices from the debtor, finances the operation and covers the crediting risk; b) depending on the actual payment of receivables by the factor: - old-line factoring factor pays the exchange value of invoices in the moment of their taking over; - maturity factoring sellers receivables are 105

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CONTABILITATE / ACCOUNTING - factoringul la scaden creanele aderentului sunt pltite n momentul exigibilitii acestora; - factoringul mixt factorul pltete o parte din valoarea facturilor n momentul prezentrii acestora n form de avans (pn la cel mult 80% din valoarea acestora), diferena urmnd s fie pltit la o dat ulterioar; c) n funcie de confidenialitatea operaiunii: - factoring nchis ( confidenial, acoperit ) permite clientului s pstreze secret faptul ca a apelat la un factor; - factoring deschis exportatorul/aderentul cedeaz factorului toate creanele, notificnd importatorii/debitorii; d) din punct de vedere contabil, factoringul este clasificat n funcie de dreptul de regres pe care instituia de credit sau instituia financiar nebancar l poate exercita asupra aderentului n: - factoring fr regres (engl. non-recourse factoring) factorul pltete aderentului contravaloarea acceptat a facturii sau facturilor, de regula 80% imediat dup emitere i 20% n termen de 180 de zile de la data scadenei facturii, chiar daca nu ncaseaz (total sau parial) una sau mai multe dintre facturi. n perioada de 180 de zile de la scadena facturii(lor) factorul ncearc s recupereze sumele de la debitor sau, eventual, de la societatea de asigurarereasigurare la care s-a asigurat mpotriva riscului de nencasare. Factorul nu se ndreapt ctre aderent n vederea recuperrii contravalorii facturilor neavnd drept de regres asupra acestuia; - factoring cu regres (engl. recourse factoring) n caz de neplat factorul i va recupera sumele nencasate de la aderent prin exercitarea dreptului de regres, prin debitarea contului curent al aderentului sau prin valorificarea garaniei; e) n funcie de participanii la operaiunea de factoring: - factoring intern la baza acestei operaiuni nu st un contract comercial internaional, se desfaoar pe teritoriul aceleiai ri i, n cadrul ei, intervine un singur factor; - factoring internaional presupune existena unui contract comercial internaional, n cadrul operaiunii intervin doi factori (factorul de export i cel de import). Factorul de export cumpr creanele exportatorului (numit i aderent) asupra importatorului, cedndu-le apoi factorului de import. Documentele de baz care reglementeaz operaiunile de factoring pe plan internaional sunt Convenia UNIDROIT privind factoringul internaional, adoptat de ctre Institutul Internaional 106 paid whenever exacted; - mixed factoring factor pays a part of the invoice value in the moment of their presentation as advance payment (not more that 80% of its value), the difference being paid at a later date; c) depending on the confidentiality of the operation: - closed factoring (confidential, covered) allows the client to keep in secret the fact that he/she applied to a factor; - opened factoring exporter/seller gives the factor overall receivables notifying the importers/debtors on this; d) from accounting perspective, factoring is classified depending on the recourse that crediting institution or the financial non-banking institution can exercise on the invoice seller in: - non-recourse factoring the factor pays to the invoice seller the accepted exchange value of the invoice (s), as a rule 80% directly after the issuance and 20% during 180 days from the time limit of the invoice, even if one or more invoices are not cashed (entirely or partially). During 180 days from the invoice (s) term, the factor tries to collects the sums from the debtor or eventually, from insurance-reinsurance company that insured against the risk of non-payment. The factor does not go to the invoice seller in the respect of reclaiming of invoices value having no right to recourse; - recourse factoring in case of non-payment the factor will recover its non-cashed amount of money from the seller through the recourse right, by debiting the bank account of seller or via capitalization of guarantees; e) depending on the factoring participants: - domestic factoring the basis of this operation is not an international commercial contract and it takes place within the limit of the same country and within it, only one factor intervenes; - international factoring implies the existence of one international commercial contract, within the operation two factors (export and import factors) interfere. The export factor buys the exporters receivables (also named as the seller) on the importer, assigning them to the import factor afterwards. The main documents that regulate factoring operations at international level are UNIDROIT Convention on international factoring adopted by the International Institute of Private Law in 1988 and Convention of United Nations on the assignment of debts in international trade from January 31, 2002. At

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CONTABILITATE / ACCOUNTING de Drept Privat n 1988 i Convenia ONU privind cesiunea creanelor n comerul internaional din 31.01.2002. Pe plan naional, operaiile de factoring sunt reglementate prin Codul Civil al Republicii Moldova din 06.06.2002 (art. 1290-1300), Legea privind instituiile financiare nr. 550 din 21.07.1995. Pentru a uura activitatea i a lrgi numrul clienilor, companiile ce presteaz servicii de factoring se unesc n asociaii, cele mai mari i vechi fiind FCI (Factors Chain International), fondat n 1968, i IFG (International Factors Group), fondat n 1960. Activitatea acestora, pe lng actele normative susmenionate, este reglementat de Regilile Unice de Factoring Internaional (GRIF General Rules for International Factoring). innd cont de faptul c operaiile de factoring nu sunt pe deplin reglementate de acte normative, precum i din cauza utilizrii insuficiente a acestei forme de recuperare a creanelor, actualmente n Republica Moldova nu exist o practic contabil larg n acest domeniu. Mai mult, planul de conturi contabil al agenilor economici nu prevede un cont special cu ajutorul cruia s-ar efectua contabilitatea operaiunilor de factoring. Dat fiind faptul c factoringul este o derivat a operaiunii de cesiune, contabilitatea acestui tip de operaiuni va fi asemntoare. Vom examina modul de contabilitate a operaiunilor de factoring la aderent (creditor), lsnd la o parte contabilitatea factoringului la factor (instituia financiar), deoarece aceasta se efectueaz n baza Planului de conturi al instituiilor financiare i a prevederilor Bncii Naionale a Republicii Moldova. Exemplul 1: S presupunem c entitatea-vnztor (n continuare entitatea A) a livrat entitii cumprtor (entitatea B) produse n valoare de 1260000 lei, inclusiv TVA. Cumprtorul, n baza contractului de vnzarecumprare, se oblig s achite contravaloarea livrrii timp de o lun dup livrare. Vnztorul a ncheiat cu instituia financiar contractul de factoring i a cedat bncii dreptul de a ncasa datoria cumprtorului pentru produsele anterior livrate, ntiinnd debitorul despre acordul de factoring. n baza acestuia, factorul transfer 80% din valoarea contractual, iar dup achitarea creanei de ctre cumprtor restul 20%, diminuat cu comisionul bncii (n exemplul nostru 2% din valoarea contractual sau 25200 lei). n contabilitatea vnztorului se vor ntocmi urmtoarele formule contabile: 1) La valoarea de livrare a produselor ctre cumprtor, inclusiv TVA: Debit 221 Creane pe termen scurt, aferente facturilor comerciale 1260000 lei Credit 611 Venituri din vnzri 1050000 lei Credit 534 Datorii privind decontrile cu bugetul, subcontul 5342 Datorii privind taxa pe valoarea adugat 210000 lei Dup livrare vnztorul a ncheiat contractul de national level, factoring operations are regulated by the Civil Code of the Republic of Moldova from June 6, 2002 (art. 1290-1300), Act on financial institutions no. 550 from 21.07.1995. In order to facilitate the activity and to expand the number of clients, companies providing factoring services unite in associations, the biggest and oldest ones being FCI (Factors Chain International) founded in 1968 and IFG (International Factors Group) founded in 1960. The activity, besides the above mentioned normative acts, is regulated by the General Rules for International Factoring (GRIF). Taking into account the fact that factoring operations are not entirely regulated by normative acts, as well as due to insufficient use of this way of debt collection, nowadays there is no wide accounting practice in this field in the Republic of Moldova. Furthermore, the Chart of book-keeping accounts of economic agents provides a special account for bookkeeping of factoring operations. Since factoring is a derivative of debt assignment operations, the accounting of this type of operations will be identical. Lets examine the book-keeping operations of factoring for seller (creditor), leaving aside the factoring accounting of the factor (financial institution) because this is done based on the Chart of accounts of financial institutions and in compliance with the provisions of the National Bank of Moldova. Example 1: Assuming that the seller (hereinafter entity A) delivered to the buyer (hereinafter entity B) goods in the amount of 1260000 MDL, including VAT. The buyer based on the buy-sell contract obliges to pay the value of delivery within one month after the delivery. The seller signed with the financial institution a factoring contract and gave the bank the right to encash the debt of the buyer for the goods previously delivered, notifying the debtor about the factoring agreement. Based on the last one, the factor transfers 80% of the contractual value and the remaining 20% after the payment of debt by the buyer, diminished by bank commission (in our case, 2% of the contractual value or 25200 MDL). In the sellers accounting, the following formulas shall be compiled: 1) For the value of products delivered to the buyer including VAT: Debit 221 Commercial receivables 1260000 MDL Credit 611 Income from sales 1050000 MDL Credit 534 Payables to the State Budget, subaccount 5342 Payables on VAT 210000 MDL After the delivery the seller signed the factoring contract and gave the right for collecting the receivables. The seller notifies the debtor. 2) The debt assignment is reflected: Debit 229 Other short term receivables, subaccount 2295 Short term receivables regarding 107

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CONTABILITATE / ACCOUNTING factoring i a cedat dreptul de obinere a creanei. Vnztorul ntiineaz debitorul. 2) Se reflect cedarea dreptului de obinere a creanei: Debit 229 Alte creane pe termen scurt, subcont 2295 Creane pe termen scurt privind factoringul (propunere), sau 229.4 Creane pe termen scurt privind alte operaii 1260000 lei Ct 221 Creane pe termen scurt aferente facturilor comerciale 1260000 lei n baza contractului de factoring, banca iniial transfer 80% (1260000*0,8=1008000 lei), apoi 20%, exclusiv comisionul 2% (1260000*0,2-1260000*0,02 = 226800 lei). 3) Primirea primei trane de la factor, 80% conform contractului de factoring: Dt 242 Conturi curente n valuta naional 1008000 lei Ct 229 Alte creane pe termen scurt, subcont 2295 Creane pe termen scurt privind factoringul sau 229.4 Creane pe termen scurt privind alte operaii 1008000 lei 4) Dup ce debitorul a achitat factorului valoarea contractual a creanei, factorul transfer suma rmas aderentului. n contabilitatea aderentului aceste operaiuni se vor reflecta n modul urmtor: Debit 242 Conturi curente n valuta naional la suma rmas de achitat 226800 lei Debit 714 Alte cheltuieli operaionale reflect valoarea comisionului 25200 lei. Credit 229 Alte creane pe termen scurt, subcont 2295 Creane pe termen scurt privind factoringul sau 229.4 Creane pe termen scurt privind alte operaii 252000 lei n cazul neachitrii de ctre debitor a creanei la termenul stabilit, factorul are dreptul s cear aderentului restituirea surselor primite (factoring cu drept de regres). S examinm situaia n care debitorul nu i-a ndeplinit obligaiile fa de factor (nu a achitat la timp creana). Exemplul 2: S presupunem c n condiiile exemplului precedent debitorul nu a achitat creana factorului timp de o lun dup livrare. Conform contractului, factorul transmite aderentului ntiinarea c angajamentul cumprtorului a fost nclcat. n cazul dat, aderentul restituie mijloacele obinute de la instituia financiar (80%)1008000 lei i, totodat, nainteaz cumprtorului o reclamaie n mrimea valorii contractuale a produselor livrate anterior 1260000 lei. n contabilitatea vnztorului (aderentului) operaiunile date se vor contabiliza astfel: Operaiunile 1-3 se repet. 4) Restituirea instituiei financiare a sumei primite anterior, conform contractului de factoring: Debit 229 Alte creane pe termen scurt, subcont 2295 Creane pe termen scurt privind factoringul sau 229.4 Creane pe termen scurt privind alte operaii 1008000 lei Ct 242 Conturi curente n valuta naional 1008000 lei 5) naintarea reclamaiei cumprtorului la suma total: 108 factoring operations (proposal), or 229.4 other operations short term receivables 1260000 MDL Credit 221 Commercial receivables 1260000 MDL Based on the factoring contract, initially the bank transfers 80% (1260000*0,8=1008000 MDL), then 20%, excluding the commission of 2 % (1260000*0,2-1260000*0,02 = 226800 MDL). 3) Receipt of first tranche from the factor, 80%according factoring contract: Debit 242 Bank accounts in national currency 1008000 MDL Credit 229 Other short term receivables, subaccount 2295 Short term receivables regarding factoring operations or 229.4 Other operations short term receivables 1008000 MDL 4) After the debtor paid the contractual value of receivables to the factor, the factor transfers the remaining sum to the adherent. In the adherents accounting these operations shall be reflected as follows: Debit 242 Bank account in national currency to the remaining sum to be paid 226800 MDL Debit 714 Other operational expenses show the value of the commission 25200 MDL Credit 229 Other short term receivables, subaccount 2295 Short term receivables regarding factoring operations or 229.4 Other operations short term receivables 252000 MDL . If the debtor does not pay the receivables on the established time limit, the factor has the right to ask from the seller the return of amounts received (recourse factoring). Lets examine the situation where the debtor did not fulfil his/her obligation to the factor (did not pay receivables in due time). Example 2: Lets assume that under the conditions of the previous example the debtor did not pay the receivables to the factor within a month after the delivery. According to the contract, the factor is notifying the seller about the break of buyers commitment. In the given case, the seller gives back the resources obtained from the financial institution (80%)1008000 MDL and at the same time presents a claim in the amount of contractual value of goods previously delivered 1260000 MDL. In the sellers accounting these operations will be reflected in the following way: Operations 1-3 are repeated. 4) Repayment of the previously received amount to the financial institution, according to the factoring contract : Debit 229 Other short term receivables, subaccount 2295 Short term receivables regarding factoring operations or 229.4 Other operations short term receivables 1008000 MDL Credit 242 Bank account in national currency 1008000 MDL 5) Presentation of the claim to the buyer, in the

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CONTABILITATE / ACCOUNTING Dt 229 Alte creane pe termen scurt, subcont 2293 Creane pe termen scurt privind preteniile naintate i recunoscute 1260000 lei Ct 229 Alte creane pe termen scurt, subcont 2295 Creane pe termen scurt privind factoringul sau 229.4 Creane pe termen scurt privind alte operaii 1260000 lei n concluzie, se poate afirma c operaiunea de factoring este o modalitate eficient de recuperare a creanelor i de majorare a nivelului de lichiditate a entitilor, acesta fiind motivul principal de aplicare a factoringului n practica economic curent de ctre entitile din Republica Moldova. total amount: Debit 229 Other short term receivables, subaccount 2293 Short term receivables on submitted and accepted claims 1260000 MDL Credit 229 Other short term receivables, subaccount 2295 Short term receivables regarding factoring operations or 229.4 Other operations short term receivables 1260000 MDL In conclusion, it can be said that the operation of factoring is an effective means of debt recovery and increase the level of liquidity of the entity. This is the main reason for the application of factoring in current economic practice by entities in Moldova.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Bibliografie / Bibliography Codul Civil al Republicii Moldova din 6.06.2002, Monitorul Oficial al Republicii Moldova Nr. 82-86 din 22.06.2002 E. . : , , , 2008 . . . , , , , ... , , 2008 . Dan N. Moldovan Monografia contabil a operaiunilor de factoring, 6.09.2007 www.macrostandard.blogspot.com/2007/09/monografi-contabila-operatiunilor-de.html V. Moraru Factoringul, alternativa la metodele clasice de finanare, articol, Sptmna financiar din 15.05.2006 www.sfin.ro/articol_4943/factoring__alternativa_la_metodele_clasice_de_finantare.html

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109

RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

PRACTICI EUROPENE DE FINANARE A NTREPRINDERILOR


Conf. univ. dr. hab. Natalia BNCIL, ASEM; Drd. Ruslan MIHALACHI, USM
Structura financiar a ntreprinderilor, de cele mai multe ori, depinde de modalitile i formele de finanare. n acest sens trebuie luat n considerare experiena internaional. Deoarece Republica Moldova este o ar european, pentru ea ar fi mai benefice metodele europene de finanare a antreprenoriatului. La etapa actual, n vederea asigurrii mai eficiente a ntreprinderilor din RM cu resurse financiare, este necesar o conlucrare strns ntre structurile financiare europene, guvern i autoritile publice locale. Structura financiar a ntreprinderilor difer de la ar la alta n funcie de particularitile culturale, psihologice i socio-economice, aflndu-se ntr-o evoluie continu, care este influenat de gradul de internaionalizare a economiilor naionale. n ultimii ani, cele 23 de milioane de ntreprinderi mici i mijlocii din Europa (IMM) au devenit punctul central de interes att la nivel comunitar, ct i al statelor-membre; mai mult, n acest domeniu Comisia European a adoptat Small Business Act pentru Europa, document prin care acestea devin punctul central de interes n formularea politicilor europene i naionale. IMM-le europene reprezint 99,8% din totalul ntreprinderilor nregistrate (doar 0,2% din ntreprinderi sunt ntreprinderi mari), reprezint sectorul privat pentru 67,1% din locurile de munc. Acestea, ns, nu sunt ocolite de probleme i deficienele privind finanarea. Investitorii i bncile sunt reinute n finanarea ntreprinderilor nou-create n special datorit riscurilor pe care acestea le ofer. Comisia European (CE) implementeaz un ir de programe specializate, pentru a ajuta ntreprinderile europene s-i mbunteasc standing-ul financiar. Totodat, prin instrumente financiare speciale, faciliteaz accesul ntreprinderilor la credite bancare i investiiile mutuale de capital. Fondurile sunt alocate prin instituii financiare, precum sunt bncile. Peste 800 milioane au fost acordate ntre anii 1998 i 2009, de care au beneficiat peste 360000 de ntreprinderi. Aceste fonduri au crescut cu mai mult de un miliard euro n cadrul Programului Comisiei de Competitivitate i Inovare (CCI) pentru anii 2007-2013. Aceasta ar trebui s fac ca instituiile financiare s ofere aproximativ 30 miliarde pentru finanarea a 475000 de ntreprinderi din Europa, deoarece n medie, fiecare euro cheltuit din bugetul Uniunii Europene va aduce investitorilor 6 de capital de risc sau 50 credit oferit de bnci. Instituiile financiare acoper diferite necesiti de finanare ale ntreprinderilor, fie c acestea sunt 110

EUROPEAN PRACTICES OF COMPANIES FINANCING


Assoc. Prof. Dr.Hab Natalia BANCILA, AESM; PhD candidate Ruslan MIHALACHI, SUM
Financial structure of enterprises often depends on the terms and forms of financing. Regarding this, should be taken into account international experience. Since, the Republic of Moldova is an European country, for it would be beneficial European methods of financing entrepreneurship. At this stage in order to ensure more effective with financial resources the companies from RM, a close cooperation is needed between European financial structures, the Government and local authorities. Financial structure of companies differs from country to country depending on cultural characteristics, psychological and socio-economic, being in constant evolution, which is influenced by the internationalization national economies. In recent years, 23 million of small and medium enterprises in Europe have become the focus of interest, both at Community and at member state level, more, in this area the European Commission adopted Small Business Act for Europe, document by which SMEs the focus of interest in European and national policy formulation. European SMEs represent 99,8% of the total registered companies (only 0,2% of the enterprises are large companies), representing 67,1% of private sector jobs. These however, are not avoided of the problems and deficiencies in financing. Investors and banks are retained in financing new companies, mainly due to the risks that they offer. European Commission is implementing a series of specialized programs to help European companies to improve their financial standing. At the same time, special financial instruments facilitate the access of companies to bank credits capital mutual investments. The funds are allocated through financial institutions such as banks. Over 800 million have been granted between 1998 and 2009, they granted over 360 000 companies. These funds have increased by more than one billion Euro within the Commission's Competitiveness and Innovation Program (CCI) for the years 2007-2013. This should make financial institutions to provide about 30 billion to finance 475 000 enterprises in Europe, because, on average, each spent from the EU budget will bring investors 6 venture capital or 50 credit offered by banks. Financial institutions cover different financing needs of enterprises, whether these are newly-formed or already existing, thus facilitating:

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RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS ntreprinderi nou-formate sau deja existente, astfel facilitnd: Creterea i inovarea IMM, oferind capital de risc n faza lor de iniiere sau dezvoltare; Oferta de garanii pentru mprumuturi n vederea ncurajrii bncilor, oferind mai multe credite pentru finanarea ntreprinderilor, inclusiv cu microfinanare i finanare medie i pentru reducerea riscurilor bancare. Microcreditele (credite mai mici de 25000 euro) au un impact considerabil asupra ntreprinderilor care le primesc. Totui, exist un deficit de credite micro. n acest sens, CE mrete disponibilitatea microcreditelor prin instrumentele sale financiare, ncurajnd statele-membre s faciliteze oferta de microfinane a ntreprinderilor. Grupul European de Investiii Bancare (IBE) asigur finanarea ntreprinderilor prin simplificarea mecanismelor de creditare, care devin mult mai transparente, axate pe nevoile individuale ale ntreprinderilor din toat Europa. IBE, de asemenea, tinde s susin aa domenii de activitate a ntreprinderilor ca investiiile n active financiare, cercetare-dezvoltare, marcheting etc. Fondurile adiionale i asisten financiar (include finanare prin credite mezzo, garanii i microcredite) sunt destinate ntreprinderilor, n conformitate cu specificul local sau nevoile fiecreia n parte. Toate aceste msuri financiare sunt administrate, n special, de ctre Fondul European pentru Investiii (FEI), care este mputernicit de Comisia European i intermediarii financiari, care apoi ofer finanare ntreprinderilor rilormembre. Multe ntreprinderi nu sunt la curent cu instrumentele financiare de care ar putea beneficia la moment sau n viitor. n acest scop, Comisia European organizeaz Zilele de finanare a ntreprinderilor n rile-membre, pentru a cunoate ntreprinderile cu finanatorii naionali, cu diverse surse i practici de finanare, ce pot le ajuta pe cele inovative s primeasc acces la finanarea necesar. Pentru a mbunti mediul financiar al ntreprinderilor, Comisia European conlucreaz cu autoritile locale. n acest sens, se organizeaz schimburi de experien, ceea ce contribuie la mbuntirea practicilor de finanare existente la moment a ntreprinderilor. De asemenea, Comisia tinde s faciliteze dialogul dintre bnci i ntreprinderile mici, astfel ca cele din urm s primeasc fondurile de care au nevoie. Finanarea din resurse proprii ale ntreprinderilor din Uniunea European se face atunci cnd antreprenorii se asigur c resursele proprii nu sunt mai scumpe dect cele atrase. Altfel zis, de cele mai multe ori finanarea ntreprinderilor implic sursele atrase, ceea ce asigur extinderea ntreprinderilor i, de aici, a cererii i ofertei agregate, a corelaiilor creterii economice i a veniturilor. Finanarea prin ndatorare a ntreprinderilor const n luarea de mprumuturi de la creditori i din emiterea de titluri debitoare pe piaa de capital. Titlurile debitoare reprezint creane ale unor pri tere asupra ntreprinderii debitoare, creane care trebuie rambursate la scaden Growth and innovation for SMEs, by providing risk capital in their initiation or development phase; Enterprises, by providing loan guarantees to encourage banks to offer more credit to finance businesses, including micro and medium financing and reduce bank risk. Microcredits (loans of less than 25,000 Euro) have a major impact on businesses that receive them. However, there is a deficit of micro credit. In this way EC increases the availability of microcredit through its financial instruments, encouraging Member States to facilitate the offer of micro financing businesses. European Investment Bank Group (IBE) provides financing for business by simplifying credit mechanisms, which become more transparent, focused on individual needs of companies across Europe. IBE also tends to support such areas of companies activity as investment in financial assets, research - development, marketing, etc. Additional funds and funds of financial assistance (includes financing by mezzo credits, guarantees and micro credits) are destined for businesses, according to the local specific or each needs in part. All these financial measures are managed mainly by the European Investment Fund (EIF), which is authorized by the European Commission and financial intermediaries, which later provide financing to companies of member countries. Most enterprises are not aware of the financial instruments which they could benefit, now or in the future. For this purpose, the European Commission is organizing Financing days companies of members countries to know the companies with national funders, with different funding sources and practices that can help innovative companies to get access to the necessary financing. In order to improve the financial environment of companies, the European Commission is working with local authorities. In this sense are organized exchanges of experience, which contribute to the improvement of existing funding practices of companies at the moment. The Commission also aims to facilitate the dialogue between banks and small companies, so that the last ones receive the funds they need. Regarding funding from own resources of EU companies, this is done when the entrepreneurs ensure that their resources are more expensive than those attracted. In other words, most often the financing of companies involves attracted sources, which ensures the expansion of enterprises and, hence, the demand and aggregate supply, the correlations of economic growth and incomes. Debt financing of companies consists of taking loans from creditors and issuing of debit titles on the capital market. Debit titles represent debts of third partes over debit company, debts to be paid at maturity with an agreed interest. Within the debt financing, the main 111

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RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS mpreun cu o dobnd convenit. n cadrul finanrii prin ndatorare, principalele forme ale unei astfel de finanri sunt mprumuturile i emiterea instrumentelor de debit. Titlurile de debit pot fi vndute investitorilor prin emisiunea public sau privat. n cazul plasamentelor private, titlurile securizate de debit nu pot fi comercializate la burse i sunt greu de comercializat pe alte tipuri de piee financiare, deoarece ele sunt emise pentru investitori specifici, individualizai. Emisiunile publice de titluri securizate de debit pot fi uor comercializate pe toate pieele financiare. n cadrul finanrii prin emiterea de aciuni, acestea pot fi lansate prin emisiune privat n form de aciuni necotate la burs i de capital de afaceri i prin emisiune public, adic prin aciuni nscrise pe lista unei burse de capital. Aciunile private nseamn aciuni necotate att ale firmelor private, ct i ale celor publice. Capitalul de afaceri este, adesea, furnizat de investitori, precum i firme de investire a capitalului de afaceri, pentru a finana companiile cu risc tehnologic ridicat, precum sunt cele specializate n tehnologii noi. Furnizarea capitalului se face, de regul, n schimbul unei cote din aciunile de capital, care s asigure firmei investitoare o poziie-cheie n conducerea firmei pentru a-i exercita controlul deciziilor. Din motive de reputaie i din consideraii financiare, firmele finanate astfel pot decide ulterior s nlocuiasc aciunile necotate cu aciuni de capital, cotate la burs. Includerea unei astfel de firme sau a oricrei firme pe lista unei burse de valori i mbuntete accesul la piee de capital, deoarece potenialii investitori primesc informaii mai bune despre firm datorit transparenei ridicate i cerinelor de difuzare a informaiilor impuse de cotarea aciunilor la burs. n plus, companiile cotate trebuie s ndeplineasc anumite criterii de performane financiare i standarde contabile, menite s sporeasc ncrederea investitorilor n firma respectiv. n Uniunea European, cele mai cunoscute burse pentru lansarea i cotarea aciunilor de capital sunt London Stock Exchange, Euronext i Deutsche Borse. Unele instrumente financiare nu pot fi clasificate strict nici ca titlu de debit, nici ca aciuni de capital, pentru c ele ncorporeaz caracteristicile ambelor categorii. Aceste instrumente, numite n literatura de specialitate hibride, au cptat o importan considerabil n ultimele decenii. Unele dintre ele sunt clasificate ca i inovaii financiare, nsemnnd noi tehnici financiare, menite s asigure surse mai ieftine i mai puin rigide de finanare a ntreprinderilor. Drept exemple de astfel de instrumente pot servi obligaiunile convertibile (n aciuni de capital) i certificatele de garanie. Diferena dintre ele este c obligaiunile convertibile dau deintorilor dreptul de a le converti ntr-un anumit numr de aciuni de capital ale firmei emitente, iar certificatele de garanie asigur deintorilor dreptul de a cumpra aciuni ale firmelor emitente la un anumit pre, fiind adesea ataate emisiunilor de obligaiuni ale firmelor respective. O alt categorie important de instrumente 112 forms of such financing are loans and issuance of debt instruments. Debit titles may be sold to investors through public or private issue. In the case of private investments, secured debit titles can not be traded on stock and are difficult to sold on other financial markets because they are issued to specific investors, individualized. Public issue of secured debit titles can be easily sold on all financial markets. In connection with the financing by securities issuing, these can be released by private issuing in the form of unlisted and as business capital and by public issue i.e. by securities included in the list of capital stock. Private equity means unlisted actions, both for private firms and public firms. Business capital is often provided by investors and investment firms of business capital, in order to finance companies with high technological risk, such as those specialized in new technologies. Providing of capital is done usually in exchange for a share capital securities to provide the investing firm a key - position of the company management to exercise its control decisions. For the sake of reputation and financial considerations, such funded companies may decide later to replace the unquoted shares with listed capital shares. Including of such a company or any company on the list on a stock exchange improves its access to capital markets because potential investors receive better information about the company, due to high transparency and dissemination of information requirements required by the stock exchange listing. In addition, listed companies must comply with certain criteria for financial performance and accounting standards, aimed to increase investor confidence in company. In the European Union, the most popular stock to launch and rating capital securities are the London Stock Exchange, Euronext and Deutsche Borse. Some financial instruments can not be classified strictly as either debit title or as capital securities, because they incorporate features of both. These tools, called in specialized literature hybrids, have gained considerable importance in recent decades. Some of them are classified as new financial innovations, meaning new financial techniques aimed to ensure cheaper and less rigid sources of funding businesses. Examples of such tools can serve convertible bonds (into capital action) and warranty statements. The difference between them is that convertible bonds give holders the right to convert them into a certain number of capital securities of the issuing company, while warranty statements ensure its holder the right to buy shares of issuing companies at a certain price, often attached to bond issues of their respective owners. Another important category of financial instruments which began to play an important role in financing European companies are new financial

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RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS financiare, care a nceput s joace un rol important n finanarea companiilor europene sunt derivatele financiare. Firmele folosesc aceste instrumente derivate pentru protejarea contra riscurilor. Principalele tipuri de derivate sunt opiunile, contractele la termen de tip eatures i de tip forward, acordurile de tip swap. De regul, n Uniunea European se finaneaz numai acele proiecte prin care inegalitile economice pot fi echilibrate sau n vederea acordrii unor ajutoare unor asociaii comunitare, regiuni, ri, industrii sau categorii de populaie defavorizate. Astfel, finanrile directe pentru regiunile mai srace din Uniunea European stau fa n fa cu finanrile nete pentru rile care cotizeaz (pltesc mai mult n UE dect pot primi napoi prin finanri). ntreprinderile trebuie s profite de avantajele oferite de ,,piaa intern european i s nu se bazeze pe finanrile parvenite de la rile-membre. Uniunea European acord resurse financiare nu numai ntreprinderile din rile-membre, dar adesea i celor din rile care vor deveni membre. Aceste finanri sunt puse la dispoziia antreprenorilor sub diferite aspecte: contribuii la mprumuturi, linii de credit nerambursabile, granturi etc. Finanri directe: proiectele UE preconizeaz colaborarea diferitor parteneri, precum universiti, instituii de cercetare din afara universitilor i/sau ntreprinderi industriale din mai multe ri .Proiectele sunt elaborate n comun i depuse la Comisia European, care va decide asupra acordrii ajutorului, dup o examinare amnunit i exact, fcut de un conductor de proiect competent. Fondurile structurale sunt administrate la nivel naional. rile anun proiecte, n cele mai multe cazuri, cu anunul prealabil al numrului ateptat de participani la proiect. Fondurile structurale servesc la diminuarea diferenelor de dezvoltare ntre regiuni, respectiv susin colaborarea economic i social n interiorul Uniunii Europene. Consiliul European preia finanarea de parteneriate pentru proiecte regionale i orizontale n rile-membre, n urmtoarele domenii: agricultur, politici regionale, probleme de angajare i sociale. n multe ri-membre UE exist posibilitatea finanrii de clustere sau obinerii unor proiecte de susinere a regiunilor din zonele de frontier ale mai multor ri. ns n rile-membre noi, precum Bulgaria i Romnia, pot fi resimite i unele obstacole privind acordarea finanrilor din Uniunea European, lund n considerare sumele modeste cu care contribuie aceste ri n bugetul european i necesitile sporite de finanare. Cu toate acestea, statele-membre i regiunile UE au acces la finanare din Fondul Social European n cadrul unei perioade de programare de apte ani. Actualul exerciiu de programare este preconizat pe perioada 2007-2013. Problema finanrii ntreprinderilor din Republica Moldova este destul de acut i se soluioneaz, de cele mai multe ori, prin apelarea la creditele bancare destul de costisitoare, defaforiznd astfel activitatea antreprenorilor autohtoni. Cu toate acestea, se practic i alte tipuri de finanri: n form de investiii directe de capital, granturi, credite nerambursabile, subvenii, finanri din cadrul derivatives. Companies use these derivatives to protect against risks. The main types of derivatives are options, forward contracts of features and of forward type and the swap agreements. Usually, the European Union is funding only those projects through which economic inequalities can be balanced, or in order to grant aid to certain community associations, regions, countries, industries disadvantaged population groups. Thus, direct funding for poorer regions in the European Union are facing the countries paying into the net funding (pay more to European Union than they receive back in grants). Companies must take advantage of the european internal market, and should not rely on funding received from member countries. EU gives financial resources for companies not only from member countries, but often to those from countries that will become members. These funds are available to entrepreneurs in various forms: contributions to loans, credit lines grants, grants, etc. Direct funding: European Union projects expect collaboration of various partners as universities, research institutions outside the universities and/ or industrial enterprises from several countries. The projects are jointly developed and submitted to the European Commission which will decide over granting aid, after a thorough and precise examination, made by a competent project manager. Structural funds: are managed nationally. Countries announce the projects, in most cases, notification in advance of the expected number of participants in the project. Structural funds are used to reduce the development disparities between regions that supporting economic and social cooperation within the European Union. European Council takes over funding by partnerships for regional and horizontal programs in member countries to the following areas: agriculture, regional policy, employment and social issues. In many EU countries there is the possibility of financing clusters, or to obtain supporting projects in areas of border regions of several countries. But in the new member countries, like Bulgaria and Romania can be also felt some obstacles on the granting of funding from the European Union considering the modest amounts contributed by these countries in the European budget and increased funding needs. However, member states and European regions have access to the European Social Fund, within a seven-year programming period. The current exercise in program is planned for 20072013. Regarding the issue of financing the companies in Moldova, it is quite acute and is often solved by resorting to bank loans which are quite expensive, this disadvantaging the activity of local entrepreneurs. However, other types of financing are also practiced in the form of direct capital investment, grants, loans grants, subsidies, grants in certain projects, etc., 113

