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history and theology. The central question here is not the how of stewardship, but the why of stewardship itself. Select contributions in this volume represent new trajectories. For example, L. Sideriss work on environmental ethics and natural selection is a welcome addition to this conversation. Classics in the field of environmental stewardship also find a place (e.g., J. Sittler and D. J. Hall). This volume has an unavoidably disconnected sense to it. Scientists, public policy experts, journalists, and scholars of religious studies all offer musings on the theme of stewardship. Many of the articles are nuanced, carefully crafted, and clearly advance specific arguments in the field of environmental ethics. Other articles are cursory and beg complex questions that grip the field. The volume generally neglects critical insights as to how sex, gender, race, class, etc. shape understandings of stewardship. This text will appeal to undergraduate students in ecology and religion classes or to seminarians searching for a general synopsis of this conversation. Daniel McFee Mercyhurst College

learned from the study of the Dead Sea Scrolls. After a helpful decade-by-decade survey of the nearly sixty years since the discovery of the scrolls, each of the next three chapters is devoted to an area of inquiry wherein the scrolls have played a major role and continue to hold great promise: textual criticism and composition history of scripture; prayer, worship, and other liturgical matters; and the place and role of women, both at Qumran in particular and in early Judaism more generally. The book ends with a brief description of future directions for Scrolls study, including the participation of more voices in an interdisciplinary discussion. Indeed, Schullers own work demonstrates well the contribution that social scientists, literary critics, and others can make beyond the tremendous work already accomplished by textual critics, philologists, and historians. While the latters work is by no means completed, the former can draw upon it and extend it toward even greater syntheses of what we have learned. Shane Kirkpatrick Anderson University

Greece, Rome, Greco-Roman Period


MENSCH UND RAUM VON DER ANTIKE BIS ZUR GEGENWART. Edited by A. Loprieno. Colloquia Raurica,
9. Munich: K.G. Saur Verlag, 2006. Pp. ix + 221; plates, maps. 64.00, ISBN 978-3-598-77380-8. Many readers may be put off by the vast subject matter indicated by the title of this volume. This would be a pity because each of the ten contributions (one in English, nine in German, of which three deal with Egypt, one with the OT, two with the Greeks [including an intricate plotting of the temporal and spatial coordinates of a Greek novel], one with the medieval Alexander romance, one with Arabic travel literature, and two, more generally with theatrical and sculptural space) offers a stimulating vignette, accessible to the interested readers, of particular texts or artifacts that point to the diverse conceptions of different societies concerning space and humanitys space within it. While the specificity of the discussions opens up theoretical considerations, it does not become bogged down with them. Even scholars in areas that are not dealt with here will be stimulated to reconsider their own material within the spatial frameworks presented here. Jenny Strauss Clay University of Virginia

COPTIC IN 20 LESSONS: INTRODUCTION TO SAHIDIC COPTIC WITH EXERCISES AND VOCABULARIES. By Bentley Layton. Leuven: Leuven, 2006.
Pp. viii + 204; illustrations. $34.00, ISBN 978-90-429-1810-8. Having published what has become the standard reference grammar of Sahidic Coptic (A Coptic Grammar, Harrassowitz, 2000), Layton has now come out with an introductory grammar based on that earlier work. In his analysis of Coptic grammar Layton has introduced a radically new terminology. For example, second tenses are gone, replaced by focalizing conversion. Adjectives are back, however, called genderless common nouns in the earlier work. Laytons book is now clearly the one to use in teaching Coptic. Students who can get through it will be prepared to take on Coptic texts. The only problem I see is that Layton is completely silent about why he is replacing the older terminology standard in Coptic editions and scholarly literature with the new one. I would counsel the teacher using this work to complement it with relevant sections from Thomas Lambdins Introduction to Sahidic Coptic (Mercer, 1983). Birger A. Pearson University of California, Santa Barbara

THE MESSIAH IN THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS. Edited by Stanley E. Porter. Grand Rapids, MI:
Eerdmans, 2007. Pp. xiv + 268. $29.00, ISBN 978-0-80280766-3. Ten participants in a 2004 Colloquium at McMaster Divinity College in Hamilton, Ontario supply herein their varied perspectives on the Messiah in the Old and New Testaments. L. Stuckenbruck finds no unified picture of the Messiah in the apocalyptic writings of early Judaism; as a result, the question why did not the Jews recognize Jesus as Messiah? is misplaced. For T. Thatcher, Johannine Christology counters the contentions of the Antichrists by

Christian Origins
THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS: WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED? By Eileen M. Schuller. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2006. Pp. xvii + 126. $17.95, ISBN 0-66423-112-8. A slightly expanded version of her 2002 John Albert Hall Lectures, the chapters in Schullers brief and accessible work take up a series of questions about what we have

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affirming the earthly ministry of the man Jesus. S. Porter discovers in LukeActs a twofold theme: Jesus is both an eschatological prophetic messianic figure, as well as an earthly scion of the Davidic lineage. According to I. H. Marshall, Mark and Matthew regard and report the words and deeds of Jesus, and from them fashion an explanatory picture that reinterprets preexisting Jewish notions of the Messiah. For S. Cummins, Pauls conversion brought him to the realization that this very Jesus was the one through whom the expectations of Israel were to be fulfilled; through Jesus, the life of the Spirit was infused into the community of believers. C. Evans summarizes the proceedings and offers his own critique: messianism as a concept may not be found in the Bible, but the elements that later went to constitute it certainly are. In sum, the contributors provide valuable insights into a biblical topic that will never lose its vitality. Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey

MASTERING NEW TESTAMENT GREEK: ESSENTIAL TOOLS FOR STUDENTS. By Thomas A. Robinson.
Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2007. Pp. x + 230; CD-ROM. $19.95, ISBN 978-1-56563-576-0. Like other vocabulary-building tools, this volume presents Greek vocabulary words in order of descending frequencywith the distinctive twist that the main list is based not on frequency of individual words, but of cognate groups. To the proven collection of tools found in the earlier editions, this third iteration adds three new features. One, the Mini Greek-English Cognate Dictionary (section six) is a reverse counterpart to the Derived English Words section. The latter links known English words that are derived from Greek words to those words, while the former provides a list of Greek roots that have made their way into English. Another (section seven) uses diagrams to provide a visual understanding of the various prepositions. Perhaps the most interesting addition is Index Two, a list (presented in reverse alphabetical order) of Greek word endings. One suspects that many will find this addition to be extremely helpful; to a student confronted, e.g., by a word ending in -, the Index quickly reveals its parsing as future optative middle second plural. The CD includes a software version of this tool, along with audio programs to help learn the (Erasmian) pronunciation of Greek, and vocabulary review and testing programs; the programs installed easily and ran smoothly. In all, this is a fine collection of tools. Because the instructor is persuaded that a cognate-based approach to vocabulary acquisition is the better route, this is an excellent, attractively priced instructional volume. Michael W. Holmes Bethel University

This book is a synopsis in ET of apocryphal nativity and infancy narratives. Although critical edition information appears in the bibliography, because it lacks original language layout and a critical apparatus its utility as a research tool is limited. Elliott, however, makes every attempt to base his ET on modern critical editions (when available). Because the texts are lengthy, the layout is not in parallel columns. Instead, relevant portions of texts are laid out in blocks with subheaders (e.g., Joachims Offering Rejected; Anna Laments). Although this layout is helpful with identifying similar blocks of narrative across various texts, the lack of parallel columns diminishes its comparative value. The book progresses through the texts, placing relevant pieces of each text within a bigger narrative cycle created by Elliott: Marys birth/upbringing; annunciation; Marys visit; Marys pregnancy; Jesus birth; Jesus adoration; Magi; infants slain; Egypt; Jesus childhood. In order to find the narrative continuation of a particular text, Elliott uses a coded system. At the end of each gobbet Elliott places a set of letters and numbers (e.g., /5Di: the continuation of the narrative can be found in chapter five, subsection Di). The texts included in the synopsis: Prot. Jas.; Inf. Gos. Thom.; Ps.-Mt.; Arundel 404; Gos. Bir. Mary; Hist. Jos. Carp.; P. Cairensis 10735; (Arab.) Gos. Inf.; Irish Versified Inf. Gos. Thom.; Leabhar Breac; Liber Flavus Fergusiorum. April D. DeConick Rice University

A SYNOPSIS OF THE APOCRYPHAL NATIVITY AND INFANCY NARRATIVES. By J. K. Elliott. New


Testament Tools and Studies, 34. Boston: Brill, 2006. Pp. xxvii + 170. $159.00, ISBN 978-9-004-15067-6.

THE CAMBRIDGE COMPANION TO THE GOSPELS. Edited by Stephen C. Barton. Cambridge Companions to Religion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Pp. vii + 300. Cloth, $75.00, 0-521-80766-2; paper, $27.99, 0-521-00261-3. In the introduction of this delightful companion, Barton criticizes the narrow vision of most introductions to the gospels that address the historical and literary significance of these texts, but fail to consider their role as canonical literature. With this in mind, the essays in this volume have been written and divided into three parts. In Part One, Approaching the Gospels: Context and Method, each of the authors including L. Alexander, F. Watson, R. Hays, S. Fowl, and S. Schneidersaddresses relevant hermeneutical and methodological problems. Part Two, The Gospels as Witnesses to Christ: Content and Interpretation, includes contributions from S. Barton, J. Green, J. Squires, and M. Meye Thompson, focusing on the gospels themselves, drawing attention to their uniqueness and commonality. And lastly, in Part Three, The Afterlife of the Gospels: Impact on Church and Society, F. Young, D. Matzko McCarthy, G. Mursell, and S. BaderSaye each explore how the gospels have shaped the church and society from past to present. This wide-ranging and refreshing approach to gospel studies will only foster a greater appreciation of these sacred texts, rewarding the layperson, student, and scholar alike. Matthew R. Hauge Azusa Pacific University
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GRAMMATICAL CONCEPTS 101 FOR BIBLICAL GREEK: LEARNING BIBLICAL GREEK GRAMMATICAL CONCEPTS THROUGH ENGLISH GRAMMAR.
By Gary A. Long. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2006. Pp. xxiii + 239; illustrations. $19.95, ISBN 1-56563406-3. Long wrote this book to assist the entry-level biblical Greek student in learning basic grammatical concepts. During his years teaching Greek and other ancient languages, Long came to a realization: while his students were learning Greek, many were also being forced to learn English grammar, which they had never really mastered. In his survey of grammar, Long begins with the building blocks of phonology, vowels and consonants, then moves on to explain the concepts of declension, gender, number, and case. He arranges paradigms in the order nominativeaccusative genitivedative, and discusses basic syntactical functions (e.g., of the genitive.) His discussion of verbs includes sections on both aspect and (very briefly) Aktionsart, before moving on to tense, voice, mood, etc. He fully discusses the English and Greek features of each topic surveyed. The final sections introduce semantics and discourse analysis. This book is not without weaknesses. Chief is Longs frequent use of obscure and technical jargon (e.g., acrolect, basilect, prestige [as an antonym for dialect], irreal, etc.) where plainer (and more comprehensible) terms would suffice. Thus, I would not recommend this book for individuals attempting to learn Greek on their own. Vocabulary aside, Longs descriptions are overwhelming, dense, and packed with valuable information. Professors who use this book may need to explain Longs explanations for their students. These reservations notwithstanding, teachers of biblical Greek whose students need help with basic English grammar will find this book a helpful and profitable tool, if used with care. Perry L. Stepp Kentucky Christian University

