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DKK 2453 UNIT OPERATION

CHAPTER 2: EVAPORATION

DKK 2453 UNIT OPERATION CHAPTER 2: EVAPORATION Prepared by: SITI NORAISHAH ISMAIL Lecturer, Gas Engineering Department,
DKK 2453 UNIT OPERATION CHAPTER 2: EVAPORATION Prepared by: SITI NORAISHAH ISMAIL Lecturer, Gas Engineering Department,
DKK 2453 UNIT OPERATION CHAPTER 2: EVAPORATION Prepared by: SITI NORAISHAH ISMAIL Lecturer, Gas Engineering Department,
DKK 2453 UNIT OPERATION CHAPTER 2: EVAPORATION Prepared by: SITI NORAISHAH ISMAIL Lecturer, Gas Engineering Department,

Prepared by:

SITI NORAISHAH ISMAIL

Lecturer, Gas Engineering Department, FKKSA, UMP

At a glance……… 3.Type of Evaporator 1. Concept/basic operation 1. Open kettle or pan 2.

At a glance………

3.Type of Evaporator 1. Concept/basic operation 1. Open kettle or pan 2. Horizontal-tube natural circulation
3.Type of Evaporator
1. Concept/basic
operation
1.
Open kettle or pan
2.
Horizontal-tube natural circulation evaporator
3.
Vertical-type natural circulation evaporator
4.
Long-tube vertical-type evaporator
5.
Falling-film –type evaporator
2. Processing Factor
6.
Forced-circulation-type evaporator
7.
Agitated-film evaporator
Concentration in liquid
Solubility
Temperature sensitivity of materials
4. Foaming or frothing
5. Pressure and temperature
6. Scale deposition and materials
7. of construction
1.
8.
Open-pan solar evaporator
2.
3.
4.Method of Operation
1.
Single effect evaporators
2.
Forward feed multiple effect evaporators
5. Calculation of single
& multiple effect
3.
Backward feed multiple effects evaporators
4.
Parallel feed multiple effect evaporators
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Introduction  Evaporation is achieved by adding heat to the solution to vaporize the solvent.
Introduction  Evaporation is achieved by adding heat to the solution to vaporize the solvent.
Introduction  Evaporation is achieved by adding heat to the solution to vaporize the solvent.
Introduction  Evaporation is achieved by adding heat to the solution to vaporize the solvent.

Introduction

Evaporation is achieved by adding heat to the solution to vaporize

the solvent.

Vapor (usually water) from a boiling liquid solution is removed and a more concentrated solution remains.

Heat is provided by the condensation of a vapor (such as steam) on one side of a metal surface with the evaporating liquid on the other side

The normal heating medium is low pressure exhaust steam from turbines, special heat transfer fluids or flue gases.

Example: concentration of aqueous solutions of sugar, sodium chloride, glue, milk and orange juice.

In some case, the purpose of evaporation is to concentrate the solution so that upon cooling, salt crystal will be formed and separate

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
 Basic Operation of Evaporator The typical evaporator is made up of three functional sections: the
 Basic Operation of Evaporator The typical evaporator is made up of three functional sections: the
 Basic Operation of Evaporator The typical evaporator is made up of three functional sections: the
 Basic Operation of Evaporator The typical evaporator is made up of three functional sections: the

Basic Operation of Evaporator

The typical evaporator is made up of three functional sections: the heat exchanger, the evaporating section, where the liquid boils and evaporates, and

the separator in which the vapour leaves the liquid

and passes off to the condenser or to other equipment.

and passes off to the condenser or to other equipment.  In many evaporators, all three

In many evaporators, all three sections are contained in a single vertical cylinder.

In the center of the cylinder there is a steam heating

section, with pipes passing through it in which the

evaporating liquors rise.

At the top of the cylinder, there are baffles, which allow the vapours to escape but check liquid droplets that may accompany the vapours from the liquid surface.

In the heat exchanger section, called a calandria in

this type of evaporator, steam condenses in the outer

jacket and the liquid being evaporated boils on the inside of the tubes and in the space above the upper tube plate.

The resistance to heat flow is imposed by the steam and liquid film coefficients and by the material of the

tube walls.

liquid film coefficients and by the material of the tube walls. http://www.nzifst.org.nz/unitoperations/evaporation1.htm 5

http://www.nzifst.org.nz/unitoperations/evaporation1.htm

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Basic Operation of Evaporator  The circulation of the liquid greatly affects evaporation rates, but
Basic Operation of Evaporator  The circulation of the liquid greatly affects evaporation rates, but
Basic Operation of Evaporator  The circulation of the liquid greatly affects evaporation rates, but
Basic Operation of Evaporator  The circulation of the liquid greatly affects evaporation rates, but

Basic Operation of Evaporator

The circulation of the liquid greatly affects evaporation rates, but

circulation rates and patterns are very difficult to predict in any detail.

With dissolved solids in increasing quantities as evaporation proceeds leading to increased viscosity and poorer circulation, heat transfer coefficients in practice may be much lower than this.