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RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS anumitor proiecte etc., inclusiv cele parvenite din UE, dar i SUA, China i alte ri, n sperana c acestea vor contribui la dezvoltarea sectorului real i social al Republicii Moldova. including those received from the EU and U.S., China and other countries hoping that they will contribute to the development of the real and social sectors of Moldova.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Bibliografie/ Bibliography www.biblioteca-digitala.ase.ro www.minfin.md www.bnm.md www.finantare.ro www.worldbank.org

IMPACTUL MIGRAIEI INTERNAIONALE DE MUNC ASUPRA SITUAIEI PERSOANELOR VRSTNICE DIN REPUBLICA MOLDOVA (REZULTATELE UNUI STUDIU CALITATIV)
Conf. univ. dr. Dorin VACULOVSCHI, ASEM
Intensificarea proceselor migraiei internaionale de munc a determinat o cretere a numrului persoanelor de vrsta a treia, lsate fr ngrijirea membrilor de familie, respectiv, o cretere a numrului de solicitri din partea persoanelor vrstnice fa de sistemul de asisten social, astfel nct acesta nu mai este n stare s fac fa situaiei, ceea ce a condus i la nrutirea calitii serviciilor sociale acordate. n contextul dat, studiul calitativ n baza cruia este scris articolul scoate n eviden mai multe soluii de mbuntire a msurilor de politic social, capabile s depeasc situaia dat. Cuvinte-cheie: protecia social a persoanelor vrstnice, servicii sociale Protecia drepturilor i libertilor persoanelor vrstnice reprezint un scop de baz al politicilor sociale ale oricrui stat, care se realizeaz n funcie de realitile i particularitile economice, sociale, culturale ale acestuia. Vorbind despre politica social din Republica Moldova, ea, de asemenea, are n vizorul su persoanele de vrsta a treia, oferindu-le o gam larg de servicii sociale, precum i un suport legislativ i instituional dezvoltat. Sistemul de protecie social a persoanelor vrstnice se bazeaz pe doi piloni care funcioneaz pe principii diferite, i anume: sistemul de asigurare social i cel de asisten social. Principalul grup de legi, axat pe protecia social a persoanelor vrstnice, sunt legile care reglementeaz funcionarea sistemului de asigurri sociale. Printre acestea trebuie menionate: Legea nr. 489 din 08.07.1999 privind sistemul 114

THE IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL LABOR MIGRATION ON THE SITUATION OF OLDER PEOPLE IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA (THE RESULTS OF A QUALITATIVE STUDY)
Assoc. Prof. PhD Dorin VACULOVSCHI, AESM
Intensification of international labor migration processes resulted in an increase of the number of older persons left without care by family members, respectively, an increase of requests from elderly persons to social assistance system, so that system is no longer able to cope with the situation, fact that led to worsening the quality of provided social services. The context in which it is written, qualitative study article highlights several solutions to improve social policy measures capable to overcome the situation. Key-words: social protection for the elderly, social services Protection of rights and freedoms of older people is a basic goal of any State social policies which is carried out according to economic, social, cultural realities and peculiarities. The social policy of Moldova also has in sight elderly people, offering a wide range of social services and developing legal and institutional support. Social protection system for the elders is based on two pillars that work on different principles, namely social insurance system and social assistance. The main groups of laws focused on social protection of the elderly are the laws governing the operation of social insurance. Between them should be mentioned: Law no. 489 from 08.07.1999 on Social Insurance System (Published: 01/06/2000

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RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS public de asigurri sociale (Publicat: 06.01.2000 n Monitorul Oficial nr. 1-4, art. nr. 2); Legea nr. 156 privind pensiile de asigurri sociale de stat (Adoptat: 14.10.98, n vigoare: 01.01.99); Legea nr. 324 din 07.10.2004 pentru modificarea Legii nr. 156-XIV din 14 octombrie 1998 privind pensiile de asigurri sociale de stat (Publicat: 15.10.2004 n Monitorul Oficial nr. 186, art. nr. 838); Legea nr. 437 din 27.12.1990 cu privire la asigurarea cu pensii de stat n Republica Moldova (Publicat: 27.12.1990 n Monitorul Oficial nr. 012). Grupul de legi menionate mai sus au fost aprobate n contextul reformrii sistemului de asigurri sociale de la sfritul anilor 90, care deja nu mai fcea fa situaiei i nu era n stare s asigure o protecie social adecvat persoanelor n etate. Reform sistemului de asigurri sociale a contribuit, realmente, la mbuntirea situaiei privind asigurarea cu pensii, iar pensiile, pe parcursul urmtorilor ani, nregistrau i anumite creteri. Cu toate acestea, nu se poate spune c creterile pensiilor din ultimii ani au atins nivelul minimului de existen, iar persoanelor vrstnice, prin sistemul de pensii, le este asigurat un trai decent. Un alt grup de legi destinate proteciei sociale ale persoanelor vrstnice sunt cele legate de asistena social. Astfel, principala lege de domeniul dat este Legea nr. 547 din 25.12.2003 a asistenei sociale (publicat: 12.03.2004 n Monitorul Oficial nr. 042, art. nr. 249). Obiectivul de baz al prezentei legi const n acordarea persoanelor aflate n dificultate, inclusiv a persoanelor vrstnice neajutorate, a unei game largi de servicii sociale care le-ar asigura o anumit protecie social. Printre principalele servicii sociale prevzute de lege sunt: acordarea ajutoarelor materiale; acordarea compensaiilor nominative; prestarea unor servicii sociale la domiciliu persoanelor imobilizate, inclusiv psihologice; acordarea hranei gratuite prin intermediul cantinelor sociale, iar n unele cazuri, chiar i instituionalizarea persoanelor aflate n dificultate. O alt lege care completeaz legea asistenei sociale este Legea nr. 133 din 13.06.2008 cu privire la ajutorul social (publicat: 30.09.2008 n Monitorul Oficial nr. 179, art. nr. 625). Aceast lege are drept scop reglementarea procesului de acordare a ajutorului social persoanelor aflate n dificultate. n anul 2010, suportul legal al proteciei sociale a persoanelor vrstnice a fost completat cu o nou lege Legea nr. 123 din 18.06.2010 cu privire la serviciile sociale (publicat: 03.09.2010 n Monitorul Oficial nr. 155158, art. nr. 541. Data intrrii n vigoare: 03.03.2011), lege elaborat n contextul implementrii prevederilor Programului Naional privind crearea sistemului integrat de servicii sociale pe anii 2008-2012. Legea n cauz prevede o nou abordare a mecanismului de prestare a serviciilor sociale prin promovarea unei politici sociale comprehensive, prin evidenierea serviciilor sociale integrate, care cuprind toate categoriile de beneficiari. in the Monitorul Oficial. 1-4 Art. no: 2); Law no. 156 on State Social Insurance Pensions (adopted: 10/14/98, effective: 1/1/99); Law no. 324 from 07/10/2004 to amend Law no. 156-XIV from October 14, 1998 on State Social Insurance Pensions (Posted: 15/10/2004 in the Monitorul Oficial no. 186 Art. no: 838); Law no. 437 from 27.12.1990 on State pensions in the republic of Moldova (published: 27/12/1990 in the Monitorul Oficial no. 012). The above mentioned group of laws was approved in the context of social security system reform in the late 90 s, which no longer cope with the situation and was not able to provide adequate social protection for older people. Insurance reform in the late 90 s really helped to improve the situation regarding pensions, and over the next years they recorded some increases. However, we cannot say that pension increases from recent years have reached the minimum subsistence level and it was assured the decent living of elders through pension system. Another group of laws concerning social protection of older people is the one related to social assistance. Thus, the main law in this domain is Law no. 547 from 25.12.2003 on social assistance (published: 03/12/2004 in the Monitorul Oficial no. 042 Art. nr.: 249). The main objective of this law consists in giving people that are in difficulty, including helpless elders, a wide range of social services that would ensure some social protection. The main social services provided by the law are: material aid, nominative compensations, the provision of social services at home to disabled persons, including psychological, providing free food through social canteens, and in some cases, even institutionalization of persons in difficulty . Another law that complements social assistance law, is Law no. 133 from 13.06.2008 on Welfare (published: 30.09.2008 in the Monitorul Oficial no. 179, art. no.: 625). This law aims the regulation of the process of social aid to distressed people. In 2010 the legal framework of social protection of elderly people was completed with a new law Law no. 123 from 18.06.2010 on Social Services (Published: 03.09.2010 in the Monitorul Oficial no. 155-158 Art. nr. 541. Effective Date: 03/03/2011), law developed in the context of implementation of the National Program of creation of integrated social services for 2008-2012. This law provides a new approach to social service delivery mechanism by promoting a comprehensive social policy, by emphasizing integrated social services, which include all categories of 115

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RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS Protecia social a persoanelor vrstnice neajutorate, ai cror copii sunt plecai la munc peste hotare, este realizat n contextul prevederilor obiectivelor politicii sociale promovate de Republica Moldova pentru persoanele vrstnice, indiferent dac copiii lor sunt plecai sau nu la munc n strintate. Principalele repere actuale ale politicii sociale, axate pe persoanele n etate, inclusiv pentru acest grup socialvulnerabil, sunt reflectate n legislaia n vigoare din R. Moldova, n Strategia Naional de Dezvoltare pe anii 2008-2011 (Legea nr. 295 din 21.12.2007, publicat n Monitorul Oficial nr. 18-20 din 29.01.2008), precum i n Planul Naional privind crearea sistemului integrat de servicii sociale pe anii 2008-2012. Printre altele, la acest capitol, Strategia Naional de Dezvoltare presupune: Oferirea de noi oportuniti economice i sociale pentru segmentele vulnerabile ale populaiei, inclusiv prin mbuntirea eficienei i stabilitii resurselor destinate asistenei sociale; Perfecionarea politicilor de asigurare social, n special a sistemului de pensii. Cu alte cuvinte, protecia social pentru persoanele vrstnice vizeaz dreptul la protecia sntii, la securitatea social i medical, dreptul de a beneficia de servicii sociale. n acelai context, referindu-ne la vocaia european a republicii noastre, protecia social a persoanelor de vrsta a treia coreleaz i cu obiectivele politicii sociale promovate n rile europene, stipulate n Carta Social European. Astfel, articolul 23 al Cartei privitor la Dreptul persoanelor vrstnice la protecie social vizeaz msuri care s permit acestora s rmn membri deplini ai societii, ct mai mult timp posibil, prin intermediul: a) unor resurse financiare suficiente care s le permit s duc o existen decent i s participe activ la viaa public, social i cultural: b) difuzrii informaiilor privind serviciile i facilitile disponibile pentru persoanele vrstnice i posibilitilor de a recurge la acestea. Msurile trebuie, de asemenea, s permit persoanelor n etate s aleag liber propriul stil de via i s duc o existen independent n mediul lor obinuit, atta timp ct doresc i ct acest lucru este posibil, prin: a) punerea la dispoziie a unor locuine corespunztoare nevoilor acestora i a strii lor de sntate sau sprijin adecvat n vederea amenajrii locuinei; b) ngrijirea sntii i servicii pe care starea acestora le impune. n fine, msurile trebuie s garanteze persoanelor vrstnice, care triesc n instituii, o asisten corespunztoare n privina vieii private i participarea la determinarea condiiilor de via aici1. Fr ndoial, aceste cerine contureaz un standard maxim, care nu este atins nc nici de rile cele mai dezvoltate. Cu toate acestea, trebuie menionat faptul c, n conformitate cu noile repere ale Strategiei Naionale de Dezvoltare pentru anii 2008-2011, noul coninut al politicilor de protecie social a persoanelor vrstnice este
1

beneficiaries. Social protection of helpless elderly people, whose children left to work abroad is made in the context of the social policy objectives pursued by the Republic of Moldova for the elders, regardless their children are left or not to work abroad. The main items of current social policy focused on the elders, are reflected in the Moldovas effective legislation, the National Development Strategy for 2008-2011 (Act no. 295 of 21.12.2007, Monitorul Oficial nr. 18 to 20 from 29.01.2008) and the National Plan of creation of integrated social services system for 2008-2012. Among others, related this chapter, National Development Strategy includes: Providing new economic and social opportunities to vulnerable segments of population, including the improvement of the efficiency and stability of social assistance resources; Improvement of social insurance policies, in particular the pension system. In other words, social protection for the elders covers the right to health protection, social security and health, the right to receive social services. In the same context, with reference to Moldova's European vocation, social protection of the elders correlates with social policy objectives pursued in European countries, provided in the European Social Charter. Thus, Article 23 of the Charter, regarding the Right of elderly persons to social protection aims measures to enable older persons to remain full members of society as much as possible, through: a) sufficient financial resources to enable them to lead a decent life and participate actively in public, social and cultural life; b) dissemination of information on services and facilities available for elders and possibilities to use them. Measures should also allow older people to freely choose their own lifestyle and to lead independent lives in their familiar surroundings as long as they wish and that is possible by: a) providing decent housing, appropriate with their needs and health or an adequate support for the adaptation of their housing; b) health care and services adequate to their situation. Finally, the measures must guarantee to elderly persons who live in institutions an appropriate support in terms of privacy and the participation in determination of the living conditions in the institution. Undoubtedly, these requirements shape a highest standard, but which is not reached by most developed countries. However, it should be noted that under new guidelines of the National Development Strategy for 2008-2011, the new content of social protection policies for the elders is

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RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS destul de apropiat de cel al politicilor sociale europene, fiind axat, n primul rnd, pe incluziunea social, astfel nct politicile sociale s fie capabile s asigure un grad nalt al coeziunii sociale att la nivel de comunitate, n particular, ct i la nivel de ar, n general. n ceea ce privete politica de ocrotire a sntii pentru persoanele vrstnice, trebuie menionat faptul c i aceasta prevede un acces garantat, nediscriminatoriu la o asisten medical, indiferent de situaia material a persoanei. Totodat, evoluia evenimentelor de ordin economic i social de ultim or a scos n eviden mai multe probleme legate de asigurarea unei protecii sociale adecvate persoanelor n etate, astfel nct cadrul legal existent, dar i posibilitile economice i instituionale nu sunt n stare s fac fa situaiei create. Pe de o parte, procesele de mbtrnire ale populaiei au condus la o cretere semnificativ a numrului persoanelor de vrsta a treia (adic a beneficiarilor sistemului de asigurri sociale). Pe de alt parte, intensificarea proceselor migraiei internaionale de munc au condus la diminuarea drastic a numrului contribuabililor la sistemul de asigurri sociale, compromind astfel funcionarea normal a sistemului de asigurri sociale principalul pilon al sistemului de protecie social a persoanelor vrstnice, funcia cruia este asigurarea acestui grup de persoane un nivel al veniturilor adecvat, necesar pentru un trai decent. Situaia dat a condus la compromiterea posibilitii mbuntirii calitii vieii peroanelor vrstnice prin majorarea gradual a pensiilor (aa cum se proceda n primii ani dup reforma sistemului de asigurri sociale), att de necesar pentru necesitile specifice vrstei lor. Intensificarea proceselor migraiei internaionale de munc a determinat i o alt problem major, legat de persoanele vrstnice. Este vorba despre creterea numrului persoanelor de vrsta a treia, lsate fr ngrijirea membrilor de familie. Situaia dat a condus la creterea numrului de solicitri din partea persoanelor vrstnice fa de sistemul de asisten social, astfel nct sistemul nu mai este n stare s fac fa situaiei, ceea ce a condus i la nrutirea calitii serviciilor sociale acordate. n contextul dat, pentru gsirea unor soluii eficiente de depire a situaiei, n cadrul Universitii de Stat din Moldova, n parteneriat cu Agenia Ceh pentru Dezvoltare i Organizaia Internaional pentru Migraiune, a fost realizat studiul calitativ Necesitile specifice ale copiilor i vrstnicilor lsai fr ngrijirea membrilor de familie plecai peste hotare. Studiul a artat c persoanele vrstnice neajutorate, ai cror copii sunt plecai la munc peste hotare, ca grup socialvulnerabil specific a devenit att de numeros, nct se poate spune despre necesitatea implementrii unui suport legal suplimentar care le-ar asigura protecia social necesar i adecvat printr-o gam de servicii sociale speciale pentru aceast categorie de persoane vulnerabile. n acest caz, problemele lor nu ar consta att n insuficiena veniturilor, graie remitenelor pe care ei le primesc de la copiii plecai (cu toate c exist i cazuri ieite din comun, cnd quite close to that of European social policy, been focused firstly, on social inclusion, so that social policies should be able to provide a high degree of social cohesion both at community level and at country level in general. In terms of health care policy for older persons, it should be noted that it provides guaranteed access, non-discriminated in healthcare, regardless of financial situation of the person. However, the development of last economic and social events revealed several problems related to insurance of adequate social protection of older people, so that the existing legal frame, institutional and economic opportunities unable to cope with the situation. On the one hand, the processes of aging of the population have led to a significant increase in the number of older people (i.e. beneficiaries of the social security system). On the other hand, intensification of international labor migration has led to drastic reduction of the number of contributors to social security system, thus compromising the normal functioning of the social insurance system the main pillar of social protection for the elders, whose function is to ensure an adequate level of income to this group of people, needed for decent living. This situation led to compromising the potential growth of the quality of life of older by gradual pension retirement increasing (as do the first years after welfare reform), so necessary for the specific needs of their age. Intensification of international labor migration processes caused another major problem related to the elders. It's about increasing the number of older people left without care by family members. This situation led to an increase in requests from the elders to social assistance system, so that the system is not able to cope with the situation, which led to worsening of the quality of the provided social services. In this context of finding efficient solutions to overcome the situation, the State University of Moldova, in partnership with Czech Agency for Development and International Organization for Migration conducted a qualitative study titled The specific needs of children and elderly members left without family care who are abroad. The study showed that the helpless elders, whose children are left to work abroad, as a specific vulnerable group became so large that it can be said about the need to implement an additional legal support that would ensure the necessary and appropriate social protection through a range of special social services for this vulnerable category. In this case, their problems will consist not in insufficient revenues, thanks to remittances that they receive from the left children (although there are several cases when the elders are left without care and no source of income) as in need of social 117

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RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS persoanele vrstnice sunt lsate i fr ngrijire, i fr surse de existen), ct n necesitatea unor servicii sociale la domiciliu, servicii de ordin psihologic sau care le-ar depi insuficiena de comunicare, att de important pentru ei. Problema prestrii serviciilor sociale acestei categorii de persoane este determinat i de insuficiena, din cadrul centrelor de asisten social din localiti, a resurselor umane, financiare i instituionale necesare, care ar face fa satisfacerii necesitilor unor astfel de servicii. Or, serviciile sociale de acest fel sunt prestate, deocamdat, de instituiile de stat (reeaua de asisteni sociali comunitari) i, ntr-o msur mai modest, de reprezentanii societii civile. Aici poate fi menionat i calitatea insuficient a serviciilor medicale prestate acestei categorii de persoane. Or, persoanele vrstnice necesit o asisten medical cu mult mai frecvent dect alte categorii de persoane vulnerabile. O asemenea situaie se poate ntmpla i din cauza volumului mare de lucru al medicilor de familie. n situaia n care calitatea serviciilor sociale prestate de instituiile de stat las de dorit, ca soluie, este binevenit instituirea unor organizaii private similare, care ar oferi servicii sociale persoanelor vrstnice contra plat, astfel nct acestea, dac au posibilitate, s apeleze i la servicii sociale private. O asemenea practic exist deja n rile dezvoltate. Dar aici apare o problem, deoarece prestarea serviciilor sociale private nu sunt acoperite cu un suport legal adecvat. Pe de alt parte, i atitudinea populaiei fa de acest gen de activitate este, deocamdat, negativ. Astfel, dac cetenii moldoveni sunt gata s presteze asemenea servicii n strintate, ei nu sunt gata s le presteze acas, n Republica Moldova: Faptul c n R. Moldova nu exist o reea de instituii private bine dezvoltat, care s presteze servicii sociale persoanelor vrstnice, genereaz anumite dificulti suplimentare n procesul de dezvoltare a serviciilor sociale pentru persoanele vrstnice neajutorate. n acelai context, se poate meniona i activitatea insuficient a reprezentanilor societii civile sau a organizaiilor de voluntariat n prestarea serviciilor sociale pentru persoanele vrstnice a cror copii sunt plecai la munc peste hotare. Cu toate c la nivel de republic exist mai multe organizaii non-guvernamentale, care se preocup de acest gen de activitate, la nivel de localiti situaia las mult de dorit. Sunt cazuri n care prestarea serviciilor sociale persoanelor vrstnice neajutorate este efectuat prin intermediul diverselor confesiuni religioase sau comuniti naionale (de ex., comunitatea baptitilor, catolicilor sau a evreilor, armenilor etc.). Atunci se observ c aceasta are loc n funcie de apartenena persoanei vrstnice la confesiunea sau la comunitatea naional. Totodat, vorbind despre activitile de voluntariat n prestarea serviciilor sociale persoanelor vrstnice neajutorate, se poate constata c nici cultura micrii de voluntariat nu este rspndit n msura necesar, nici suportul legal referitor la voluntariat nu este bine dezvoltat. Pornind de la faptul c situaia persoanelor vrstnice neajutorate, ai cror copii sunt plecai peste hotare a devenit, 118 services at home, psychological services or services that would exceed the lack of communication, so important for them. The problem of social service performing for this category of people is determined by insufficiency in the towns of social centers of human, financial and institutional resources, that would meet the needs of such services. However, such social services are still provided by public institutions (community network of social workers), and a more modest extent civil society representatives. In this context can be specified and the insufficient quality of medical services for this category of people. However, elders require much more frequent healthcare services than other categories of vulnerable people. Such a situation can happen due to heavy workload of family doctors. If the quality of social services offered by state institutions is poor, the solution is the establishment of similar private organizations that would provide paid social services for older people, so that they, if possible, can call to private social services too. Such a practice exists in developed countries. The problem is due to the fact that private social services are not coverred with adequate legal support. On the other hand, the attitude of people towards this type of activity is still negative. Thus, if the Moldovan citizens are ready to provide such services abroad, they are not ready to perform them at home un Moldova. The fact that in Moldova there is no welldeveloped network of private institutions that provide social services for elderly people, generates additional difficulties in the development of social services for helpless older people. In the same context, one can mention the insufficient activity of civil society or voluntary organizations in providing social services for older people whose children are left to work abroad. Although, at country level there are several nongovernmental organizations concerned in this type of activity, but at level of localities situation leaves much to be desired. There are cases when social services for helpless older people are made through various religious denominations and national communities (e.g. Community Baptists, Catholics, Jews, Armenians, etc.). In this case we see that social services takes place according to the membership of elders to the confession or national community. Also, speaking of volunteering in helpless elders social services, it is clear that nor voluntary movement culture isnt widespread so much, nor legal support on volunteering is not developed. Given the fact that the situation of helpless older people whose children are abroad became, indeed, a major social problem, it requires

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RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS ntr-adevr, o problem social major, ea necesit implementarea anumitor msuri suplimentare de ordin legal i instituional. Astfel, una din aceste msuri (ca element de politic migraional) ar fi obligarea (sau motivarea) persoanelor care pleac la munc peste hotare s pun la eviden prinii neajutorai n cadrul instanelor competente (primrie, serviciul de asisten social comunitar etc.), tot aa cum sunt pui la eviden copiii. Totodat, realizarea unei astfel de msuri este dificil, deoarece, conform Constituiei Republicii Moldova i a legislaiei n vigoare, orice cetean are dreptul la libera circulaie, indiferent dac a aranjat situaia prinilor si neajutorai sau nu. Pe lng acestea, i problema migraiei ilegale, care a cptat proporii necontrolate, complic i mai mult monitorizarea persoanelor vrstnice neajutorate. Pe de alt parte, ar fi binevenit i impunerea prin lege i a responsabilitii copiilor fa de prinii si vrstnici neajutorai fie prin msuri de ordin fiscal, fie de ordin administrativ. n acest context, apare necesitatea n elaborarea i implementarea unor prghii noi, motivatorii i eficiente, astfel nct, pe de o parte, acestea s nu lezeze libertile fundamentale ale persoanelor privind dreptul la libera circulaie, iar, pe de alt parte, persoanele neajutorate s nimereasc realmente n vizorul asistenilor sociali comunitari i s beneficieze de serviciile sociale necesare. Este vorba, n primul rnd, despre msurile de sensibilizare a opiniei publice, dar i de educare a persoanelor care pleac la munc peste hotare vis--vis de situaia persoanelor vrstnice lsate fr ngrijire. O alt propunere care ar contribui la soluionarea problemelor persoanelor neajutorate, ai cror copii sunt plecai peste hotare, ar fi dezvoltarea i diversificarea serviciilor sociale integrate, astfel nct acestea s poat satisface toate necesitile specifice ale acestei categorii de persoane, n special cele neeconomice. Or, suportul legal pentru o asemenea msur deja exist. Legea cu privire la serviciile sociale nr. 123 a fost aprobat la 18.06.2010 i a fost implementat la 03.03.2011. Problema ar consta n aplicarea corect a legii n cauz. Una din propunerile de ordin legal, care ar ameliora situaia persoanelor vrstnice neajutorate, ai cror copii sunt plecai peste hotare, ar fi legalizarea i dezvoltarea serviciilor sociale private. Recent, n Republica Moldova instituii private care ar presta servicii sociale la domiciliu cu plat sunt destul de puine. Iar dezvoltarea unor asemenea servicii necesit att suportul legal adecvat, ct i pregtirea societii pentru astfel de servicii. n acelai context, poate fi menionat i dezvoltarea cadrului legal pentru organizaiile non-guvernamentale sau a celor de voluntariat, rspndirea crora la nivel de comunitate este extrem de insuficient. Este nevoie de un cadru legal adecvat, care ar facilita crearea de parteneriate ntre diverii actori sociali, implicai n activitatea de protecie social a persoanelor vrstnice, care ar identifica, n mod concret, cu surse financiare i alte surse necesare pentru realizarea acestor activiti. Or, aceste parteneriate s-ar nscrie armonios n procesul de dezvoltare comunitar a implementation of additional legal and institutional measures. Thus, one of these measures (as part of migration policy) should be ordering (or motivation) of persons who leave to work abroad to make out helpless parents in the responsible courts (primary, community social service, etc.), same like children are put on record. However, implementation of such measures is difficult, because according to the Moldovan Constitution and legislation in force any citizen has the right to free movement, whether he arranged his parents helpless situation or not. In addition, illegal migration problem has taken proportions, which further complicates the problem of uncontrolled monitoring helpless elders. On the other hand, would be also welcome, the enforcement by law of the responsibility of helpless elders children or by fiscal or by administrative measures. In this context, there is a need to development and implementation of new leverage, effective and motivators so that, on the one hand, not to harm the fundamental freedoms of persons on the right of free movement, and on the other hand, really hit the helpless people in the focus of community social workers to receive necessary social services. It is primarily about public awareness measures, but also to educate the people who leave to work abroad vis--vis the situation of older people left without care. Another proposal that could contribute to solving problems of helpless people whose children are abroad, is the development and diversification of integrated social services so that they can meet all the specific needs of this category of people, especially non-economic ones. However, legal support for such a measure already exists. Law on social services no. 123 was approved on 18.06.2010 and will be implemented from 03.03.2011. The problem would be the correct application of the law in question. One of the proposals of legal order that could improve genuinely the helpless situation of older people whose children are abroad is to legalize and privatize social services. Currently in Moldova are very few private institutions that provide paid social services at home. And development of such services requires on the one hand adequate legal support, and on the other hand preparing the society for such services. In the same context can be also cited, the development of legal framework for NGOs or volunteering spread extremely insufficient at community level. It requires an adequate legal framework that could facilitate the creation of partnerships between various stakeholders involved in the welfare of the elders, who would identify specifically financial and other sources required for these activities. However, these partnerships would 119