chapters three and eleven (on the origins of Codex Bezae), and chapter twelve (on conjectural emendation). These are instructive and indispensable reading for any student of NT textual criticism for the light they shed on method and practice. Perhaps the publication of these will bring fresh attention to three valuable essays too long to include: The New Testament Text (in The Cambridge History of the Bible, vol. 1 [1970], 308-377); The Recent History of New Testament Textual Criticism (from Westcott and Hort, 1881, to the present) (ANRW 2.26.1 [1992] 99-197); and Textual Transmission and Versions of the New Testament (in The Oxford Handbook of Biblical Studies, ed. Rogerson and Lieu [2006], 237-49). In all, a fitting tribute to a master of his craft. Michael W. Holmes Bethel University

COLLECTED PAPERS IN GREEK AND GEORGIAN TEXTUAL CRITICISM. By J. Neville Birdsall. Edited by
D. C. Parker and D. G. K. Taylor. Texts and Studies, Third Series, 3. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2006. Pp. xviii + 288. $85.00, ISBN 1-59333-098-7. In many respects, Birdsall was an underappreciated paragon among NT textual critics. One reason may be that Birdsall published virtually all of his work in essay form, and thus much of it flew beneath the usual radars. This volume (planned by Birdsall but appearing posthumously) draws together many of his most exemplary and valuable contributions, providing welcome access to studies that reveal Birdsalls breadth of interests, extraordinary depth of learning, and remarkable bibliographical control. Twenty-three essays cover general studies, the text of Photius, manuscript studies, exegetical studies, Georgian studies, and other versions and the Diatessaron. Of these, one may note particularly chapter one (his previously unpublished inaugural address), chapters five and nine (on the Bodmer and Beatty papyri),

FROM THE MACCABEES TO THE MISHNAH. By Shaye J. D. Cohen. Second Edition. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2006. Pp. xiv + 250. $29.95, ISBN 9780-664-22743-2. Cohen has revised his twenty-year-old earlier edition (1986) by clarifying many paragraphs, making additional use of the Qumran literature, inserting a section on womens Judaism, fleshing out the introduction to the Mishnah, and updating footnotes and the list of Suggestions for Further Reading. The seven chapters explain the salient points of Judaism as it existed in the chosen time period described in the title: chronology and definitions; Jews and Gentiles; practices and beliefs of the Jewish religion; the community and its institutions; orthodoxy and sectarianism; the canon of scripture; the beginnings of Rabbinic Judaism. Outstanding are many of Cohens formulations: his thoughts on the Second Temple period; reward and punishment; Judaism as striated (what a felicitous word) by numerous holy men, each with a band of supporters (think Jesus); the God of Israel and the gods of the nations; Jews and nationality; the end of the tribal structure; baptism as administered to those entering Judaism; action (deeds) as the essence of religion; prayer in Israel; the genuine meaning of ritual observance. Cohens sweeping strictures of Christian anti-Semitism lack nuance. But aside from this, his explanation of Judaism at the time of the rise of Christianity and Rabbinic Judaism forms one of the finest short introductions available in English. An absolutely first-rate book. Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey THE NEW TESTAMENT IN CROSS-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE. By Richard L. Rohrbaugh. Matrix: The Bible in
Mediterranean Context. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2007. Pp. xv + 211. $25.00, ISBN 978-1-59752-827-6. In this collection of eleven previously published essays, Rohrbaugh phrases the interpretive problem in an unusual way: how can we read the Bible in a time and in an environment in which it was never intended to be read? This question is especially relevant because the Bible is now being

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subjected to hermeneutical methods (sociological, linguistic, among others) that the original authors never envisaged. In response to his query, Rohrbaugh roams over a large landscape of biblical books and topics: Jesus as a village artisan; Lukes Jesus; Jesus knowledge of who he was and when he knew it; Zacchaeus as the defender of the honor of Jesus; the prodigal son as member of a dysfunctional family; gossip in the NT; urban social relations; Nicodemus and his meeting with Jesus. All the essays in this extremely worthwhile contribution to biblical science bear out the fact that the Bible is not a Western book, and that in attempting to understand it we are of necessity engaged in a cross-cultural endeavor. Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey

cies of literalism (truth and meaning are supposedly the same), cognitivism (belief and doctrine define faith), individualism (religion is a private matter), and romanticism (feeling surpasses reason). The place of Ps 110 (LXX 109) in the development of early Christian belief in the lordship (and ultimately divinity) of Jesus is well expressed. There are many other fine insights throughout the work. The paradoxical nature of Meekss presentation at times will tempt readers to a ready rejoinder, for example, his statement that what a text meant is not necessarily what it means. All things considered, Meeks challenges students and scholars to share in his own insights into the perennial question: who and what is Jesus? Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey

HEARING THE OLD TESTAMENT IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Edited by Stanley E. Porter. Grand Rapids,
MI: Eerdmans, 2006. Pp. xii + 316. $29.00, ISBN 0-80282846-9. Twelve essays by ten contributors make up this volume that originated in 2003 at a Colloquium held at McMaster Divinity College, Hamilton, Ontario. Many comments stand out. M. P. Knowles believes that T. S. Elliot seized an idea central to that of Matthews Gospel, which was written in a time of social upheaval comparable to our own, when some collaborated with the political and military ascendancy while others were interested in following the proper calendar. S. E. Porter sees outlined in Luke 4:18-19 the mission of Jesus and therefore the meaning of the Kingdom of God (simple solution, but too often forgotten). P. Miller, relying on the Gospel of John, believes that we must associate with persons of other religions, but precisely as Christians. Christ is not just one way among many to the truth; his words should be taken seriously. S. C. Keesmaat provides fine comments regarding Christ as the new Adam and image of God in Phil 2:5-11; he is the one who is truly human. K. Anders Richardson finds Job as the exemplar in the Letter of James; before being prodded by the Satan, God had no intention of testing Job. In conclusion, these essays show clearly that there are many ways of hearing the Old Testament in the New. The early Christians did and so must we. Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey

JESUS AND THE EYEWITNESSES: THE GOSPELS AS EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY. By Richard Bauckham.
Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2006. Pp. 521. $32.00, ISBN 978-0-8028-3162-0. Bauckham argues that eyewitness testimony about Jesus was a significant constituent of the NT Gospels, in keeping with ancient historiographical ideals. The Synoptics incorporate multiple testimonies by eyewitnesses (disciples and minor characters), and Mark contains hints of Peters perspective. Against the form-critical model of long, anonymous chains of transmission, the Synoptic narrative episodes are consistent with how eyewitnesses retell significant life events in stereotyped story forms, according to research on memory. The Jerusalem church and designated local teachers supplied additional control over Jesus tradition. The whole Fourth Gospel was written by the Beloved Disciple, an eyewitness called John outside the Twelve, as the second-century Ephesian church understood. This is an important and controversial monograph, focusing on Mark, John, Papias, memory, testimony, and Gospel tradition. The author often briefly acknowledges ways in which a tradition could change over time (e.g., tricks of memory, intertextual refashioning, evangelists redaction) but undercuts this by resisting the current tendency to interpret historical texts as fundamentally about the time of their authors and by insisting that the best epistemological stance for interpreting testimony is trust, not skepticism. The argument is generally impressive and often brilliant within the wide debating grounds that it sets. However, for clarifying and testing the thesis, further interaction would have been welcome with research on Q-material and on scriptural contribution to Jesus tradition, as well as with specific theological and historical reasons why the NT Gospels have been thought to reflect the concerns of the evangelists settings. Catherine Playoust Cambridge, MA

CHRIST IS THE QUESTION. By Wayne A. Meeks. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2006. Pp. x + 166. $19.95, ISBN 0-664-22962-X. Originating as lectures given at various institutions of higher learning, these six essays, presented in a less formal style than is customary with academic subjects, treat the identity of Jesus from an intensely personal point of view. The question, for Meeks, is how Jesus of Nazareth, the carpenter from Galilee, became the God-in-the-flesh figure of later ages? This is hardly a new question. It has been asked and answered for as long as Christianity has existed. Meeks believes that modern answers have erred through the falla-

JESUS ON TRIAL: A STUDY OF THE GOSPELS. SECOND EDITION. By Gerard S. Sloyan. Minneapolis, MN:
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Fortress Press, 2006. Pp. vii + 159. $18.00, ISBN 0-80063829-8. To discover the reality behind the trial and death of Jesus, Sloyan goes behind the plain narratives of the Gospels in order to ascertain their sources and editorial tendencies. In this way he hopes to get closer to the historical reality of what really happened; as he freely admits however, closer still only implies likelihood, not certainty. On face value, the Gospels present Jewish religious leadership as devising the death of Jesus for political and religious reasons by accusing him before Pilate, who ultimately executed Jesus out of expediency. At a later time when the Church was on its way to becoming predominantly Gentile, the Gospel narratives of the passion and death of Jesus helped to widen the breach between the competing Jewish sects of (incipient) rabbinic Judaism and Christianity. For Sloyan, no one comes out unscathed: neither Jews, nor Romans, nor Christians. Probably that is the best that can ever be said about the matter, regardless of any further advances in scholarship which, when all is said and done, will continue to remain open to personal speculation and interpretation. Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey

JUDAS AND THE GOSPEL OF JESUS: HAVE WE MISSED THE TRUTH ABOUT CHRISTIANITY? By
N. T. Wright. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2006. Pp. 155. $18.99, ISBN 978-0-8010-1294-5. After some preliminary remarks in chapter one (Not Another New Gospel?) the Bishop of Durham discusses second-century Gnosticism in general (chapter two) and the Gospel of Judas in particular (chapter three). He uncritically accepts the interpretation of Judas role and actions in the Gospel of Judas put forward by M. Meyer and B. Ehrman in the first published translation, according to which Judas is a hero and Jesus best friend. Of course, he does not accept their assessment of the gospel as a needed corrective to traditional Christianity. Wright sets up a contrast between the messages found in the early canonical gospels and the late non-canonical ones (chapter four), and mounts a vigorous defense of the traditional view of Jesus teachings and actions (chapter five: Lord of the World or Escaper from the World?). He takes on the North American scholars who use the non-canonical material to propound a new myth of Christian origins (chapter six). In the final chapter (The Challenge of Judas for Today) Wright suggests the possibility that, just by reading the nonsense found in the new gospel, people might begin to see that there is something in classic Christianity after all. Birger A. Pearson University of California, Santa Barbara

For the sake of the uninformed, as Valantasis points out, one must not come to Q expecting to find a genuine document from antiquity, but rather a scholarly reconstruction of a hypothetical source supposedly used by Matthew and Luke to complete their rewriting of the Gospel of Mark. As such, the words of the reconstruction already exist in Matthew and Luke; they are not utterances found in some long-lost but newly found apocryphal Gospel. However that might be, Valantasis provides a new translation and commentary that is invigorating, inspiring, and worthy of a special place in the growing collection of studies on Q. For Valantasis, Q is yet one more way among many of hearing Jesus. Subjectivity, social relationships, and symbolic universeall help in our understanding of the past; they do not hinder comprehension; nor should they be eschewed for the sake of some profitless objectivity. Jesus came proclaiming an alternative empire to that of the Jewish and Roman power structures of the time (Valantasis prefers empire to the usual translation kingdom for basileia). Paul, who had never heard the words of Jesus, in his turn heard Jesus speak through revelations (a word from the Lord). Apocalypticism was yet another way of hearing Jesus continue to speak. For Valantasis, what is important is the listening and the hearing, no matter where the words may come from. This, in sum, is a splendid book; it is a model of how to make scholarship come alive as scholarship, yet at the same time nourishing belief and not attenuating the respect that is due to the texts and to the person of Jesus who lurks behind the texts. Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey

DIAKONIA IM NEUEN TESTAMENT: STUDIEN ZUR SEMANTIK UNTER BESONDERER BERCKSICHTIGUNG DER ROLLE VON FRAUEN. By Anni Hentschel.
WUNT 2 : 226. Tbingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 2007. Pp. xiv + 498. $142.50, ISBN 978-3-16-149086-6. In this doctoral dissertation accepted in 2005 by the Friedrich-Alexander-Universitt at Erlangen-Nrnberg, Hentschel begins with a survey of the copious recent literature on diakonia (with its cognates and derivatives), including feminist positions on the question of ministry and service rendered by both men and women in the NT. The treatise continues in traditional dissertation fashion: meaning and use of the diakonia word-group in the Greek world and Hellenistic-Jewish literature; its use in Paul, including diakonia in the list of Pauline charismata and in the collection of 2 Corinthians; its use in LukeActs; in the DeuteroPauline letters; in the noncanonical Apostolic Fathers (Didache, First Clement; Ignatius). For Hentschel, the term diakonia stands for various tasks of service, including that of preaching; it is related to the development of officials (including those explicitly called ministers) in the early Christian community; surprisingly, the term appears frequently in the Pauline literature and especially in the postPauline Epistles of the NT. The ministry of preaching accompanied the development of the churches; this in turn

THE NEW Q: A FRESH TRANSLATION WITH COMMENTARY. By Richard Valantasis. New York: T & T Clark,
2005. Pp. x + 238. $19.95, ISBN 0-567-02561-6.

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led to the development of a structured officialdom. The diakonoi, unlike Apostles, were not obliged to justify their mission by appealing to a mandate from the risen Christ, but were called and empowered by God/Christ through the intermediary of the Christian community. While Paul often spoke of male and female coworkers, by the end of the first century those with an official ministerial role to play were all men (cf. 1 Tim 3:8-13). Because this is an historical study, and the evidence is often ambiguous, Hentschel wisely leaves aside the question of the role of women in the Church today. To answer that question, moderns will necessarily interpret the historical evidence according to their own presuppositions (and prejudices). Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey

THE EARLIEST CHRISTIAN ARTIFACTS: MANUSCRIPTS AND CHRISTIAN ORIGINS. By Larry W.


Hurtado. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2006. Pp. xiv + 248. $20.00, ISBN 978-0-8028-2895-8. The volumes title states the authors thesis: early Christian MSS comprise one of the earliestif not the earliest bodies of artifacts produced by the emerging Christian movement. Aims include drawing attention to an overlooked body of data, providing a basic overview of key issues (and bibliography), and advancing discussion at points. The five main chapters cover the texts of early Christianity, its preference for the codex format, nomina sacra (the earliest evidence of a Christian visual culture; the suspended form of the name of Jesusthe two letters IHwas likely the originating device from which the whole scribal practice of the nomina sacra then developed), the staurogram (the earliest visual representation of the crucified Jesus), and other early scribal features. With respect to the first two goals, the book is very successful, a gem for anyone needing a quick overview of the covered topics. As for the third goal, the results are more ambiguous, partially as a result of one of the books strengths (his exemplary transparency about the assumptions he makes) and in part to the nature of the evidence: artifacts are silent regarding the questions we most wish to ask (about why or how). Also, one of his key assumptions when discussing format (that the format of a copy offers a clue to the format of its exemplar) is dubious. Overall, however, he surely succeeds in showcasing early Christian MSS not merely as carriers of texts, but as artifacts in their own right. Michael W. Holmes Bethel University

Gospels in general; the Gospel of Mark; Pauls Gospel. For Tannehill, the Gospels disclose their original social contexts only in a general way. Their later usage in the early Church in turn presupposed diverse social settings. Modern scholarship has rightly attempted to discover and clarify these settings, but this process can be both a blessing and a curse. The fact that the original settings of the Gospels remain for the large part indeterminate means that they have not lost their value for the present and the future; they can be applied constantly to new settings and are not simply ossified in the past. The Gospel of Mark makes use of many narrative techniques, among them the enticement to false hopes on the part of Jesus and his disciples and a delay in the revelation of their true mission; all of which contain lessons for the readers of Mark. Tannehill uses the example of sport fans personalities that are formed as the fans identify with the fate of their favorite teams; the teams victory is their victory; in a similar fashion, Christ identifies himself with the suffering world so that his victory is its victory. In sum, Tannehills essays have stood the test of time; their assemblage here will deservedly make them better known. Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey

A FEMINIST COMPANION TO MARIOLOGY. Edited


by Amy-Jill Levine and Maria Mayo Robbins. Cleveland, OH: Pilgrim Press, 2005. Pp. 256. $21.00, ISBN 0-8298-1700-X. Twelve essays (some republished here), plus an Introduction by Levine, constitute this survey of Mariology, which is at times feminist only because of the gender of the person being studied. In a thought-provoking article, J. D. Crossan considers the conception of Jesus as most likely illegitimate; Crossan goes on to explain the possible origins of the virginal conception tradition. G. H. Tavard treats the genesis of Mariology from the viewpoint of the problems it has created for later ages; Mariology in the early church was not a deviation but rather part of the main event in the demonstration of Christian truth; Vatican II advocated a Mariology rooted in the mystery of Christ and the Church. B. Roberts Gaventa speaks of the modern Protestant silence regarding Mary and a possible antidote to it by considering Mary as the first disciple (behold the handmaid of the Lord). J. van den Hengel sees Mary as an exemplar for the extraordinariness of the ordinary; later ages extrapolated from the meager biblical evidence about Mary more and more Marian titles and devotions. J. kland finds Lutheran women attracted to Mary because of the modern feminist movement. V. Abrahamsen examines the identity, historicity, and functions of the various Marys in the early church in order to explain, among other things, why they were venerated alongside the male God of Christianity. Ranging in tone and content from ultracritical to piously respectful, these and the remaining essays provide readers with an attractive entrance into a neglected field of study. Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey

THE SHAPE OF THE GOSPEL: NEW TESTAMENT ESSAYS. By Robert C. Tannehill. Eugene, OR: Cascade
Books, 2007. Pp. xv + 237. $28.00, ISBN 978-1-59752-511-4. A continuation of Tannehills earlier collection of essays on LukeActs, ten of the eleven contributions contained here were previously published elsewhere, beginning as long ago as 1977. The collection consists of three parts: aspects of the

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SEEING THE WORD: REFOCUSING NEW TESTAMENT STUDY. By Markus Bockmuehl. Grand Rapids, MI:
Baker Academic, 2006. Pp. 297; illustrations. $21.99, ISBN 978-0-8010-2761-1. Bockmuehl graphically illustrates his diagnosis for the malaise that afflicts modern NT scholarship (which lacks both a method and a subject matter) by visually reproducing and then explaining a fifteenth-century Flemish-illuminated manuscript which depicts St. Luke painting an image of the Virgin and Child (by then a long established theme). What is striking is the visual difference between the sitting models of Mother and Child and the painted image as it appears on Lukes easel-mounted surface. The models figures are reversed and their countenances have been transmuted from mundane to sublime. The illuminator has shown graphically how biblical themes are changed by the hands of an interpreter; changed, but not falsified; sublimated but not thereby disfigured. In the remaining chapters, Bockmuehl offers supporting arguments and helpful insights for his thesis. Scripture relies on unity and diversity to maintain its equilibrium of truth; for example, tradition has been able to interpret, accept, and reconcile the tension between the missions of Peter and Paul. As Bockmuehl writes toward the end of his very successful diagnosis, the tradition of biblical interpretation has for long been hospitable to the outsider (i.e., other cultures): from Matthews Magi at the beginning of the NT to the final page of the Apocalypse, where the nations bring their own reflected glory to the city of God. Very well put. Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey

deserves far more appreciation as a commingling of the two traditions and as an important intermediate stop on the road to their final separation. Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey

JEWISH CHRISTIANITY RECONSIDERED: RETHINKING ANCIENT GROUPS AND TEXTS. Edited


by Matt Jackson-McCabe. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2007. Pp. 248. $35.00, ISBN 978-0-8006-3865-8. The ambiguous nature of Jewish Christianity is matched by the paucity of modern studies on its nature and origins. This is partly due to the fact that just as there were many Judaisms, so there were many Jewish Christianities. The eleven essays in this collection by as many contributors attempt to counterbalance the situation. For M. JacksonMcCabe, the conjunction of Jewish with Christianity puts in question the boundaries that are conventionally assigned to each group; boundaries that may have been much more fluid than normally suspected. C. C. Hill examines the Jerusalem Church and believes that it was both Jewish and Christian. In a long article on the Q-Document, W. Arnal concludes that Q calls into question the notion that Judaism and early Christianity were separate religious traditions vis--vis one another. P. J. Hartin comes to the conclusion that the Letter of James is immersed in the thought world of Second Temple Judaism (which was itself no monolithic entity); yet James also moves in the world of early Christianity with its confession of Jesus as the Christ. From these few samples and from the general tenor of this entire collection, one may safely conclude that Jewish-Christianity

THE LAST DAYS OF JESUS. By Franois Bovon. Translated by Kristin Hennessy. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2006. Pp. 112. $17.95, ISBN 978-0-664-23007-4. Although Harvard scholar Bovon has performed the task requested of him, namely, to provide a general introduction to the problems and probabilities of the Gospel Passion Narratives, one may be disappointed at the books tendency to split the difference. Problems are never too problematical to endanger basic historicity; the gospel accounts are close enough to what we know of Jewish and Roman law; the Testimonium Flavianum is probably genuine if one edits out the problematical portions. It all begins to look quite different as soon as one takes seriously the possibility of extensive gospel borrowing from Josephus. If the Passion of Jesus is based on that of Jesus ben Ananias, if the cleansing of the temple is based on that by Simon bar-Gioras, if the Markan crucifixion account is based entirely on scripturewell, the whole thing is up for debate. He mentions and rejects, with no real refutation, the Brandon Zealot hypothesis and Crossans Cross Gospel theory. Both require much more attention than Bovon accords them. And if Bovons goal is to consider and report the state of scholarly debate and discussion of the Passion, the result is quite skewed toward conservative apologetics. The reader must and will receive the impression that, once again, the old Book has withstood the blows of time and criticism. Robert M. Price Johnnie Colemon Theological Seminary CROSS-CULTURAL PAUL: JOURNEYS TO OTHERS, JOURNEYS TO OURSELVES. By Charles H. Cosgrove,
Herold Weiss and (Khiok-Khng) Yeo. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2005. Pp. vii + 293. $25.00, ISBN 0-80282843-4. This book stands out among attempts to read the Bible from different cultural contexts in that each author attempts to read Paul not only from his own cultural perspective, but also from that of a culture that is not his own. Weiss looks at Paul first from the setting of his own Argentine culture (destiny, the cult of personality, and death) and then from the perspective of Russian Christianity (salvation as deification). Cosgrove interprets Paul in the light of his own Anglo-American culture (individual rights, freedom, and self-realization) and then from an African-American perspective (peoplehood). Yeo reads Paul first in the light of a Confucianist encounter with Christianity (the relationship of cosmology and ethics) and then from a Native American perspective (earth and creation). The authors demonstrate that cultural concerns can richly illuminate the interpretation of Pauls theology. At the same time, they make it clear that Pauls theology challenges aspects of every culture. This

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book can be used by students of Paul at various levels as a model of intentional contextual study, in order to give Paul a fresh hearing, to foster harmonious cultural diversity, and to hold up ones own culture to critical light. David W. Kuck United Theological College of the West Indies

THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS AND THE NEW TESTAMENT. By Clayton N. Jefford. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson,
2006. Pp. xii + 267. $19.95, ISBN 978-1-56563-425-1. Jefford, a specialist on the Didache, considers the chronological, theological, and geographical relationships between the so-called Apostolic Fathers (AF) and the canonical NT. A substantial expansion of issues raised in The Apostolic Fathers: An Essential Guide (Abingdon, 2005), the work begins with a survey of introductory questions before moving to a more topical presentation. Jefford acknowledges the tentative nature of some of his conclusions, offering them as working hypotheses while granting that specialists may disagree with certain judgments (for example, when he dates 1 Clement prior to 70 CE). In chapters two through four, Jefford addresses the genres of the AF and the traditions they contain (e.g., letters, homilies, creedal fragments, isolated logia), forms and styles of ethical argumentation (e.g., household codes, virtue and vice lists, the two ways), and the extent to which the AF borrow (or simply share) the language and imagery of the NT. Chapters four and five explore how the texts reveal differing responses to the Jewish tradition and to Greco-Roman society (respectively), as Christian communities developed a distinctive sense of identity. Chapter seven draws the arguments of the preceding chapters into a geographical survey of early Christian development. The result might be considered a modest summary of emerging orthodox Christianity that emphasizes both diversity and continuity. Recommended for seminarians, graduate students, and theological libraries. James N. Rhodes Saint Michaels College

banning books does not meet Dungans own definition of canon, and public debate scarcely ceasedwitness Athanasius vs. the Melitians three decades later). Second, Constantine underwrote the production of fifty copies of scripture (but did not specify the contentsa task apparently left to Eusebius, whose Ecclesiastical History is characterized once as a most impressive demonstration of which books belonged to the NT and which did not, and twice as presenting open-ended results). The case is fundamentally unpersuasive. Intriguingly, Dungan finds impetus toward a canon in the ideology of the Greek polis (which demanded order, precision, and clarity [chapters two to three]) and Greek philosophical schools (which emphasized a Founder, controlled leadership succession, and careful transmission of genuine writings [chapter four]), elements that fundamentally shaped Eusebiuss Ecclesiastical History (chapter five), a major source for canon history. Here Dungan usefully brings new considerations to the discussion. Michael W. Holmes Bethel University

A FEMINIST COMPANION TO THE NEW TESTAMENT APOCRYPHA. Edited By Amy-Jill Levine with
Maria Mayo Robbins. Cleveland, OH: The Pilgrim Press, 2006. Pp. 292. $21.00, ISBN 978-0-8298-1754-6. Thirteen contributors (including the editor) provide essays that deal with women in the Apocrypha. For R. Valantasis, Christians are something more than merely human beings; they possess a new identity, thereby becoming a third genos. When Christianity became the dominant culture and the decline of moral ideals inevitably set in, the monastic movements attempted a return to an earlier standard of perfection. D. Boyarin affirms that the choice of a woman to remain a virgin in a religious environment was often the only alternative to the life of marriage and motherhood. These latter vocations at the time precluded any possibility of following personal proclivities to an intellectual and spiritual life. Consecrated virginity permitted a woman to become an author, an abbess, a theologian (such as Teresa of Avila). Thecla, in her varied guises, receives the lion(ess)s share of attention in this volume that contains a vast amount of valuable information about some lesser-known writings in the Christian corpus of literature. Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey

CONSTANTINES BIBLE: POLITICS AND THE MAKING OF THE NEW TESTAMENT. By David L. Dungan.
Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2007. Pp. xii + 224. $17.00, ISBN 0-8006-3790-9. Entering a field in which definition of terms is critical and widely debated, Dungan asserts an idiosyncratic, tendentious definition of canon as a rigid, sharply differentiated list of approved books intentionally created by a religious elite whose decisions are legalized and enforced by governmental actionan event, Dungan contends, limited to forth to fifth-century Christianity and seventhcentury Islam. Chapter six presents the thesis implied by the title: Constantine fundamentally influenced and gave legal sanction to the selection of scripture. Support consists of two points. First, Constantines Edict against the Heretics banned their books, after which public debate over scripture within the Christian Church withered away (but

DOUBTING THOMAS. By Glenn W. Most. Cambridge,


MA: Harvard University Press, 2005. Pp. xviii + 267. plates. $27.95, ISBN 0-674-01914-8. In this two-part treatise, Most uses the proverbial image of doubting Thomas to confront the central issues of faith, evidence, doubt, disbelief, skepticism, and argumentation. In the first part the NT basis is expounded, while in the second section a series of later elaborations on doubting Thomas are examined and evaluated. John, by introducing the figure of Thomas, has made doubt a legitimate mode of

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thinking. The episode in John has had a huge effect on Christian understanding of the nature of a resurrected body: whether and how it can be touched; what evidence such touching really provides; does evidence destroy faith? The dramatic action of Thomas also raises questions about skepticism even for those who are not Christian. Just how certain is any philosophical knowledge? What are its bases? Most ends his engaging studywhich deserves a wide readership not only by biblical students, but by all students of the humanitieswith the words: Thomas stands for us. This is true whether we be Christians or not. It is true because we are human beings. Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey

THE QUEER BIBLE COMMENTARY. Edited by Deryn


Guest, Robert E. Goss, Mona West, and Thomas Bohache. London: SCM Press, 2006. Pp. xviii + 859. 64.99, ISBN 9780-334-04021-7. The forty-six chapters of this single volume do not by and large queer the Bible, although there are several exceptions. Instead, this book collects a wide variety of gay-friendly readings of biblical passages, especially those relating to sex or gender and with particular attention to passages that have been used to attack homosexuality. In other words, this book does not so much subvert the Bibles authority as redirect it, by challenging prevailing toxic ideostories (M. Carden). The thorny question of the Bible and ideology is an important and helpful focus. Thirteen of the thirty-one contributors are identified as clergy, and a predominantly Christian pastoral orientation is evident at many points, as is an autobiographical/confessional dimension. The concept of queer commentary is rarely questioned. The chapters do not comment verse by verse, but instead survey each book of the Protestant canon, sometimes including several books in a single chapter, with special attention to controversial or difficult passages. However, this book is by no means deficient in scholarship. Included are fifty-eight pages of bibliography, plus an extensive name/subject index. George Aichele Adrian College

ists), who, by their confession of Jesus of Nazareth as Messiah, brought to a head the notion of Messiah as an expected anointed agent of God who was to bring salvation to his people at the end-time. This rescue could be both political (deliverance from the Romans or other oppressors) as well as spiritual (for example, the remittance of the residue of punishment remaining after the confession and forgiveness of sins). In both cases, however, eschatological salvation is, in the final analysis, rescue from the wrath of God, who rewards and punishes sinners according to their deeds. In its final form, this Messiah was to bring deliverance not only to Jews but to the whole human race. Fitzmyers treatise is hardly a popular work for the casual reader. The constant use of Hebrew and Greek type fonts argues against this. But for serious students of the Bible, the treatise provides in compact form valuable information about Messianism and a plethora of subsidiary topics. Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey

