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Power system

analyses
(Dynamic modeling)
Using PSS/E for power system analyses
- Load flow -
Istanbul, May 2011
PSS/ E Program overview
Professional software package PSS/E
(Power System Simulator for Engineering)
is developed by PTI (Power Technologies
International).
PSS/E is comprised of the following
calculation modules:
PSS/E Power Flow
PSS/E Optimal Power Flow (PSS/E OPF)
PSS/E Balanced or Unbalanced Fault
Analysis
PSS/E Dynamic Simulation
PSS/ E Power Flow
module is basic PSS/E program module and it is powerful and easy-to-
use for basic power flow network analysis. Besides analysis tool this
module is also used for Data handling, updating, and manipulation
Graphical interface
1. Main toolbar
2. Network tree
3. Work window
4. Progress
window
2
4
3
1
Over toolbar
Tools/Customize
Toolbar customization
Right click on toolbar you can switch on/off toolbars
Program option and settings
Using icon or over toolbar Misc/Change program
settings (OPTN)
Program preferences
Building a new model
Start with command File/new
Enter base power
and model heading
Working with files
Opening files
Using toolbar icon or over meny File/open

Saving/exporting files
Using toolbar icon or
over meny File/Save or
show

Working with files
Saving dynamic data
Using toolbar icon or over menu File/open with
DYNAMIC DATA SHEET ACTIVE!!!
101 ' GENROU' 1 6. 5000 0. 60000E- 01 0. 20000 0. 50000E- 01
4. 0000 0. 0000 1. 8000 1. 7500 0. 60000
0. 80000 0. 30000 0. 15000 0. 90000E- 01 0. 38000 /
101 ' I EEET1' 1 0. 0000 400. 00 0. 40000E- 01 7. 3000
- 7. 3000 1. 0000 0. 80000 0. 30000E- 01 1. 0000
0. 0000 2. 4700 0. 35000E- 01 4. 5000 0. 47000 /
101 ' TGOV1' 1 0. 50000E- 01 0. 50000E- 01 1. 0500 0. 30000
1. 0000 1. 0000 0. 0000 /
Bus data
Bus type/code
1 PQ node (load)
2 PV node (generation)
3 swing bus (must be a plant)
Areas/zones/Owners defined when bus is defined
Filtering and subsystem selecting
Bus selection filter
Name mask
Bus number
Voltage range
Type
Bus Subsystem Selector
Bus loads
3 types (or mixed)
Constant power
Constant current
Constant admittance
Adding new load
Double click empty
field or just enter bus
number
Select bus
Enter data

Generator/ plant data
Define plant data
Scheduled
voltage
Remote
controlled bus
Enter machine
data

Branch data
Double click empty field to select bus (or
enter bus number)
Enter rest of data
Paste data from excell

Zero impedance lines
For modeling bus ties, jumpers, couplers or breaker
treated as the same bus (identical bus voltages but loading
is determined)
Bus tie
Line breaker
Two winding transformer data
Select connected
buses
Define winding 1 side!!
Enter rest of data

SS TEST2 4001x3%/ 22 kV; Pcu=840kW; uk=12. 57%; PFe=235kW; j 0=0. 05%
SS TEST2 4001x3%/ 22 kV; Pcu=840kW; uk=12. 57%; PFe=235kW; j 0=0. 05%
SS TEST3 4001x5%/ 231 kV; Pcu=620kW; uk=11. 91%; PFe=130kW; j 0=0. 08%
SS TEST3 400/ 2312x2. 5%kV; Pcu=650kW; uk=10. 2%; PFe=120kW; j 0=0. 08%
Three winding transformer data
SS TEST1 420/ 15. 75/ 15. 75 kV; S=380/ 190/ 190 MVA;
Pcu=1110/ 1110/ 1110kW; uk=11. 6/ 22. 3/ 11. 6%
PFe=310kW; j 0=0. 38%
Switched shunt data

Inter area transfers
If you apply transaction to PDES then these
figures are added on desired interchange


Double click to select
areas or enter area
numbers
Deleting buses and elements
Or just select element
in table and press
DELETE