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RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS localitilor din R. Moldova i asigurare a unui grad nalt de coeziune social. Schimbrile de ordin legal, menionate mai sus, ar conduce i la schimbarea statutului asistentului social comunitar, care este responsabil de promovarea obiectivelor de politic social la nivel de comunitate. Astfel, asistentul social va deveni principalul factor de decizie la nivel de comunitate n coordonarea prestrii serviciilor sociale persoanelor vrstnice neajutorate att de subdiviziunile proprii, ct i de ali parteneri sociali, precum organizaiile private, reprezentanii societii civile sau voluntarii. Tot n competena asistenilor sociali comunitari va fi i acreditarea prestatorilor de servicii sociale, menionai mai sus, precum i controlul calitii serviciilor sociale prestate. Cu toate acestea, problema insuficienei resurselor financiare rmne, deocamdat, nerezolvat. Intensificarea migraiei internaionale de munc din Republica Moldova, din ultimii ani, a scos n eviden mai multe probleme att de ordin economic, ct i social. n plus, beneficiile obinute de populaie n calitate de remitenedinurmamigraiei,carerealmenteaucontribuit la mbuntirea calitii vieii, pot fi menionate i problemele majore de ordin social, care se manifest nu numai prin compromiterea securitii sociale a persoanelor neajutorate, lsate fr ngrijirea membrilor de familie. Studiul a artat c migraia internaional de munc a afectat grav nsei relaiile copii-prini, relaiile dintre membrii societii, fapt ce poate conduce la compromiterea coeziunii sociale sau, n cel mai ru caz, la dezintegrarea societii. Din acest considerent, depirea efectelor negative ale fenomenului migraiei internaionale de munc necesit o intervenie prompt din partea statului, care s-ar concretiza, n primul rnd, n nsntoirea economiei, n crearea noilor locuri de munc productive, care s le asigure membrilor societii un trai decent i s-i demotiveze s plece peste hotare n cutarea norocului, iar, n al doilea rnd, prin crearea unor mecanisme noi de securitate social, capabile s consolideze coeziunea social att la nivel de ar, ct i de localitate i s asigure o dezvoltare comunitar durabil. n ceea ce privete asigurarea proteciei sociale a persoanelor vrstnice neajutorate, ai cror copii sunt plecai peste hotare, rezultatele cercetrii au scos n eviden urmtoarele forme de suport care ar putea depi situaia critic vis--vis de acest subiect: - Ajustarea cadrului legal existent. n acest context, pot fi menionate urmtoarele recomandri: obligarea (sau motivarea) persoanelor care pleac la munc peste hotare s pun la eviden prinii neajutorai n cadrul instanelor competente (primrie, serviciul de asisten social comunitar etc.); impunerea prin lege a responsabilizrii copiilor fa de prinii lor vrstnici neajutorai fie prin msuri de ordin fiscal, fie prin msuri de ordin administrativ; implementarea suportului legal care ar 120 fall harmonious in community development process from Moldovas localities and will ensure a high degree of social cohesion. Legal changes mentioned above would also lead to changing the status of Community social worker who is responsible for the promotion of social policy at the community level. Thus, the social worker will become the main decision-maker at community level that coordinates the provision of social services of helpless elders as by their subdivisions as well as by other social partners and private organizations, civil society representatives or volunteers. In the power of community social workers, will also be the accreditation of social service providers mentioned above, as well as quality control of social services. However, the problem of insufficient financial resources is still unresolved. Intensification of international labor migration in Moldova in recent years has highlighted several problems, both economic and social. In addition to the population benefits as a result of remittances from migration, which really helped to improve the quality of life, can be listed the major social problems which occur not only by compromising the social security of people left helpless without the care of family members. The study showed that international labor migration very seriously affected child-parent relations, relations between members of society, which can lead to compromise social cohesion or in the worst case, the disintegration of society. For this reason, overcoming of the negative effects of international labor migration requires prompt intervention by the state that would result, first, in the economic recovery, in the creation of new productive jobs that will ensure decent living to society members and de-motivating them to go abroad in search of fortune, as well as creation of new social security mechanisms able to strengthen social cohesion both at country and local level and ensure sustainable community development. With regard to social protection of older helpless people whose children are abroad, research results revealed the following forms of support which really could exceed the critical situation vis--vis this issue: - Adjusting the existing legal framework. In this context may be mentioned the following recommendations: ordering (or motivation) the persons who leave to work abroad to make out helpless parents in the responsible courts (primary, community social service etc.); imposing by law the responsibility of children towards helpless elderly parents by fiscal or administrative measures; providing the legal support that will ensure the implementation of the development of

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RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS asigura dezvoltarea unor mecanisme viabile de identificare a nevoilor persoanelor vrstnice neajutorate, ai cror copii sunt plecai la munc peste hotare; crearea i implementarea suportului legal adecvat care ar conduce la dezvoltarea i diversificarea serviciilor sociale integrate, astfel nct acestea s poat satisface toate necesitile specifice ale acestei categorii de persoane, n special cele neeconomice. n acest context, poate fi menionat Legea cu privire la serviciile sociale nr. 123, aplicarea corect a creia poate realmente depi aceast situaie critic; crearea unui cadru legal care ar contribui la constituirea organizaiilor private axate pe prestarea serviciilor sociale private persoanelor vrstnice neajutorate; dezvoltarea cadrului legal, care ar conduce la activizarea organizaiilor nonguvernamentale sau a celor de voluntariat, care s-ar preocupa de prestarea serviciilor sociale persoanelor vrstnice neajutorate, n special la nivel de localitate. - Sensibilizarea opiniei publice vis--vis de situaia persoanelor vrstnice, ai cror copii sunt plecai la munc peste hotare. Activitile de sensibilizare a opiniei publice presupun implicarea, n primul, rnd, a societii civile, a instituiilor mass-media, precum i a altor actori sociali n rspndirea spoturilor publicitare, informarea opiniei publice vis--vis de situaia real legat de aceast problem social. - Consolidarea i dezvoltarea parteneriatelor sociale. Aplicarea unor msuri viabile de implicare a membrilor ntregii societi n crearea parteneriatelor sociale, axate pe depirea problemelor legate de protecia social a persoanelor vrstnice neajutorate. n acest caz, este binevenit i experiena internaional referitoare la aceast problem. viable mechanisms for identifying the needs of helpless elderly people, whose children are left to work abroad. creating and implementing the appropriate legal support that would lead to the development and diversification of integrated social services so that they can meet all the specific needs of this category of people, especially non-economic ones. In this context, may be mentioned the law on social services no. 123, correct application of which can really overcome this critical situation. creating and implementing of legal framework that would contribute to the development of private organizations focused on social services regarding the elders helpless. developing the legal framework that would lead to activation of non-governmental organizations or volunteering concerned with social services for helpless elderly people, especially at local level. - Raising public awareness regarding situation of older people whose children are left to work abroad. Public awareness activities involve the first, and foremost, civil society, media institutions and other social actors in the spread of commercials, the information of public about real situation in this social issue. - Strengthening and developing social partnerships. Application of sustainable measures of involvement of society members in the creation of social partnerships focused on overcoming the problems of social protection of older helpless people. In this case, is welcomed the international experience concerning this issue too.

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121

RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

INDICATORII COMPETITIVITII INTERNAIONALE A MRFURILOR I COMPARAREA DATELOR STATISTICE N COMERUL EXTERIOR


Conf. univ. dr. Larisa DODU-GUGEA, ASEM
Procesul de competitivitate ne arat interdependena dintre relaiile economice interne i externe. Acestea se limiteaz adesea la comparaia performanelor globale i sectoriale ale naiunilor pe baza comerului exterior. Comerul exterior este unul din cei mai importani indicatori ai competitivitii internaionale a unei naiuni. Acesta reflect domeniile n care produsele unei economii sunt competitive. Legtura direct dintre creterea exporturilor i creterea economic este concludent, mai ales pentru o economie mic de dimensiunile R.Moldova. Analiza exportului i importului se poate realiza din punct de vedere valoric, cantitativ i de pre. O importan mai mare o are viziunea dinamic cunoaterea evoluiei raportului, rezultatul efortului de perfecionare. Indicatorii statistici, dup modul de obinere i rolul lor n cercetarea statistic, se divizeaz n dou mari categorii: indicatorii absolui (sau mrimi absolute) sunt obinui n urma observrii i centralizrii i exprim nivelul de dezvoltare a fenomenului, caracterizndu-1 din punct de vedere calitativ i cantitativ, la modul cel mai general; indicatorii derivai sunt obinui prin comparaii, abstractizri i generalizri ale mrimilor absolute i au scopul de a evidenia trsturile eseniale ale exportului i importului de mrfuri i a face posibil analiza acestor trsturi. Acetia se clasific n: mrimi relative; mrimi medii; indicatori ai variaiei; indici; indicatori ce caracterizeaz corelaia. Prima metod de obinere a indicatorilor derivai este compararea datelor; aceasta se poate face prin metoda balanei sau prin raportare. Metoda balanei const n nregistrarea separat a nivelelor importurilor i exporturilor, grupate dup aceleai criterii: ara partener, modalitatea de plat, tipul mrfii etc., sau avnd acelai obiect i compararea nivelelor totalizate ale acestora. Utiliznd aceast metod, se vor calcula urmtorii indicatori ai comerului exterior: soldul balanei comerciale (S): 122

INDICATORS OF INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS AND COMPARISON OF STATISTICAL DATA IN FOREIGN TRADE


Assoc. Prof. PhD Larisa DODU-GUGEA, AESM
The competitive process shows the interdependence between internal and external economic relations. These comparisons are often limited to global and sectoral performance of nations on foreign trade. Foreign trade is one of the most important indicators of international competitiveness of a nation. It reflects the areas of the economy where the products are competitive. Direct link between export growth and economic growth is conclusive, especially for a small economy as of the Republic of Moldova. The analysis of exports and imports can be performed in terms of value, quantity and price. A greater importance has the dynamic vision knowledge of the ratio evolution development, the result of the improvement effort. Statistical indicators, according to the way of obtaining them and their role in the statistical research, are divided into two broad categories: absolute indicators (or absolute values) are derived from observation, centralization and express the level of development of the phenomenon, characterizing it qualitatively and quantitatively, in a very general way; derived indicators are obtained through comparison, abstraction and generalization of absolute values and have the goal to highlight the essential features of exports and imports of goods and to enable analysis of these traits. They are classified into: relative size; medium size; indicators of change; indices; indicators that characterize the correlation. The first method of obtaining the derived indicators is to compare the data; this can be done by the balance method or by reference. The balance method consists from separate record of the imports and exports level, grouped by the same criteria: the partner country, payment method, type of goods, etc., or on the same subject and the comparison of their aggregated levels. Using this method will be calculated the following indicators of foreign trade: trade balance (S):

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3 (77) 2011

RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS S = E M, unde: E exportul de mrfuri; M importul de mrfuri. Soldul balanei comerciale poate fi: activ E > M => balan activ sau excedentar, nul E = M => balan echilibrat; pasiv E < M => balan pasiv sau deficitar. n funcie de sursa datelor, deosebim: balan comercial vamal: datele provin din evidenele vamale; balan comercial bancar: datele provin din evidenele bancare. Drept exemplu poate servi tabelul nr. 1, n care este prezentat balana comercial a Republicii Moldova pe anul 2009, dup datele grupate pe ri, exprimate n mln. dolari SUA. S=EM where: E export of goods, M import of goods. Trade balance can be: active E> M => active or surplus balance, zero E = M => equilibrated balance; passive E<M => passive or deficit balance. Depending on the data source we distinguish: - customs trade balance: the data coming from customs records; - bank trade balance: the data coming from bank records. As an example is table 1, in which is listed the trade balance of Moldova for 2009, according to the information grouped by country, the data is expressed in million US dollars.

Tabelul 1/Table 1 Comerul exterior al Republicii Moldova pe ri CSI i UE, anul 2010/ Foreign trade of the Republic of Moldova by CIS and EU countries, 2010 Comer exterior/ Foreign trade (E+M), mln. USD 5396.8 Export/ Export (E), mln. USD 1541.5 Import/ Import (M), mln. USD 3855.3 Soldul/ Balance (S), mln. USD -2313.8 Gradul de acoperire a importului prin export/ Coverage of import by export, % 40.0

Total/Total din care/ form which: n rile CSI/ in CSI countries n rile UE/ in the EU countries n alte ri/ in other countries

1880.9 2433.2 1082.7

624.0 728.9 188.5

1256.9 1704.2 894.2

-632.8 -975.3 -705.7

49.6 42.8 21.1

Surs: calcule de autor, datele BNS / Sourse: calclations made by the author based on BNS data Din tabelul nr. 1 se observ c soldul balanei comerciale a R. Moldova n anul 2010 a fost pasiv, deci republica n acest an a avut o balan comercial deficitar. Urmtoarea categorie a indicatorilor statistici ai comerului exterior o reprezint mrimile relative. Aceste mrimi, spre deosebire de cele absolute, indic semnificaia nivelului concret al comerului exterior pentru economia rii. Indicatorii din aceast categorie se obin ca raport ntre mrimile absolute i ali indicatori, n funcie de care trebuie caracterizat comerul exterior, i pot fi exprimai n coeficieni, procente sau promile. Mrimile relative, n funcie de scopul lor i de aspectul evideniat, se clasific n: mrimi relative de structur Aceste mrimi arat cota-parte a unitilor sau grupelor de uniti n colectivitatea total i sunt numite ponderi sau greuti specifice i se determin dup formula: Table 1 reveals that the trade balance of Moldova in 2010 was passive, so in that year the Republic of Moldova had a deficit trade balance. The next category of statistical indicators of foreign trade is the relative sizes. These sizes, unlike the absolute ones, indicate the significance of trade specific to the country's economy. Indicators in this category are obtained as the ratio between absolute values and other indicators, according to which is characterized the foreign trade, and can be expressed as ratios, percentage or per thousand. Relative sizes, depending on their scope and the emphasized aspect are classified in: structure relative sizes These ratings indicate the share of units or groups of units in the total and are called weights or specific weights and are determined by the formulae:

gi =

xi

100
i

gi =

xi

100
i

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123

RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS Graficul din figura 1 prezint ponderile importurilor i exporturilor din perioada 2001-2010, exprimate n procente fa de volumul total al comerului exterior.
100.0 90.0 80.0 70.0

The graph in figure 2 shows the share of imports and exports during 2001-2010 expressed in percentage of total trade:

61.2 61.7 64.0 64.2 67.7 71.9 73.3 75.5 71.8 71.4 60.0
50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 %

38.8 38.3 36.0 35.8 32.3 28.1 26.7 24.5 28.2 28.6

Export

Import

Figura 1. Ponderea exportului i importului n comerului extern al Republicii Moldova/ Figure 1. The share of exports and imports in foreign trade of the Republic of Moldova Sursa: elaborat de autor n baza datelor BNS/ Source: Elaborated by author on the bases of NBS data Datele figurii 1 arat c tendina crete, cnd importul depete exportul, cota importului n comer exterior este 2/3 din volumul total al comerului exterior. Un alt indicator statistic din aceast categorie este rata contribuiei la variaia fluxurilor comerului exterior, ce reflect aportul adus de marfa dat i la modificarea volumului total al comerului exterior al rii ntr-o perioad dat i se determin din relaia: The data from figure 1 show that there is an increase in tendency when imports exceed the export; the import share in foreign share is two thirds of total foreign trade. Another statistical indicator from this category is the contribution rate to the variation of foreign trade flows, which reflects the contribution of the product i to the modification of the total volume of the countrys foreign trade in a given period and is determined by the relationship:

Rc =

unde: i sporul nregistrat la exportul/importul mrfurilor din categoria i, n perioada studiat;

i 100 , i

Rc =

sporul total nregistrat n aceast

perioad. Acest indicator se mai aplic i la analiza modificrilor n repartiia teritorial, att la nivel macro, ct i microeconomic. Tot din aceast categorie fac parte: indicele distribuiei geografice (IDG) coeficient de concentrare teritorial, care reflect gradul de dependen a economiei unei ri de pieele partenere, totodat exprimnd nivelul de dezvoltare economic a rii date. Acest indice se calculeaz, pentru exportul i importul de mrfuri, prin raportul dintre comerul exterior aferent unei zone i volumul total al comerului exterior dintr-o perioad; cu ct valoarea sa este mai apropiat de zero (IDG 0) cu att exportul, respectiv importul, este mai uniform repartizat, ponderile rilor partenere sunt relativ mici, fiind numeroase i dependena economiei naionale de ara partener este de 124

where: i registered growth in export / import of goods in the category i during the studied period;

i 100 , i

total growth registered during this

period. This indicator is also applied to changes in the territorial distribution analysis at both macro and levels. This category also includes: geographical distribution index (GDI) territorial concentration coefficient, which reflects the economic dependence on partner country markets, while expressing the countrys economic development data. This index is calculated for the export and import of goods, the ratio of foreign trade zones for a total volume of foreign trade in a period, the more its value is closer to zero (IDG 0) the respective export/import is more evenly distributed, partner countries have relatively small weights, being

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3 (77) 2011

RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS asemenea mic, iar economia naional este bine dezvoltat. Numrul mare de parteneri, deci i aria extins a comerului exterior diminueaz riscul dependenei economiei naionale de comportamentul partenerilor strini. Totodat, apare riscul scderii eficienei comerului exterior printr-o utilizare necorespunztoare a forei de munc i a risipirii mijloacelor financiare necesare unei astfel de activiti; mrimile relative de dinamic Mrimile relative de dinamic sunt folosite pentru caracterizarea evoluiei n timp a unui anumit fenomen. Ele se obin prin compararea nivelului fenomenului observat la un anumit moment sau perioad de timp cu un nivel anterior, nivel care poate fi nregistrat fie n perioada sau momentul imediat precedent, fie intr-o perioad cu mult timp n urm; mrimile relative de coordonare Aceste mrimi se obin prin compararea a dou grupe dintr-o colectivitate sau a dou colectiviti similare, coexistente n timp, dar situate n spaii diferite (regiuni geografice, ri etc.). La aceast categorie poate fi atribuit: - Gradul de acoperire a importului prin export (GA). Acesta arat ct la sut din valoarea produselor importate este acoperit de valoarea produselor autohtone exportate. Se determin din relaia: numerous, and the dependence of the national economy on the partner country is also small, and the national economy is well developed. The large number of partners, and therefore the extended area of foreign trade reduce the risk of dependence of national economy on the foreign partner's behavior. Also there is a risk of reduction of trade efficiency through an improper use of labor and financial resources necessary for dissipating such activities. relative dynamic sizes Relative dynamic sizes are used to characterize the evolution in time of a particular phenomenon. They are obtained by comparing the observed phenomenon, at a specific time or period, to a previous level, a level that can be recorded either in a recent period of time or moment or a long time ago. Relative coordination sizes These sizes are obtained by comparing two groups in a community or two similar communities, coexisting in time but located in different areas (geographical regions, countries, etc.). This category can also include: - The coverage degree of import through export (GA). This shows the percentage of the value of imported goods covered by the value of domestic exports. It is determined by the relationship:

GA =

E 100 % M

GA =

E 100 % M

ntre acest indicator i balana comercial exist urmtoarea legtur: GA > 100% ==> balan comercial excedentar; GA = 100% => balan comercial echilibrat; GA < 100% => balan comercial deficitar. Folosind datele din tabelul 1, calculm gradul de acoperire a importului prin export. Acest indicator indic c importul este acoperit prin export doar n proporie de 40,0%, totodat el arat o balan deficitar. - Rata de completare a produciei prin import (C) reflect importana importului unor mrfuri pentru economia naional i se obine prin raportarea importului (M) la producia intern (Q) a acelei mrfi:

Between these indicators and trade balance is the following link: - GA> 100% ==> surplus trade balance; - GA = 100% => equilibrated trade balance; - GA <100% => deficit trade balance. Using the data from table 1, we can calculate the coverage degree of import by export. This indicator expresses that the import is covered by exports by the proportion of only 40.0%, it also indicates a deficit balance. - Completing rate of production by import (C) reflects the importance of imports of goods for the national economy and is obtained by the ration of import (M) to the domestic production (Q) of that commodity:

C=

M Q

C=

M Q

- Indicatorii comparaiei n profil teritorial se obin prin compararea volumului valoric al comerului exterior al diferitor ri, raportat la numrul populaiei rilor date, compararea direct a volumului valoric al comerului exterior fiind lipsit de sens; mrimile relative de intensitate Mrimile din aceast categorie caracterizeaz frecvena de apariie sau intensitatea manifestrii unui fenomen n raport cu alt fenomen. Caracteristic pentru aceste mrimi este faptul c sunt singurele mrimi ce

- Indicators of comparison in territorial aspect are obtained by comparing the amount of trade value with the number of different countries population data, the direct comparison of the volume of foreign trade value is meaningless. intensity relative sizes. Sizes in this category characterize the frequency or intensity of the manifestation of a phenomenon in relation to another phenomenon. Characteristic for these sizes is that these are the only sizes that report 125

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3 (77) 2011

RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS raporteaz dou fenomene de natur diferit, cu condiia ca ntre acestea s existe o evident legtur logic i s coexiste n timp. Din aceast categorie fac parte: - Raportul comerului exterior la creterea economic Acesta arat ponderea soldului balanei comerciale n produsul intern brut (PIB), caracteriznd semnificaia soldului balanei comerciale pentru economia naional. Se va calcula dup formula: two different phenomena, with the condition of a logical link and obvious coexistence in time between these two. This category includes: - The ratio of foreign trade to economic growth This shows the share of trade balance in the Gross Product (GDP), characterizing the trade balance significance for the national economy. Is calculated as:

A=

E+M 100% PIB

A=

E+M 100 PIB

Acest indicator reflect contribuia comerului exterior la dezvoltarea economic a rii. Raportul dintre soldul comerului cu bunuri i PIB n anul 2010 s-a diminuat cu 20,7 puncte procentuale i a constituit 106,0 la sut; - Raportul soldului balanei comerciale la creterea economic Acesta arat ponderea soldului balanei comerciale n produsul intern brut (PIB), caracteriznd semnificaia soldului balanei comerciale pentru economia naional. Se va calcula dup formula:

This indicator reflects the contribution of trade to economic development of a country. The ratio of trade balance in goods and GDP in 2010 declined by 20.7 percentage points and amounted 106.0 percent; - Ratio of trade balance to economic growth This shows the share of trade balance in the Gross Product (GDP), characterizing the significance of trade balance for the national economy. It is calculated according to the formula:

A=

EM 100 PIB

A=

EM 100 PIB

Raportul dintre soldul comerului cu bunuri i PIB, n anul 2010, s-a diminuat cu 9,5 puncte procentuale i a constituit 45,5 la sut; - Volumul comerului exterior pe cap de locuitor se determin ca raport ntre volumul total al comerului exterior i numrul de locuitori ai rii date. Acest indicator caracterizeaz latura cantitativ a intensitii participrii la schimbul internaional de mrfuri; - Coeficienii de devansare se obin prin raportarea a doi indici ce caracterizeaz fenomene diferite, dar au baza de comparaie n acelai an. Indic de cte ori va crete mai repede fenomenul comparat, fa de cel cu care s-a comparat. Coeficienii de elasticitate a exportului/importului sunt indicatori ai performanelor obinute de o ar n comerul exterior pe baza dinamismului economiei naionale i n contextul accenturii concurenei i competitivitii pe pieele externe. Metoda indicilor nu numai c permite caracterizarea dinamicii importului i exportului de mrfuri, dar i descompunerea pe factori de influen a acestor dinamici, fiind posibile datorit evidenei valorice n ( preuri
1 0

The ratio of trade balance in goods and GDP in 2010 declined by 9.5 percentage points and constituted 45.5 percent; - The volume of foreign trade per capita - is determined as the ratio between the total trade and the population of the country. This indicator characterizes the quantitative side of the intensity of participation in the international exchange of goods; - Forward coefficients are obtained by comparing the two indices that characterize different phenomena, but have the same year basis of comparison. Indicates how many times the compared phenomenon will grow faster, than the one that is compared. Export/ import elasticity coefficients are indicators of a countrys performance on foreign trade in the context of a dynamic national economy and the rise of competition and competitiveness on foreign markets. The index method allows not only the characterization of the dynamic of goods import and export, but also the decomposition on influencing factors of these dynamics, this being possible by keeping the value at current prices ( comparable prices (

curente

q p

q p
1

comparabile

q p
1 1 1

q p
1

) and in

) of the two trade flows.

) ale celor dou fluxuri de comer exterior.

Astfel, att importul, ct i exportul sunt caracterizate prin trei indici, dup cum urmeaz: Indicele volumului valoric (Iv), ce se calculeaz dup relaia: I
v

Thus, both import and export is characterized by three indices as follows: Volume index value (IV) is calculated by the relationship: I =
v

q p = q p
0

q p q p
0

1 1 0

Average unit value index or price index is

Indicele valorii medii unitare sau indicele 126 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.3 (77) 2011

RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS preurilor,

I =
p

Indicele volumului fizic (Iq), ce se calculeaz din relaia: I


q

q p
1

q1 p1
=
v

ce

se

calculeaz

conform

relaiei:

calculated by the relationship: I

Physical volume index (I ) is calculated by the relationship: I


q

q p q p
1

1 1 0

q1 p0
0

=
q

p0

q p q p
1 0
v

0 0

Among these three indexes there is the following relationship: I I = I In some countries, both the foreign trade flow at
p

ntre cei trei indici exist urmtoarea relaie: n unele ri se nregistreaz i se public att valoarea fluxului de comer exterior n preuri curente (

I I =I .
p q

current prices (

q p
1

q p
1

) and price index, calculated

), ct i indicele preurilor, calculat fie cu baza

fix, fie cu baza n anul precedent anului de referin. Astfel, valorile celor trei indici sunt uor de calculat. Pentru o caracterizare mai ampl a comerului exterior, alturi de indicele valoric (Iv) este calculat i indicele preului (Ip). Prin raportarea preului referitor la una i aceeai marf din dou perioade diferite se obine indicele

either with fixed base or with previous year base of the year of reference is registered and published. Thus the values of the three indices are easily calculated. For a more comprehensive characterization of foreign trade, with the index value (IV) there is calculated and price index (Ip). By reporting the price of the same commodity in two different periods we can obtain the index of individual price:

p individual a preului: i = 1 . p0
p

ip =

p1 p0

Pentru ca valoarea acestui indice s fie semnificativ, este strict necesar ca marfa s fie absolut identic, la fel ca i condiiile n baza crora are loc tranzacia. Cum, n realitate, aceasta este foarte complicat, mrfurile nefiind strict identice, la fel ca i condiiile tranzaciilor, nu se poate vorbi despre un pre mediu, ci mai degrab despre o valoare medie unitar. Iat de ce, n metodologia statistic a ONU, indicele preului poart denumirea de indicele al valorii unitare i se calculeaz dup formula: I
p

The value of this index will be significant only if the product is absolutely identical, as well as the conditions, under which the transaction occurs. In fact, it is very complicated because there are no strictly identical goods, as well as trading conditions, thus, we can not talk about the average price, but rather about an average value per unit. That is why in the UN statistical methodology, the price index is called the index of the unit value and is calculated as:

v = v i

Ip =

i p

v v i

i p

La nivel macroeconomic, se recomand ca fiecare lot de marf exportat sau importat s fie consemnat cu denumirea exact, inclusiv codul mrfii, pentru prelucrarea electronic a datelor contravaloarea lotului (v1) i preul extern (p1), pentru a se putea stabili indicele individual al preului (ip). n practic ns, datorit numrului mare de loturi de mrfuri ce sunt tranzacionate, se aplic pe larg metodele selective, cea mai eficient fiind selecia concentrat, care const n nregistrarea uneia sau ctorva mrfuri dintr-o grup a nomenclatorului, mrfuri ce au cele mai mari ponderi, deci sunt reprezentative pentru grupa dat, considernduse c celelalte mrfuri vor avea o evoluie similar a preurilor. innd cont de faptul c competitivitatea agentului economic este determinat, n primul rnd, de competitivitatea produselor ce le propune pe pia, la nceput vor fi analizai indicatorii competitivitii internaionale a produselor: - Cota de pia este exprimat prin volumul

At the macroeconomic level, it is recommended that each batch of exported or imported goods to be recorded with the exact name, including the commodity code, electronic data processing - batch value (V1) and the external price (P1), in order to determine the individual index price (ip). In practice, due to the large number of consignments of goods that are traded, widely applicable are selected methods, the most efficient being the concentrated selection, which is to record one or few commodities in a group of classification, goods that have the greatest weights, so they are representative for every group, considering that the other goods will have the similar price. Given that the competitiveness of the economic agent is determined primarily by the competitiveness of the proposed goods on the market, first of all we will analyze the indicators of products international competitiveness. - Market share is expressed in value or quantity of sales volume or by the weight of the product or the manufacturer in the total volume of transactions that 127

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RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS valoric sau cantitativ al vnzrilor sau prin ponderea produsului sau productorului n volumul total al tranzaciilor ce au fost efectuate n decurs de un an, pe un segment al pieei naionale sau internaionale; - Rata abaterii structurale a exportului fa de producie se obine prin compararea ponderii unui produs n volumul total al exportului unei uniti economice i ponderii aceluiai produs n volumul total al produciei unitii economice cercetate. O valoare supraunitar indic o competitivitate internaional mai ridicat fa de celelalte produse ale firmei; - Coeficientul de devansare a produciei de ctre dinamica exportului se obine prin compararea indicelui de cretere a exportului i indicelui evoluiei produciei de mrfuri. O valoare supraunitar indic o competitivitate mai nalt a produsului cercetat; Indicele avantajului comparativ se bazeaz pe compararea cotei-pri a exportului unui anumit produs, pe un anumit segment de pia, cu cota-parte a aceluiai produs pe ntreaga pia sau pe piaa mondial. Valoarea supraunitar a acestui indicator reflect situaia n care pe piaa analizat competitivitatea produsului dat este superioar mediei mondiale, i invers; - Coeficientul de elasticitate a exportului fa de cererea de import rezult din compararea ritmului de variaie a exportului unei firme pe o pia, n perioada analizat, cu ritmul de variaie a cererii specifice pe piaa de destinaie, exprimnd reacia exportatorului la modificarea cererii. O valoare supraunitar este caracteristic pentru un export elastic, deci un export competitiv, care poate face fa modificrii cererii la produsele pe care le export. n acelai timp, o valoare subunitar-export inelastic este caracteristic situaiei n care exportul nu este destul de competitiv, astfel exportatorul i micoreaz sfera de influen pe piaa dat, cednd piaa concurenilor. O analiz detaliat, bazat pe date primare autentice i efectuat n conformitate cu toate normele metodologice, furnizeaz informaii, pentru ca importatorul/exportatorul sau potenialul importator/exportator s ia decizii adecvate situaiei reale i, astfel, s-i poat determina cursul ulterior de dezvoltare a activitii spre atingerea scopurilor sale. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. were made within one year, on the national or international market segment; - The rate of export structural deviation from the production is obtained by comparing the share of a product in the total volume of exports produced within an economic unit and the share of the same product in the total volume of economic production of the same investigated unit. A value higher than one indicates a higher international competitiveness against other companys products. - Forward coefficient of production by the dynamic export is obtained by comparing the index of export growth and development of commodity production index. A value higher than one indicates a high competitiveness of the investigated product. Comparative advantage index is based on the comparison of the export share of a particular product on a particular market segment with the share of the same product on the whole or global market. The value higher than one of this indicator reflects that the market competitiveness of this product is higher than average, and vice versa. - The elasticity coefficient of export to import demand results from comparing the rate of change of exports of a firm on a market in a given period of time, the rate of change of the specific demand of market destination, expressing exporter response to the changing demand. A value less than one is characteristic for an elastic export, so one can cope with competitive export demand changes to the products they export. While a value less than unity represents an inelastic export, the export situation is characterized as non competitive enough, so the exporter reduces its sphere of influence on this market due to market competitors. A detailed analysis based on primary, authentic data, made in accordance with all norms, provides information to the importer / exporter, or potential importer / exporter to take appropriate decisions to the actual situation, and thus, being able to determine the further course of development activities to achieve their goals.