As evaporation proceeds, the remaining liquors become more concentrated and because of this the boiling temperatures rise. The rise in the temperature of boiling reduces the available temperature drop, assuming no change in the heat source. And so the total rate of heat transfer will drop accordingly.

Also, with increasing solute concentration, the viscosity of the liquid will increase, often quite substantially, and this affects circulation and the

heat transfer coefficients leading again to lower rates of boiling.

Yet another complication is that measured, overall, heat transfer coefficients have been found to vary with the actual temperature drop, so that the design of an evaporator on theoretical grounds is inevitably subject to wide margins of uncertainty.

http://www.nzifst.org.nz/unitoperations/evaporation1.htm

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Processing Factor in Evaporation 1. Concentration in liquid 2. Solubility 3. Temperature sensitivity of materials
Processing Factor in Evaporation 1. Concentration in liquid 2. Solubility 3. Temperature sensitivity of materials
Processing Factor in Evaporation 1. Concentration in liquid 2. Solubility 3. Temperature sensitivity of materials
Processing Factor in Evaporation 1. Concentration in liquid 2. Solubility 3. Temperature sensitivity of materials

Processing Factor in Evaporation

1. Concentration in liquid

2. Solubility

3. Temperature sensitivity of materials

4. Foaming or frothing

5. Pressure and temperature

6. Scale deposition and materials of construction

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Processing Factor in Evaporation 1. Concentration in liquid – Usually liquid feed to evaporation is
Processing Factor in Evaporation 1. Concentration in liquid – Usually liquid feed to evaporation is
Processing Factor in Evaporation 1. Concentration in liquid – Usually liquid feed to evaporation is
Processing Factor in Evaporation 1. Concentration in liquid – Usually liquid feed to evaporation is

Processing Factor in Evaporation

1. Concentration in liquid

Usually liquid feed to evaporation is relatively dilute and has a lower viscosity and higher heat transfer coefficient, h

As evaporation proceeds, the solution become more concentrate

and high viscosity, then will drop the heat transfer coefficient value.

Therefore, adequate circulation and turbulence must be present to keep the h value becoming too low.

2. Solubility

As solutions are heated, the concentration of solute increase and solubility is decrease and can be exceed the solubility limit of the solution, then the crystal formed.

Solubility is increase as temperature increase. This means when hot concentrated solution from evaporation is cooled to room temperature, crystallization may occur.

3. Temperature sensitivity of materials

Many food products or biological materials may be temperature sensitive and degrade at higher temperatures or after prolonged heating.

Must be considered in the operation of evaporation.

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Processing Factor in Evaporation 4. Foaming and frothing – Caustic solutions, some food solutions such
Processing Factor in Evaporation 4. Foaming and frothing – Caustic solutions, some food solutions such
Processing Factor in Evaporation 4. Foaming and frothing – Caustic solutions, some food solutions such
Processing Factor in Evaporation 4. Foaming and frothing – Caustic solutions, some food solutions such

Processing Factor in Evaporation

4.

Foaming and frothing

Caustic solutions, some food solutions such as milk, some fatty acid solutions form foam/froth during boiling.

This foam will losses from the solution by the vapor comes out from the evaporation.

5.

Pressure and temperature

Higher operating pressure, higher boiling temperature of the solution

As concentration of the solution increased by evaporation, the

temperature of boiling may rise- called boiling point rise (BPR)

To keep the temperatures low in heat sensitive materials, it is often necessary to operate under 1 atm (i.e under vacuum)

6.

Scale deposition and materials of construction

Some solid material can be deposit on the heating surface of the

evaporation, this will reduce the overall heat transfer coefficient and cleaning is necessary.

Material for construction of evaporation must be minimize corrosion phenomena.

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Rate of Evaporation  The basic factors that affect the rate of evaporation are the:
Rate of Evaporation  The basic factors that affect the rate of evaporation are the:
Rate of Evaporation  The basic factors that affect the rate of evaporation are the:

Rate of Evaporation

The basic factors that affect the rate of evaporation are the:

rate at which heat can be transferred to the liquid

quantity of heat required to evaporate each kg of water

maximum allowable temperature of the liquid

pressure at which the evaporation takes place

changes that may occur in the foodstuff during the course of the evaporation process.

Important practical considerations in evaporators are the:

maximum allowable temperature, which may be substantially below 100°C.

promotion of circulation of the liquid across the heat transfer surfaces, to attain reasonably high heat transfer coefficients and to prevent any local overheating,

viscosity of the fluid which will often increase substantially as the concentration of the dissolved materials increases,

tendency to foam which makes separation of liquid and vapour difficult.

http://www.nzifst.org.nz/unitoperations/evaporation1.htmof the dissolved materials increases, – tendency to foam which makes separation of liquid and vapour

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Type of Evaporator  Open kettle or pan  Horizontal-tube natural circulation evaporator  Vertical-type
Type of Evaporator  Open kettle or pan  Horizontal-tube natural circulation evaporator  Vertical-type
Type of Evaporator  Open kettle or pan  Horizontal-tube natural circulation evaporator  Vertical-type
Type of Evaporator  Open kettle or pan  Horizontal-tube natural circulation evaporator  Vertical-type