GOUT/ GEXM
Called over icon and then
entering bus number (or selecting
over select option)
or from bus spread sheet by
selecting bus and over right click
menu

GOUT/ GEXM right click menu
Right click menu
Annontiation
Editing network data
Switching actions

One line diagrams
Turn on auto-draw on icon
Click symbol for bus and
click into draw window
(selection dialog appears)

Drawing by dragging
With auto-draw option turned one select and drag bus to
diagram area

Growing diagram bus by bus
Grow diagram using selected bus and right-click menu
Drawing multiple buses
Select
multiple
buses and
auto-draw
Shape up the diagram
Calculation parameters



Running Load flow calculations
Using icon or over toolbar
Powerflow\Solution\Solve
(NSOL/FNSL/FDNS/GSLV/MSLV)



Limit checking reports
PTI I NTERACTI VE POWER SYSTEM SI MULATOR- - PSS/ E WED, MAR 17 2004 9: 35
WI NTER 2005 + UCTE
WI TH TURKEY
BRANCH LOADI NGS ABOVE 100. 0 %OF RATI NG SET A:
X- - - - - - - FROM BUS- - - - - - - X X- - - - - - - - TO BUS- - - - - - - - X CURRENT( MVA)
NAME BSKV BUS# AREA NAME BSKV BUS# AREA CKT LOADI NG RATI NG PERCENT
AFI ER 2 220 10013* 10 AFI ER15 110 10036 10 2 93. 8 90. 0 104. 2
AFI ERZ2 220 10004 10 AFI ERZ5 110 10065* 10 1 31. 8 30. 0 106. 1
AFI ERZ2 220 10004 10 AFI ERZ5 110 10065* 10 2 31. 8 30. 0 106. 1
ATI RA15 110 10023 10 AUTR115 110 10026* 10 1 69. 4 68. 0 102. 0
J BGD105 110 34310* 90 J BGD225 110 34365 90 1 106. 2 89. 6 118. 6
J EMARK5 110 34464* 90 J TMORA5 110 34775 90 1 89. 9 89. 6 100. 4
J NSAD151 110 34620* 90 J NSAD351 110 34625 90 1 90. 1 89. 6 100. 6
Necessities for dynamics
Model should be converted!!!
Generators converted
Loads converted
Xdof generators (dynamic data)=Xsource(load flow data)!!!
no generator should be loaded beyond permissible limits (equipment
rating)!!!
Machine loaded within Pmin<Pgen<Pmax
Machine loaded within Qmin<Qgen<Qmax
Dynamics tab and window
Load *.dyr file!!!
Dynamics toolbar and tab
Dynamics adding model
Select dynamic model and right button menu
add/replace model
Dynamics editing parameters
Select dynamic model and right button menu edit
model
Block diagrams are in PSSE manual
Generation
Type of power plant dictates
technical parameters
(construction)
hydro
thermal
Diesel and heavy fuels
Gas
Coal
nuclear
renewable sources
sun
wind
biomass
geothermal
tidal
Generator models - standard
GENSAL and GENSAE
Suitable for hydro
machines salient pole
machines
Generator models - standard
GENROU and GENRAE
and GENDCO
Suitable for thermal
machines round rotor
Generator models - standard
Necessary parameters for modeling
Generator models - advices
Avoid using simplified models because lack of data
Use typical (and verified) parameters rather then
baddata
Double check time constants and integration step
(PSSE sensitive and might crash if data not correct)
Integration step < smallest time constant
Generator data sheet
Data Type Abbreviation Unit

Value Example
Nominal apparent power Sn MVA 850
Nominal active power Pn MW 720
Nominal voltage U
Gn
kV 21
Rated power factor cos
n
0.85
Basis speed n U/min 3000
Nominal frequency f
n
Hz 50

Inertia constant (Time constant)* (generator+turbine) T
A
(based on Sn) sec 10
Flywheel effect (generator+turbine) GD Mp m (t m
2
) 345
Moment of inertia (generator+turbine) J (I) t m 86