Bibliografie/ Bibliography Dodu-Gugea L, Gribincea A. Competitivitatea rilor Europei Centrale i de Est, 2010, Chiinu 2010, IRIM Moghilevschii R., Hristev E. Comerul i dezvoltarea uman. Programul Naiunilor Unite pentru Dezvoltare, Chiinu 2011 Korka M., Tua E. Statistic pentru afaceri internaionale. Bucureti, 2004 Prachi I., Caraivanova S. Statistica social-economic. Chiinu, 2007. p.101-111 Raport privind realizarea Obiectivelor de Dezvoltare a Mileniului (ODM), 2009 http://www.statistica.md

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RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

ROLUL INTEGRRII EUROPENE N DEZVOLTAREA FINANCIAR I ECONOMIC A RILOR N PERIOADA DE TRANZIIE


Drd. Svetlana BILOOCAIA, ASEM
n articol se analizeaz prezena impactului pozitiv al integrrii financiare asupra creterii economice, sunt evideniate mecanismele i canalele de baz ale acestui impact, precum i determinate condiiile iniiale pentru ca deschiderea financiar s poat aduce beneficii reale pentru creterea economic a rilor la diferite etape ale dezvoltrii lor macroeconomice, concomitent micornd riscul crizei. n ultimul deceniu, integrarea european, ca unul din vectorii determinativi ai dezvoltrii Uniunii Europene (UE), demonstreaz un progres important. n multe ri europene care particip la integrarea european, n perioad de tranziie se atest rezultate ale creterii economice mult mai nalte dect cele nregistrate pn la demararea acestui proces. Multiple cercetri confirm c integrarea financiar este benefic pentru dezvoltarea economic a economiilor naionale, oferind investitorilor posibilitatea de a obine profituri mai mari, precum i a micora riscurile din contul diversificrii, permind beneficiarilor de mprumuturi s atrag o finanare mai credibil, cu cheltuieli mai mici, pe piee mult mai voluminoase i mai perfecte. Fluxurile internaionale de capital genereaz i beneficii aferente integrrii financiare, n particular, deschiderea financiar contribuie la dezvoltarea sectorului financiar intern, asigur disciplina n politica macroeconomic, sporete eficiena activitii firmelor autohtone, situndu-le n condiii de concuren cu noii participani strini i elibernd puteri ce conduc spre mbuntirea calitii administrrii de stat i corporative. Aceste beneficii aferente sporesc eficacitatea i, n sens larg, ritmul creterii rentabilitii globale. Totodat, analiza pieelor financiare contemporane ale altor ri cu economie n tranziie demonstreaz c, n pofida existenei prioritilor fundamentate ale fluxurilor de capital n economia acestora, pieele financiare deschise sunt legate de anumite riscuri pentru ara-recipient, iniiate, de altfel, i de volatilitatea nalt a fluxurilor financiare internaionale. Multiplele cercetri contemporane confirm c interconexiunea ntre deschiderea financiar i creterea economic poate avea un efect pozitiv numai n anumite circumstane. Scopul prezentului articol este de a confirma impactul pozitiv al integrrii financiare asupra creterii economice, a depista mecanismele i canalele de baz ale acestui impact pentru rile ce se afl la diferite etape de dezvoltare macroeconomic, precum i, n ajunul integrrii europene a Republicii Moldova, a determina

THE ROLE OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION IN THE FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF STATES IN TRANSITION PERIOD
PhD candidate Svetlana BILOOCAIA, AESM
The article analyses the positive impact of financial integration on economic growth, are identified the main mechanisms and channels of this impact, and are identified the initial required conditions, so that the financial openness could bring real benefits to economic growth for countries in various stages of their macroeconomic development, while reducing the risk of crisis. European integration as one of the defining development vectors of the European Union (EU), in the last decade shows significant progress. In many transitive European countries involved in financial integration are registered higher results of economic performance than in those countries that were registered before the European integration. Numerous studies confirm that financial integration promotes economic development of national economies, allowing investors to seek higher returns and reduce risk through diversification, thus allowing borrowers to draw more reliable funding at lower costs for more intensive and more sophisticated markets. International capital flows also lead to the formation of collateral benefits of financial integration, in particular, financial openness contributes to the development of the domestic financial sector, ensure discipline in macroeconomic policies, improving efficiency of domestic firms, facing competition from new foreign participants, and releasing the force, leading to improved public and corporate governance. These co-benefits increase efficiency and, more broadly, growth rate of total factor productivity. However, analysis of modern financial markets of other countries with transitive economy demonstrates that despite the reasonable benefits of capital inflows into their economies, open financial markets are associated with potential risks for the recipient country, initiated, among other things, by the high volatility of international financial flows. Numerous recent studies confirm that the relationship between financial openness and economic growth can have a positive effect only under certain circumstances. The aim of the present article is the evidence of the positive impact of financial integration on economic growth, the identification of the basic mechanisms and channels of such influence for countries at different stages of their macroeconomic development, as well as on the threshold of the 129

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RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS condiiile iniiale pentru ca deschiderea financiar s poat aduce rii noastre beneficii reale pentru creterea economic, concomitent micornd riscul crizei. n contextul examinrii rolului fluxurilor internaionale de capital pentru rile n dezvoltare, este necesar de menionat faptul c urmrile impactului integrrii europene asupra ritmului creterii economice se deosebesc n funcie de tipurile fluxurilor de capital: anume componena, volatilitatea i modificarea structural pe parcursul timpului, n mare msur, influeneaz vulnerabilitatea rii n faa crizelor financiare. Savanii moderni, practic, nu contest beneficiile investiiilor strine directe (ISD). Cercetrile demonstreaz c criza de crean cel mai probabil survine n acele ri, unde datoriile externe sunt, n fond, pe termen scurt, iar fluxurile de capital mprumutat astfel sunt privite mai critic, acestea fiind concentrate n sectorul bancar. n prezent, n practic, anume ISD devin sursa principal a fluxurilor capitalului particular n rile cu piee n formare. ISD i investiiile de portofoliu n capitalul acionar sunt mai stabile i mai puin supuse modificrilor brute ale direcionrii, ele aduc cu sine o mulime de beneficii indirecte integrrii financiare: constituie un mecanism pentru transmiterea cunotinelor n administrare i a celor tehnologice, ajut la implementarea tehnologiilor naintate, renovarea fondurilor de producie, sporirea calificrii angajailor. Deoarece ISD, de obicei, se concentreaz n ramurile orientate spre export, ele exercit o influen pozitiv asupra exportului net al rii i capacitii acesteia de a obine ncasri valutare; profitul respectiv contribuie la creterea ncasrilor din taxe n bugetul rii; ISD sunt relativ stabile n perioada crizelor financiare globale i aceasta este deosebirea lor radical de alte fluxuri de capital particular, n special pe termen scurt. Pn recent, depistarea, modelarea i evaluarea cantitativ a efectelor dinamice din integrarea financiar erau o sarcin complicat. n ultimii ani a fost obinut un important progres n elaborarea unor metodici mult mai calitative de analiz a rolului integrrii financiare n dezvoltarea economic. Cercetrile bazate pe aceste metodici demonstreaz mrturiile influenei pozitive a integrrii financiare asupra creterii economice. n particular, cu suportul Comisiei Europene, n ultimul deceniu s-au efectuat un ir de cercetri, scopul lor fiind evaluarea impactului integrrii europene asupra creterii economice. London Economics, de comun cu PricewaterhouseCoopers i Oxford Economic Forecasting a efectuat un studiu, n cadrul cruia a fost cercetat influena integrrii asupra micorrii cheltuielilor financiare pe pieele de aciuni i obligaiuni, precum i asupra valorii finanrii bancare. Ca rezultat al cercetrii s-a depistat c n urma integrrii, pe pieele financiare europene a fost nregistrat o cretere pe termen lung a PIB-lui n mrime de 1,1%, precum i o cretere a gradului de ocupare a populaiei n mrime de 0,8%. Aportul maximal la creterea obinut (circa 45% 130 European integration of Moldova, the definition of initial needed conditions, so that the financial openness could bring real benefits for economic growth to our country, while reducing the risk of crisis. Considering the role of international capital flows to developing countries, it should be noted that the effects of financial integration for economic growth vary depending on the types of capital flows: it is their composition, volatility and changes in structure over time that greatly influence the country's vulnerability to financial crises. The benefits of foreign direct investment (FDI) are practically not disputed by modern scholars. Studies show that the debt crisis is likely in countries where external debt is mainly short-term, the most critical approach is towards short-term debt capital inflows, which is concentrated in the banking sector. Currently, in practice, FDI becomes the main source of in private capital flows to emerging markets. FDI and portfolio equity investments are more stable and less susceptible to sharp changes in trend, they bring with them a lot of indirect benefits of financial integration: provide a mechanism for the transfer of managerial and technological knowledge, promote the introduction of advanced technologies, upgrading production facilities, staff development. Since FDI is most often concentrated on export-oriented industries, they have a major positive impact on net exports of the country and its ability to obtain foreign exchange earnings, profits from FDI contribute to the growth in tax revenues of the country, FDI are relatively stable during the global financial crisis and this is their radical difference from the others, especially short-term private capital flows. Until recently, the identification, modeling and quantification of the dynamic effects of financial integration have been a challenge. In recent years there has been achieved a significant progress in the development of better techniques for analyzing the role of financial integration in economic development. Studies based on these techniques, show evidence of positive impact of financial integration on economic growth. In particular, with the support of the European Commission over the last decade, a number of studies, aiming to assess the impact of European integration on economic growth was carried out. London Economics together with PricewaterhouseCoopers and Oxford Economic Forecasting conducted a study, during which was studied the effect of integration on the reduction of financial costs in equity markets and bond markets, as well as the cost of bank financing. The study found that the integration of European financial markets experienced a long-term GDP growth of 1.1% and employment growth of 0.8%. The maximum contribution to the achieved growth (approximately 45% of the total obtained effect) was due to the decrease of the capital cost raised in the securities market. The lowest contribution to growth came from

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RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS din totalul efectului produs) i revine micorrii valorii capitalului atras pe piaa valorilor mobiliare. Cel mai mic aport la creterea economic i revine finanrii bancare, cota creia n termen de lung durat a fost mult mai redus dect cota pieei de obligaiuni. Pe lng aceasta, rezultatele cercetrii au demonstrat o important deosebire n mrimea beneficiilor, obinute din integrare, pentru diferite ri. Cel mai convingtor se demonstreaz efectul pozitiv al integrrii financiare (inclusiv al liberalizrii pieei de capital i, n particular, a pieei de aciuni) n cercetrile care utilizeaz date dezagregate. O cercetare, n scopul demonstrrii rolului integrrii financiare europene n creterea economic din perioada 19992008, a fost efectuat de ctre H. Fernandez i I. Maudos. n prima parte a lucrrii, utiliznd metodica elaborat de Radjan i Zingalez n anul 1998, savanii au demonstrat c integrarea financiar, n ansamblu, nu influeneaz direct asupra creterii economice, ci face acest lucru indirect, prin dezvoltarea financiar. n a doua parte a lucrrii, dezvoltarea financiar obinut a fost divizat n dou pri: prima, aa-numita dezvoltare financiar net, care nu depinde de integrarea financiar, i a doua dezvoltarea financiar rezultat din integrarea financiar. Activele financiare (capitalizarea general) au fost examinate din punctul de vedere al surselor de finanare: C finanarea intern, C
rw d eu

bank financing, whose contribution to the long-term growth was significantly lower than the contribution of the bond market. In addition, the study showed a significant difference in the size of benefits of integration for different countries. The most convincing presence of the positive effect of financial integration (including the liberalization of the stock market, in particular, the securities market) show the studies using disaggregated data. The study, which is intended to demonstrate the role of European financial integration in the economic growth during 1999 to 2008 was conducted by J. Fernandez and J. Maudos. In the first part of the study the scientists, using the methodology developed by Rajan and Zingalez in 1998, showed that financial integration, in general, does not affect economic growth directly, but indirectly, through financial development. In the second part of the study, the achieved financial development has been divided into two parts the first part, the so-called net financial development, independent of the financial integration and the second part - the financial development, which is the result of financial integration. Financial assets (total capitalization) C were examined in terms of their sources of funding: Cd - domestic funding, Ceu funding received from other countries EU-15 and C - funding from other countries. The aim of the study was to analyze how strongly the funding of each country depends on the presence\absence of financial integration. In general, the equation was as follows:
rw

finanarea de la alte state ale UE-15 i C finanarea de la alte ri ale lumii. Cercetarea a avut drept scop efectuarea analizei: ct de mult finanarea fiecrei ri depinde de prezena\lipsa integrrii financiare. Sub aspect general, ecuaia se prezenta n felul urmtor:

C t C t i C d t C d t i = C t i C d t i

C d t i C t i

C eu t C eu t i + C eu t i

C eu t i C t i

C rw t C rw t i + C rw t i

C rw t i C t i

(1)

Intervalul de timp cercetat a fost divizat n trei intervale de timp anii 1999-2007 perioada anticriz a creterii economice, anii 2007-2008 perioada crizei financiare i perioada unit anii 1999-2008 (tabelul 1). n baza datelor statistice i n urma analizei efectuate, s-a depistat c n perioada 1999-2007 capitalizarea general a rilor din Zona euro a crescut, n medie cu 25%. O cot important n creterea financiar a fiecrei din aceste ri circa 50,5% revine aportului rilor UE-15: din contul resurselor interne au fost obinute 45,5% de finanare i doar 4% au fost obinute de la alte ri dect cele comunitare. Din anul 1999 pn n anul 2007, volumul finanrii din rile UE-15 a crescut cu 104,3%, n timp ce volumul finanrii din alte ri a crescut doar cu 11,7%, ceea ce demonstreaz efectul pozitiv al progresului obinut n urma integrrii Pieei Financiare Europene.

The studied period was divided into three time intervals - 1999-2007 - pre-crisis period of economic growth, 2007-2008 - the financial crisis and the combined period 1999-2008 (table 1). On the basis of statistical data and as a result of the analysis, it was revealed that during 1999-2007 total capitalization of the Euro zone countries rose by an average of 25%. Much of the increase in funding for each of the countries approximately 50.5% is the contribution of the EU-15, from internal resources was received 45.5% of funding and only 4% was received from countries others than EU-15. During 1999-2007, funding received from the EU-15 increased by 104.3%, while growth in funding from other countries increased only by 11.7%, which shows a positive effect on the progress resulting from the integration of European financial market.

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RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS Tabelul 1/ Table 1 Influena dezvoltrii financiare i integrrii financiare asupra creterii economice (cota anual n creterea PIB, %)/ The impact of financial development and financial integration on economic growth (annual contribution to GDP growth,%)
Anii/Years 1997-2007 Dezvoltarea financiar/ Financial development Dezvoltarea financiar net / Net financial development -0,055 0,278 0,044 0,735 -0,357 0,154 0,031 0,184 0,174 0,312 0,095 0,162 Integrarea financiar / Financial integration 0,014 0,05 0,056 0,037 0,018 0,033 0,007 0,044 0,059 0,07 0,031 0,033 % din integrarea financiar/ Total/ Total % Financial integration 34,68 15,17 55,88 4,81 5,41 17,57 17,71 19,19 25,3 18,38 24,54 16,91 -0,663 -0,786 -0,826 -0,952 -1,745 -0,798 -1,056 -0,179 -1,817 -0,028 -0,677 -0,751 Anii /Years 2007-2008 Dezvoltarea financiar/ Financial development Dezvoltarea financiar net/ Net financial development -0,636 -0,755 -0,89 -0,948 -1,699 -0,799 -0,991 -0,123 -1,682 -0,032 -0,677 -0,723 Integrarea financiar/ Financial integration -0,028 -0,031 0,064 -0,005 -0,046 0,001 -0,066 -0,057 -0,134 0,004 0 -0,028 % din integrarea financiar/% Financial integration 4,18 3,92 7,78 0,48 2,66 0,17 6,21 31,56 7,4 13,69 0 3,74

Total/ Total

Germania/ Germany Austria/ Austria Belgia/ Belgium Spania/ Spain Finlanda/ Finland Frana/ France Grecia/ Greece Italia/ Italy Olanda/ Netherlands Portugalia/ Portugal Suedia/ Sweden Zona euro/ Euro zone

-0,041 0,328 0,1 0,772 -0,339 0,187 0,038 0,228 0,234 0,382 0,126 0,195

Sursa/ Source: elaborat de autor n baza/ Developed by the author based on Financial crisis, financial integration and economic growth: the European case, Juan Fernndez de Guevara and Joaqun Maudos, 2009. ntr-un scenariu ipotetic, n cazul lipsei integrrii europene, se constat scderea creterii capitalizrii i a nivelului de dezvoltare financiar. n locul dezvoltrii financiare de 25,3%, n acest context, s-ar constata o cretere de 13,9%, ceea ce constituie cu 11,4% sub indicatorul real. Calculele pentru anii 2007-2008 au demonstrat c criza financiar a devenit cauza scderii dezvoltrii financiare n Zona euro cu 9,4%. ntr-un scenariu ipotetic, n care lipsete integrarea european financiar, scderea dezvoltrii financiare ar fi fost, practic, similar 9,2%. Acest fapt demonstreaz c integrarea european financiar, efectiv, nu a condus la o scdere suplimentar a dezvoltrii financiare. Diferena nivelelor influenei negative a crizei financiare recente pentru rile n tranziie, n condiiile integrrii financiare pentru rile Uniunii Europene i alte ri, a fost confirmat de studiul efectuat n anul 2009 de ctre . biad, D. Leih i alii, n care, cu ajutorul analizei de panel i de regres, la nivel de ar a fost demonstrat c integrarea financiar, indiscutabil, a avut un efect pozitiv ntre anii 1975 i 2004 n Europa, aceasta 132 In a hypothetical scenario without European integration, is observed a decrease in market capitalization growth and decrease of the level of financial development. Instead of 25.3% of financial development growth, without European integration would be observed a rise of 13.9%, which is 11.4% lower than the actual figure. The calculations for 2007-2008 demonstrated that the financial crisis has led to the reduction of financial development in the Euro zone by 9.4%. In a hypothetical scenario without European financial integration the decrease of financial development would be practically identical to -9.2%. This fact demonstrates that European financial integration has not brought further decrease of financial development. Differences in the degree of negative impact of the recent financial crisis for transitive countries in the framework of financial integration for the EU and other countries, have been confirmed by a study conducted in 2009 by A. Abiad, J. Leigh, etc., in which, using the panel and regression analysis at the country level, has been demonstrated that financial integration clearly had

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RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS ns nu s-a ntmplat i n celelalte ri ale lumii, deoarece majoritatea rilor cu o dezvoltare n ascensiune i cu pia n formare, n care liberalizarea financiar a condus la o cretere economic rapid, ulterior au fost supuse ciclurilor de falimentri, n plus criza, n general, se transmitea prin canale financiare. Analiza influenei unor asemenea urmri ale integrrii financiare, precum zarva creditrii i creterea relativ a datoriilor externe n rile n tranziie, ceea ce au fcut aceste economii vulnerabile fa de criza financiar, realizat de . Berglof, . Kornienko i alii n acelai an 2009, de asemenea, a constatat deosebiri n corelarea cu scderea produciei n perioada crizei recente ntre rile europene n tranziie, atrase i neatrase n procesul integrrii europene financiare. Avnd n vedere rezultatele univoce privind prezena diferenelor dintre regiunea tranzitorie european i celelalte ri n dezvoltare, apare ntrebarea: ce provoac aceste diferene? n multe studii contemporane, cea mai popular explicaie este prezena n dezvoltarea financiar a rilor integrate a pragului intrrii n vigoare. Una din primele lucrri n care a fost depistat un asemenea efect este studiul lui . Borentein, G. De Grigorio i alii, care n anul 1998 au analizat influena ISD asupra creterii economice n rile cu nivele diferite de dezvoltare economic n condiiile integrrii financiare. Prezena pragului intrrii n vigoare, de asemenea, a fost confirmat n cercetarea efectuat n anul 2007 de ctre S. Evar, . Prasad, . Subramanian i alii, care, utiliznd date la nivel industrial (industry-level data), pe exemplul al 65 de ri netranzitorii, aflate n proces de dezvoltare, au demonstrat c integrarea financiar poate avea un efect pozitiv; acest lucru, ns, are loc doar atunci cnd economia sistemului n proces de integrare este destul de dezvoltat. n caz contrar, rile care se bazeaz pe finanarea extern, nregistreaz o cretere mai latent dect rile care se bazeaz pe resursele interne. Analiza detaliat a diverselor tipuri de efecte ale pragului pentru integrarea financiar (ex. dezvoltarea financiar, dezvoltarea instituional, reglementarea, transparena comercial, politica macroeconomic) pe exemplul al 84 de ri (21 industriale i 63 n curs de dezvoltare) pentru perioada 1995-2004 a fost efectuat de . Cose, . Prasad i alii n anul 2009. Rezultatele cercetrii au demonstrat c nivelul efectului pragului depinde de tipul capitalului examinat (de exemplu, nivelul pragului este mai mic pentru ISD i investiiile de portofoliu n aciuni). Explicnd mecanismul de aciune a efectului pragului, H. Dellas i M. Hess au menionat c un nivel mai nalt al dezvoltrii financiare face pieele de capital mai stabile fa de perturbrile externe, iar profunzimea crescnd a pieei de capital contribuie la micorarea riscurilor existente i atenuarea impactelor de la diverse ocuri. Analiznd influena nivelului dezvoltrii instituionale a rilor participante la integrarea financiar, . Prasad i alii au relatat c numai instituiile a positive effect between 1975 and 2004 in Europe, which can not be said about the rest of the world, because most fast-growing countries with emerging markets, where financial liberalization has led to rapid economic growth, subsequently experienced cycles of boom-bankruptcies, and the crisis was mainly transmitted through financial channels. An analysis of the impact of such effects of financial integration, as the credit boom and the relative growth of external debt in transitive countries, that have made these economies vulnerable to financial crisis, was carried out by E. Berglof, E. Kornienko et. al. in 2009, also found differences in the correlation with a decrease in production during the recent crisis between the European transitive countries involved and not involved in the process of financial European integration. Taking into account the unambiguous results, on the difference between transitive European region and other developing countries, the question arises what triggers off these differences? In many modern studies, the most popular explanation is the existence of a threshold effect in the financial development of the integrable countries. One of the first works, where was found this effect was the study of E. Borenstein, G. De Gregorio et al., which analyzed in 1998 the influence of foreign direct investment on economic growth in countries with different levels of economic development in the context of financial integration. The presence of a threshold effect was also confirmed in the research conducted in 2007 by S. Eshvar, E. Prasad, A. Subramanian et al., who, using industry-level data on the example of 65 developing, not transitive, countries have demonstrated that financial integration can have a positive effect, but it only happens when the economy of the integrable system is sufficiently developed. Otherwise, countries relying on external financing grow slower than countries relying on domestic resources. A detailed analysis of different types of threshold effects of financial integration (e.g. financial development, institutional development, regulation, trade openness, macroeconomic policy) in the example of 84 countries (21 industrial and 63 developing countries) during 1995-2004 was held by M. Koss, A. Prasad and others in 2009. The results of the research showed that the level of a threshold effect depends on the type of the examined capital (e.g. lower threshold level for FDI and portfolio equity). Explaining the mechanism of a threshold effect, H. Dellas and M. Hess noted that a higher level of financial development makes stock markets more resilient to external shocks, and the increasing depth of the stock market helps reducing the existing risks and mitigates the impact of various shocks. Analyzing the influence of the level of institutional development of the countries participating in financial integration, E. Prasad et al. have noted that only well-developed 133

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RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS financiare bine dezvoltate i calitatea administrrii sunt condiia determinant pentru rile n dezvoltare, care doresc s obin beneficii din integrare. Examinnd riscurile posibile, cu care se pot confrunta rile n curs de dezvoltare n perioada reformrii sectorului financiar, B.R.Jonson meniona c dezvoltarea instituiilor i a legislaiei economico-administrativ, precum i a supravegherii scade riscul unei viitoare instabiliti financiare, iar o politic chibzuit a taxelor bugetare i de creditare sporete beneficiile de la liberalizarea operaiunilor cu capital pentru creterea economic i ajut la prevenirea crizelor n rile cu cont deschis al operaiunilor cu capitalul. Totodat, analiznd urmrile ultimei crize financiare, . biad, D. Leih i alii, n anul 2009, au demonstrat prin probe c deosebirea depistat ntre rile europene i alte state poate fi explicat prin pragul intrrii n vigoare sub aspect instituional i la nivelul integrrii financiare doar parial. n mare parte, acest efect (deosebire) aa i a rmas neelucidat i prezena pragului intrrii n vigoare att n dezvoltarea instituional, ct i n dezvoltarea financiar, n ansamblu, nu poate explica aceste deosebiri ntre rile n dezvoltare din Europa i celelalte ri n dezvoltare din lume. O tentativ de a rspunde la aceast ntrebare i la alte multe ntrebri, ce in de diferenele evalurii impactului integrrii financiare asupra creterii economice din rile n tranziie europene i din afara Europei, a fost ntreprins n anul 2010 de C. Fridrih i alii n lucrarea Integrarea i creterea financiar sunt oare rile n tranziie din Europa mai deosebite?, n care autorii susin c experiena regiunii accidentale n tranziie nu corespunde cu punctul de vedere sceptic privind impactul integrrii financiare asupra creterii economice, fapt demonstrat la nivel industrial (industrylevel data). Spre deosebire de alte studii, n lucrare au fost examinate doar rile n curs de dezvoltare, deoarece autorii s-au angajat s explice deosebirile n creterea economic a rilor n curs de dezvoltare. Concomitent, au fost cercetate cauzele impactului pozitiv anume n Europa al integrrii financiare. De asemenea, a fost evaluat prezena pragului intrrii n vigoare, confirmat prin cifre n literatura academic. n calitate de indici ai pragului respectiv au fost examinate dezvoltarea financiar, calitatea mediului instituional, integrarea comercial i integrarea financiar. Analiza se baza pe date la nivel industrial, de asemenea, cu aplicarea metodei elaborate de Radjan i Zingales n anul 1998. Aceast metod se bazeaz pe o presupunere teoretic unele industrii depind de finanarea extern n opoziie cu finanarea intern mai mult dect altele. Dac integrarea financiar funcioneaz, atunci posibilitile suplimentare de finanare vor exercita o influen pozitiv considerabil asupra volumului de investiii i creterii economice, precum i un efect mai mare asupra rilor care se bazeaz pe finanarea extern. 134 financial institutions and the quality of governance are a crucial prerequisite for developing countries seeking to benefit from integration. Considering the possible risks that may occur in developing countries during the financial sector reform, B.R. Johnson mentioned that the development of institutions and of economic and administrative legislation and supervision reduces the risk of future financial instability and a balanced fiscal and monetary policy increases the benefits of capital account liberalization for economic growth and helps prevent crises in open account transactions of capital. However, analyzing the implications of the recent financial crisis, in 2009 A. Abiad, J. Leigh et al. showed evidence that the observed difference between European and other countries can be explained by the threshold effect in the institutional capacity and at the level of financial integration only partially. To a great extent, this effect (difference) has remained unexplained, and the existence of a threshold effect, both in institutional development and financial development in general, can not explain the differences between European developing countries and developing countries of the rest of the world. The attempt to answer this and many other issues related to differences in the assessment of the impact of financial integration on economic growth in European transitive and non-European countries was launched in 2010 by K. Frederick et al. in the work Financial integration and growth are transitive European countries so special? In which the authors argue that the experience of the transitive European region does not correspond to the skeptical view of the impact of financial integration on economic growth, which they prove on the industry-level data. In contrast to other studies, the work examined only the developing countries, as the authors were interested in explaining the differences in economic growth among components of the developing countries. In addition, were investigated the potential causes of why financial integration had a positive impact namely in Europe. It was also rated the presence of a threshold effect, confirmed by the figures in the academic literature. As threshold results were considered financial development, the quality of the institutional environment, trade integration and financial integration. The analysis was based on the industry-level data, also using the method developed by Rajan and Zingales in 1998. This method is based on the theoretical assumption - some industries depend on external funding in opposed to domestic financing more than the others. If financial integration works, then additional funding opportunities will have a significant positive impact on levels of investment and economic growth, and will have a stronger effect in countries that rely on external financing.

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RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS Presupunerea respectiv a fost testat prin construirea i evaluarea unui model econometric, n care impactul creterii n urma integrrii financiare variaz n funcie de industria examinat i de existena surselor externe de finanare: The assumption was tested by constructing and evaluating the econometric model in which the growth effect from financial integration varies depending on the particular industry and the availability of external financing sources:

Growth j ,k = k + j + * industry share j,k + 0 (ext.dependence j * fin.integration k ) + 1 (ext.dependence j * fin.integration k )* Emerg.Europedummy + j ,k


unde j reprezint industria i k ara. Unul din avantajele importante ale acestei metodologii este posibilitatea de a controla efectul fixat al rii ( k ) i ramurii ( j ), ceea ce exclude apariia problemelor endogene. Indicatorul cotei industriei a fost inclus pentru a aprecia dac noile ramuri cresc, n medie, mai repede dect vechile ramuri. Au fost utilizate date din Industrial Statistics Database, efectuate de United Nations Industrial Development Organization. n consecin, a fost obinut confirmarea c indicatorii economici ai rilor Uniunii Europene n tranziie, care depind de finanarea extern, cresc relativ mai repede n rile care sunt mai integrate din punct de vedere financiar. Totodat, acest efect nu se extinde asupra altor ri. Ca rezultat al cercetrilor, autorii au concluzionat c rile UE n tranziie se deosebesc de alte ri n curs de dezvoltare, deoarece n cazul lor integrarea financiar este nsoit de unele prioriti, acordate de integrarea politic, astfel aceast integrare poate fi benefic pentru creterea economic chiar i atunci cnd piaa financiar este deocamdat relativ nedezvoltat. O posibil explicaie, n acest sens, ar fi faptul c procesul integrrii politice n Europa genereaz ateptarea/sperana unui mediu politic i economic stabil n rile europene n tranziie i influeneaz asupra ateptrilor investitorilor privind perspectiva dezvoltrii instituiilor, ceea ce poate influena dorina investitorilor strini de a-i folosi mai activ capitalurile n aceast regiune. Efectiv, aceleai fore, care stimuleaz creterea n cazul integrrii politice, de asemenea, pot contribui la micorarea cheltuielilor n perioade de criz. n baza celor expuse, ajungem la urmtoarele concluzii: integrarea pieelor financiare, n ansamblu, influeneaz pozitiv asupra dezvoltrii economice: crete oferta global de capital i se asigur dezvoltarea pieei financiare interne, fapt ce sporete eficiena distribuirii, creeaz noi instrumente financiare i mbuntete calitatea serviciilor financiare. Concurena pe pieele financiare se dezvolt nu doar n interiorul acestora, dar i sub influen extern. Totodat, n aspiraia spre integrarea european, este necesar a ine cont de faptul c, pentru ca economia naional a Republicii Moldova s poat beneficia n plin msur de integrarea (2),

where j denotes the industry, and k the country. One of the major advantages of this methodology is its ability to control the country's fixed effect ( k ) and industry ( j ), which eliminates the appearance of endogenous problems. The percentage for the industry was included to assess whether the new branches grow on average faster than the old ones. We used data from the Industrial Statistics Database, conducted by United Nations Industrial Development Organization. As a result, was received the confirmation that the economic performance of transitive EU countries, that depend on external financing, grow relatively faster in more financially integrated countries. Indeed, this effect does not apply to different\other countries. From the results of the study, the authors concluded that the transitive EU countries have differences from other developing countries, as in their case the financial integration is accompanied by the advantages offered by the political integration and financial integration may be beneficial for economic growth, even in cases where the financial market is still relatively not developed. A possible explanation for this could be the fact that the process of political integration in Europe creates an expectation\a hope of a stable economic and political environment in European transitive countries and influences the investors' expectations about the prospects of development of institutions that can influence the willingness of foreign investors use their capital in the region with increasing force. In fact, the same forces, which stimulate the growth, given the political integration, can also contribute to lower costs during crisis. Based on the above mentioned, we can draw the following conclusions: financial markets integration, in general, has a positive impact on economic development. There is a growing global supply of capital and thus, domestic financial market development is ensured, which improves the efficiency of distribution, creates new financial instruments and improves the quality of financial services. Competition in the financial markets develops not only inside but is also influenced from the outside. However, in striving for European integration, it should be taken into consideration, so that the national economy of the 135

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RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS financiar, dar, n acelai timp, s nu devin vulnerabil n perioadele crizelor financiare, precum i n scopul prevenirii altor riscuri posibile, iniiate, n plus, de volatilitatea nalt a fluxurilor financiare internaionale, procesul integrrii n fluxurile de capital internaionale urmeaz a fi precedat de dezvoltarea sectorului financiar, n particular de dezvoltarea/perfecionarea instituiilor financiare ale acestuia i mbuntirea calitii administrrii. Republic of Moldova could fully benefit of financial integration, and yet not to become vulnerable in times of financial crisis, and also to prevent other possible risks, initiated by, among other things, the high volatility of international financial flows, the process of integration into international capital flows should be preceded by the development of the financial sector, in particular, the development of\the improvement of its financial institutions and improving governance.

Bibliografie/ Bibliography 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Abiad, A., Leigh, D. and Mody, A., Financial integration, capital mobility, and income convergence. Economic Policy Volume 24, Issue 58, pages 241-305, April 2009. Berglf E., Korniyenko, Y., Plekhanov A. and J. Zettelmeyer. Understanding the Crisis in Emerging Europe. EBRD Working Paper No. 109. November 2009. Borensztein E., De Gregorio J., Lee J-W. How does foreign direct investment affect econo-mic growth?, Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, 1998. vol. 45(1), pages 115-135, June. Dellas, H., M. Hess, Financial Development and Stock Returns: a Cross-Crountry Analysis, Journal of International Money and Finance, 2005, 24, 891-912. Eswar S. Prasad E., Raghuram G., Rajan R, Arvind Subramanian, Foreign Capital and Economic Growth, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, 2007. vol. 38(1), pages 153-230. Eswar S. Prasad & Kenneth Rogoff & Shang-Jin Wei & M. Ayhan Kose, Financial Globalization, Growth and Volatility in Developing Countries", NBER Chapters, in: Globalization and Poverty, 2007, pages 457-516 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. Fernndez de Guevara and Maudos J., Financial crisis, Financial integration and economic growth: the European case, 2009. Friedrich, C., Schnabel, I., Zettelmeyer, J.: Financial Integration and Growth Is Emerging Europe Different?, Version 2009, Working Paper. Johnston, Barry R, 1994, The Speed of Financial Sector Reform: Risks and Strategies, IMF Paper on Policy Analysis and Assessment 94/26 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Kose, M. Ayhan, Prasad, Eswar S., Taylor, Ashley D., Thresholds in the process of interna-tional financial integration, Policy Research Working Paper Series 5149, 2009, The World Bank.