MARCION AND LUKEACTS: A DEFINING STRUGGLE. By Joseph B. Tyson. Columbia, SC: University of South
Carolina Press, 2006. Pp. 224. $39.95, ISBN 1-57003-650-0. Tyson defends the proposition that LukeActs was composed as an early second-century response to Marcionite theology. After summarizing arguments for dating Acts between 100 and 150 CE, the book devotes itself to demonstrating that Marcionite controversies provide a plausible context for the Lucan writings theological emphases. To make his case, Tyson dates Marcions emergence slightly earlier than is common (115-120 CE) and explores similarities between Marcions positions and the theological themes in Acts. Next, the most interesting and perhaps speculative chapter investigates the relationship between two Gospels, Marcions and Luke. Tyson contends that Marcion and the author of canonical Luke both worked from a late firstcentury document, the latter adding material (primarily Luke 1-2; 24:13-53) and reworking other parts to create a coherent theological response to Marcion around 120125 CE. Tyson dusts off and reinvigorates old hypotheses about the composition and context of LukeActs (J. Knoxs work is focal), but that hardly means nothing new is here. This nuanced, engaging volume resists overreaching the available evidence. Its explanations of the Lukan material will not convince all, but its provocative contributions should demand serious and enduring attention from those who study LukeActs and its place in emerging Christianity. Matthew L. Skinner Luther Seminary

THE ONE WHO IS TO COME. By Joseph A. Fitzmyer. Grand Rapids, MI: 2007. Pp. xvi + 205. $18.00, ISBN 978-08028-4013-4. Fitzmyer employs the chronological method in this study of messianism in the Bible and in associated literature. As is evident from the title, Fitzmyer admits his indebtedness to Sigmund Mowinckels He That Cometh, a book that is deservedly still in print. Included in Fitzmyers exposition are the changes in usage found in the Septuagint, as well as in extra-Biblical texts of the Second Temple period. Of special interest is Fitzmyers treatment of the topic in later assorted Jewish writings: Qumran; the Mishnah; the Targums. Finally we meet the Christians (literally Messian236

THE LIVING VOICE OF THE GOSPELS. By Francis J. Moloney. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2006. Pp. 344. $19.95, ISBN 978-1-59856-065-7. The first edition of this introduction to a contemporary reading of the Gospels was published in 1986. Because of the advances in biblical science (and especially Gospel

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research) that have occurred since that time, Moloney has produced a completely rewritten version of the original. It attempts, without the use of technical language, to inform beginners about developments in scientific approaches in order to deepen their appreciation for the work of scholars as well as to enhance their grasp of the Gospels themselves. After a general introduction, Moloney devotes two chapters to each of the Gospels. The first expounds general issues; the second comments upon a specific text in the chosen Gospel. As an example, after an extensive survey of the text and possible interpretations, Moloney finds Eucharistic overtones in John 6. A concluding chapter defines and illustrates the various modern approaches to Gospel criticism: source, form, redaction, narrative. Intended readers will find this volume helpful, though to appreciate its value they should read it from cover to cover; because of its structure and personal nature, it does not lend itself to browsing or random searching. Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey

themselves through close readings. The different interpretations arise largely from these students differing theological presuppositions. Eight Lectures provide theological (lectures one and eight), historical (lecture two), and comparative literature (lectures six and seven) foundations for the Lessons, as well as a literary overview of Marks genre (including embedded, largely form-critical, genres), structure (gradually concealing and then revealing Jesuss identity), and themes (one knows Jesuss identity only at the foot of the cross) (lectures three through five). As he recognizes, Kenney charts no new ground in Marks interpretationwith the possible exception of his interpretation of 15:37-38 as a giving of the spirit and an exorcism of YHWH from the Temple. Curiously, the work does not interact with classic literary analyses of Mark (like those of Kermode, Rhoads and Michie, etc.). Richard Walsh Methodist University

UNDERSTANDING MATTHEW: THE EARLY CHRISTIAN WORLDVIEW OF THE FIRST GOSPEL.


By Stephen Westerholm. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2006. Pp. 160. $16.99, ISBN 0-8010-2738-1. Writing in the spirit of D. Bonhoeffer, Westerholm approaches Matthews Gospel in order to know what Jesus wants. He admits there are other ways of reading this and any Gospel: as a sociologist, as a linguist, or out of mere curiosity. The danger is that with the passage of time the Gospel message has become overlaid with incomprehensible sermons, harsh laws, and human institutions. Religion has been formed by history and takes place within history. It reflects its cultural background. All this must be kept in mind when reading Matthew and attempting to understand his message. Westerholms study is brief but thought-provoking. It is extremely readable and by no means boring. It is not a line-by-line commentary, but a series of reflections on aspects of Matthew whose content is seen in the titles of the chapters: worldviews and perspectives; dont worry or be afraid; a dialog with the Almighty; the dawn of a new Age; the Lord and life of the disciple (Bonhoeffers discipleship). For Westerholm, the story of Jesus in Matthew warns against those who would only play at religion in order to avoid the real demands of God. Open Westerholms slim treatise at random and a telling phrase will leap from the page. This is biblical popularization at its best. Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey

JOHN: STORYTELLER, INTERPRETER, EVANGELIST. By Warren Carter. Peabody, MS: Hendrickson


Publishers, 2006. Pp. xvi + 264. $19.95, ISBN 978-1-56563523-4. In this new and readable introduction to the Gospel of John, Carter guides the reader through a thoughtful consideration of important interpretive issues. In Part One, the first six chapters present helpful treatments of: Johns genre as an ancient revelatory biography; Johns plot featuring responses to Jesus as the revelatory agent of God; Johns characters as conveyors of and responders to revelation; Johns distinctive dualism; and Johns rhetoric. Part Two of Carters book outlines Johns interpretive approach to Scripture and other traditions and provides a brief survey of approaches to the history of the Johannine situation. Especially valuable is his developing of the impact of the Roman presence under Domitian upon the Johannine situation. Part Three outlines the work of the evangelist, beginning with the authorship and composition of John, and concluding with its message and reading it in a pluralistic world. Few new judgments are made, but the overall approach is helpful, posing a fair and useful treatment of recent Johannine approaches and of many important issues. Paul N. Anderson George Fox University

THE SEARCH FOR ULTIMATE REALITY: INTERTEXTUALITY BETWEEN THE GENESIS AND JOHANNINE PROLOGUES. By Dan Lioy. Studies in Biblical Literature, 93. New York: Peter Lang, 2005. Pp. 223. $65.95, ISBN 978-0-8204-8121-0. In a rare combination of interdisciplinary approaches, Lioy analyzes the prologues of Genesis and John in the light of the search for ultimate reality. Beginning with critiques of approaches to ultimate reality, Lioy engages his task in an analytical, integrative, and thematic fashion. An analysis of Gen 1:1-2:3 exposes a polemical diatribe against the

MARKS GOSPEL: LECTURES AND LESSONS. By


Garrett C. Kenney. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2007. Pp. 136. $22.95, ISBN 0-7618-3709-4. Assuming an undergraduate biblical literature course, Kenney introduces English majors to different interpretative approaches through a detailed study of Mark, called Lessons. These Lessons invite students to interpret Mark

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pagan creation myths of Mosess day in favor of a Godcentered view of creation. An analysis of John 1:1-18 reveals an emphasis on Jesus pre-existent divinity to combat heretical notions of the person and work of the Messiah. Finally, Lioy seeks to demonstrate how intertextuality functioned between these two prologues in ways that helped readers understand and appropriate meaningfully five central features of Johannine Christology. While the goal of this book is commendable, not all of it holds together equally well. In addition to Babylonian creation mythologies, Lioy sees the primary target as Egyptian cosmology during the time of Moses, inferring Mosaic authorship. While the Jewish and Hellenistic backgrounds of the Johannine prologue are suitable, Lioys Reformed tendency to cast Johns Christology in Trinitarian and dual-nature terms comes across as anachronistic. In seeking to combine precritical views of authorship with history of religions and new literary-critical theories, the books approach does not fit into standard categories of interpretation. That is its strength and also its weakness. Paul N. Anderson George Fox University

THE GOSPEL OF THE BELOVED DISCIPLE: A WORK IN TWO EDITIONS. By Herman C. Waetjen. New
York/London: T & T Clark, 2005. Pp. xx + 468. $39.95, ISBN 0-567-02781-3. This new commentary seeks to make sense of the Fourth Gospels enigmas on the basis of analyzing its points of view from the perspective of its first edition and its final edition. On text-critical grounds, Waetjen plausibly infers that the first edition of John (chapters one through twenty) appears to have had an evangelistic function, while the final edition had a community maintenance function. Less plausible is his inference that the first edition must have been produced in Alexandria, with Lazarus serving as the Beloved Disciple. Building on J. L. Martyns two-level reading of the Johannine text, Waetjen infers a similar set of Jewish-Christian dialogues that may have been the case in a cosmopolitan city such as Alexandria. While the Logos connection does not require an Alexandrian context, the Philonic references are interesting and profitable, as are many of Waetjens theological interpretations. Waetjen, however, apparently fails to consider seriously other additions to an earlier edition, such as the Prologue, John 6, and chapters fifteen through seventeen, as argued by Lindars and Ashton. Having done so would have improved his approach. Paul N. Anderson George Fox University

The prevalence of the episode in early Christian art affirms this judgment. The situation recalls the household life of family relationship and friendship revealed in the solicitude of Martha and Mary for their ill, and then dead, brother. This solicitude is intended to form a model for the Christian community, where members are expected to act as brothers and sisters in their dealings with one another. The episode furnishes no picture of an intermediate state where Lazarus would have passed the interval between his death and resurrection. The nature of resurrected life is likewise omitted. Lazarus simply returns to this present existence. Elsewhere in John, Jesus does speak of his Fathers house, with its rooms prepared for the disciples. This may be a reference to the house-churches of early Christianity, or simply to the fact that Christians should live a familial life, reflecting virtues of harmony and peace. The authors state as an opinion that the return of house-churches may become a viable option, given the persecution undergone by the Church today in many lands. The book ends with a quote from K. Rahner to the effect that even for modern believers in life after death, there unfortunately is no real communication between the living and dead. The Lazarus episode acts as an antidote to such a notion. In short, this is an engaging treatise that presents possible meanings of a familiar Gospel narrative that deserve to be considered both for their dogmatic as well as their moral implications. Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey

VOYAGES WITH JOHN: CHARTING THE FOURTH GOSPEL. By Robert Kysar. Waco, TX: Baylor University
Press, 2005. Pp. x + 339. $29.95, ISBN 1-932792-43-0. In this new collection of sixteen essays, Kysar, arguably the leading analyst of secondary Johannine literature, treats the reader to some of his most incisive work. Divided into four parts (historical criticism, theological criticism, literary criticism, and postmodern criticism), this collection of both published and unpublished essays displays the progression of his thought from his engagement with Dodd and Bultmann to his questioning the certainties of the historical-critical method. In all the essays, we have a fair and thoughtful appraisal of the issues. Especially significant is an updated format of Kysars impressive research report on the Fourth Gospel published over two decades ago, which is itself worth the price of the book. In addition to treating important subjects, such as the Ioudaioi in John, Kysar treats issues related to postmodern analyses of John. As Kysar looks over his shoulder at a half century of Johannine interpretation, he properly notes the place of the interpreter and the limitations of hermeneutical models in Johannine interpretation. He not only informs us of the most significant voyages in Johannine studies in the past, but he reminds us that new interpretive voyages are yet to begin. This book is a must for Johannine studies at all levels. Paul Anderson George Fox University

LAZARUS, MARY AND MARTHA: SOCIALSCIENTIFIC APPROACHES TO THE GOSPEL OF JOHN. By Philip F. Esler and Ronald A. Piper. Minneapolis,
MN: Fortress Press, 2006. Pp. vi + 201. plates. $22.00, ISBN 978-0-8006-3830-6. For the authors, the death and raising of Lazarus in John forms a quintessential image of resurrection for Christians.

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JOHNS RELATIONSHIP WITH MARK: AN ANALYSIS OF JOHN 6 IN THE LIGHT OF MARK 6 AND 8.
By Ian D. Mackay. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament II, 182. Tbingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 2004. Pp. x + 343. $97.50, ISBN 978-3-16-148426-1. In this detailed analysis of the relations between John 6 and Mark 6 and 8, Mackay builds a case for the Johannine evangelists familiarity with Mark. While the case for JohannineMarkan connections might more plausibly be argued as a factor of interfluence (rather than influence in only one directionthe Markan toward the Johannine) between the oral stages of these traditions, Mackay nonetheless identifies echoes of Markan patterns within the Johannine narrative. As the closest contacts between John and Mark are still not identical, derivation, in my judgment, is not a plausible inference. Still, Mackay shows how Johannine familiarity with at least some of the Markan text is arguable. Mackay thus speculates that the Johannine evangelist may have heard the Gospel of Mark read in a meeting for worship, and this seems realistic. Of the many works on JohannineSynoptic relationships in recent decades, this is one of the few that has changed my mind on the subject. While it does not overturn Gardner-Smiths and M. Smiths convictions regarding Johns autonomous origin, it suggests that Johns autonomy is unlikely to have been an isolated one. Rather, if the Johannine evangelist was familiar with much of Marks rendering, the Johannine differences may be even more interesting than the similarities. Might they suggest Johns completing, or even correcting Mark? Paul N. Anderson George Fox University

JOHANNINE DISCIPLESHIP AS A COVENANT RELATIONSHIP. By Rekha M. Chennattu. Forward


by Francis J. Moloney. Peabody, MS: Hendrickson, 2006. Pp. 256. $29.95, ISBN 1-56563-668-6. Contributing to the conversation on the social location of the Johannine community and its anti-Jewish rhetoric, Chennattu argues that the Gospel of John uses OT covenantal language (e.g., Josh 24) to shape its concept of discipleship. She argues that the covenantal language introduced in the call narrative (John 1) is affirmed in the farewell discourse and actualized in the resurrection narratives. Chennattu then applies the sociological models of deviance and conflict to question the role of this motif for the Johannine community. As the Jews turned to the covenant to distinguish themselves from others, especially in terms of their god, Christians, too, turned to a redefined covenant to distinguish themselves from the Jews. While a preview of OT covenant motifs would have been more helpful earlier in the book, this doctoral dissertation is well-researched and would be a useful addition to graduate school libraries. Jane S. Webster Barton College

BETWEEN HORROR AND HOPE: PAULS METAPHORICAL LANGUAGE OF DEATH IN ROMANS 6:1-11. By Sorin Sabou. Paternoster Biblical Monographs.
Waynesboro, GA: Paternoster, 2005. Pp. xi + 159. Paper, $22.00, ISBN 978-1-59752-766-8. On Sabous highly metaphorical reading of Rom 6:1-11, Christ died to sin (6:2, 6) in that his cross overcame sins control of humanity. The believers baptism in 6:3 is a metaphor for being overwhelmed by God, moved toward Christs act of liberation. As a representative king (Christ/ Messiah), Jesus then shares this victory with those buried with him, i.e., his broad family (6:4). Hence Paul offers hope of a new mode of life beyond sins domination. The old man of 6:6, however, is the self living within the Adamcondition of 5:12-21. By saying that this self has been crucified, Paul reminds the audience of the horror awaiting those ruled by sin, warning them not to return to that lifestyle. In several places Sabou offers fresh readings of Pauls language. At times, though, his argument is ambiguous; what, for example, does it mean for the believer to coalesce with the depiction of the cross in Christian preaching (6:5)? Sabous use of metaphor theory is sometimes thin, and little attention is given to metaphorical polysemy. Still, Sabous volume is a stimulating resource for advanced students and scholars examining Romans 6. Ian W. Scott Tyndale Seminary (Toronto)

APOSTOLIC LETTERS OF FAITH, HOPE, AND LOVE: GALATIANS, 1 PETER, AND 1 JOHN. By Bruce
M. Metzger. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2006. Pp. 110. $15.00, ISBN 978-1-59752-501-5. Metzger begins by repeating the well-known distinction of A. Deissmann between letter and epistle in the ancient world. The former was private, confidential, personal in nature. The latter was sophisticated, intended to be public, more literary in character. The writings of Paul were letters, written for practical purposes to communities or individuals. Other NT writings resembled epistles in their form or intention. In any case, the distinction should not be pressed; mixed forms were the norm, not the exception. For Metzger, Galatians is the letter of faith whose author is especially revered by Protestants; 1 Peter, the letter of hope, whose purported author is revered by Catholics; 1 John, the letter of love, revered especially by the Orthodoxa clever way of putting the matter, oversimplified though it may be. In fine, this short, simple, and unpretentious presentation for the nonspecialist from an illustrious scholar offers in easily understood terms a wealth of information about the NT letters/epistles, their formation, and their meaning. Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey

THE MISSION OF THE CHURCH IN PAULS LETTER TO THE PHILIPPIANS IN THE CONTEXT OF ANCIENT JUDAISM. By J. Patrick Ware. Supplements
to Novum Testamentum, 120. Leiden, The Netherlands, and

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Boston: Brill, 2005. Pp. xvi + 348. $179.00, ISBN 90-0414641-5. Ware examines Pauls understanding of the role of his churches in the spread of the gospel in light of the Jewish notion of the eschatological conversion of the Gentiles as mediated through Second Isaiah and its subsequent interpretations. Despite the generally non-Jewish character of Philippians, Ware finds striking evidence for Pauls use of the Isaiah traditions to encourage the Philippian church to promote the gospel among nonbelievers. Ware continually points out, however, the uniqueness of the early Christian mission. Although some attention is given to defining key terms such as mission, conversion, proclamation, consciousness it is not always clear whether Ware is using them with their modern meaning or how they might have been understood in antiquity, or whether he sees any difference between the two. Neither is it clear what the difference is between a Gentile proselyte and a convert, as sometimes these terms are used interchangeably. Nevertheless, Ware has placed the recruitment practices of the Pauline Jesus communities in a much broader literary context and provided a thorough and new interpretation of key texts in Philippians, for which scholars of the NT will be in his debt. Richard S. Ascough Queens University

native to Paul; and because they have intrinsic merit as witnesses to one form of early Christianity. I myself would add a fourth: because someone has to comment on every biblical book in a publishers series even though there are already dozens of commentaries on these books in other publishers series. However that may be, Davids provides answers to the standard introductory questions. The author of Jude is uncertain, although Judas, the brother of Jesus (Matt 13:55; Mark 6:3) is probably the person intended to be understood as the author. The place and date of composition, being functions of authorship, are also uncertain, although Davids inclines toward Palestine before 70. Again, with 2 Peter, authorship, provenance, and audience cannot be answered with certainty. In any case, Davids commentary on both epistles can stand with the best of the genre: he fairly discusses the many exegetical problems that beset them both, makes judicious choices, and provides the reader with insights into early Christian communities whose problems and difficulties were often not that different from those to be found in the modern world. Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey

THE LETTERS TO TIMOTHY AND TITUS. By Philip


H. Towner. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2006. Pp. xlviii + 886. $52.00, ISBN 0-80282-513-3. This admirable commentary is well suited for its intended readership; it is critical yet orthodox . . . marked by solid biblical scholarship within the evangelical tradition. With a gradually growing number of commentators, Towner methodologically correctly stresses the individuality of the three letters and insists that each be read in the context envisaged by each. His exegesis of the text is responsible, if not inspired, highly lexical in emphasis, like that of his mentor H. Marshall, and provides the reader with sufficient information for an informed judgment. He does strain at times, however, as when he claims an importance of the OT for the letters which is hard to discover in the letters themselves. Despite a programmatic statement about scripture (2 Tim 3:14-17), only 1 Tim 5:18 explicitly quotes an OT text, but then includes a Jesus word in Scripture. The commentary deserves the generous reception it will enjoy. Abraham J. Malherbe Yale Divinity School

THE LETTERS OF 2 PETER AND JUDE. By Peter H. Davids. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2006. Pp. 358. illustrations. $34.00, ISBN 0-8028-3726-3. Davids explains possible reasons for commenting on 2 Peter and Jude: because they are there; to provide an alter240

HEBREWS. By Alan C. Mitchell. Sacra Pagina, 13. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 2007. Pp. xx + 357. $29.95, ISBN 978-0-8146-5815-4. In a straightforward manner, Mitchell introduces the reader to the main points of contention regarding Hebrews (its genre is left undetermined in the title of the commentary). Mitchell emphasizes the importance of the historical setting. Hebrews must be understood on its own terms and in its own times. The real author is unknown and will remain unknown; it is certainly not Paul. The date of writing is most probably post-70; the addressees are probably secondgeneration Gentile Roman Christians undergoing persecution. Hebrews has been understood as a letter/epistle, homily, exhortation, Midrash. It may well have been a homily delivered in a house-church in Rome. Regarding its structure, Mitchell opts for the well-known five-point plan of A. Vanhoye, modified by the remarks of J. Swetnam. Both realized and future eschatology is used by the author of Hebrews to expound the effects of the atoning work of Jesus the eternal high priest in the process of salvation. Although the Christian has died to sin through an initial repentance, there nevertheless always lurks the danger of relapse. Mitchell agrees with most commentators in not seeing a connection to the Eucharist. A relation of Christ as high priest to the Christian ministerial priesthood is still debatable. Lastly, Hebrews is not anti-Semitic or anti-Jewish; hence it should never be used as such today. In sum, Mitchells well-researched commentary is neither ultratechnical nor ultrasimplistic. Rather it finds its deserved niche between the two, for the serious student in need of hard facts and circumspect judgment. Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey

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PAUL ON THE CROSS: RECONSTRUCTING THE APOSTLES STORY OF REDEMPTION. By David A.