Stator resistance (warm) r
a
p.u. 0.002
Aperiodic time constant T
G
sec 0.5
Stator leakage reactance x
as
p.u. 0.22
Original data corresponding to the equivalent diagram
d-axis:
Excitation winding resistance rfd p.u. 0.00097
Excitation winding leakage reactance xfd p.u. 0.149
Damping winding resistance rDd p.u. 0.0202
Damping winding leakage reactance xDd p.u. 0.105
Magnetising reactance xhd p.u. 2.38
Excitation/damper winding coupling reactance xfDd p.u. 0
q-axis:
Excitation winding resistance rfq p.u. 0.00470
Excitation winding leakage reactance xfq p.u. 0.924
Damping winding resistance rDq p.u. 0.0107
Damping winding leakage reactance xDq p.u. 0.104
Magnetising reactance xhq p.u. 2.31
Excitation/damper winding coupling reactance xfDq p.u.

Generator data sheet
Data Type Abbreviation Unit

Value Example
Data derived from equivalent diagram
(as alternative to original data)
d-axis:
Subtransient short circuit time constant Td" sec 0.03
Subtransient reactance unsaturated (saturated) xd" (xd"
s
) p.u. ( ) 0.28 (0.24)
Transient short circuit time constant Td' sec 1.15
Transient reactance unsaturated (saturated) xd' (xd'
s
) p.u. ( ) 0.36 (0.32)
Synchronous reactance xd p.u. 2.6

q-axis:
Subtransient short circuit time constant Tq" sec 0.08
Subtransient reactance unsaturated (saturated) xq" (xq"
s
) p.u. ( ) 0.31 (0.27)
Transient short circuit time constant Tq' sec 0.76
Transient reactance unsaturated (saturated) xq' (xq'
s
) p.u. ( ) 0.88 (0.77)
Synchronous reactance xq p.u. 2.53
for 3 winding model xq" = xq' p.u.
Open circuit characteristic: (no load curve)
Generator voltage U
G
(based U
Gn
) p.u. 0.64 0.85 1.0 1.12 1.24 1.36 1.51
Excitation current I
f
(based I
f0
) p.u. 0.64 0.9 1.16 1.44 1.9 2.5 4.05

Generator data accuracy and consistency
DOCU (data testing and verification)
BUS 206 MACHI NE 1 :
T' Q0= 0. 1500
** GENROU ** BUS X- - NAME - - X BASEKV MC C O N S S T A T E S
206 URBGEN 18. 000 1 29- 42 13- 18
MBASE Z S O R C E X T R A N GENTAP
1000. 0 0. 01000+J 0. 25000 0. 00000+J 0. 00000 1. 00000
T' D0 T' ' D0 T' Q0 T' ' Q0 H DAMP XD XQ X' D X' Q X' ' D
XL
4. 50 0. 070 0. 15 0. 050 2. 50 0. 00 1. 4000 1. 3500 0. 5000 0. 7000 0. 2500
0. 1000
S( 1. 0) S( 1. 2)
0. 0900 0. 3800
Sensitivity issues
Subtransient and transient time constants for d and
q axis affect the transient stability of model (shape
of response)
Saturation factors S(1.0) and S(1.2) influence the
behavior of generators in bad voltage-reactive
conditions (reactive capability)
Inertia constant H affects the frequency response of
the model
Armature resistance must be taken into
consideration in case of short circuit and breakers
duty assessment, as well as for transient period of
dynamic simulation
V-curves
(It should be provided by the
generator manufacturer)
Testing off generation data
Separate dos based PSSE
utility
Good way to test data
consistency
Annotations
It should be noted that:
and it should be also noted:
Helpful equations (for unsaturated reactances):
l d q d q q d
X X X X X X X > > > " " ' '
d d d d
T T T T " " ' '
0 0
>
q q q q
T T T T " " ' '
0 0
>
d
d
d d
X
X
T T
"
'
" "
0
=
d
d
d d
X
X
T T
'
' '
0
=
q
q
q q
X
X
T T
"
" "
0
=
q
q
q q
X
X
T T
"
'
' '
0
=
Annotations
All rotating masses inertia constant H
GD2 is in [tm2]
n is in [rpm]
Sn is in [MVA]
In case you have inertia time constant (Tj)
know that Tj = 2*H
6
2 2
10
37 . 1


=
n
S
n GD
H
Thank you
Thank you