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INFORMATIC I CIBERNETIC / INFORMATICS AND CIBERNETICS

ALGORITMIZAREA DISTRIBUIRII OPTIME A MANDATELOR N SISTEME RP


Prof. univ. Ion BOLUN, ASEM
Sunt sistematizai indicii de apreciere a disproporionalitii i metodele de alocare a mandatelor n sisteme RP. Este demonstrat c minimizarea disproporionalitii, n sensul fiecruia din cei unsprezece indici cercetai aparte, se asigur, n funcie de caz, de una din trei metode: Hare, Sainte-Lagu i dHondt. Este propus dezvoltarea metodelor SainteLagu i dHondt, care permite reducerea numrului de pai i a volumului de calcule necesare pentru obinerea soluiei optime. La soluia optim, partidele n pierdere pierd mai puin de un mandat, iar cele n ctig pot obine n exces: la metoda Hare mai puin de un mandat, iar la metodele Sainte-Lagu i dHondt mai mult de un mandat. 1. Introducere La luarea de decizii colective prin votare cu reprezentare proporional (RP), se cere minimizarea disproporiei reprezentrii voinei decidenilor n opiunea final (decizie) disproporie cauzat de caracterul att al numrului de decideni, ct i al celui de opiuni alternative. Estimarea acestei disproporii implic folosirea unor indici speciali, o parte din care sunt descrii n [1-8]. Cele mai cunoscute practici privind folosirea sistemelor de votare sunt, probabil, cele ce in de scrutinele electorale. De aceea, n continuare, aspectele de optimizare, abordate privind asemenea sisteme, se vor cerceta, fr a diminua din universalitate, prin prisma scrutinelor electorale cu reprezentare proporional de liste de partid (coaliii, blocuri) RPL. Reprezentarea proporional presupune distribuirea mandatelor proporional numrului de voturi acumulate de ctre partide. Totalizarea rezultatelor votrii, n scopul obinerii deciziei colective (determinrii numrului de mandate cei revin fiecrui partid n scrutin), presupune aplicarea anumitor reguli, denumite i formule, metode sau algoritmi, o parte din care este descris n [1, 2, 8]; n continuare acestea se vor numi, de obicei, reguli voturimandate (VM). Diversitatea regulilor VM folosite este cauzat, n primul rnd, de diversitatea scrutinelor. Totodat, distribuirea mandatelor ntr-un scrutin poate s difere n funcie de regula VM aplicat. O formulare a problemei generale de minimizare a disproporionalitii i soluia pentru cazul folosirii n calitate de criteriu de optimizare a indicelui Abaterii relative medii sunt date n [8]. n lucrare se cerceteaz unele aspecte ce in de minimizarea disproporionalitii n sistemele RPL la aplicarea alternat, n acest scop, a 11 criterii de optimizare, inclusiv a celor Loosemore-

ALGORITHMIZATION OF OPTIMAL ALLOCATION OF SEATS IN PR SYSTEMS


Univ. Professor Ion BOLUN, AESM
Iindices of disproportionality and methods of allocation of seats in PR systems are systemized. It is proved that the minimization of disproportionality, in sense of each of the eleven analyzed indices, is assured, depending on case, by one of the methods: Hare, Sainte-Lagu and dHondt. Improving of Sainte-Lagu and dHondt methods, that reduce the number of steps and calculi needed to obtain the optimal solution, is proposed. At optimal solution, losing parties lose less than one seat, and gaining parties can gain in excess: by Hare method - less than one seat, and by Sainte-Lagu and dHondt methods more than one seat, too. 1. Introduction When taking collective decisions, using voting systems with proportional representation (PR), to minimize the disproportion of deciders will representation in the final option (the decision) is required. To estimate this disproportion, caused by the character in integers of the number of deciders and the one of alternative options, the use of special indices is needed, some of which are described in [1-8]. The most known practices with referewe to the use of voting systems are, probably, the ones related to elections. Therefore, further, the addressed optimization aspects of such systems will be investigated (not harming the universality) through the party-lists PR elections RPL. The proportional representation assumes the allocation of seats proportionally to the number of votes cast by parties. Totalizing the voting, to obtain the collective decision (to determine the number of seats that incumbent each party), involves the application of certain rules, called also formulas, methods or algorithms, a part of which are described in [1, 2, 8]; further, they will o be called, usually, rules votes seats (VS). The diversity of used voting rules is due, primarily, to the diversity of elections. At the same time, the distribution of seats in an election can differ, depending on the used VS rule. A formulation of the general problem of minimizing the disproportionality and the solution, for the case of using as optimization criterion the Mean relative deviation, is done in [8]. In this paper some aspects related to the minimization of disproportionality in LPR systems, using in this aim, alternatively, 11 optimization criteria, including those of Loosemore-Handby [1], Sainte-Lagu [1], dHondt [1], Lijphart [4] Gallagher [1] and Mean relative 137

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INFORMATIC I CIBERNETIC / INFORMATICS AND CIBERNETICS Handby [1], Sainte-Lagu [1], dHondt [1], Lijphart [4] Gallagher [1] i Abaterii relative medii [8]. n cercetare se consider: a) c toi alegtorii sunt egali n drepturi, adic toate voturile au aceeai pondere; b) mandatele se distribuie doar n baza voturilor obinute de ctre partidele care au trecut pragul electoral. Rezultatele obinute la o asemenea supoziii pot fi, de regul, extinse relativ uor i fr acestea. 2. Reguli VM bine cunoscute pentru scrutine RPL Pentru scrutinele RPL sunt definite aa reguli VM ca [1, 2, 7]: metoda dHondt; metoda Sainte-Lagu; metoda Sainte-Lagu modificat; cota Hare; cota Droop, cota Hagenbach-Bischoff i cota Imperiali. Primele trei reguli se bazeaz pe metoda celei mai mare medii (highest average), iar ultimele patru pe metoda celui mai mare rest (largest remainder). Esena acestor metode const n urmtoarele. Fie: M numrul total de mandate n organul electiv; n numrul de partide care a atins sau a depit pragul electoral; V numrul total de voturi exprimate valabil pentru cele n partide; Vi numrul de voturi exprimate n favoarea partidului i; xi numrul de mandate ce se aloc partidului i. Metoda celui mai mare rest are la baz noiunea de cot de voturi, numit pur i simplu cot, cot simpl sau cot Hare, i este propus n 1792 de A.Hamilton [1]. Cot, n scrutinele cu reprezentare proporional, se numete numrul de voturi, fie i fracionar, ce revine n medie unui mandat. Aceast cot, notat aici Q, se determin ca Q = V/M. Distribuirea mandatelor ntre partide conform metodei Celui mai mare rest, la aplicarea cotei Hare (metoda Hare), se efectueaz conform algoritmului A1: 1) ai := Vi/Q, i = 1, n , unde [z] semnific partea ntregilor numrului z. Se determin numrul mandatelor nc nedistribuite M = M (a1 + a2 + + an). Dac M = 0, atunci distribuirea s-a ncheiat i este proporional. 2) Vi := Vi aiQ, i = 1, n . Cte 1 mandat, din cele M, se aloc suplimentar fiecruia din primele M partide cu valoarea mai mare a mrimii Vi. Distribuirea s-a ncheiat, dar nu este proporional. Distribuirea mandatelor ntre partide la aplicarea altei cote de voturi dect cea Hare se efectueaz, de asemenea, conform algoritmului A1, dar nlocuind Q cu cota respectiv. Cota Droop [7], aici notat QD, este propus n 1868 i se determin ca QD = V/(M + 1) + 1, unde z semnific rotunjirea prin adaos pn la ntregi a numrului z. Cota Hagenbach-Bischoff [2], aici notat QH-B, se determin ca QH-B = V/(M + 1). Aceasta, este mai mic, de obicei, dect cele Hare i Droop i poate favoriza, n funcie de caz, partidele cu mai multe voturi din contul celor cu mai puine voturi. Cota Imperiali [2], aici notat QI, se determin ca QI = V/(M + 2). Aceasta este mai mic, de obicei, dect cele Hare i Droop i este mai mic dect cea Hagenbach-Bischoff i poate favoriza mai puternic 138 deviation [8], are investigated. In researches is considered: a) that all electors are of equal rights, i.e. all votes have the same weight; b) seats are distributed only on the base of votes cast by parties which passed the established threshold. Results, obtained in such assumptions, can be, as a rule, relatively easy extended for elections without them. 2. Well known VS rules for LPR elections For LPR elections are defined such SV rules as [1, 2, 7]: dHondt method; Sainte-Lagu method; modified Sainte-Lagu method; Hare quota; Droop quota, Hagenbach-Bischoff quota and Imperiali quota. The first three rules are based on highest average method, and the last four on largest remainder method. The essence of these methods is the following. Let: M number of seats in the elective body; n number of parties that have reached or exceeded the representation threshold; V total valid votes cast for the n parties; Vi total valid votes cast for party i; xi number of seats to be allocated to party i. Largest remainder method, based on the notion of voting quota, called quota, ordinary quota or Hare quota, was proposed by A.Hamilton in 1792 [1]. Quota, in PR elections, is called the average number of votes, even a fractional one, per one seat. This quota, noted here Q, is determined as Q = V/M. The allocation of seats to parties according to the largest remainder method with the Hare quota (the Hare method), is done according to algorithm A1: 1. ai := Vi/Q, i = 1, n , where z signifies the integer part of z, determining the number M := M (a1 + a2 + + an) of still undistributed seats. If M = 0, than the allocation of seats is finished and it is a proportional one. 2. Vi := Vi - aiQ, i = 1, n . By one seat, from the M ones, is additionally allocated to each of the first M parties with the largest remainders Vi. The allocation of seats is finished, but it is a non proportional one. The distribution of seats among parties using another quota, than the Hare one, is done also according to algorithm A1, but replacing Q with the respective quota. Droop quota [7], noted here QD, is proposed in 1868 and is determined as QD = V/(M + 1) +1, where z signifies rounding up to integer of number z. Hagenbach-Bischoff quota [2], noted here QH, is determined as QH-B = V/(M + 1). This quota is B smaller, usually, than the Hare and Droop ones and can favor, depending on case, parties with more votes at the expense of those with fewer votes. Imperiali quota [2], noted here QI, is determined as QI = V/(M + 2). This quota is smaller, usually, than the Hare and Droop ones and is smaller than the Hagenbach-Bischoff one and can stronger favor parties with more votes at the expense of those

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INFORMATIC I CIBERNETIC / INFORMATICS AND CIBERNETICS partidele cu mai multe voturi din contul celor cu mai puine voturi. Dac la distribuirea mandatelor ntre partide conform algoritmului A1 are loc M < 0, atunci se aplic ajustri suplimentare, ceea ce a condus la folosirea rar a acestei cote n practic. Metoda celei mai mari medii prevede calcularea, pentru fiecare partid i ( i = 1, n ), a raportului Vi/(ui + 1) consecutiv la ui = 0, 1, 2, , unde ui este numrul de mandate deja alocate partidului i. Astfel, se formeaz n iruri de numere descresctoare, cte unul pentru fiecare din cele n partide. Din aceste n iruri se selecteaz cele mai mari M numere, din care xi numere in de irul i, with fewer votes. If the distribution of seats among parties according to algorithm A1 with Hagenbach-Bischoff or Imperiali quota occurs M < 0, then additional adjustments are applied. Largest average method involves calculating, for each party i ( i = 1, n ), the ratio Vi/(ui + 1) consecutively at ui = 0, 1, 2, , where ui is the number of seats already allocated to party i. So, n decreasing strings of numbers are formed, by one for each of the n parties. From these n strings, the M largest numbers are selected, from which xi numbers are from string i,

i = 1, n . Partidului i i se distribuie xi mandate, i = 1, n . To party i is allocated xi seats, i = 1, n . The i = 1, n . Metoda n versiunea descris este propus de method in described version is proposed by dHondt in
dHondt n 1878 i se numete metoda dHondt [1], aceasta fiind similar ca esen cu metoda Jefferson propus n 1792. Metoda poate favoriza [2], n funcie de caz, partidele cu mai multe voturi din contul celor cu mai puine voturi. Metoda Sainte-Lagu [1] este propus n 1910, fiind similar, dup esen, cu metoda Webster [1], propus n 1832, i poate fi obinut din cea dHondt prin nlocuirea ui cu produsul 2ui. Metoda Sainte-Lagu modificat [1] se deosebete de cea Sainte-Lagu prin nlocuirea primului divizor (2ui + 1, ui = 0) cu 1,4. Dup cum s-a constatat, metoda poate favoriza [2], n funcie de caz, partidele cu mai multe voturi din contul celor cu mai puine voturi. Bineneles, n funcie de caracterul problemei de minimizare a disproporionalitii, poate fi oportun folosirea i a altor algoritmi de optimizare. 3. Indici de disproporionalitate a distribuirii mandatelor n practica scrutinelor RPL, mai nti au fost propuse diverse reguli VM i doar apoi au fost propui indici de apreciere a disproporionalitii folosirii acestor reguli; desigur, regulile VM au fost propuse din anumite considerente de asigurare a reprezentrii proporionale. De preferat ar fi, totui, abordarea invers definirea explicit, mai nti a criteriilor (indicilor) de distribuire a mandatelor n scrutine RPL i doar ulterior determinarea soluiei (elaborarea metodei, algoritmului etc.) care ar satisface aceste criterii. Procesarea voturilor poate conduce, n funcie de regula VM folosit, la rezultate diferite: procentul mandatelor ce-i revin unui partid nu este egal, de obicei, cu procentul voturilor acumulate de acesta. ntr-adevr, fie: vi = 100Vi/V, mi = 100xi/M. Reprezentarea proporional a celor n partide n organul electiv este atunci, cnd au loc relaiile: 1878 and is called dHondt method [1], this being similar, by essence, to Jefferson method proposed in 1792. The method can favor [2], depending on case, parties with more votes at the expense of those with fewer votes. Sainte-Lagu method [1] was proposed in 1910, being similar, by essence, to Webster method [1] proposed in 1832, and can be obtained from the dHondt one by replacing ui with the product 2ui. Modified Sainte-Lagu method [1] differs from the Sainte-Lagu one by replacing the first divisor (2ui + 1, ui = 0) with 1,4. As was found thal this method can favor [2], depending on case, parties with more votes at the expense of those with fewer votes. Obviously depending on the character of the problem of disproportionality minimization, it can be also opportune the use of other optimization algorithms. 3. Indices of disproportionality of allocation of seats In RPL elections practice, first where proposed diverse SV rules and only later where proposed indices for the estimation of disproportionality caused by the use of these rules; of course, SV rules where proposed of certain considerations to ensure the proportional representation. It will be better, however, the inverse approach the explicit definition, first, of criteria (indices) of seats distribution in LPR elections and only after that to determine the solution which will satisfy this criteria. Processing of votes can lead, depending of used SV rule, to different results: the percent of seats that incumbent to a party is not equal, as a rule, to the percent of votes cast by them. Really, let: vi = 100Vi/V, mi = 100xi/M. The proportional representation of those n parties in the elective body is then, when occur the relations:

mi = vi , i = 1, n.

(1)

mi = vi , i = 1, n.

(1)

Dar, deoarece mrimile V, M, Vi, xi ( i = 1, n ) sunt numere ntregi, probabilitatea ca n scrutine concrete s se satisfac egalitile (1) este foarte mic. Astfel, n

But because values V, M, Vi, xi ( i = 1, n ) are integers, the probability that in concrete elections equalities (1) will be satisfied is very small. So, in real 139

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr3 (77) 2011

INFORMATIC I CIBERNETIC / INFORMATICS AND CIBERNETICS scrutine RPL reale are loc o anumit disproporionalitate n distribuirea mandatelor ntre partide. n asemenea cazuri, este important aprecierea disproporionalitii n cauz. n acest scop se folosesc diferite criterii, denumite i indici de disproporionalitate. Esena a unsprezece din ei este urmtoarea: Indicele Rae [3], aici notat IRae, este propus n 1967 i se determin ca devierea absolut medie a procentajului voturilor de cel al mandatelor la un partid: LPR elections there is a certain disproportionality of seats distribution among parties. In such cases, the estimation of such disproportionality is important. In this aim are used different criteria, also called indices of disproportionality. The essence of eleven of them is the following. Rae index [3], noted here IRae, was proposed in 1967 and is determined as the mean absolute deviation of the percentage of votes from the percentage of seats by one party:

I Rae =

1 n v i mi . n i =1

(2)

Indicele Loosemore-Handby [1], aici notat IL-H, este propus n 1971, poate fi interpretat ca devierea absolut sumar dintre mi i vi pentru partidele cu deficit de mandate sau procentul mandatelor preluate de la unele partide (partide devenite, n baza acestei operri, cu deficit de mandate) i distribuite altor partide (partide devenite, n baza acestei operri, cu exces de mandate) i se determin ca:

I Rae

1 n = v i mi . n i =1

(2)

I LH =

1 n v i mi . 2 i =1

(3)

Loosemore-Handby index [1], noted here IL-H, was proposed in 1971, can be interpreted as the total absolute deviation between mi and vi for parties with deficit of seats or the percentage of seats taken from some parties (parties that have become, under this operation, with deficit of seats losing parties) and distributed to other parties (parties that have become, under this operation, with excess of seats gaining parties) and is determined as:

Indicele Rose de proporionalitate [5], aici notat IR, este propus n 1998, fiind o versiune normalizat a indicelui Loosemore-Handby, astfel ca reprezentrii proporionale s-i corespund valoarea de 100%, iar n cel mai ru caz 0%, i se determin astfel:

I LH =

1 n v i mi . 2 i =1

(3)

I R = 100

1 n v i mi . 2 i =1
n

(4)

Rose index of proportionality [5], noted here IR, was proposed in 1998, being a normalized version of Loosemore-Handby index, in such a way that to proportional representation corresponds a value of 100%, and to the worst case 0%, and is determined as:

Indicele Grofman [6], aici notat IGr, este propus n 1985, se deosebete de cel Rae doar prin nlocuirea lui n cu numrul efectiv de partide

I R = 100

1 n v i mi . 2 i =1

(4)

N = 10 4

v
i =1

2 i

Grofman index [6], noted here IGr, was proposed in 1985, differs from the Rae one only by the replacement of n by effective number of parties

I Gr =

1 N

v
i =1

mi .

(5)

N = 10 4

v
i =1

2 i

Indicele Lijphart [4], aici notat IL, este propus n 1994 i constituie devierea absolut maxim dintre mi i vi: I L = max | vi mi | . (6)
i =1, n

I Gr =

1 N

v
i =1

mi .

(5)

Indicele Gallagher [1], aici notat IGa, este propus n 1991, se deosebete de cel Loosemore-Handby prin aceea c reprezint devierea nu absolut, ci ptratic sumar dintre mi i vi pentru partidele cu deficit de mandate, amplificnd ponderea diferenelor |vi mi| mai mari din contul ponderilor diferenelor |vi mi| mai mici, i se determin ca:

Lijphart index [4], noted here IL, was proposed in1994 and represents the maximal absolute deviation between mi and vi: I L = max | vi mi | . (6)
i =1, n

I Ga =

1 n ( v i mi ) 2 . 2 i =1

(7)

Se poate uor observa c indicele Gallagher puin se deosebete de indicele Celor mai mici ptrate, larg folosit n practic n analiza regresional i care

Gallagher index [1], noted here IGa, was proposed in 1991, differs from the Loosemore-Handby one by the representation of non absolute but of square total deviation between mi and vi for parties with deficit of seats, amplifying the weight of larger differences |vi - mi| at the expense of weights of smaller differences |vi mi|, and is determined as:

I Ga =

1 n ( v i mi ) 2 . 2 i =1

(7)

It is easily seen that Gallagher index little 140 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr3 (77) 2011

INFORMATIC I CIBERNETIC / INFORMATICS AND CIBERNETICS pentru mrimile vi i mi se determin ca

(v
i =1

mi ) 2 . practice in regression analyses and which for


parameters vi and mi is determined as

differs from the Least square one, widely used in

Totui, pentru msurarea acestuia n %, este oportun utilizarea rdcinii ptrate de la expresia n cauz abaterea ptratic. Astfel, notnd indicele Abaterii ptratice prin ISD, avem:

(v
i =1

mi ) 2 .

I SD =

(v
i =1

mi ) 2 .

However, to measure it in %, it is opportune to use the square root of this expression square deviation. Thus, noting the Square deviation index by ISD, we have:

(8)

Indicele Sainte-Lagu [1], aici notat IS-L, se determin ca:

I SD =

(v
i =1

mi )2 .

(8)

I S L =
i =1

m 1 (vi mi ) 2 = vi (1 i ) 2 . (9) vi vi i =1
n

Sainte-Lagu index [1], noted here IS-L, is determined as

Indicele dHondt invers, n [1] denumit indice dHondt, aici notat IIH, reprezint raportul maxim dintre mi i vi:

I S L =
i =1

n m 1 (vi mi ) 2 = vi (1 i ) 2 . (9) vi vi i =1

I IH = max
i =1, n

mi . vi

(10)

Inverse dHondt index, in [1] called dHondt index, noted here IIH, represents the maximal ratio between mi and vi:

Indicele Abaterii relative medii [8], aici notat Id, reprezint abaterea relativ medie a reprezentrii n organul electiv a drepturilor di = Vi/V, i = 1, n ale alegtorilor de la valoarea medie d = M/V i se determin astfel:

I IH = max
i =1, n

mi . vi

(10)

Mean relative deviation index [8], noted here Id, represents the mean relative deviation of the representation in the elective body of electors rights di = Vi/V, i = 1, n from the mean value d = M/V and is determined as:

Id =

d 100 = v i m i , d i =1
n

1 n unde d = Vi d i d V i =1

(11)

Id =

n d 100 = v i m i , d i =1

Aici di = |di d| reprezint abaterea (eroarea) absolut a reprezentrii n cele xi mandate a valorii d a drepturilor fiecrui alegtor, ce a votat pentru partidul i. Abaterea relativ medie 100d/d, msurat n procente a d fa de d, este echivalent, dup cum se poate observa din (11), cu procentul mandatelor prin care distribuirea {x1, x2, , xn} difer de cea care ar asigura reprezentarea egal n organul electiv a drepturilor (de valoare d) alegtorilor. Indicele Abaterii standard relative [8], aici notat I, reprezint abaterea standard relativ a reprezentrii n organul electiv a drepturilor di = xi/Vi, i = 1, n ale alegtorilor de la valoarea medie d = M/V i se determin ca:

1 n where d = Vi d i d V i =1

(11)

Here di = |di d| represents the absolute deviation (error) of the representation in the xi seats of the value d of rights of each elector that votes for party i. The mean relative deviation 100d/d, measured in percents of d by d, is equivalent, as it can be seen from (11), to the percent of seats by which the distribution {x1, x2, , xn} differs from the distribution which assure the equal representation in the elective body of electors rights (of value d). Relative standard deviation index [8], noted here I, represents the relative standard deviation of the representation in the elective body of electors rights di = xi/Vi from the mean value d = M/V and is determined as:

I =

100 = 10 d
n

v
i =1

1
i

I =

100 = 10

(v i m i ) 2 ,
where
2

v
i =1

1
i

(v i mi ) 2 ,

1 unde = V

V (d
i =1 i

d) .

(12)

1 V

V (d
i =1 i

d )2 .

(12)

Aici este abaterea standard a reprezentrii n organul electiv a drepturilor di, i = 1, n ale alegtorilor de la valoarea medie d, aplicnd, pentru simplitate,

Here is the standard deviation of the representation in the elective body of electors rights di,

i = 1, n from the mean value d, by applying, for simplicity, the dividing to V and not to V 1, the value of V being relatively large. In (12) I is measured in
141

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr3 (77) 2011

INFORMATIC I CIBERNETIC / INFORMATICS AND CIBERNETICS mprirea la V i nu la V 1, valoarea lui V fiind relativ mare. n (12) I se msoar n procente a fa de d. Dup cum se poate observa, primii ase din indicii enumerai Rae (2), Loosemore-Handby (3), Rose (4), Grofman (5), Lijphart (6) i cel al Abaterii relative medii (11) au la baz abaterea absolut a mi de la vi, urmtorii patru Gallagher (7), Abaterii ptratice (8), Sainte-Lagu (9) i cel al Abaterii standard relative (12) au la baz abaterea ptratic a mi de la vi, iar cel dHondt invers (10) raportul dintre mi i vi. De asemenea, ntre indicii (2)(5) i (11) au loc relaiile: IL-H = IRaen/2 = IGrN/2 = 100 IR = Id/2, (13) ntre cei (7) i (8) relaia: percent of by d. As can be seen from the first six the enumerated indices Rae (2), Loosemore-Handby (3), Rose (4), Grofman (5), Lijphart (6) and the Mean relative deviation (11) are based on absolute deviation of mi from vi, the following four Gallagher (7), Square deviation (8), Sainte-Lagu (9) and the Relative standard deviation (12) are based on square deviation of mi from vi, and the inverse dHondt one (10) the ratio between mi and vi. Also, among indices (2)-(5) and (11) occur the relations: IL-H = IRaen/2 = IGrN/2 = 100 - IR = Id/2, (13) between the (7) and (8) ones the relation

I Ga = I SD / 2 ,
iar ntre cei (9) i (12) relaia:

(14) (15)

I Ga = I SD / 2 ,
and between the (9) and (12) ones the relation

(14) (15)

I = 10 I S L

I = 10 I S L
mi| = const,

i Id I, egalitate avnd loc doar n cazurile n care |vi mi| = const, i = 1, n . 4. Problem general de minimizare a disproporionalitii n scrutine RPL Conform abordrii din [8], problema minimizrii disproporionalitii n scrutine RPL poate fi formulat n modul urmtor: fie sunt cunoscute mrimile: M; n; V; Vi, xi, i = 1, n ; I indicele de disproporionalitate. Se cere determinarea mrimilor xi ( i = 1, n ) numere ntregi nenegative, care ar asigura valoarea extremal a indicelui I:

and Id I, the equality holds only in cases when |vi

i = 1, n .

I = f ( M ; n;Vi , xi , i = 1, n) extremum (16)


la respectarea restriciilor: x1 + x2 + + xn = M, (17)

4. General problem of minimization of disproportionality in LPR elections According to the approach from [8], the problem of minimization of disproportionality in LPR elections can be formulated as follows: let be known the parameters: M; n; V; Vi, i = 1, n ; I index of disproportionality. It is required to determine unknowns xi ( i = 1, n ) non-negative integers, which will assure the I extreme value:

I = f ( M ; n;Vi , xi , i = 1, n) extremum

(16)

V1 + V2 + + Vn = V. (18) n (16) prin extremum se subnelege valoarea minimal sau maximal a indicelui I, n funcie de esena acestuia. Dac I semnific disproporionalitatea distribuirii celor M mandate ntre n partide, atunci se are n vedere minimizarea valorii lui I, iar dac I caracterizeaz proporionalitatea distribuirii mandatelor ntre partide, atunci se indic maximizarea valorii acestuia. Totodat, deoarece nc nu s-a convenit asupra unui indice de disproporionalitate universal, n cele ce urmeaz se va cerceta folosirea n calitate de criteriu de optimizare (16) a fiecruia din cei unsprezece indici (2)(12) descrii n p. 3. 5. Algoritmi de minimizare a disproporionalitii Relaiile (13)-(15) faciliteaz considerabil cercetarea particularitilor utilizrii celor unsprezece indici cercetai n calitate de criteriu de optimizare n problema (16)-(18). n ce privete indicii (2)-(5) i (11), cunoscnd numrul n de partide, numrul Vi, i = 1, n de voturi i unul din aceti cinci indici, se pot calcula, conform relaiilor (13), ceilali patru indici. Chiar dac aceti indici i difer ca valoare absolut, atunci din punctul de vedere al minimizrii disproporionalitii ei 142

in compliance with restrictions: (17) x1 + x2 + + xn = M, V1 + V2 + + Vn = V. (18) In (16) by extremum is understood the minimum or maximum value of index I, depending of its essence. If I signifies the disproportionality of distribution of the M seats among n parties, then it is envisaged to minimize the value of I, and if I characterizes the proportionality of seats distribution among parties, then it means the maximization of its value. However, because there is not yet agreed on a universally index of disproportionality, below it will be investigated the use as optimization criterion (16) of each one from the eleven indices (2)-(12) described in p. 3. 5. Algorithms for the minimization of disproportionality Relations (13)-(15) considerably facilitate the investigation of particularities of using the eleven investigated indices as optimization criterion in problem (16)-(18). With reference to indices (2)-(5) and (11), knowing the number n of parties, the number Vi, i = 1, n of votes and any of these five indices, can be calculated, according to relations (13), the other four indices. Even if these indices differ as absolute values, by the point of view of the minimization of

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr3 (77) 2011

INFORMATIC I CIBERNETIC / INFORMATICS AND CIBERNETICS conduc la aceeai soluie: asigurarea disproporionalitii minime pentru un scrutin conform unuia din ei asigur disproporionalitatea minim i pentru fiecare din ceilali indici. Deci, din punctul de vedere al minimizrii disproporionalitii, poate fi folosit n calitate de criteriu de optimizare doar unul din acetia (oricare din cei (2)(5) i (11)). n mod similar, n calitate de criteriu de optimizare poate fi utilizat doar unul din indicii (7) i (8), precum i unul din indicii (9) i (12). Astfel, din cei unsprezece indici (2)-(12) este suficient de cercetat n calitate de criteriu (16) n problema (16)-(18) doar cinci; se vor cerceta indicii: (6), (7), (9), (10) i (11). Pentru cazul folosirii n calitate de criteriu de optimizare a indicelui Abaterii relative medii (11), n [8] este demonstrat c soluia optim se obine conform metodei celui mai mare rest cu cota Hare. Valoarea optim
* Id a indicelui Id se determin ca [8]:

disproportionality, they lead to the same solution: assuring the minimum of disproportionality for an election according to one of them assures the minimum of disproportionality for the other indices, too. Therefore, from the point of view of the minimization of disproportionality, can be used as optimization criterion only one of them (anyone from the (2)-(5) and (11)). In a similar mode, as optimization criterion can be used only one of indices (7) and (8) and one of indices (9) and (12) as well. Thus, from the eleven indices (2)-(12) it is sufficient to investigate as criterion (16) in problem (16)-(18) only five; it will be investigated indices: (6), (7), (9), (10) and (11). For the case of using as optimization criterion of Mean relative deviation index (11), in [8] is proved that the optimal solution is obtaining, according to Largest, remainder method with the Hare quota. Optimal value I d of index Id is determined as [8]: (19)
*

* Id =

M 1 M 200 M Q R ( ) 200 = j M V Rj , V j =1 j = 1

unde Rj,
* d

j = 1, M sunt cele mai mari M where Rj, j = 1, M are the largest M remainders

resturi din cele Vi,

+ + RM)/V. Totodat, deoarece 1 M n - 1, valoarea M depinde i de numrul de partide. n baza relaiilor (19) i (13) pot fi uor obinute expresiile pentru valorile optime

i = 1, n . Din (19) se poate from the Vi, i = 1, n ones. From (19) it can be seen I* observa c I depinde de M/M i raportul (R1 + R2 that d depends on M/M and on ratio (R + R + +
RM)/V. Also, because 1 M n - 1, the value M depends on the number of parties, too. Basing on relations (19) and (13) can be easily obtained
* IR of indices IL-H, IRae, IGr and IR.
1 2

indicilor IL-H, IRae, IGr i IR. De menionat c metoda celui mai mare rest cu cota Hare asigur soluia optim i n sensul minimizrii indicelui Gallagher (8). ntr-adevr, fie ai = dVi mandate, unde z semnific partea ntregilor numrului z. Atunci xi = ai + xi , unde xi este numrul de mandate ce trebuie s-i revin partidului i, suplimentar la cele ai. De asemenea, avem Q = 1/d. Atunci are loc Vi = ai /d + Vi = ai Q + Vi, unde Vi este restul de la mprirea lui Vi la Q. Folosind modalitatea aplicat n [8] pentru indicele (11), expresia (8) poate fi prezentat n forma:

* * * * * * * IL expressions for optimal values I L H , I Rae , I Gr and H , I Rae , I Gr i I R ale

To note that the Largest remainder method with the Hare quota assures the optimal solution, in sense of the minimization of the Gallagher index (8), too. Really, let ai = dVi seats, where z signifies the integer part of z. Then xi = ai + xi , where xi is the number of seats that must incumbent to party i, additionally to the ai ones. Also, we have Q = 1/d. Then taker place relations Vi = ai /d + Vi = ai Q + Vi, where Vi is the remainder from dividing of Vi to Q. Using the modality applied in [8] for index (11), expression (8) can be presented in the form:

min

1 n 1 n Vi xi 2 100 1 n 2 v m = = ( ) 100 min ( ) min i i (Vi Qxi ) 2 = V 2 i =1 2 i =1 V M 2 i =1

100 1 n 100 1 n = min (Qai + Vi Qai xi Q) 2 = min (Vi xi Q) 2 . V 2 i =1 V 2 i =1


Astfel, fiecrui partid i ( i = 1, n ) i s-au distribuit deja proporional (contribuirea la valoarea IGa fiind 0) cte ai mandate, folosind n acest scop aiQ voturi i rmnnd nc nedistribuite

(20)

Thus, to each party i ( i = 1, n ) it was already distributed proportionally (the contribution to the value of IGa being 0) by ai seats, using in this aim aiQ votes and remaining undistributed yet 143

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr3 (77) 2011

INFORMATIC I CIBERNETIC / INFORMATICS AND CIBERNETICS

x
i =1

= M ai = M mandate
i 1

la

MQ

x
i =1

= M ai = M seats at MQ unused
i 1

voturi nefolosite, iar problema de minimizare a disproporionalitii s-a redus la determinarea

votes, and the disproportionality

problem of minimization of is reducing to determining

xi , i = 1, n , care ar asigura:

x i , i = 1, n which will assure:


I Ga
100 1 n = (Vi xi Q) 2 min V 2 i =1
M = xi = d Vi.
i =1 i =1 n n

I Ga

100 1 n = (Vi xi Q) 2 min (21) V 2 i =1


M = xi = d Vi.
i =1 i =1 n n

(21)

la respectarea restriciei (22)

in compliance with the restriction (22)

Evident, nu poate fi xi > 1 i nici xi < 1, deoarece n asemenea cazuri ar crete valoarea IGa n (21) fa de cazurile xi = 0 sau xi = 1. Expresia Q Vi = Q Rj = Rj 0 reprezint complementul restului Rj = Vi pn la cota Hare Q. Fiecare astfel complement contribuie la valoarea IGa doar dac xi = 1, partidului i revenindu-i un surplus de Rj voturi, i nu contribuie, dac xi = 0, n acest caz contribuind la valoarea IGa restul Vi = Rj nsui, egal cu numrul de voturi pe care le pierde partidul i. n total sunt n mrimi xi, din care doar M diferite de 0. innd cont c numrul total R de voturi suplimentare, distribuite partidelor pentru care xi = 1, este egal cu numrul total V de voturi pierdute de ctre partidele pentru care xi = 0, avem:

Evidently, it cant be neither xi > 1 nor xi < 1, because in such cases the value of IGa in (21) will increase relative to cases of xi = 0 or xi = 1 ones. Expression Q Vi = Q Rj = Rj 0 represents the complement of remainder Rj = Vi to the Hare quota Q. Each such complement contributes to the value of IGa only if xi = 1, party i assuming in excess Rj votes, and not contributes, if xi = 0, in this case contributing to the value of IGa the remainder Vi = Rj itself, which is equal to the number of votes loosed by party i. Totally, there are n values xi, from which only M differ from 0. Taking into account that the total number R of supplementary votes, distributed to parties for which xi = 1, is equal to the total number V of votes loosed by parties for which xi = 0, we have:
j

R = R j = MQ R j =
j =1 j =1

j = M +1

= V .

