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CATIONISATION

SATEESH GORE
DIRECTOR

ELECTRON GROUP It is fact that Cotton Fiber in Aqueous Solution is Negatively Charged due to the Ionization of its Hydroxyl Groups, After treatment with a suitable Cataionic Agent one can change the Polarity of the cellulosic FIBER USINF A UNIFORM, Annular Positive Charge. This allows us to give this fiber affinity for the dyestuff in Reduced Form The Cationisation of cotton is for improving its dye ability. It is a recent trend in dyeing of ready-made garments for exhaustible Pigment emulsion Dyeing process. Cellulose fibres, when immersed in water, produces a negative charge on fibre. The most of the dyes used for cotton dyeing are Anionic in nature. The negative charges developed on fibers & the Dye particles are Anionic hence because of this process exhaustion of these dyes are limited because of repulsion between Dye particle & yarn. To increase the exhaustion of these dyes ELECTROLYTES are added. Electrolytes after adding in dye bath gets ionised after dissolution, nullifying the repulsion factor & increases dye up take. The same principle is being followed in Sizzler Process Pigment Exhaustible dyeing process. The addition of Electrolytes in reactive dyeing i.e. addition of high salt concentration leads to environmental problems. To avoid this problem, if you add inadequate salt concentration then exhaustion of reactive dye bath remain or become very poor which subsequently gets Hydrolyzed in alkaline medium. This leads to poor washing fastness which can corrected by time consuming expensive repeated washing off process. This also causes serious affluent problems. The use of cationic dye fixing agent for reactive & direct dyes can be in above case can rectify the inferior washing fastness to a greater extend. By using dye fixing agents to fix unfixed reactive dyestuff causes little tonal variation & inferior light fastness. The reactive dyestuff by itself gives inferior laundering fastness, Bleach Fastness. The entire above process of reactive dyeing of Garment / Fabric gives excess load on effluent treatment plant. To avoid these stringent standard parameters one can get excellent dyeing of the garment by Pigment Emulsion by exhaust method.
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As everybody knows Pigment is inert chemical particle does not have substantivity or affivity towards cotton fibre yarn or fabric. The pigment can be made substantive modifying Pigment Emulsion by changing their Ionicity from conventional non-ionic change to anionic change. The particle size of pigments used can be made Micronised by special treatment & its emulsion made gives excellent absorption & adsorption. This give excellent stability to the emulsions with increased substantivity. In exhaustible pigment dyeing system for effective & leveled dyeing of garments the main part is particle size of pigment used in Emulsions also can be made further finer to increase its Emulsion stability substantivity & fastness properties by making them to penetrate into the interstices of the fibers. Simultaneously resins used for fixation after treating Pigment Emulsion also can be made modified to gets opposite charge for proper bonding. The first & foremost modification required is to be developed positive charge on cotton fibre which increases the exhaustion of the modified, micro fined particle of Pigment Emulsions. Modification developed positive charge, i.e. anionic sites by pretreating cotton with already prepared Modified Pretreatment Chemicals or by developing cationic site on cotton by reactions. Processing has been made in reducing salt requirements for some never reactive dyes but salt concentration is still high. In fact the dyes are also exorbitantly costly. This is to be specially considered when textile wastewater is used for land application. Reactive dye bath is not amenable to reuse due to the inactive hydrolyzed form of the dye, which is present in the dye bath at the end of the cycle. A different approach has to be considered to solve the salt problem. With the policies of Electron Integrated thinking value addition, cost reduction, innovative techniques in the interest of the textile industry. Looking at all disadvantages & drawback of reactive dyes. Reactive Dyes has limitations of in application can be applied only an cottons. Natural & synthetic fibers are the only raw material for producing Textiles. Looking at advantages of synthetic fibers, wool & its blends are used for clothing & garments.

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It is also used for Aesthetic & Hygienic reasons according to reasons. This raw material requires complicated processes till finishing where the resulting product is generally accepted as Textile Material. The use of appropriate Dyes, Auxiliaries, Energy, & Water are required to obtained the garments with desired effect colour, handle, wearing comfort pleasing appearance & durability. Due to recent change in values of our society for production of environment has become focal point of interest in developing system for garment dyeing which will generate less colour effluent with less COD BOD hardness to the water called. SIZZLAR PIGMENT EXHAUSTIBLE DYEING PROCESS: Sizzlar Process consists of I Modification (by pretreating) of substrate by way of cationisation. II III Modification Pigment Emulsion by changing their charge & changing Finer particles sizes to give almost charge of resins used to make high reactive to excellent. 100 %, exhaustion of Pigment Emulsion to give colourless discharge to reduce ------effluent treatment plant.

Enzymatic Washed down. The Exhaustible Dyeing obtained by the above process will, in principle, give a good Washed Down effect with any of the methods mentioned above The Enzymatic treatments are especially relevant since it give a uniform level of Superficial wear & Excellent Handle. . Since the surface is only selectively worn, a contrast is produced between the areas which have not been attacked by the enzyme &the White Area from the inside of the Fibers & Fabric which is not Dyed. If the specific conditions of each case are Respected , it is the possible to combine the Different Catanisation Processes with different Dyestuff Systems.

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