Brondos. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2006. Pp. 256. $20.00, ISBN 0-8006-3788-7. Brondos, who teaches at an ecumenical consortium of seminaries in Mexico City, has written a profoundly important treatise on Pauline soteriologya treatise that boldly confronts many of the commonly received assumptions and conclusions of a vast array of respected modern scholars. For Brondos, the new creation, freedom from evil, the great change of the ages spoken of by Paulall lie in the future, not the present. Brondos is careful, however, to hedge his bets: believers can certainly participate in these realities in some measure in the present by the gift of the Spirit, but this does not weaken the main thrust of his argument, that it is the future where the real action is to take place. To some this may seem like quibbling, but Brondos has hit upon a profound truth. He attempts to prove his point by adducing the stories of redemption in the Jewish and Christian traditions, and shows that Pauls views are not really different from those of either; they are not some foreign import peculiar to Paul. For Jews, obedience to the commandments brought about redemption; so also in the Gospel tradition. And most important of all, Brondos emphasizes the importance of prayer and sacrifice in the Jewish world in the process of atonement, where sacrifice is really (as I would express it) a prayer in action. Though readers may object to this or that point, I consider the main thrust of this treatise to be valid. It should be ranked among the very best of modern Pauline studies. Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey

evident in his own self-reflection in the final (new) essay in the volume, Insights from a Career of Interpretation. Richard S. Ascough Queens University

STEWARDS, PROPHETS, KEEPERS OF THE WORD: LEADERSHIP IN THE EARLY CHURCH. By Ritva H.
Williams. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2006. Pp. 225. $24.95, ISBN 978-1-56563-949-2. The functions named in the title of this treatise are three roles that leaders undertook in the early church. They are roles deeply ingrained in the civilization of their time and place. Stewards acted for others, but they could be subversive of the dominant power structures. Prophets interpreted the divine will, but they could be innovators whose actions needed to be contained. Keepers of the word looked after the divine texts, but they could be creative in their interpretive role. The household assumed great importance in the firstcentury Mediterranean world. The relationships developed there shaped the mission of Jesus and his early followers. Jesus was regarded as a prophet, but one who worked on the fringes of normal society. He possessed the skills of a master storyteller. Paul used the terminology of slavery (stewards were often slaves in antiquity) to describe the life of Christians. They, as we today, were called upon to resist the pressures of the dominant culture in order to be faithful to their Christian calling. Likewise, there is a place for prophets and keepers of the word in the church today. These roles have not fallen into oblivion. With such exhortatory admonitions as a fitting conclusion, Williams has provided us with a study whose clarity and precision commend it to all serious students of the Bible. Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey

PAUL AND HIS WORLD: INTERPRETING THE NEW TESTAMENT IN ITS CONTEXT. By Helmut Koester.
Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 2007. Pp. xv + 301. $39.00, ISBN 978-0-8006-3890-0. Koester collects twenty-five of his essays, all but two previously published over the past forty-five years. The first section focuses on Pauls Letters and Their Interpretation, giving much attention to the Macedonian letters (seven essays) and a nod towards Corinth (one essay), along with a more general essay on Pauls theology. Part two on Pauls Cultural and Religious Environment allows Koester to demonstrate his facility in a range of important areas in the Hebrew Bible, Greek philosophy, archaeology, and GrecoRoman religions. The final section, Reading Early Christianity, collects a number of essays not necessarily related directly to Paul but interesting nonetheless. All of the essays in the volume have proven important in the ongoing study of Paul and of the NT, and it will be a great help to scholars and students to find here some of Koesters less accessible essays and to have in English translation essays originally published in German or French. Together the essays reflect the career work of a remarkable scholar of the NT, as is

HAVING MEN FOR DINNER: BIBLICAL WOMENS DEADLY BANQUETS. By Nicole Wilkinson Duran. Cleveland, OH: Pilgrim Press, 2006. Pp. 144. $18.00, ISBN 0-82981710-7. In successive chapters, each of which sports a piquant subtitle, Duran expatiates on five women of the Biblefour from the OT and one from the NTwho use food in one manner or another to delight and control a man of wealth and influence in order to benefit from his death. First comes Jael (a tale of milk and murder), who in the prose and poetic sections of the narrative reverses the usual gender roles by acting more like a man than men themselves. Judith (keeping kosher with a vengeance) is the instrument of salvation for her people because of her uprightness; her beauty and wisdom are the result of her piety. Esther (sleeping [and drinking] with the enemy) saves her people by acting less like a Jew than Mordecai, who is the image of Diaspora accommodation. Herodias (banquet and seduction in the realm of wrong) uses the daughter (we learn from Josephus that her name was Salome) to slip into a banquet where women should not attendall in order to kill, although

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she cannot do the deed herself. Finally, Abigail (murder, shalom, and the lack thereof) knows how to engage in dealings with the powerful in lieu of her unworthy husband, but she is fated to insignificance once she is married to David. Each chapter of the treatise ends with reflection questions that seek to link the ancient texts to present-day conditions; e.g. If you were Vashti, what would you do differently to remain queen? In sum, Duran brings to light facets of familiar texts which could easily be overlooked by less imaginative authors. Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SALVATION: A STUDY OF SALVATION LANGUAGE IN THE PASTORAL EPISTLES. By George M. Wieland. Paternoster Biblical
Monographs. Bletchley, UK: Paternoster, 2006. Pp. xxii + 344. 24.99, ISBN 1-84227-257-8. All three Pastorals, according to Wieland, are concerned with salvation, but each in its own particular manner. First Timothy takes a polemical stance against those who would stress asceticism as a means of attaining deliverance from the power and effects of sin; the message of the Gospel is allembracing in ambit. 2 Timothy presents a more paraenetic shift by emphasizing the sacrifices required of the office and duties of those called to the service of teaching and preaching in the Church; patience and perseverance are necessary for those who would undertake such a ministry. Titus speaks of the moral shift in attitudes that delineates believers from the rest of a pagan, hostile world; the moral life of the Christian is the best demonstration of the efficacy of the Gospel. Because of these differences, Wieland believes that the Pastorals cannot and should not be read as a unified whole, even though their teaching is consonant with Pauline doctrine. All things considered, this treatise, which can be recommended for the serious student, is a significant addition to the everburgeoning literature on the Pastorals. Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey

ology has to be judged according to the conditions in which each of the NT authors and their audiences found themselves. At the same time, there was, underlying all of the documents, a common tradition whose unity must be respected even while the diversity of its explanation is fully recognized. The story of salvation in Israel formed a guiding principle for the Jewish people, whose only book was the Bible. Hence it was only normal for early Christians to see similarities between their own message of salvation and the Jewish matrix from which it came. In sum, scholars and students will be challenged by these essays which both analyze but also synthesize so much of the biblical traditionall around the crucial theme of salvation. Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey

THE RECEPTION OF THE NEW TESTAMENT IN THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS. Edited by Andrew F.
Gregory and Christopher M. Tuckett. The New Testament and the Apostolic Fathers. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. Pp. xiv + 375. $99.00, ISBN 978-0-19926782-8.

TRAJECTORIES THROUGH THE NEW TESTAMENT AND THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS. Edited by Andrew F.
Gregory and Christopher M. Tuckett. The New Testament and the Apostolic Fathers. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. Pp. xiv + 375. $99.00, ISBN 978-0-19926782-8. Set: $180.00, ISBN 978-0-19926784-2. These volumes originate from a centennial celebration held at Lincoln College, Oxford, commemorating the 1905 publication of The New Testament in the Apostolic Fathers by the Oxford Society of Historical Theology. They are intended to update the status quaestionis on the issues raised by the original publication (Volume One) and to offer contributions reflective of recent AF research (Volume Two). Volume One tackles several related issues, including the relative textual (in)stability of both the NT and AF, whether the influence of NT documents on individual AF texts rises to the level of demonstrable evidence, and proper methodological controls for detecting such influence. Contributors include B. Ehrman, J. K. Elliott, P. Foster, A. Gregory, M. Holmes, J. Carleton Paget, W. Peterson, C. Tuckett, and J. Verheyden. The analyses are well done but frequently offer negative or (necessarily) inconclusive results; of special interest is Elliotts identification of examples where the AF deserve fuller representation in NT textual apparatuses. Volume Two opens with an essay by A. Lindemann on Pauls Influence on Clement and Ignatius, followed by H. Koester on secondcentury Gospel traditions, and A. Bellinzoni on traces of Lukes Gospel in the AF. These are followed by two essays on Christology in the AF (T. Weinandy; F. Young), and four contributions devoted to Church, Ministry, and Sacraments (J. Muddiman; D. F. Wright; C. Claussen; A. StewartSykes) addressing such issues as the Eucharist, infant baptism, and prophetic activity. The remainder of the volume is devoted to studies of individual texts and includes

SALVATION IN THE NEW TESTAMENT: PERSPECTIVES ON SOTERIOLOGY. Edited by Jan G. van der
Watt. Supplements to Novum Testamentum, 121. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2005. Pp. xiii + 529. $172.00, ISBN 90-04-14297-5. The editor indicates from the very beginning that the salvation language of the NT uses ordinary words from everyday life. This obvious but sometimes neglected remark underlies most of the eighteen essays contained in this collection written by scholars who teach for the most part in South African universities. The essays are divided into three main parts: salvation in the Gospels and Acts; in the Pauline literature; and in the remaining portions of the NT. The studies clearly indicate that salvation in the NT cannot be reduced to a least common denominator. The NT writings are writings of circumstance, so that any teaching on soteri-