(23)

nlocuind (23) n (21), obinem:

Replacing (23) in (21), onwe can obtain:


2 j

I Ga =

100 1 M ( R 2 j + V 2 j =1

j = M +1

) min.

(24) Let us determine the conditions to minimize the expression in brackets of the formula (24). From (24) results that the value (Q - Vi)2 is preferable, to the (Q - Vk)2 one, to be one of the M factors of the first sum, if the relation (Q Vi)2 + Vk < (Q - Vk)2 + Vi occurs, from where we
2 2

S determinm condiiile de minimizare a expresiei din paranteze a formulei (24). Din (24) rezult c mrimea (Q - Vi)2 este preferabil, fa de cea (Q - Vk)2, pentru a fi unul din cei M factori ai primei sume, dac are loc relaia (Q - Vi)2 + Vk <
2

(Q - Vk)2 + Vi , de unde obinem condiia


2

scontat: Vi < Vk. Deci pentru a minimiza valoarea IGa, este necesar i suficient ca din cele n de ales M, cele mai mari valori ale resturilor Rj = Vi i fiecruia din partidele respective de alocat nc cte un mandat la cele ai deja alocate. Distribuirea optim este ncheiat anume folosind metoda celui mai mare rest cu cota Hare, ceea ce i se cerea de demonstrat. Prezint interes aprecierea cantitativ analitic a disproporionalitii I
* Ga

can easily obtain the expected condition: Vi < Vk. Hence, to minimize the value of IGa it is necessary and sufficient that from the n ones to select M largest values of remainders Rj = Vi and to each of the respective parties to allocate by one additional seat to the ai already allocated ones. The optimal distribution is finished and, namely, using the Largest remainder method with the Hare quota, just what was required to prove. It is of interest the quantitative analytical estimation of disproportionality I Ga of the optimal solution. This value is done by expression (24) at IGa = I Ga , i.e.
*

a soluiei optime. Aceast

I* valoare este dat de expresia (24) la IGa = Ga , adic


144

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INFORMATIC I CIBERNETIC / INFORMATICS AND CIBERNETICS

* min I Ga = I Ga =

100 1 M ( (Q R j ) 2 + V 2 j =1

j = M +1

2 j

) = 100

1 M 1 R j 2 [ ( ) + 2 j =1 M V

j = M +1

Rj V

) 2 ] , (25)

unde Rj, j = 1, M sunt cele mai mari M resturi din cele Vi, i = 1, n . Astfel, I
* Ga

where Rj, j = 1, M are the largest M remainders from the Vi, i = 1, n ones. Thus, I Ga depends on M, M and
*

depinde de M, M i

raporturile Rj/V, j = 1, n . Totodat, deoarece 1 M n - 1, valoarea M depinde de numrul de partide. n baza (25) i (14), poate fi uor determinat i expresia pentru valoarea optim I SD a indicelui ISD. S folosim abordarea, aplicat la minimizarea indicelui Gallagher, pentru minimizarea indicelui Sainte-Lagu (9). n baza relaiei (20), indicele (9) poate fi prezentat n forma:
* min I S L = I S L = *

ratios Rj/V, j = 1, n . Therewith, because of 1 M n 1, the value M depends on the number of parties. Basing on (25) and (14), it can be easily determined the expression for the optimal value I SD of index ISD, too. Lets use the approach, applied to minimizing the Gallagher index, for the minimization of the Sainte-Lagu index (9). Basing on relation (20), index (9) can be presented in the form (26)
*

n 100 1 min (Vi xi Q) 2 , V i =1 Vi

fiecrui partid i ( i = 1, n ), ca i la obinerea relaiei (20), fiindu-i deja distribuite proporional (contribuirea la valoarea IS-L fiind 0) cte ai mandate, folosind n acest scop aiQ voturi i rmnnd nc nedistribuite

to each party i ( i = 1, n ), as when obtaining relation (20), being already allocated proportionally (the contribution to the value of IS-L being 0) by ai seats, using in this aim aiQ votes and still remaining

x
i =1

= M ai = M mandate undistributed
i 1

x
i =1

= M ai = M seats at
i 1

la MQ voturi nefolosite, iar problema de minimizare a disproporionalitii IS-L s-a redus la determinarea

MQ unused votes, and the problem of minimization of disproportionality IS-L is reducing to determining

xi , i = 1, n .
S demonstrm c xi 0, i = 1, n . Fie si numrul de mandate alocate suplimentar partidului i la cele ai, i = 1, n i sk = 0. Atunci este preferabil, n sensul (26), redistribuirea unui mandat de la partidul k la cel i, dac are loc inegalitatea

xi , i = 1, n .
To proof that xi 0, i = 1, n , let si number of seats allocated to party i additionally to the ai, i = 1, n ones and sk = 0. Then it is preferable, in sense of (26), to reallocate one seat from party k to the i one, if holds the inequality

[(si + 1)Q Vi )]2 (Q + Vk ) 2 (s i Q Vi ) 2 Vk2 + < + Vi Vk Vi Vk


sau, n urma unor transformri simple, dac (Q + 2si)/Vi + Q/Vk < 0, ceea ce nu poate fi, deoarece or, after some ordinary transformations, if (Q + 2si)/Vi + Q/Vk < 0, that cant be, because of s i 0, i = 1, n . So, xi 0, i = 1, n , just what it was needed to proof. Let E number of parties with seats in excess (mi > vi), i.e. for which xi > 0. Then, considering xl > 0, l = 1, E and xl = 0, l = E + 1, n , expression (26) takes the form

si 0, i = 1, n . Astfel, xi 0, i = 1, n , ceea ce
i se cerea de demonstrat. Fie E numrul de partide cu exces de mandate (mi > vi), adic pentru care xi > 0. Atunci, considernd xl > 0, l = 1, E i xl = 0, l = E + 1, n , expresia (26) ia forma

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INFORMATIC I CIBERNETIC / INFORMATICS AND CIBERNETICS


* IS L = n E (xl Q Rl ) 2 R2 100 min( + l ), V Ul l = E +1 U l l =1

(27) = Vi, Rl = Vi;

unde:
2

Ul

=
2

Vi,

Rl

Vi;

where:

Ul
2

(xl Q Rl ) / U l , l = 1, E sunt acele E M


raporturi (xiQ -Vi ) /Vi pentru care xi > 0, iar

(xl Q Rl ) / U l , l = 1, E are the E M ratios


(xiQ -Vi )2/Vi
R
2 l

R / U l , l = M + 1, n sunt celelalte n - E raporturi


2 l

(xiQ Vi )2/Vi raporturi pentru care xi = 0. S determinm condiiile de minimizare a expresiei din paranteze a formulei (27). Din (27) rezult c raportul (xiQ Vi)2/Vi este preferabil fa de cel (xkQ Vk)2/Vk, unde xk = 1, pentru a fi inclus n cele relaia:

for which xi > 0, and are the other n - E ratios (xiQ -Vi )2/Vi ratios for which xi = 0. Let determine the conditions for the minimization of the expression in brackets of formula (27). From (27) results that the ratio (xiQ - Vi)2/Vi is preferable, to the (xkQ -Vk)2/Vk one, where xk = 1, to be included
/ U
l

l = 1, E ratios of the first sum, if holds the l = 1, E raporturi ale primei sume, dac are loc in the
relation:

(xi Q Vi ) 2 Vk2 (Q Vk ) 2 [(xi 1)Q Vi ] 2 , + < + Vi Vk Vk Vi


de unde obinem condiia scontat: from where we can easily obtain the expected condition: (28)

Q(2xi 1) 2Vi Q 2Vk < . Vi Vk


innd cont c Vi = ai Q + Vi i Vk = ak Q + + Vk, relaia (28) poate fi transformat n

Taking into account that Vi = ai Q + Vi and Vk = ak Q + Vk, the relation (28) can be transformed into

Q(2xi 1) 2Vi + ai Q Q 2Vk + a k Q , < Vi Vk 2(ai + xi ) 1 2a k + 1 de unde < Vi Vk


sau

Q(2xi 1) 2Vi + ai Q Q 2Vk + a k Q , < Vi Vk 2(ai + xi ) 1 2a k + 1 from where < Vi Vk


or

Vi Vk . > 2(ai + xi ) 1 2a k + 1
Dac are loc condiia (29), atunci este preferabil, n sensul (27), adugarea, la cele ai, a nc xi mandate partidului i fa de adugarea, la cele ak, nc a unui mandat partidului k. Deci expresia (27) poate fi prezentat n forma:

(29) Dac are loc condiia (29), atunci este preferabil, n sensul (27), adugarea, la cele ai, a nc xi mandate partidului i fa de adugarea, la cele ak, nc a unui mandat partidului k. Deci expresia (27) poate fi prezentat n forma:

* S L

n Rl2 100 E (xl Q Rl ) 2 = ( + ), V l =1 Ul l = E +1 U l 2

(30)

unde mrimile ( xl Q Rl ) / U l , l = 1, E corespund celor mai mari M raporturi Vi/[2(ai + xi) -1] la xi > 0,

(x l Q R l ) / U l , l = 1, E where values of correspond to the largest M ratios Vi/[2(ai + xi) -1] at xi >
2

i = 1, n . n baza relaiilor (30) i (15) poate fi uor obinut 0, i = 1, n . Basing on relations (30) and (15), it is easy to
146 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr3 (77) 2011

INFORMATIC I CIBERNETIC / INFORMATICS AND CIBERNETICS expresia pentru valoarea optim I a indicelui I. Din (29) poate fi obinut plafonul pentru valoarea xi:
*

obtain the expression for the optimal value I of index I. From (29) can be obtained the upper limit for xi: (31)

xi <

Vi (2a k + 1) 1 ai + . 2Vk 2

Dac considerm Vi ai (Q + 1), Vk ak Q i Q >> 2ai +1, atunci xi < (1 + ai/ak)/2. De exemplu, la ai/ak = 3 plafonul pentru valoarea xi este egal, aproximativ, cu 2. Condiia (29), la xi = 1, este similar celei folosite la metoda Sainte-Lagu, cu deosebirea c aici ai(ak) nu ia consecutiv valorile 1, 2, 3, , ci ai = Vi/Q (de asemenea, ak = Vk/Q), iar condiia (31) poate fi utilizat pentru reducerea volumului calculelor. Algoritmul A2 de determinare a soluiei optime, n sensul minimizrii indicelui Sainte-Lagu (9), folosind rezultatele obinute, const n urmtoarele: 1. xi := ai = dVi = Vi/Q, i = 1, n . Se determin M:= M (a1 + a2 + + an). Dac M = 0, atunci distribuirea mandatelor s-a ncheiat i este proporional. 2. Cte xi > 0 mandate, din cele M nc nedistribuite, se aloc suplimentar primelor E M partide cu valoarea mai mare a raportului Vi/[2(ai + xi) 1]. n acest scop, poate fi folosit metoda Sainte-Lagu, dar ncepnd cu ui = ai (nu cu ui = 0), i = 1, n . Mai puine calcule la acest pas asigur urmtoarea procedur: 2.1. Partidele se ordoneaz n ordinea descreterii raportului Vi/(2ai + 1). 2.2. E := M; xi := 1, i = 1, E ; xi = 0,

If considering Vi ai (Q + 1), Vk ak Q and Q >> 2ai +1, then xi < (1 + ai/ak)/2. For example, at ai/ak = 3 the upper limit for xi is equal, approximately, to 2. Condition (29), at xi = 1, is similar to the one used with Sainte-Lagu method, with the only difference that here ai(ak) doesnt take consecutively the values 1, 2, 3, , but ai = Vi/Q (also, ak = Vk/Q), and condition (31) can be used to reduce the volume of calculi. Algorithm A2 of determining the optimal solution, in sense of Sainte-Lagu index (9) minimization, using the obtained results, consists of the following: 1. xi := ai = dVi = Vi/Q, i = 1, n . Determining M:= M (a1 + a2 + + an). If M = 0, than the allocation of seats is finished and it is a proportional one. 2. By xi > 0 seats, from the M still undistributed ones, are additionally allocated to the first E M parties with the largest ratio Vi/[2(ai + xi) -1]. In this aim can be used the Sainte-Lagu method, but beginning with ui = ai (not with ui = 0), i = 1, n . Fewer calculations at this step assures the following procedure: 2.1. Parties are ordered in the decreasing order of the ratio Vi/(2ai + 1). 2.2. E := M; xi := 1, i = 1, E ; xi = 0,

i = E + 1, n .
2.3. Dac E = 1, atunci trecem la p. 2.8. 2.4.

i = E + 1, n .
2.3. If E = 1, then go to p. 2.8. 2.4.

xi := Vi (2a E + 1) /(2VE ) ai + 1 / 2, i = 1, E 1 .
Aici z semnific partea ntregilor de la z. 2.5. S :=
E i =1

xi := Vi (2a E + 1) /( 2V E ) ai + 1 / 2, i = 1, E 1 x . Dac S = M , atunci se trece . Here z signifies the integer part of z. i


2.5. S :=

la p. 2.8. 2.6. xE := 0; S := S 1; E := E 1. Dac S = M, atunci trecere la p. 2.8. 2.7. Din cele E iruri de rapoarte Vi/[2(ai + ji) 1],

x
i =1

. If S = M, then go to p. 2.8.

ji = 1, xi , se elimin cele mai mici E M rapoarte


i, respectiv, se actualizeaz valorile mrimilor xi,

2.6. xE := 0; S := S 1; E := E 1. If S = M, then go to p. 2.8. 2.7. From the E strings of ratios Vi/[2(ai + ji) 1], ji = 1, xi , to remove the smallest E M ratios and, respectively, to actualize the values of xi,

i = 1, E .
2.8. xi := ai + xi, i = 1, n . Stop. Distribuirea s-a ncheiat, fiind, totui, neproporional. Totodat, partidele n pierdere pierd, conform pasului 1, mai puin de un mandat, iar partidelor cu mandate n exces le pot reveni suplimentar mai mult dect 1 mandat (vezi, bunoar, exemplul 1).

i = 1, E .
2.8. xi := ai + xi, i = 1, n . Stop. Distribution is finished, being, however, non proportional. Therewith, losing parties lose, according to step 1, fewer than one seat, and parties with seats in excess can incumbent additionally more than 1 seat (as in example 1). 147

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INFORMATIC I CIBERNETIC / INFORMATICS AND CIBERNETICS Exemplul 1. Fie: M = 101 mandate; n = 20 partide; V = 11157 voturi; V1 = 8300 voturi; Vi = 151 Example 1. Let: M = 101 seats; n = 20 parties; V = 11157 votes; V1 = 8300 votes; Vi = 151 votes,

Vi = 150 voturi, i = 2,8 ; voturi, i = 9,20 . Rezultatele calculelor sunt prezentate n tabelul 1. n cazul dat, pentru primul partid, soluia conform indicelui Sainte-Lagu este mai mare dect cea conform indicelui Abaterii relative medii cu 7 mandate, din care mai mult de 6 (6,86) mandate n exces, defavoriznd astfel considerabil celelalte partide.

i = 2,8 ; Vi = 150 votes, i = 9,20 . Results of done


calculations are presented in table 1. In this case, for the first party, the solution according to Sainte-Lagu index is larger than the one obtained to mean relative deviation index by 7 seats, from which more than six (6,86) seats in excess, at a considerably expense of the other parties. Tabelul 1/ Table 1

Compararea metodelor Sainte-Lagu i Hare/ Comparison of Sainte-Lagu and Hare methods x1 Metoda Sainte-Lagu (A2)/ Sainte-Lagu method (A2) Metoda Hare (A1)/ Hare method (A1) 82 75 xi, i = 2,8 1 2 xi, i = 9,20 1 1 IS-L, % 2,42 3,15 Id, % 13,59 8,78

De menionat c relaia (29) poate fi obinut i direct, fr a folosi egalitatea Vi = ai Q + Vi, doar c atunci nu devine explicit aplicarea primului pas al algoritmului A2. ntr-adevr, n baza relaiei (20), indicele (9) poate fi prezentat n forma:
* min I S L = I S L =

Note that the relation (29) can be also obtained directly, without the use of the equality Vi = ai Q + Vi, but in this case it doesnt become explicit the application of the first step of algorithm A2. Really, basing on relation (20), the index (9) can be presented in the form: (32)

n 100 1 min (Vi xi Q) 2 . V i =1 Vi

Fie c si este numrul de mandate deja alocate partidului i i si < xi, i = 1, n . Atunci este preferabil, n sensul (32), de alocat nc si mandate partidului i, dect de alocat nc un mandat partidului k, dac are loc condiia:

Noting si the number of seats already allocated to party i, si < xi, i = 1, n . Then it is preferable, in sense of (32), to allocate si more seats to party i, than to allocate one more seat to party k, if holds the condition:

1 1 1 1 [(Vi ( si + si )Q] 2 + (Vk s k Q) 2 < [(Vk ( s k + 1)Q] 2 + [Vi ( si + si 1)Q]2 , Vi Vk Vk Vi


de unde, ca rezultat al unor transformri simple, obinem 2(si + si)/Vi < (2sk + 1)/Vk sau from where, after some ordinary transformation, we obtain 2(si + si)/Vi < (2sk + 1)/Vk or (33)

Vi Vk > , 2 ( s i + s i ) 1 2 s k + 1
care, la si = 1, se reduce la regula Sainte-Lagu de distribuire a mandatelor. n baza unor sugestii similare cu cele privind aplicarea indicilor (7) i (11), se poate uor constata c minimizarea indicelui Lijphart (6) se asigur de metoda celui mai mare rest cu cota Hare. Valoarea minimizrii indicelui Lijphart, ntr-un scrutin concret se obine conform expresiei: 148

which, at si = 1, is reducing to the Sainte-Lagu rule of seats distribution. Basing on suggestions similar to the ones with reference to the application of indices (7) and (11), it can be easily find that the minimization of the Lijphart index (6) is assured by the largest remainder method with the Hare sense of the minimization of the Lijphart index, for a concrete election is obtained conform to expression:

* * IL a indicelui IL pentru soluia optim, n sensul quota. The value I L of index IL for the optimal solution, in

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INFORMATIC I CIBERNETIC / INFORMATICS AND CIBERNETICS


* IL = min max | vi mi |= i =1, n

100 100 min max | Vi xi Q |= min Rk , = 1 , i n V V

(34)

unde Rk este cel mai mare dintre M cele mai mici complemente Rj din cele n n total. Optimizarea distribuirii mandatelor n sensul indicelui dHondt invers (10) presupune [1] ca cel mai mare dintre rapoartele mi/vi, i = 1, n , la respectarea restriciilor (17)-(18), s fie pe ct posibil mai mic, adic
* = min max I IH i =1, n

where Rk is the largest from the M smallest complements Rj from the n ones in the total. The optimization of seats distribution, in sense of inverse dHondt index (10), assumes [1] that the largest of ratios mi/vi, i = 1, n , in compliance with restrictions (17)-(18), be as small as possible, i.e. (35)

mi Qx Q(ai + xi ) = min max i = min max . i =1, n i =1, n V vi Vi i

Evident, Q(ai + 1)/Vi > 1, Qai/Vi 1 i a1 + a2 + + an M < n + a1 + a2 + + an. Egalitate n ultima relaie are loc doar la distribuirea proporional a mandatelor ntre toate cele n partide, I IH = 1 . Dac I IH > 1 , atunci se poate demonstra c pentru soluia optim au loc relaiile
* *

Evidently, Q(ai + 1)/Vi > 1, Qai/Vi 1 and a1 + a2 + + an M < n + a1 + a2 + + an. Equality in the last relation occurs only at proportional distribution among all the n parties,
* * I IH = 1 . If I IH > 1 , then it can be proved that for

. ntr-adevr, fie si numrul de mandate alocate suplimentar partidului i la cele ai, sj)/Vj > Qak/Vk i este preferabil, n sensul (35), redistribuirea unui mandat de la partidul k la cel j, dac are loc inegalitatea:

xi 0, i = 1, n

the optimal solution relations

xi 0, i = 1, n

occur. Really, let si number of seats allocated to

party i additionally to the ai, i = 1, n ones and sj > i = 1, n i sj > 0, sk = 0. n asemenea condiii, Q(aj + 0, sk = 0. In such conditions, Q(aj + sj)/Vj >

Qak/Vk and is preferable, in sense of (35), to reallocate one seat from party k to the j one, if holds the inequality:

Q(a j + s j ) Qa k Q(a j + s j + 1) Q(a k 1) max ; ; , < max Vj Vk Vj Vk


adic dac Q(aj + sj + 1)/Vj < Q(aj + sj)/Vj, ceea ce nu poate fi, deoarece sj > 0. Astfel, i.e. if Q(aj + sj + 1)/Vj < Q(aj + sj)/Vj, which cant be, because of sj > 0. Thus, xi 0, i = 1, n , just what was required to prove. So, for E M parties occur

Aadar, pentru E M partide are loc , iar pentru celelalte n E are loc xi = 0 . De aceea i innd cont c Qai/Vi 1 i Q(ai + 1)/Vi > 1, la determinarea I > 1 pot fi luate n considerare doar acele raporturi Q(ai + xi)/Vi, n care xi 1. Exist E asemenea raporturi; mai mult ca att, valoarea
* IH

xi 0, i = 1, n , ceea ce i se cerea de demonstrat. xi 1

xi 1 , and for xi = 0 . Therefore and the other n E ones hold


*

taking into account that Qai/Vi 1 and Q(ai + 1)/Vi > 1, when determining I IH > 1 can be taken into account only those ratios Q(ai + xi)/Vi, in which xi 1. There exists such ratios as E; moreover, the value I IH > 1 is equal to the value of the largest from these E ratios. Noting by Uh the number of votes cast by the party with such a ratio, and by Rh the remainder from dividing of Uh to Q, expression (35) can be presented in the form:
*

* IH

> 1 este egal cu valoarea celui mai mare dintre

aceste E raporturi. Notnd prin Uh numrul de voturi acumulate de partidul cu un astfel de raport, iar prin Rh restul de la mprirea Uh la Q, expresia (35) poate fi prezentat n forma:

1, dac a1 + a 2 + ... + a n = M 1, dac a1 + a 2 + ... + a n = M * = = I IH Q ( a h + x h ) / U h , n caz contrar ( a h + x h ) /( a h + dR h ), n caz contrar,

(36)

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149

INFORMATIC I CIBERNETIC / INFORMATICS AND CIBERNETICS Se poate observa c raportul (ai + xi)/Vi este, la xi = 1, invers celui folosit n metoda dHondt. De aceea ar fi oportun de numit indice dHondt IH indicele invers celui (10) i anume It can be seen that ratio (ai + xi)/Vi is, at xi = 1, inverse to the one used by dHondt method. Therefore it is opportune to call dHondt index IH the index inverse to the (10) one, namely

I H = min
i =1, n

vi . mi

(37)

Optimizarea distribuirii mandatelor n sensul indicelui dHondt presupune ca cel mai mic din rapoartele vi/mi, i = 1, n , la respectarea cerinelor (17)-(18), s fie pe ct posibil mai mare, adic
* = max min I Hd i =1, n

The optimization of seats distribution in sense of the dHondt index assumes that the smallest of ratios vi/mi, i = 1, n , in compliance with requirements (17)-(18), be as large as possible, i.e. (38)

vi V dVi . = max min i = max min i =1, n Qx i =1, n a + x mi i i i

Urmnd raionamente similare cu cele aplicate la determinarea n forma


* IH

Following similar reasoning as the applied when the form (39)

* I , expresia (38) poate fi prezentat determining I IH , expression (38) can be presented in

1, dac a1 + a 2 + ... + a n = M 1, dac a1 + a 2 + ... + a n = M * IH = = dU h /( a h + x h ), ncaz contrar (a h + dRh ) /( a h + x h ), ncaz contrar,


unde Uh este numrul de voturi acumulate de partidul cu cel mai mic dintre cele E M n 1 cele mai mici raporturi Vi/(ai + xi), n care xi 1, iar Rh restul de la mprirea Uh la Q. Din (38) rezult c este preferabil adugarea, la cele ai, a nc xi mandate partidului i fa de adugarea, la cele ak, nc a unui mandat partidului k, dac are loc condiia dVi/(ai + xi) > dVk /(ak + 1) sau, ceea ce este acelai lucru,

where Uh is the number of votes cast by party with the smallest from the E M n 1 smallest ratios Vi/(ai + xi) in which xi 1, and Rh the remainder from the dividing of Uh to Q. From (38) results that is preferable to add, to the ai ones, xi more seats to party i comparatively to adding, to the ak ones, one more seat to party k, if the condition dVi/(ai + xi) > dVk /(ak + 1) occurs or, what is the same, (40)

Vi V > k . a i + x i a k + 1
Din (40) poate fi obinut plafonul pentru valoarea xi xi

From (40) can be obtained the upper limit for

x i <

Vi (a k + 1) ai Vk .

(41)

De exemplu, dac de considerat Vi ai (Q + 1), Vk ak Q i Q >> ak > 0, atunci, aproximativ, xi < ai/ak. Deoarece pot fi cazuri n care ai este de multe ori mai mare dect ak, poate fi i xi > 2; adic partidele cu mai multe voturi acumulate pot obine n exces, conform metodei dHondt, mai mult de un mandat. Bunoar, pentru exemplul 1, soluia conform metodei dHondt coincide cu cea conform metodei Sainte-Lagu, n care primului partid i sunt alocate n exces mai mult de ase mandate. n baza relaiilor (40) i (41), obinerea soluiei optime conform indicelui dHondt (10) poate fi realizat conform algoritmului A3: 150

For example, if considering Vi ai (Q + 1), Vk ak Q i Q >> ak > 0, then, approximately, xi < ai/ak. Because there may be cases when ai is more times larger than ak, it can be xi > 2, too; i.e. parties with more votes cast can obtain in excess, according dHondt method, more than one seat. In example 1, the solution according to dHondt method coincide with the one conform to Sainte-Lagu method, in which to the first party were allocated in excess more than six seats. Basing on relations (40) and (41), obtaining the optimal solution according to dHondt index (10) can be realized conform to algorithm A3:

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INFORMATIC I CIBERNETIC / INFORMATICS AND CIBERNETICS 1. xi := ai = dVi = Vi/Q, i = 1, n . Se determin numrul mandatelor nc nedistribuite M:= M (a1 + a2 + + an). Dac M = 0, atunci distribuirea s-a ncheiat i este proporional. 2. Cte xi > 0 mandate, din cele M, se aloc suplimentar primelor E M partide cu valoarea mai mare a raportului Vi/(ai + xi). n acest scop poate fi aplicat metoda dHondt, dar ncepnd cu ui = ai (nu cu ui = 0), i = 1, n . Mai puine calcule necesit procedur folosit la paii 2.1-2.8 ai algoritmului A2 cu urmtoarele deosebiri: a) la pasul 2.1, partidele se ordoneaz n ordinea descreterii raportului Vi/(ai + 1); b) la pasul 2.4, se aplic 1. xi := ai = dVi = Vi/Q, i = 1, n . Determining the number M := M (a1 + a2 + + an) of still undistributed seats. If M = 0, than the allocation of seats is finished and it is a proportional one. 2. By xi > 0 seats, from the M ones, are additionally allocated to each of the first E M parties with the largest ratio Vi/(ai + xi). In this aim can be used the dHondt method, but beginning with ui = ai (not with ui = 0), i = 1, n . Fewer calculations needs the procedure used at steps 2.1-2.8 of algorithm A2 with the following differences: a) at step 2.1, parties are ordered in the decreasing order of ratio Vi/(ai + 1); b) at step 2.4, is applied

xi := Vi (a E + 1) / VE ai , i = 1, E 1 ; c) la
pasul 2.7 se consider cele E iruri de rapoarte Vi/(ai + ji), ji = 1, xi . Distribuirea s-a ncheiat, fiind, totui, neproporional. Totodat, partidele n pierdere (mi < vi) pierd, conform pasului 1 al algoritmului A3, mai puin de un mandat, iar partidelor cu exces de mandate (mi > vi) le pot reveni suplimentar mai mult dect 1 mandat (vezi, bunoar, exemplul 1). 6. Concluzii Soluionarea problemei (16)-(18), la folosirea n calitate de criteriu de optimizare (16), alternat, a celor 11 indici descrii n p. 3, se realizeaz conform a trei algoritmi: a) A1 pentru indicii Rae (2), LoosemoreHandby (3), Rose (4), Grofman (5), Lijphart (6), Gallagher (7), Abaterii ptratice (8) i Abaterii relative medii (11); b) A2 pentru indicii Sainte-Lagu (9) i Abaterii standard relative (12); c) A3 pentru indicele dHondt invers (10) sau, ceea ce este acelai lucru, cel dHondt (38). Algoritmul A1 reprezint metoda Celui mai mare rest cu cota Hare, iar cei A2 i A3 modificri ale metodelor Sainte-Lagu i dHondt, respectiv. Deosebirea algoritmilor A2 i A3 de cei folosii n metodele Sainte-Lagu i dHondt const n aceea c primii nu necesit mprirea consecutiv a Vi la divizorii 2ui + 1 (ui = 0, 1, 2, ), ca n cazul metodei Sainte-Lagu, sau la divizorii 2ui + 1 (ui = 0, 1, 2, ), ca n cazul metodei dHondt, iar soluia se obine ntr-un numr de pai mult mai mic. De menionat c, la primul pas, algoritmii A1, A2 i A3 coincid, reprezentarea obinut fiind, n cazul c a1 + a2 + + an = M, proporional. Deosebirea ntre aceti trei algoritmi, la cel de al doilea pas, const n aceea c cele M mandate, rmase nedistribuite dup primul pas, se aloc suplimentar: cte un mandat fiecruia din primele M < n 1 partide cu valoarea mai mare a resturilor Vi la algoritmul A1; cte xi > 0 mandate primelor E M < n 1 partide cu valoarea mai mare a raportului Vi/[2(ai + xi) -1] la algoritmul A2 i a raportului Vi/(ai + xi) la algoritmul A3, reprezentarea obinut fiind, totui, neproporional. Totodat, pentru toi

xi := Vi (a E + 1) / VE ai , i = 1, E 1 ; c) at
step 2.7 are considered the E strings of ratios Vi/(ai + ji),

ji = 1, xi . Distribution is finished, being,

however, non proportional. At the same time, the losing parties (mi < vi) loses, conform to step 1 of algorithm A3, fewer than one seat, and parties with seats in excess (mi > vi) can additionally incumbent more than one seat (see, example 1). 6. Conclusions Solving the problem (16)-(18), using as optimization criterion (16), alternatively, those 11 indices described in p. 3, is done according to three algorithms: a) A1 for indices Rae (2), LoosemoreHandby (3), Rose (4), Grofman (5), Lijphart (6), Gallagher (7), Square deviation (8) and Mean relative deviation (11); b) A2 for indices Sainte-Lagu (9) and Relative standard deviation (12); c) A3 for inverse dHondt (10) or, what is the same, the dHondt one (38). Algorithm A1 represents the largest remainder method with the Hare quota, and A2 and A3 modifications of Sainte-Lagu and dHondt methods, respectively. The difference of algorithms A2 and A3 from the ones used in Sainte-Lagu and dHondt methods consists in fact that the first doesnt need the consecutive dividing of Vi to divisors 2ui + 1 (ui = 0, 1, 2, ), as in case of Sainte-Lagu method, or to divisors 2ui + 1 (ui = 0, 1, 2, ), as in case of dHondt method, and the solution is obtained after a considerably less number of steps. To note that, at first step, algorithms A1, A2 and A3 coincide, the obtained representation being, in case of a1 + a2 + + an = M, proportional. The difference among these three algorithms, at the second step, consists in the fact that the M seat, remained undistributed after the first step, are allocated supplementary: by one seat to each of the first M < n 1 parties with the largest value of remainders Vi - at algorithm A1; by xi > 0 seats to the first E M < n 1 parties with the largest value of the ratio Vi/[2(ai + xi) -1] at algorithm A2 and of the ratio Vi/(ai + xi) at algorithm A3, the obtained representation being, 151

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INFORMATIC I CIBERNETIC / INFORMATICS AND CIBERNETICS aceti trei algoritmi, partidele n pierdere (mi < vi) pierd mai puin de un mandat, iar cele n ctig (mi > vi) pot obine n exces: la algoritmul A1 - mai puin de un mandat, iar la algoritmii A2 i A3 i mai mult de un mandat. however, non proportional. At the same time, for all these three algorithms, losing parties (mi < vi) lose less than one seat, and gaining parties (mi > vi) can obtain in excess: at algorithm A1 les than one seat, and at algorithms A2 and A3 more than one seat, too.

Referine / References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Gallagher M. Proportionality, Disproportionality and Electoral Systems// Electoral Studies (1991), 10:1, pp. 33-51. Sorescu A., Prvulescu C. i col. Sisteme electorale. Bucureti: ProDemocraia, 2006. - 54 p. Rae D.W. The Political Consequences of Electoral Lows. New Heaven, Yale University Press, 1967. Lijphart A. Electoral Systems and Party Systems. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1994. Rose R., Munro N., Mackie T. Elections in Central and Eastern Europe Since 1990. Strathclyde: Center for the Study of Public Policy, 1998. Grofman, B. and Lijphart, A. (1986). Electoral Lows and their Political Consequences. Agathon Press, New York. Henry R. Droop, On Methods of Electing Representatives, Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. 44, No. 2. (Jun., 1881), pp. 141-202 (Reprinted in Voting matters, No. 24 (Oct., 2007), pp. 7-46). Bolun I. Seats allocation in party-list election// Economica, nr.2(76)/2011. - Chiinu: Editura ASEM.

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ASPECTE DIDACTICE / DIDACTIC ASPECTS

ROLUL BIBLIOTECII UNIVERSITARE N FORMAREA SPECIALITILOR PENTRU ECONOMIA NAIONAL


Natalia CHERADI, Elena RAILEAN, Galina KOSTIUCIK, ASEM
Lucrarea este dedicat analizei rezultatelor sondajului Rolul bibliotecilor n formarea specialitilor, la care au participat 770 de absolveni din 6 instituii de nvmnt superior din Republica Moldova. Scopul studiului a fost de a identifica locul bibliotecii n formarea viitorilor specialiti din diverse domenii ale economiei, mbuntirea serviciilor pentru utilizatorii bibliotecii, precum i satisfacerea maxim a nevoilor de informare ale acestora. biblioteca universitar, Cuvinte-cheie: necesitile informaionale, serviciile informaionale, piaa informaional, serviciile inovatoare. Rolul bibliotecilor instituiilor de nvmnt este n cretere n legtur cu modernizarea continu a educaiei, informatizarea nvmntului, sporirea cererii de servicii educaionale, care necesit modernizarea ntregului sistem de servicii de informare pentru nvmntul superior. n primvara anului 2010, bibliotecile universitare din ar au participat la sondajul Rolul bibliotecilor n formarea specialitilor. Scopul studiului a fost de a identifica locul bibliotecii n formarea viitorilor specialiti din diverse domenii ale economiei, mbuntirea serviciilor pentru utilizatorii bibliotecii, precum i satisfacerea maxim a nevoilor de informare ale acestora. La sondaj au participat 770 de studeni din ultimul an din 6 instituii de nvmnt superior din Republica Moldova. Astfel, chestionarul a fost aplicat n bibliotecile universitare, precum: Biblioteca tiinific a Universitii de Stat de Medicin i Farmacie N. Testemianu, Biblioteca tiinific a Universitii Tehnice a Moldovei, Biblioteca tiinific a Academiei de Studii Economice a Moldovei, Biblioteca tiinific a Universitii de Stat A. Russo din Bli, Biblioteca Republican tiinific Agricol a UASM, Biblioteca tiinific a Universitii Pedagogice de Stat Ion Creang. n calitate de instrumente ale cercetrii au fost utilizate metoda anchetei n baza chestionarului i metoda observaiei. Rezultatele cercetrii vor sta la baza unui program de ameliorare a activitii bibliotecilor universitare.

THE ROLE OF UNIVERSITY LIBRARY IN TRAINING SPECIALISTS FOR THE NATIONAL ECONOMY
Natalia GHERADI, Elena RAILEAN, Galina KOSTIUCIK, AESM
The paper is devoted to the analysis of the survey results The Role of University Library in Training Specialists for the National Economy, in which 700 graduates from 6 higher education institution from Moldova took part. The purpose of the study was to identify the importance of the library in training future specialists in various fields of economy, improving the services for library users, as well as, maximum satisfaction of their information needs. Key-words: university library, information needs, information services, market information, innovative services The role of libraries in educational institutions is growing in connection with the continuous modernization of education, IT education, increasing demand for educational services and require upgrading the entire system of information services for higher education. In spring 2010, university libraries in the country took part in the public opinion poll: The role of libraries in training specialists. The purpose of the study was to identify the importance of the library in training future specialists in various fields of economy; improving the services for library users, as well as maximum satisfaction of their information needs. The survey involved 770 last year students of 6 higher education institutions from Moldova. Thus, the questionnaire was applied in academic libraries, such as: the State University Scientific Library of Medicine and Pharmacy N. Testemitanu, the Scientific Library of the Technical University of Moldova, the Scientific Library of the Academy of Economic Studies, the State University Scientific Library A. Russo from Balti, the Republican Scientific Agricultural Library of S.A.U. of Moldova, the Scientific Library of the State Pedagogical University I. Creanga. As instruments of research methods were used questionnaire survey and observation. The research results will form the bases of a work program to improve the academic libraries.

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ASPECTE DIDACTICE / DIDACTIC ASPECTS Structura eantionului / Sample Structure Caracteristica respondenilor / Characteristic feature of respondents Instituii / Institutions Biblioteca tiinific a Universitii de Stat A.Russo din Bli / The State University Scientific Library A.Russo from Balti Biblioteca Republican tiinific Agricol a UASM / The Republic and Scientific Agricultural Library of the SAU of Moldova Biblioteca tiinific a Universitii Tehnice a Moldovei / The Scientific Library of the Technical University of Moldova Biblioteca tiinific a Universitii de Stat de Medicin i Farmacie N. Testemianu / The State University Scientific Library of Medicine and Pharmacy N. Testemitanu Biblioteca tiinific a Academiei de Studii Economice a Moldovei / The Scientific Library of the Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova Biblioteca tiinific a Universitii Pedagogice de Stat Ion Creang / The Scientific Library of the State Pedagogical University Ion Creanga Respondenilor le-au fost propus un chestionar din 13 ntrebri, inclusiv ntrebri nchise, deschise i de scal. Rspunsul la prima ntrebare Ct de des ai frecventat biblioteca universitar pe parcursul anilor de studiu? a demonstrat un nivel ridicat de frecven n bibliotecile universitare: de 1-2 ori pe sptmn viziteaz biblioteca 35% dintre utilizatori, lunar 27%, semestrial 17,5%, alt variant 20,5% (figura 1). Structura eantionului / Structure of samples % 16,2 9,7 27,5

6,3 23,4 16,9

The respondents were proposed a questionnaire of 13 questions including closed questions, open questions and scales. The answer to the first question How often have you attended the university library during the years of study? showed a high frequency in academic libraries: 35% of users visit the library 1-2 times per week; 27% monthly; 17,5% half-yearly; 20,5% other variant (figure 1).

0,35 0,3 0,25 0,2 0,15 0,1 0,05 0 1-2 ori pe sptmn / 1-2 times per week lunar / monthly semestrial / half yearly alt variant / other variant

Figura 1. Frecvena n biblioteci universitare / Figure 1. Frequency in academic libraries Opiunea alt variant a fost aleas de ctre cei care viziteaz biblioteca n fiecare zi, de 2-3 ori pe sptmn, n timpul sesiunii i dup necesitate. Astfel, putem remarca utilizarea constant a resurselor informaionale n bibliotecile universitare, deoarece aceasta este o condiie esenial pentru nsuirea cu succes a materialului de instruire i formarea specialitilor cu studii superioare. ntrebarea Ce factori v-au determinat s utilizai biblioteca? ne-a permis s identificm motivele utilizrii bibliotecii universitare de ctre utilizatori. Aa cum era 154 The option other variant was chosen by those who visit the library every day, 2-3 times per week, during session and at need. Thus, we can notice the constant use of informational resources in university libraries as this is an essential condition for the successful acquisition of the taught material and training specialists with university education. The question What factors led you to use the library? allowed us to identify the reasons for university library utilization by the users. As expected,

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ASPECTE DIDACTICE / DIDACTIC ASPECTS de ateptat, n mare parte, studenii vin la bibliotec pentru a avea acces la colecii. Astfel, coleciile adecvate procesului de studiu 57,8% au ales din toi respondenii; condiiile de munca i atmosfera n bibliotec 35,2%; serviciile oferite 36,9%; asistena acordat de personalul bibliotecii 31,5%; alte 8,9%. Rspunsul respondenilor la ntrebarea Ce surse documentare ale bibliotecii ai solicitat mai frecvent? a evideniat preferinele studenilor n consultarea diferitelor tipuri de documente i genuri de informaii (figura 2). Astfel, utilizatorii din toate bibliotecile universitare prefer surse tradiionale de informaii: Cri 90%; Periodic 30,4%; Baze de date 23,1 %; epublicaii 17%; documente speciale (standarde, brevete de invenii etc.) 15,6%; alte 1,2%. Cel mai mare procentaj de utilizare a documentelor speciale 24,5%, l deine Biblioteca Universitii Tehnice datorit naturii cererii privind documentaia tehnic necesar pentru nsuirea profesiunilor inginereti. most of the students come to the library to have access to collections. Thus, 57,8% of all respondents chose collections adequate to the process of study; working conditions and atmosphere in the library 35,2%; services 36,9% library staff assistance 31,5%; other factors 8,9% Respondents answer to the question What document resources of the library have you requested more often? revealed the students preferences in consulting various types of documents and types of information (figure 2). Thus, users of all university libraries prefer traditional sources of information: books 90%; periodicals 30,4%; data bases 23,1%; e-publications 17%; special documents (standards, patents, etc.) 15,6%; other sources 1,2%. The largest percentage of using specific documents 24,5% holds The Technical University Library because of the demand for technical documentation necessary to acquire the engineering professions.

15,6% 17% 23,1% 30%

1,2%

90%

Cri / Books Baye de date /Databases Documente speciale / Special documents

Periodic / Periodicals e-publicaii /e-publlications Alte / Others

Figura 2. Surse documentare, solicitate mai frecvent / Figure 2. Documentary sources, required more frequently Un numr tot mai mare de respondeni utilizeaz un astfel de instrument de informare despre activitile bibliotecii i gsirea resurselor necesare precum pagina web a ei. Deci la ntrebarea Ai utilizat pagina WEB a bibliotecii? 59,9% din utilizatori au rspuns c utilizeaz acest serviciu, 30,6% nu utilizeaz, 9,5% nu tiu c bibliotecile lor au propriile pagini WEB n Internet (figura 3). Cel mai mult acest serviciu este utilizat de studenii de la Universitatea de Stat A. Russo din Blti. Necunoaterea utilizatorilor despre existena paginii Web a bibliotecii (9,5%) a confirmat gradul redus de cunoatere a studenilor i lipsa de promovare a serviciilor de bibliotec. More and more respondents use such a tool for information about library activities and to find needed resources the library web site. So, the question Have you used the library web page? 59,9% of users said they use the service; 30,6% do not use; 9,5% are unaware of their libraries own web page in Internet (figure 3). Most of service is used by the students from the State University A. Russo from Balti. Users ignorance of the existence of the library web page (9,5%) confirmed the students low awareness and lack of promotion of library services.

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9,5% 30,6% 59,9%

Da / Yes

Nu / No

nu am tiut de existena acesteia / dont know about the existence

Figura 3. Utilizarea paginii WEB a bibliotecii / Figure 3. Library Web Page Usage Cel mai mult acest serviciu este utilizat de studenii de la Universitatea de Stat A. Russo din Blti. Necunoaterea utilizatorilor despre existena paginii Web a bibliotecii (9,5%) a confirmat gradul redus de cunoatere a studenilor i lipsa de promovare a serviciilor de bibliotec. Rspunsul la ntrebarea Bifai n ordinea prioritilor serviciile de bibliotec de care ai beneficiat mai des? a cauzat unele dificulti n rndul studenilor care nu au putut s determine prioritatea serviciilor de bibliotec. Cu toate acestea, pe baza rezultatelor, putem trage urmtoarele concluzii: 1. Cele mai populare sunt serviciile tradiionale de bibliotec consultarea documentelor n sala de lectur 60,2% i mprumut la domiciliu 53,2%. Locul al treilea n popularitate l ocup serviciul inovator pentru bibliotec accesul la Internet 50,5%. 2. Exist cerere pentru serviciile furnizate n reea Catalogul electronic Web OPAC 33,8%. Evediniem tendin de cretere a cererii la serviciile suplimentare: copierea documentelor 33,2%, nregistrarea pe CD 16,8%, scanarea documentelor 15,4%, livrarea electronic 5,5%, care se implementeaz pe scar larg n biblioteci. Introducerea serviciilor suplimentare economisete timpul i stimuleaz consumul serviciilor tradiionale. Astfel, utilizarea de servicii suplimentare n biblioteci este un element esenial n oferirea produsului informaional generic n etapa actual. 3. Serviciile de referin, serviciile tradiionale de bibliotec nu sunt marcate de ctre studeni drept servicii prioritare 18%. Explicaia acestui fenomen poate fi urmtoarea: din cauza constrngerilor de timp, utilizatorul ncearc s treac de faza de cutare a informaiilor, concepnd algoritmul de cutare destul de complex, i prefer informaia operativ full-text; pentru serviciile de referin n bibliotecile universitare a aprut un rival puternic precum serviciile de referin on-line, crile de referin on-line etc. 4. Datele referitoare la utilizarea serviciilor inovatoare care rezult din studiu accesarea bazelor de date 15,8%, accesarea site-lui bibliotecii 16,7% confirm opinia predominant a experilor despre 156 The answer to Check off in order of priority of the library services that you have benefited more often caused some difficulties among the students who were unable to determine the priority of library services. However, according to the results we can draw the following conclusions: 1. Most popular are traditional library services consulting the documents in the reading room 60,2% and lending the books 53,2%. The third place in popularity occupies the innovating library service Internet access 50,5%. 2. There is demand for the services provided on the network Web OPAC 33,8%. We point out the increasing demand for additional services: copying the documents 33,2%; recording a CD 16,8%; scanning the documents 15,4%; electronic delivery 5,5% which is widely implemented in the libraries. The introduction of additional services saves time and stimulates the usage of traditional services. Thus, the use of additional services in libraries is essential providing the generic informational product at present. 3. Reference service and traditional library services are not identified by students as priority services 18%. The explanation for this phenomenon may be the next: because of time constraints, the users try to pass over the information search phase, conceiving search algorithm quite complex and prefer full-text operative information. A strong rival as online reference services, online reference book, etc. has appeared to reference services in academic libraries. 4. Data on the use of innovative services resulting from the study Database access 15,8%; the librarys website access 16,7% confirms that the predominant opinion of the experts about the complexity of the implementation of innovations in consumers consciousness. Attraction of clients for constant use of this type of service require a sustained effort of the specialists

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ASPECTE DIDACTICE / DIDACTIC ASPECTS complexitatea implementrii inovaiilor n contiina consumatorilor. Atragerea clienilor pentru consumul constant al acestui gen de servicii solicit de la specialiti un efort susinut pentru promovarea acestora n rndul utilizatorilor, dezvoltarea strategiilor de promovare a serviciilor inovative n universiti (figura 4).
70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

to promote these services among the users developing strategies to promote innovative services in universities (figure 4).

Consultarea documentelor n sala de lectur / Consulting the documents in the mprumutul la domiciliu / Lending the b k Accesul la Internet / Access to Catalogul electronic. WebOpac / Electronic catalogue Web OPAC Copierea documentelor / Copying the documents Serviciile de referine / Reference i nregistrarea pe CD / CD recording Utilizarea site-lui bibliotecii / Usage of Accesarea bazelor de date / Database Scanarea documentelor / Scanning the documents Livrarea electronic / Electronic delivery

Figura 4. Prioriti n solicitarea serviciilor de biblioteca / Figure 4. Priorities in soliciting library services Rspunsurile la ntrebarea Ai gsit ntotdeauna informaia cutat n bibliotec? a facilitat evidenierea gradului de corespundere a coninutului fondului bibliotecii la nevoile de informare ale consumatorilor. Constatm urmtoarea corelaie: gsesc toate documentele/informaiile necesare 65,3%; nu gsesc nici o informaie din cele cutate 1,2%; uneori 33,5%. Aceste rezultate demonstreaz o corespundere suficient a coleciilor bibliotecilor universitare la cerinele consumatorilor. Cu toate acestea, studenii nu primesc ntotdeauna informaii care s rspund, n totalitate, cerinelor lor. Prin urmare, este necesar s se exploreze noi mecanisme de dezvoltare a coleciilor, inclusiv a celor electronice, accesul la bazele de date tiinifice, n scopul de a maximiza satisfacerea nevoilor de informare ale utilizatorilor i de a optimiza structura fondurilor cu costuri minime. Furnizarea prompt a informaiilor necesare a fost identificat prin scala semantic de evaluare Suntei mulumii de timpul n care vi se pune la dispoziie informaia necesar?. n evaluarea operativitii oferirii informaiilor a fost obinut punctajul mediu ponderat 3,78, ceea ce indic un indicator destul de ridicat (figura 5). Answers to the question Have you always found the sought information in the library? facilitated the degree of compliance with the contents of the library information needs of the consumers. We find the following correlation: all needed documents/information are found 65,3%; dont find any of the sought information 1,2%; sometimes 33,5%. These results prove a sufficient compliance of university library collections with the consumers demands. However, the students do not always receive full information to meet their requirements. Therefore, it is necessary to explore new mechanisms for the development of collections including the electronic access to scientific databases in order to maximize the information needs of the users and optimize the structure of lowcost funds. Prompt provision of necessary information was identified by the semantic evaluation scale Are you satisfied by the time when the necessary information is provided? In assessing the efficiency of providing information there was obtained a weighted average score 37, 8% a quite high indicator (figure 5).

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5
Foarte mulumit / Very satisfied /

Foarte nemulumit/ Very unsatisfied

Figura 5. Evaluarea operativitii a furnizrii informaiilor / Figura 5. Evaluation of the efficiency of providing information Creterea cantitii de informaii, dificultatea modalitilor de a le obine conduce la contientizarea importanei asistenei bibliotecarului n procesul de consum informaional. La ntrebarea n cutarea informaiei, avei nevoie de asistena bibliotecarului? 56,8% din respondeni au menionat c au nevoie, 35,6% uneori au nevoie i 7,6% nu au nevoie de asistena bibliotecarului. Rspunsul la ntrebarea Cum apreciai aportul bibliotecarilor la formarea deprinderilor dvs. de cutare i regsire a informaiilor n bibliotec? a reliefat gradul de satisfacie a utilizatorilor prin intermediul bibliotecarului. Astfel, gradul de satisfacie a clienilor variaz ntre satisfcut i foarte satisfcut (4,2). Aceasta este o estimare ridicat a activitii bibliotecarilor. Respondenilor le-au fost oferit scala lui Likert pentru a determina gradul de acord sau dezacord cu afirmaia Putei spune c biblioteca v-a ajutat s v formai ca specialist?. Deci rezultatul general al acordului este ntre Acord i Acord total (4,16), putem vorbi despre rolul crescnd al bibliotecilor n formarea specialitilor n instituii de nvmnt superior (figura 6). Increasing amount of information and deficiency in getting information lead to awareness of the importance of librarian assistance in the process. When asked Do you need a librarian's assistance in search of information?" 56,8% of respondents said that they need the librarians' assistance; 35,6% - need the assistance only sometimes and 7,6% do not need the librarian's assistance. The answer to the question How do you evaluate the librarians' contribution in forming your skill to search and recover information in the library? highlighted the degree of the users' satisfaction by the librarian. Thus, costumers' satisfaction varies between satisfied and very satisfied (4,2). This is a high estimation of the librarian's activity. Respondents were offered the Likert's scale to determine the degree of agreement or disagreement with the statement Can you say that the library helped you to be trained as a specialist? So, the general result of agreement is between agreement and total agreement. We can say about the increasing role of libraries in training specialists in higher education institutions (figure 6).

Dezacord/ total

Dezacord/

Indiferent/

Acord/ Agreement

Acord total/ Total agreement

Total Disagreement Indifference disagreement

Figura 6. Gradul de acord cu afirmaia despre rolul bibliotecilor universitare n formarea specialitilor / Figure 6. Degree of agreement with the statement about the role of university libraries in training specialists O direcie important a bibliotecilor universitare, n prezent, este de a crea parteneriate pe termen lung cu consumatorii de informaii, care, dup absolvirea universitii, rmn utilizatori fideli ai bibliotecii, ns accesul la informaii l primesc contra plat. Aceast situaie este benefic att pentru consumatori, deoarece ei satisfac nevoile lor de informaii profesionale, ct i pentru bibliotec care are venituri noi i i mbuntete imaginea n societate ca surs important de informaiei profesionale de nalt calitate. Dorina utilizatorilor de a avea parteneriate pe termen lung cu biblioteca a fost identificat prin 158 An important direction of university libraries today is to create long-term partnerships with consumers of information after graduating from university and remain loyal library users but access to information they get paid. This situation is beneficial both: to the consumers, as they satisfy their needs for professional information and to the library, as it receives a new income and it improves its image in the society as an important source of high quality professional information. The users desire to have long-term partnerships with the library was identified by the responses to the

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ASPECTE DIDACTICE / DIDACTIC ASPECTS rspunsurile la ntrebarea Dup absolvire o s dorii s mai beneficiai de serviciile Bibliotecii?: da au rspuns 75,2%; nu 4,5%, nu tiu 20,5% (Fig. 7). question Would you wish to benefit from library services after graduation? 75,2% responded yes; no 4,5%; do not know 20,5% (figure 7).

Da / Yes Nu / No nu tiu / Dont know

Figura 7. Pregtirea utilizatorilor pentru activitatea ulterioar / Figure 7. Preparing users for future activity Rezultatele obinute la aceast ntrebare contureaz perspective noi pentru dezvoltarea n continuare a relaiilor de parteneriat cu absolvenii universitilor i optimizarea relaiilor cu studenii care nu tiu nc dac vor folosi biblioteca n viitor (ei sunt 20,5%). Rspunsurile la ntrebarea Ce servicii noi ar trebui introduse n bibliotec?, pot fi divizate n dou grupe majore: 1. Introducerea de servicii inovatoare, precum ar fi: ntreab bibliotecarul; conservarea i prezentarea pe site-ul bibliotecii a celor mai bune lucrri tiinifice studeneti (fr dreptul de a copia); tururi virtuale, ghiduri virtuale, versiuni demo ale serviciilor on-line ale bibliotecii; abonament de noapte. 2. Introducerea de servicii suplimentare, a serviciilor de confort ridicat, care faciliteaz consumul de servicii tradiionale n bibliotec. Multe dintre serviciile propuse deja sunt prezente n oferta informaional a bibliotecilor universitare, dei necesit dezvoltarea lor n continuare: acces la WebOpac; acces la Internet; servicii contra plat; scanare; imprimare; copiere; instalarea aparatelor de cafea. Rspunsurile la ntrebarea Ce recomandri putei oferi bibliotecii universitare pentru susinerea procesului de formare a specialitilor? au relevat o gam larg de sugestii din partea utilizatorilor pentru optimizarea activitii bibliotecii universitare. Toate recomandrile pot fi grupate n patru categorii: 1. mbuntirea mediului de prestare a serviciilor informaionale (echipament tehnic modern, mai multe spaii, acces liber la raft, mobilier nou, reparaie etc.). 2. Calitatea personalului: mbuntirea procesului de servire, dezvoltarea profesional continu a specialitilor din bibliotec, cursurile de perfecionare, abonarea la reviste de specialitate, optimizarea componentei de service a procesului de servire informaional. 3. Optimizarea coleciilor bibliotecilor tiinifice: achiziionarea celor mai recente monografii, manuale i periodice, raportul optim dintre The results to this question outline new prospective for future development of partnerships with university graduates and improving relations with students who do not know yet if they use the library in future (they are 20,5%). Answers to the question What new services should be introduced in the library? can be divided into two major groups: 1. Introduction of innovative services, such as: ask the librarian, preservation and presentation of the best students papers on the site of the library (not to be copied), virtual tours, virtual guides, demo versions of online library services, night subscription. 2. Introduction of additional service, high comfort services, which facilitates the use of traditional library services. Many of the proposed services are already present in informational offer of the university libraries; however, they require further development: Web OPAC access, Internet access, paid services, scanning, printing, copying, coffee machines installation. Answers to the question What advice can you give to assist the university library in training specialists? revealed a range of suggestions from the users to optimize the university library activity. All recommendations can be grouped into four categories: 1. Improvement of the informational services provision (modern technical equipment, more space, access to the shelves, new furniture, repairs, etc.) 2. Quality staff: service improvement, continuous professional training of library specialists, training courses, journals subscription, optimization of service component of the informational service process. 3. Optimization of scientific library collections: purchase of the latest monographs, textbooks and periodicals, the optimal ratio between traditional and electronic publications in the library 159

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ASPECTE DIDACTICE / DIDACTIC ASPECTS publicaiile tradiionale i cele electronice n coleciile bibliotecilor. 4. Perfecionarea serviciilor tradiionale i inovatoare oferite de bibliotec (WebOPAC, accesul la Internet, viteza mai bun a Internetului, serviciile suplimentare (xerox, scaner, imprimant etc.), implementarea serviciilor noi, comanda prin telefon sau WEB, biblioteca electronic etc.). Astfel, indiferent de satisfacia general cu privire la activitatea bibliotecilor universitare, utilizatorii au sugerat modaliti de a optimiza anumite zone ale activitilor de bibliotec, care vor contribui la transformarea acestor structuri n centre moderne de informare. Bibliotecile universitare se formeaz i se dezvolt n funcie direct de tendinele de dezvoltare a nvmntului superior. n pofida faptului c majoritatea bibliotecilor universitare aplic metode moderne de stocare a informaiilor i de servire a utilizatorilor, cu toate acestea bibliotecile nu pot fi considerate cu adevrat informatizate. Multe dintre procesele de munc desfurate n bibliotec sunt nvechite, calificarea personalului de multe ori nu corespunde cerinelor timpului. Bibliotecile trebuie s rspund operativ la schimbrile n structura cererii i posibilitile de satisfacere a lor. Accesul liber i rapid la informaie devine un factor crucial pentru dezvoltarea cu succes la toate nivelurile educaiei i tiinei. Astfel, prioritile bibliotecilor, ca uniti structurale de baz ale universitilor care formeaz specialiti pentru diferite domenii ale industriei, economiei, agriculturii, sistemului sntii, n opinia noastr, sunt: Stabilirea sistemului de asigurare informaional a proceselor educaionale i tiinifice ale universitilor i meninerea acestuia la un nivel corespunztor de stabilitate, actualitate i relevan; Consolidarea rolului bibliotecilor ca principalul furnizor de resurse informaionale pentru profesori, studeni i cadre universitare n activitatea educaional i tiinific; Susinerea proceselor de informatizare a nvmntului i cercetrii n cadrul universitii prin crearea de resurse electronice proprii; Dezvoltarea nivelului de cultur informaional a profesorilor, studenilor i a personalului universitar; Perfecionarea tehnologiilor de bibliotec; Ridicarea nivelului de profesionalism al bibliotecarilor; Optimizarea componentei de service a procesului de servire informaional; Identificarea i implementarea unor forme i metode inovatoare de lucru. Crearea bibliotecilor digitale, arhivelor, slilor de lectur virtual etc.; Coordonarea activitii, formularea scopurilor i obiectivelor comune, unificarea i 160 collections. Perfecting traditional and innovative services offered by the library (Web OPAC, Internet access, better speed Internet, additional services copier, scanner, printer, etc., implementation of new services, telephone or web order, electronic library, etc.). Thus, regardless of overall satisfaction of the university library work, users have suggested ways to optimize certain areas of library activities that will help to change these frameworks into modern informational sentence. University libraries are formed and are developed in a direct dependence on the development trends of higher education. Despite the fact that most of the university libraries apply modern methods of storing information and servicing the users, however, the libraries can be considered truly computerized. Many work processes carried out in the library are outdated; the personnel often do not meet the requirements of time. Libraries must respond promptly to changes in demand structure and ways to satisfy these demands. Rapid and free access to information becomes a crucial factor for a successful development at all levels of education and science. Thus, the priorities of the library as a basic structure unit, which train specialists in different fields of industry, economy, agriculture, health system, in our opinion are: Establishment of secured informational system of university educational and scientific processes and its maintaining at an appropriate level of stability, actuality and relevance; Strengthening the role of the library as the main provider of informational resources for teachers, students and university staff for educational and scientific activity; Supporting the process of computerized education and research within the framework of university by creating own electronic resources; Advancement of educational culture level of teachers, students and university staff; Improvement of library technologies; Increase of librarians professionalism; Optimization of service component of informational servicing process; Identification and implementation of innovative forms and methods of work. Creation of digital libraries archives, virtual reading rooms, etc.; Coordination of activities, formulating common goals and objectives, unification and standardization of new work; Working out statutory documents of library activities, their relation with other 4.