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three contributions on the Didache (J. Kloppenborg; J. Draper; C. Jefford), four on Ignatius (C. Hill; D. Reis; H. Meier; A. Brent), two on Polycarps Letter to the Philippians (P. Oakes; P. Hartog), and two on the Martyrdom of Polycarp (B. Dehandschutter; M. Holmes). The Epistle of Barnabas and the Shepherd of Hermas are somewhat underrepresented, while the Epistle to Diognetus is omitted completely (the 1905 volume omitted both Diognetus and the Martyrdom of Polycarp). Among the more provocative essays, A. Brent argues that Ignatius description of proper ecclesial roles is heavily indebted to analogies with pagan mystery cults. Readers especially interested in the Didache will appreciate the diversity of perspectives included (Tuckett favors the Didaches dependence on Matthew, while the other Didache specialists do not). These substantial volumes more than vindicate their intended purpose and belong in every seminary and research library. James N. Rhodes Saint Michaels College

ing contributions from R. Williams, S. Horne, C. Trevett, D. Treacy-Cole, D. Parker, L. Wall, S. Moyise, J. Lieu, P. M. Joyce, A. Stewart-Sykes, S. Ashbrook Harvey, C. Rowland, A. Tilby, D. F. Ford, J. Vanier, E. Hunt, and N. Robinson. In an attempt to honor the breadth of Youngs interests, the topics of this tribute are broad, from gospel impairment encounters and the psychology of sin to wilderness wanderings in J. R. R. Tolkien and the significance of the quranic Jesus. At its best, this Festschrift explores a theology of the socially disadvantaged, especially in relation to Arthur, Youngs severely handicapped son. Matthew R. Hauge Azusa Pacific University

THE FREER BIBLICAL MANUSCRIPTS: FRESH STUDIES OF AN AMERICAN TREASURE TROVE.


Edited by Larry W. Hurtado. SBL Text-Critical Studies, 6. Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature, 2006. Pp. x + 308. plates; maps. $34.95, ISBN 1-58983-208-6. In 2006, the Freer Gallery (now part of the Smithsonian) commemorated the centennial of C. Freers acquisition of four parchment manuscripts from Egypt. The best known is the Freer Gospels (W/032), a four-gospel codex in the Western order (Matthew/John/Luke/Mark), the only witness to a substantial addition following Mark 16:14. The others are MSS of Deuteronomy and Joshua (Rahlfs W), Psalms, and the Pauline epistles (I/016). As part of this commemoration, new studies of the Freer MSS were commissioned and presented at a scholarly convocation. These studies comprise the present volume: K. Clarke, Paleography and Philanthropy: Charles Lang Freer and His Acquisition of the Freer Biblical Manuscripts; K. De Troyer, The Freer Twelve Minor Prophets CodexA Case Study: The Old Greek Text of Jonah, Its Revisions, and Its Corrections; M. Choat, The Unidentified Text in the Freer Minor Prophets Codex; J-F Racine, The Text of Matthew in the Freer Gospels: A Quantitative and Qualitative Appraisal; Bruce Prior, The Use and Nonuse of Nomina Sacra in the Freer Gospel of Matthew; D. Haugh, Was Codex Washingtonianus a Copy or a New Text?; J. Royse, The Corrections in the Freer Gospels Codex; U. Schmid, Reassessing the Palaeography and Codicology of the Freer Gospel Manuscript; T. Wayment, The Scribal Characteristics of the Freer Pauline Codex; T. Finney, Manuscript Markup. A must-read for textual critics, this is a well-conceived collection of essays (ranging from the informative to the technical), many of which present conclusions or implications whose significance extends well beyond the stated foci. Michael W. Holmes Bethel University

THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS IN ENGLISH. Translated and edited by Michael W. Holmes. Third Edition. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2006. Pp. 336; maps. $21.99, ISBN 0-8010-3108-7. Editor Holmes explains in detail the reasons for this new edition of the original and by now venerable translation of the Apostolic Fathers by Lightfoot and Harmes (see the review of the second edition in RSR 25:428). The version history is complicated enough, but the end result, as Holmes declares, is a fresh and comprehensive revision. Numerous stylistic and typographical changes make the texts far easier to read. A general introduction introduces the reader to the main questions surrounding the literature as a whole, while each writing in turn is provided with its own specialized preliminary remarks. Students will appreciate the many insights into early Christianity that are provided by these introductions. As for the translations themselves, the tastes of individual readers will differ. The style is formal without being pedantic; idiomatic without being excessively free. Amid the many one-volume editions of the Apostolic Fathers available today, this handy, readable version of the texts deserves to be considered by students and merely curious readers alike. Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey WILDERNESS: ESSAYS IN HONOUR OF FRANCES YOUNG. Edited By R. S. Sugirtharajah. Library of New
Testament Studies, 295. London: T&T Clark, 2005. Pp. 224. $120.00, ISBN 0-567-04142-5. This literary celebration of the life and work of F. Young focuses on the theme of wilderness as the uniting symbol of her interests in biblical studies, theology, and spirituality. This volume is divided into two sections, Hermeneutical Connections and Theological Explorations, although R. S. Sugirtharajah openly acknowledges its artificiality, includ-

JEWS OR CHRISTIANS? THE FOLLOWERS OF JESUS IN SEARCH OF THEIR OWN IDENTITY. By


Giorgio Jossa. Translated by Molly Rogers. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament, 202. Tbingen,

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Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 2006. Pp. 175. $125.00, ISBN 9783-1614-9192-4. This monograph is a translation of Giudei o cristiani? (2004). Jossa boldly reflects on the questions: when and how did the formation of separate Jewish and Christian identities occur? He produces significant evidence, raising important reminders to us that this issue is complex and far from being solved. He appears to be reacting to the symposium, Jews and Christians: The Parting of the Ways, AD 70 to 135 (Durham, 1989), and to the publication of Partings of the Ways (Dunn, 1991), which argues that the rift is Christologically-driven, following the Bar Kochba Revolt. Jossa also interacts with the scholarship produced at two European seminars (1993) and collected in La dchirement (Marguerat, 1996), which argues that the late first-century rift had to do with Mosaic Law. Jossa insists that the rift must be understood from the historical perspective, not theologicalit was a social separation of communities. His book covers early Jews and Christians, and Roman perceptions of them. The beginning of the separation is at least as early as Paul, when the Gentiles started to change the sociology of the JudeoChristians. He provides strong evidence that the Romans began to distinguish Jews and Christians as early as Nero. Whether Romans as early as Nero understood this distinction in terms of a Christian religion no longer part of Judaism is not as certain to me, nor that Roman perceptions reflected Christian self-definition. It would be worthwhile to see Jossa engage Boyarins opinion that the separation was as late as the fourth century (Border Lines: The Partition of JudaeoChristianity, 2004), or Reed and Beckers (eds., The Ways that Never Parted, 2003) that they never really parted with decisiveness or exclusivity. April D. DeConick Rice University

meaning which were recited before a particular audience with a particular historical-social context. Each author grapples with the implications that this perspective elicits. The social context of Q is further eradicated with the application of the work of political scientist J. C. Scott. When this is done, Q comes to represent the hidden transcript, not the public transcript, of the subordinates (Jesuss followers) spoken behind the backs of the powerful (Pharisees and leaders in Jerusalem). This is a rich volume containing valuable cuttingedge discussions about the interface between orality and scribality as it applies to Q. It is a faithful companion to two other revisionist books co-edited by Horsley (with Draper, Whoever Hears You Hears Me, 1999; with Draper and M. Foley, Performing the Gospel, 2006). April D. DeConick Rice University

History of Christianity (Early)


EARLY AND MEDIEVAL RITUALS AND THEOLOGIES OF BAPTISM: FROM THE NEW TESTAMENT TO THE COUNCIL OF TRENT. By Bryan D. Spinks.
Liturgy, Worship, and Society. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2006. Pp. xiv + 204; plate. $29.95, ISBN 0-7546-1428-X. Spinks book offers a slim, accessible, and general introduction to baptism in the Christian tradition from biblical times to the early modern period. The volume ambitiously surveys a wide diversity of baptismal practices as seen through surviving liturgical rites as well as homiletic and theological writings. Spinks also sometimes acknowledges disagreements in liturgical scholarship of the past century. His narrative generally emphasizes the differences among baptismal rites in both how they are defined and how they are performed. His theological framing, on the other hand, prepares the reader for sacramental controversies of the Reformation. For example, the author gives consistent attention to anointing in baptismal ceremonies. He tracks how varied is both the timing and the rationale of anointing. And, he consistently argues that only in the Roman tradition can a conceptual connection responsibly be made to confirmation. In the end, the book provides a profitable point of departure for students interested in the complex role baptism plays in the history of Christianity. Owen M Phelan Mount St. Marys University and Seminary

ORAL PERFORMANCE, POPULAR TRADITION, AND HIDDEN TRANSCRIPT IN Q. Edited by Richard


Horsley. Semeia Studies, 60. Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature, 2006. Pp. viii + 229. $39.95, ISBN 978-1-58983248-0. Horsley has collected several outstanding voices into this volume in order to examine the Q speeches as oral performances with an intended audience familiar with popular Israelite tradition. Contributors of articles and responses are scholars who have been consistently working in oralityscribality (D. Barr, J. Dewey, J. Draper, J. Miles Foley, W. Herzog, R. Horsley, W. Kelber, A. Kirk, M. Moreland, and V. Robbins). These essays challenge the assumptions of print culture that continue to dominate biblical studies, including the presupposition that Q had to have been a written document. Serious doubt is cast on the popular theory that Q was produced by the lower levels of the administrative and scribal classes in Galilee. The essays and responses investigate Q as a series of performed (and possibly orally composed) speeches rather than a collection of written sayings. The Q speeches functioned as units of communication and

EVIL INCARNATE: RUMORS OF DEMONIC CONSPIRACY AND SATANIC ABUSE IN HISTORY. By


David Frankfurter. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006. Pp. xvii + 312. $35.00, ISBN 0-691-11350-5. Frankfurters new book is not for the faint hearted. Denying evil as a real force, and showing how those who attempt to eradicate it are the real evil doers, Frankfurter demonstrates how the most righteous have done the most vile acts in history. Chapters include constructions of the

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