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ASPECTE DIDACTICE / DIDACTIC ASPECTS standardizarea metodelor noi de lucru; Elaborarea documentelor reglementare ale activitilor de bibliotec, relaiilor cu alte uniti structurale ale universitilor: departamente, decanate, faculti, comuniti academice, organizaii nonguvernamentale i profesionale ale universitii; Organizarea seminarilor interuniversitare pe problemele actuale ale activitilor de bibliotec, organizarea de stagii; Integrarea bibliotecilor ntr-un spaiu informaional unic, cu acces la reelele informaionale globale, n scopul de a maximiza satisfacerea nevoilor de informare ale utilizatorilor; Dezvoltarea reelelor bazate pe consorii, pentru partajarea resurselor electronice la distan, ca forma optim de furnizare a informaiilor tiinifice de calitate; Dezvoltarea strategiilor de promovare a bibliotecilor universitare ca o component important a mbuntirii imaginii acestor organizaii att la nivel universitar, ct i de ar; Consolidarea bazei financiare, utiliznd surse extrabugetare, inclusiv autogestiunea bibliotecii; Consolidarea bazei materiale a bibliotecii pentru implementarea celor mai noi tehnologii informaionale; mbuntirea structurii i a metodelor de gestionare a bibliotecii. Astfel, pentru a fi n pas cu timpul, cu cerinele profesorilor i studenilor prii active a societii bibliotecile universitare trebuie s evolueze n mod constant, s dezvolte modelele inovaionale ale bibliotecilor universitare din secolul XXI, n scopul de a maximiza satisfacerea nevoilor de informare ale viitorilor specialiti din economia naional a Republicii Moldova. structural units of universities: departments, deans offices, faculties, academic communities, university nongovernmental and professional organizations; Organizing inter-university seminars on current issues of library activities, training courses; Integration of libraries into a single informational space with access to global informational networks in order to maximize the informational needs of the users; Development of network-based consortia to share remote electronic resources, to provide optimal quality of scientific information; Development of university libraries promotional strategies as an important component of improving the image of these organizations both at university and at country level ; Strengthening the financial resources, by using extra-budgetary resources and library self-management; Strengthening library material resources for implementing the latest informational technologies; Improvement of management structure and methods of the library. Thus, to keep abreast all the times, the requirements of teachers and students, as an active part of society, university librarians must evolve constantly, to develop innovative models of university libraries of the twenty-first century in order to maximize the informational needs of future specialists of the national economy of Moldova.

DUBLA ACTUALIZARE IN SEMANTICA FRAZEOLOGISMELOR


Lect. univ. Marina RUDENCO; Lect. sup. Lilia DRUL, ASEM
Dubla actualizare este un procedeu mai profund i mai complex de transformare ocazional, care are un efect stilistic mai pronunat. El reprezint o tentativ a scriitorului de a acorda mai mult importan i libertate acelor expresii ce, fiind utilizate n forma lor ingenu, nu mai au valoarea expresiv de altdat. Structura unitar remodelat esenial cu miestrie poate avea efecte notabile. Acest procedeu semantico-stilistic se bazeaz pe

LA DOUBLE ACTUALISATION DANS LA SEMANTIQUE DES PHRASEOLOGISMES


Maria RUDENCO, Professeur Universitaire; Lilia DIRUL, Charge de cours, ASEM
La double actualisation est un procd plus profond et plus complexe de transformation occasionnelle qui a en effet stylistique plus prononc. Il reprsente une tentative des crivains daccorder plus dimportance et de libert telles expressions qui tant utilises dans leur forme originaire nont plus la valeur expressive dautrefois. La structure unitaire remodele essentiellement avec matrise peut avoir des effets notables. 161

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr3 (77) 2011

ASPECTE DIDACTICE / DIDACTIC ASPECTS jocul de semnificaii frazeologic i literal ale grupului de cuvinte stabile. n acest caz e vorba de interacionarea semnificaiei frazeologismului i a prototipului su, ceea ce creeaz un efect comic al dublei actualizri Acesta este un fenomen ce nu este omogen i al crui grad i caracter de manifestare pot fi diferite. Expresivitatea este o necesitate imperioas a textelor literare i o particularitate esenial a acestora. Ea i ia vitalitatea din toate structurile limbii, transferate i revalorificate prin inteligena fantezist a spiritului creator, avnd numeroase faete i opiuni care constituie originalitatea exprimrii. O surs important a eleganei artistice o constituie frazeologismele, ce sunt un tezaur inepuizabil al ingeniozitii populare. Expresiile frazeologice tenteaz pana scriitorului att prin culoarea lor expresiv, coninut profund, ct i prin multiplele posibiliti de a fi transformate, remodelate. Utilizate n opera literar n forma lor primar, ele confer culori naturale limbii i o apropie mai mult de seva viguroas a limbajului popular. n acelai timp,expresivitatea implicit a frazeologismelor ofer textului literar dinamism, plasticitate i o mare putere de evocare, ele crend imagini, portrete, monumente, fapte, gnduri dintre cele mai variate. Unitatea frazeologic exist n limb ca o unitate de form i coninut. Forma o constituie compoziia elementelor sale i coninutul cuprinde totalitatea semnificaiilor lexicale i gramaticale, fiind istoric fixate. Utilizarea frazeologismului, n forma sa istoric fixat i cu semnificaia care i este proprie, reprezint o utilizare uzual. Aceasta idee este menionat de Gh. Colun, care afirm c atunci cnd frazeologismele sunt introduse fr modificri, ele realizeaz funciile lor stilistice uzuale prin intermediul mijloacelor expresive absolute pe care le posed i n afara contextului, i mai ales ntrun context bine determinat, unde are drept scop exprimarea atitudinii fa de obiecte, caliti, circumstane etc.1 Exist, fr ndoiala, frazeologisme mai puin expresive, care capt culori stilistice ntr-o combinare reuit a contextului. Scriitorul i gsete locul adecvat, contribuind la realizarea conceptului su artistic. ns se pot obine valori mai expresive n urma transformrii, remodelrii acestor remarcabile uniti metaforice. n acest context, autorul le folosete ntr-o forma schimbat, rennoind structura i sensul lor i, n acest caz, e vorba de inovaiile frazeologice, cnd autorul schimb i lrgete compoziia lexical, adugnd noi nuane semantice. Se recurge, deseori, la diverse transformri ce nu sunt ordinare i care revigoreaz unitile limbii, conferindu-le prospeime i plasticitate nou, relevnd astfel posibiliti expresive inedite. Ideea de renovare a structurilor frazeologice
1

Ce procd smantico stylistique se base sur le jeu des significations phrasologique et littrale du groupement de mots stable. Dans ce cas il sagit de linteraction de la signification du phrasologisme et la signification de son prototype, ce qui cre un effet comique de la double actualisation. Cest un phnomne qui nest pas omogne dont le degr est le caractre de sa manifestation peuvent tre diffrents. Lexpressivit est une ncessit imprieuse des textes littraires et une particularit essentielle de ceux-ci. Elle puise sa vitalit de toutes les structures de la langue, transfres et revalorifies par lintelligence fantaisiste de lesprit crateur. Elle a plusieurs facettes et options qui constituent loriginalit de lexpression. Une source importante de llgance artistique sont les phrasologismes qui constituent un trsor inpuisable de lingniosit populaire. Les expressions phrasologiques font tenter la plume de lcrivain tant par leur couleur expressive, le contenu profond que par leurs multiples possibilits dtre transformes, remodeles. Utilises dans luvre littraire sous leur forme primaire, les phrasologismes donnent des couleurs naturelles la langue et lapproche plus de la sve vigoureuse du langage populaire. En mme temps, lexpressivit implicite des phrasologismes offre au texte littraire du dynamisme, de la plasticit et une grande puissance dvocation. Elle cre des images, portraits, monuments, penses parmi les plus varis Lunit phrasologique existe dans la langue dans son unit de forme et de contenu. La forme cest la composition des ses lments et le contenu, cest la totalit des significations lexicales et grammaticales. La forme de lunit phrasologique est fixe historiquement. Lemploi du phrasologisme dans sa forme historiquement fixe et avec la signification qui lui est propre cest un emploi usuel. Cette ide est mentionne par G. Colun qui affirme que si les phrasologismes sont introduits sans modifications, alors ils ralisent leurs fonctions stylistiques usuelles par lintermdiaire des moyens expressifs absolus quils possdent et en dehors du contexte et surtout dans un contexte bien dtermin o lauteur a comme but dexprimer lattitude envers des objets, des qualits, des circonstances etc1. Il existe des phrasologismes, sans doute, moins expressifs qui peuvent acqurir des couleurs stylistiques dans une combinaison russie du contexte. Lcrivain lui trouve la place adquate en contribuant la ralisation de son concept artistique. Mais on peut obtenir des valeurs plus expressives la

Colun Gh., Studiul de stilistic frazeologic, Chiinu, Universitatea de Stat din Moldova , 2001, p.91 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr3 (77) 2011

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ASPECTE DIDACTICE / DIDACTIC ASPECTS este mai veche i poate fi, de asemenea, ntlnit i n limbajul obi nuit. n limbajul artistic ea i ia amploare, fiind susinut de for a creativ a scriitorilor i are anumite inten ii de a sensibiliza i edifica mesajul artistic. Lingvistul Al. Andriescu remarca c inventivitatea scriitorului n utilizarea locu iunilor, expresiilor, zicalelor nu se manifesta numai prin faptul c ele sunt solicitate pentru a caracteriza maniera de a vorbi, psihologia personajelor sau a evoca mediul, epoca. Pentru a realiza acest scop mai bine, scriitorul modific adesea aceste ziceri populare1. Transform rile sunt ntotdeauna diferite, conform manierei individuale i originale a fiec rui scriitor. Cu ct autorul este mai cultivat i mai i sensibil, cu att configuraiile stilului s u vor fi mai ingenioase i relevante. n ceea ce prive te modific rile frazelogismelor din punct de vedere structural i semantic, lingvistul Gh. Colun afirm c e vorba de variantele lor ocazionale i ca rezultat ale acestor modific ri, frazeologismele ob in valori stilistice. Aceste transform ri ostentatorii creeaz noi structuri nea teptate ce revigoreaz sugestiv lumea iniial i incit mai puternic imaginaia i percep ia estetic . Fiecare tip de transformare ocazional i are gradul sau de complexitate. Cele mai simple sunt determinate de factori structurali. Gradul de complexitate progreseaz n m sura n care factorii semantici intra n joc, ceea ce permite, la rndul sau, s creasc efectele stilistic i semantic ale transform rii. Dubla actualizare este un procedeu mai profund i mai complex de transformare ocazional , care are un impact stilistic mai pronun at. El reprezint o tentativa a scriitorului de a acorda mai mult importan i libertate acelor expresii ce, fiind utilizate n forma lor ingenu , nu mai au valoarea expresiv de alt dat . Structura unitar remodelat esen ial cu m iestrie poate avea efecte notabile. Acest procedeu semantico-stilistic se bazeaz pe jocul de semnifica ii frazeologic i literal ale grupului de cuvinte stabile. n acest caz e vorba de interac ionarea semnifica iei frazeologismului i a semnifica iei prototipului sau, ceea ce creeaz un efect comic a dublei actualiz ri. Acesta este un fenomen ce nu este omogen i al c rui grad i caracter de manifestare pot fi diferite: - S i votre pre et mre navaient pas bien fait leur lit, vous seriez peut tre aujourdhui
1

suite de la transformation, du remodelage de ces remarquables units mtaphoriques. Dans ce sens les crivains les emploient sous une forme change en renouvelant la structure et le sens, il sagit de lainsi dites, innovations phrasologiques, quand lauteur change et largit la composition lexicale, ajoute de nouvelles nuances smantiques. On recourt souvent a de diverses transformations qui ne sont pas ordinaires et qui font revigorer les units de la langue en leur offrant de la fraicheur et de la plasticit nouvelles relevant ainsi des possibilits expressives indites. Lide de rnover les structures phrasologiques est plus ancienne quon peut rencontrer aussi dans le langage ordinaire. Dans le langage artistique elle prend une ampleur qui est soutenue par la force crative des crivains et elle a certaines intentions de sensibiliser et ddifier le mssage artistique. Le linguiste Al. Andriescu1 remarque que linventivit de lcrivain dans lemploi des locutions, des expressions, des dictions ne se manifeste pas seulement dans la manire quelles sont sollicites pour caractriser la faon de parler et la psychologie des personnages ou pour voquer suggestivement le milieu et lpoque ... Pour raliser mieux ces buts lcrivain modifie souvent les dires populaires. Les transformations sont toujours differentes correspondant toujours au style individuel et original de chaque ecrivain. Plus lmetteur est cultiv et sensible, plus les configurations de son style seront ingnieuses et relevantes. En ce qui concerne les modifications des phrasologismes du point de vue structural et smantique, le linguiste G. Colun affirme quil sagit de leurs variantes occasionnelles et comme rsultat de ces modifications les phrasologismes obtiennent de nouvelles valeurs stylistiques. Ces transfigurations ostentatoires ralisent de nouvelles structures, inattendues, qui font revigorer suggestivement le monde initial et qui incitent plus fort limagination et la perception esthtique. Chaque type de transformation occasionnelle a son degr de complexit. Les plus simples sont dtermines par les facteurs structuraux. Le degr de complexit augmente mesure que les facteurs smantiques entrent en jeu, ce qui fait son tour accrotre le degr des effets stylistique et smantique de la transformation. La double actualisation est un procd plus profond et plus complexe de transformation occasionnelle qui a en effet stylistique plus prononc. Il reprsente une tentative des crivains daccorder plus dimportance et de libert aux expressions qui tant utilises dans leur forme originaire nont plus la valeur expressive dautrefois. La structure unitaire remodele essentiellement avec matrise peut avoir des effets notables. Ce procd smantico-stylistique se base sur le jeu des significations phrasologique et littrale du groupement de mots stable. Dans ce cas il sagit de lintraction de la signification du phrasologisme et la signification de son prototype, ce qui cre un effet comique de la double actualisation. Cest un phnomne qui nest pas omogne dont le degr est le caractre de sa manifestation peuvent tre diffrentes. La double actualisation peut tre le rsultat du jeu de

Andriescu Al. Stil i limbaj, Iai, Junimea, 1977, p.176 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr3 (77) 2011 163

ASPECTE DIDACTICE / DIDACTIC ASPECTS sans draps (Balzac Le contrat de mariage p.89); Duroy vivait sans un nuage dans son ciel (Maupassant, Bel Ami, p.94). n aceste exemple, dubla actualizare a frazeologismelor faire son lit et vivre sans nuages ine de un context determinat i permite s percepem, n acela i timp, semnificaiile frazeologic i literal ale unitii. Dubla actualizare poate fi prezent ca rezultat al jocului unuia din elementele constituente ale unitii, n cele mai dese cazuri e vorba de elementul principal. n exemplul ce urmeaz este focusat compozantul nominal al frazeologismului faire une fin: La LangousteIl y avait aussi lide du mariage qui me trottait par la tte ,lide de faire une fin pendant quil tait encore temps; Clerambard Ce que je vous propose , Lonie , ce nest pas une fin. Cest un commencement. (M.Aym. Clrambard, p.106. Dubla actualizare poate fi provocat prin focusarea al unuia din elementele unitii prin repetarea sau extinderea limitelor sale. n exemplul ce urmeaz este actualizat elementul final al frazeologismului entre lenclume et le marteau: Parbleu, jeune homme ,vous tes bon, secria Falcoz, il sest fait marteau pour ntre pas enclume, et un terrible marteau encore. (Sthendal, Le Rouge et le Noir p.328) Autorul parafrazeaz frazeologismul i face inversia elementelor. Prin transformarea sugestiv a frazeologismului, descrierea momentului respectiv obine dinamism, relevan i o imagine de culori mai intense. Pauvre garcon! Crois cela et bois de leau, de cette eau sale que tu as lape si longtemps dans les cruches brches des garnis (J.Valles, Linsurge, p.143) n acest exemplu este actualizat expresia frazeologic Croyez cela et buvez de leau. Dubla actualizare poate fi obinut prin extindere pn la bifurcarea sa. Ca rezultat, compozantul l rgit, ce r mne parte constituent a unitii, prin intermediul semnificaiei literale intr n relaie semantico-sintactica cu cuvintele libere ale frazei. n acest caz este supus actualiz rii unul din compozantele unitii, ceea ce nu diminueaz efectul sau stilistic: La femme faisait des journes de douze heures chez madame Fauconnier. (E.Zola, Lassommoir, p.93). Frazeologismul faire des journes este lrgit de complementul numelui (de douze heures). Substantivul heure nu nceteaz a fi elementul compozant al frazeologismului i, n acelai timp, ntra n relaie cu cuvintele libere de douze heures, formnd cu ele un grup de cuvinte libere. Gratie acestui procedeu se restabilete semnificaia literal, care se contopete cu semnificaia comun a unitii. 164 la signification de cette unit et la signification de son prototype. Dans ce cas elle se ralise dans une situation contextuelle donne. ... Si votre pre et mre navaient pas bien fait leur lit, vous seriez peut-tre aujourdhui sans draps. (Balzac, Le contrat de mariage, p. 89) Duroy vivait sans un nuage dans son ciel. (Maupassant, Bel Ami, p. 94) Dans ces exemples la double actualisation des phrasologismes faire son lit et vivre sans nuage est lie un contexte dtermin qui permet de saisir en mme temps les significations phrasologique et littrale de lunit. La double actualisation peut entrer comme rsultat de la mise en jeu dun des lments composants de lunit (le plus souvent sest llment principal). Dans lexemple qui suit on met en jeu le composant nominal du phrasologisme faire une fin. La Langouste. Il y avait aussi lide du mariage qui me trottait par la tte, lide de faire une fin pendant quil tatit encore temps. Clrambard. Ce que je vous propose, Lonie, ce nest pas une fin. Cest un commencement. (M.Aym. Clrambard, p. 106) Dans lexemple qui suit on met en jeu le composant verbal du phrasologisme jeter le voile sur qch. Cest lui quil appartient de lever ce voile jet sur le doux secret de la vie (Maupassant, Une vie, p. 69) La double actualisation peut tre provoque par la mise en jeu dun des lments de lunit par sa rptition ou llargissement de ses limites. Dans lexemple qui suit on actualise llment final du phrasologisme entre lenclume et le marteau. Parbleu, jeune homme, vous tes bon, scria Falcoz, il sest fait marteau pour ntre pas enclume, et un terrible marteau encore (Sthndal, Le Rouge et le Noir, p. 328) Dans cet exemple lauteur paraphrase le phrasologisme et fait linversion des lments. Par la transformation suggestive du phrasologisme, la description du moment respectif obtient du dynamisme, de la relevance et une image aux couleurs plus intenses. Pauvre garon! Crois cela et bois de leau, de cette eau sale que tu as lape si longtemps, dans les cruches brches des garnis. (J. Valls, Linsurg, p. 143) Dans cet exemple on actualise lexpression phrasologique Croyez cela et buvez de leau. La double actualisation peut etre ralise par llargissement dun des lments de lunit jusqu sa bifurcation. Comme rsultat, le composant largi, restant partie composante de lunit, par lintermdiaire de sa signification littrale entre en relation smantico syntaxique avec les mots libres de la phrase. Dans le cas on soumet la seule actualisation un des composants de lunit, ce qui ne fait pas diminuer son effet stylistique. La femme faisait des journes de douze heures chez madame Fauconnier (E. Zola, Lassommoir, p. 93) Dans cet exemple on emploie le phrasologisme

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ASPECTE DIDACTICE / DIDACTIC ASPECTS Astfel, avem doua grupuri de cuvinte diferite, n care elementul final al grupului se suprapune elementului iniial al celuilalt: Goulard qui voulait mnager la chvre royaliste et le chou rpublicain, sortit, et les chiens aboyrent alors avec violence (Balzac, Une tnbreuse affaire, p.136) Cuvintele royaliste i rpublicain intr n rela ie semantico-sintactic cu compozantele chvr e i chou , ceea ce-i confer o nou nuan semantic , n acela i timp p strndu-i identitatea: M.Gaudissart ma fichu une perruque soigne Il m grond de mtre intress vous (Balzac, Le cousin Ponce p.161). Expresia frazeologic ficher une perruque qn este l rgit de adjectivul soigne , care apar ine contextului liber. Dubla actualizare prin bifurcare semantic este caracteristic mai mult pentru frazeologismele comparative. n acest caz, extinderea se face graie subordonatelor relative: Jean Christophe suivit son guide comme un mouton quon mne la boucherie (R.Roland, Jean-Christophe, p.213); Cet ordre calma pour un moment le pauvre homme qui gmissait comme un enfant qui a perdu sa bonne (Balzac, Le Pre Goriot, p.114). n exemplele enumerate, subordonatele relative utilizate fac ca imaginile ce sunt la baza frazeologismului s devin mai pronunate, mai expresive. Se obine, astfel, un amalgam de semnificaii insolite. n poezie, frazeologismele sunt supuse unor transformri mai subtile dect n alte genuri literare. n proz, modificrile nu au limit. Aici frazeologismele sunt supuse unor distorsiuni dintre cele mai neateptate i mai fascinante. Proza exceleaz prin naraiune i scriitorul poate organiza cu dibcie posibilitile de exprimare fantezista, manifestnd din plin talentul su n valorificarea i renovarea potenialului limbii. Astfel, creatorii de opere literare au tiut ntotdeauna s revigureze i s ofere o nou palpitaie frazeologismelor. Ei au cizelat aceste perle ale limbii cu dragoste i penetrare profund , pentru a le prezenta splendide i vii, f r a diminua rafinamentul lor condensat . Fiecare scriitor tinde s impresioneze, s conving prin intensitate i prin suavitate verbal , alegnd i asamblnd cuvintele n multiple i multicolore structuri, care pot fi savurate, i nu numai citite. faire des journes qui est largie par un complment du nom (de douze heures). Le nom heure ne cesse pas dtre llment composant du phrasologisme et en mme temps il entre en relation avec les mots libres de douze heures en formant avec eux un groupement de mots libres. Grce cela on rtablit la signification littrale qui, sest dissaie dans la signification commune de lunit. Ainsi, on a deux groupements de mots diffrents qui sentremlent, o llment final dun groupement de mot se superpose sur llment initial de lautre. Goulard qui voulait mnager la chvre royaliste et le chou rpublicain, sortit, et les chiens aboyrent alors avec violence. (Balzac, Une tnbreuse affaire, p. 136) Dans cet exemple les mots royaliste et rpublicain entre en relation smantico syntaxique avec les composants chvre et chou. Cela lui confre une nouvelle nuance semantique et en mme temps on ne dtruit pas son identit. M. Gaudissart ma fichu une perruque soigne Il ma grond de mtre intress vous. (Balzac, Le cousin Pons, p. 161) Lexpression phrasologique ficher une perruque qn est largie par ladjectif soigne qui appartient au contexte libre. La double actualisation par la bifurcation smantique est caractristique surtout pour les phrasologismes comparatifs. Dans ce cas la double actualisation sexprime par ce que llargissement se fait grce aux subordonns relatives. Il [Jean Cristophe] suivit son guide comme un mouton quon mne la boucherie. (R. Rolland, Jean Christophe, p. 213) Cet ordre calma pur un moment le pauvre homme qui gmissait comme un enfant qui a perdu sa bonne. (Balzac, Le pre Goriot , p. 117) Dans tous ces exemples les subordonnes relatives employes font que les images qui sont la base du phrasologisme deviennent plus prononces et plus vives. On obtient ainsi un amalgame de significations insolites. Dans la posie les phraseologismes sont soumis aux transfigurations plus subtiles et distordues que dans les autres genres littraires, tant de structure que de signification. Dans la prose les modifications nont pas de limites, ils sont soumis aux dissertions les plus inattendues et les plus fascinantes, aux combinaisons formelles et smantiques.La prose excelle par la narration et lcrivain peut organiser avec plus dadresse les possibilits dexpression fantaisiste, il manifeste pleinement son talent dans la valorification et la rnovation du potentiel de la langue Ainsi les grands crivains ont su toujours revigorer et offrir une nouvelle palpitation aux phrasologismes. Ils ont cisel ces perles de la langue avec amour et pntration profonde pour les prsenter splendides et animes, sans diminuer leur raffinement condens.

1. 2. 3.

Bibliografie / Bibliografie Andriescu, Academia de administrare public, Stil i limbaj, Iai, 1977 Colun G., Studiu de stilistic frazeologic, Chiinu, Universitatea de stat din Moldova, 2001 Cristea Th., Introducere n studiul frazeologiei n sinteze n limba romn, Bucureti, albatros, 1998 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr3 (77) 2011 165

ASPECTE DIDACTICE / DIDACTIC ASPECTS 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Guiraud P., Les locutions franaises, Paris, 1961 Humbert J., Le franais idiomatique, Paris, 1954 Rey A., Le lexique: images et modles. Du dictionnaire la lexicologie, Paris, 1977 Timescova I. N., Les citations franaises, Proweschenye, 1974 . ., , , 1976 . ., , , 1978 . ., , , 1976

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Monografia DOCTRINE I ECONOMITI CELEBRI,


Autor: Dumitru Moldovanu, prof. univ. dr. hab., membru cor. AM
Lucrarea Doctrine i economiti celebri vine s ncununeze contribuia notorie a profesorului Dumitru Moldovanu la cercetarea n Republica Moldova a istoriei gndirii i doctrinelor economice. Cu prilejul lansrii acestei cri, constatm c precum ASEM a devenit astzi un simbol al independenei economice a rii noastre, la fel studierea i cunoaterea gndirii economice universale i naionale constituie o prob de performan a nvmntului universitar autohton de profil economic. n aceste sens, meritele profesorului Moldovanu se contureaz nc din anul 1992, cnd la scurt timp dup obinerea independenei R. Moldova dumnealui editeaz n premier Istoria doctrinelor economice, menionnd n prefaa acesteia: Dup obinerea independenei politice, lupta pentru eliberarea naional nu s-a terminat. Pur i simplu ea a trecut n domeniul economic. Pe parcursul anilor ce s-au perindat, autorul a publicat mai multe ediii completate i actualizate, rmnnd fidel aceluiai stil de expunere, original i atractiv pentru cititor. Este, totodat, stilul inconfundabil prin care rzbate personalitatea carismatic a autorului, generoas, plin de optimism i ptruns pn n adncuri de spiritul patriotismului. Ediia din acest an jubiliar este una deosebit. Remarcm, mai nti, titlul Doctrine i economiti celebri, care pune n eviden importana personalitii economistului pentru ideile, teoriile i doctrinele economice elaborate. Ct privete structura i coninutul lucrrii, menionm c, n general, atunci cnd

Monograph DOCTRINES AND FAMOUS ECONOMISTS


Author: Dumitru Moldovanu, Prof. Univ. Dr. Hab., Corresp. Memb. of ASM
The paper Doctrines and famous economists comes to crown professors Dumitru Moldovanu notorious contribution to the research of the history of economic thought and doctrines in the Republic of Moldova. The release of this book is a good opportunity to notice that as Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova has become a symbol of our countrys economic independence, equally the research and knowledge of the universal and national economic thought forms an evidence of the higher performance of the local university education of economic profile. In this respect, the merits of Professor D. Moldovanu emerge from 1992 when shortly after the Republic of Moldova gained independence, he was publishing for the first time The History of Economic Doctrines, noting in its preface: After political independence the struggle for national liberation is not been completed. It just passed in the economic area. Throughout the years, the author has published several completed and updated editions, while his writing style remained the same, original and attractive to the readers. It is also the unmistakable style which echoes the authors charismatic personality, generous, full of optimism and pervaded in depth with the spirit of patriotism. This jubilee year edition is a special one. To note first of all the title Doctrines and famous economists, which highlights the importance of the economists personality for the economic theories and doctrines developed. As for the structure and content of 167

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr 2(76) 2011

RECENZII / REVIEW savantul public mai multe ediii menite s acopere ntreaga evoluie a doctrinelor economice, ediii maximal ngrijite i cizelate, de fiecare dat autorul tinde s se depeasc pe sine nsui. Ceea ce este dificil, dar posibil, precum dovedete lucrarea de fa, n care constatm o valoare adugat sub multiple aspecte: Reevaluarea celor patru megatendine ale gndirii economice i argumentarea denumirii pentru a cincea (figura 1), prezentarea categoriilor cursului de gndire economic prin piramida fr vrf (figura 2); Aprecierea de sintez a evoluiei gndirii economice att sub aspectul rolului personalitilor n dezvoltarea gndirii economice, ct i al duratei vieii ideilor economice: elaborarea, redescoperirea, regndirea acestora; evoluia ideilor n spiral sau conform principiului pendulului (capitolul I); Prezentarea doctrinelor i teoriilor recent dezvoltate de ctre neoinstituionaliti, noii keynesiti, noii clasici i reevaluarea, prin prisma acestora, a doctrinelor economice din perioadele anterioare; Prezentarea gndirii economice romneti nu ca un capitol apendice, cum se face deseori, ci pe tot cuprinsul crii, n paralel cu doctrinele economice dezvoltate de rile lumii n perioadele respective, fapt ce permite o abordare comparativ foarte concludent; n fine, teoria imaginaiei creative, la elaborarea creia particip n prezent profesorul D. Moldovanu, constituie nu doar un element de valoare adugat, ci i o veritabil bijuterie n colecia meritelor autorului. Ajungnd la acest compartiment al crii, nu ne rmne dect s ndemnm cititorul s se conving c e mai bine o dat s vezi, s citeti, dect de zece ori s auzi. Or, ct privete teoria imaginaiei creative, cu siguran n acest domeniu sunt nc multe de spus i de cercetat, dar important este s fie deschis calea pentru cei ce vor veni apoi. Felicitri i la muli ani creativi, domnule decan Dumitru Moldovanu! Conf. univ. dr. Elina BENEA-POPUOI the paper, generally, while publishing several refined editions aimed at covering the entire evolution of the economic doctrines, every time the author tends to overcome himself. What is a difficult task but still possible, as the given paper shows us while displaying multiple elements of value added, among which: Reassessment of the 4 mainstreams in the economic thought and designation of the 5th mainstream (figure 1), presentation in the pyramid without tip (figure 2) of the categories on the economic thought subject. Summary assessment of the evolution of the economic thought both in terms of the role of personalities and in terms of the lifetime of the economic ideas their design, rediscovery, rethinking; their evolution in spiral or according to the pendulum principle (chapter I). Exposition of the doctrines and theories developed recently by Neoinstitutionalists, New Keynesians, New Classicals and reassessment in their view of the earlier economic doctrines. Presentation of the Romanian economic thought not as an appendix chapter as it is frequently practiced, but throughout the entire book, along with the economic doctrines developed by the world countries in the respective periods, which fact allows very conclusive comparative approach. Ultimately, the theory of creative imagination which is currently elaborated with contribution of professor D. Moldovanu, is not just an element of value added but a real jewel in the crown of the author. Having reached this section of the book, we only have to urge the reader to ascertain that it's better once to read, than ten times to hear. As for the theory of creative imagination, certainly in this area is still much to be said and investigated, but it is so important to open the path for those to come afterwards. Congratulations and many creative years to you, mister dean, Dumitru Moldovanu! Assoc. Prof. PhD Elina BENEA-POPUSOI

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Bun de tipar 07.10.11. Coli editoriale 22,8. Coli de tipar 21,00. Tirajul 110 ex. Tipografia Departamentului Editorial-Poligrafic al ASEM tel. 402-986

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