Type of Evaporator

Open kettle or pan

Horizontal-tube natural circulation evaporator

Vertical-type natural circulation evaporator

Long-tube vertical-type evaporator

Falling-film type evaporator

Forced-circulation-type evaporator

Agitated-film evaporator

Open-pan solar evaporator

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Open Kettle/Pan Evaporator  heat is supplied by condensation od steam in a jacket or
Open Kettle/Pan Evaporator  heat is supplied by condensation od steam in a jacket or

Open Kettle/Pan Evaporator

Open Kettle/Pan Evaporator  heat is supplied by condensation od steam in a jacket or in

heat is supplied by condensation od steam in a jacket or in coils immersed in

the liquid

in some cases, kettle is direct fired

inexpensive and simple to use

heat economy is poor

 inexpensive and simple to use  heat economy is poor  in some cases, paddles

in some cases, paddles or scrapers are used for agitation

poor  in some cases, paddles or scrapers are used for agitation http://rpaulsingh.com/animated%20figures/fig8_4.htm 12
poor  in some cases, paddles or scrapers are used for agitation http://rpaulsingh.com/animated%20figures/fig8_4.htm 12
poor  in some cases, paddles or scrapers are used for agitation http://rpaulsingh.com/animated%20figures/fig8_4.htm 12

http://rpaulsingh.com/animated%20figures/fig8_4.htm

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Horizontal Tube Natural Circulation Evaporator  The horizontal bundle of heating tubes similar to heat
Horizontal Tube Natural Circulation Evaporator  The horizontal bundle of heating tubes similar to heat
Horizontal Tube Natural Circulation Evaporator  The horizontal bundle of heating tubes similar to heat
Horizontal Tube Natural Circulation Evaporator  The horizontal bundle of heating tubes similar to heat

Horizontal Tube Natural Circulation Evaporator

The horizontal bundle of heating tubes

similar to heat exchanger is used

 

The steam enters the tubes, where it condenses, leaves at the other end of the tubes.

The

boiling

liquid

solution

covers

the

tubes.

The vapor leaves the liquid surface, often goes through some de-entraining device such as baffle to prevent carryover of liquid droplets, and leaves out the top.

Relatively cheap, used for non-viscous liquids with high heat-transfer coefficient and liquid that do not deposit scale.

cheap, used for non-viscous liquids with high heat-transfer coefficient and liquid that do not deposit scale.

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Vertical Type Natural Circulation Evaporator  The liquid is inside the tubes and the steam
Vertical Type Natural Circulation Evaporator  The liquid is inside the tubes and the steam
Vertical Type Natural Circulation Evaporator  The liquid is inside the tubes and the steam
Vertical Type Natural Circulation Evaporator  The liquid is inside the tubes and the steam

Vertical Type Natural Circulation Evaporator

The liquid is inside the tubes and the steam condenses outside the tubes

Because of boiling and decreases in density, the liquid rises in the tubes by natural circulation, and flows downward through a large, central open space or downcomer.

Often called as short-tube evaporator

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Long Tube Vertical Type Evaporator  The tubes are 3 to 10 m long and
Long Tube Vertical Type Evaporator  The tubes are 3 to 10 m long and
Long Tube Vertical Type Evaporator  The tubes are 3 to 10 m long and
Long Tube Vertical Type Evaporator  The tubes are 3 to 10 m long and

Long Tube Vertical Type Evaporator

Long Tube Vertical Type Evaporator  The tubes are 3 to 10 m long and the

The tubes are 3 to 10 m long and the formation of vapor bubbles inside the tubes causes a pumping action, which gives quite high liquid velocities

Liquid passes through the tubes only once and is not

recirculates. Contact time can

be quite low in this type of evaporator.

http://rpaulsingh.com/animated%20figures/fig8_6.htm

In some cases, as when the ratio of feed to evaporation rate is low, recirculation is

ratio of feed to evaporation rate is low, recirculation is made by adding large pipe connection

made by adding large pipe

connection between the outlet

concentrate line and the feed line

http://rpaulsingh.com/animated%20figures/fig8_5.htm

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Falling Film Type Evaporator  Liquid is fed to the top of the tubes and

Liquid is fed to the top of the tubes and flows down the walls as thin film

V-L separation take place at the bottom

widely used for concentrating heat sensitive materials such as fruit juices

http://rpaulsingh.com/animated%20figures/fig8_7.htm
http://rpaulsingh.com/animated%20figures/fig8_7.htm

16

http://rpaulsingh.com/animated%20figures/fig8_7.htm 16
http://rpaulsingh.com/animated%20figures/fig8_7.htm 16
http://rpaulsingh.com/animated%20figures/fig8_7.htm 16

http://www.niroinc.com/evaporators_crystallizers/falling_film_ev

aporators.asp

Forced Circulation Type Evaporator  Used pump to circulate the liquid  Increase liquid-film heat
Forced Circulation Type Evaporator  Used pump to circulate the liquid  Increase liquid-film heat
Forced Circulation Type Evaporator  Used pump to circulate the liquid  Increase liquid-film heat
Forced Circulation Type Evaporator  Used pump to circulate the liquid  Increase liquid-film heat

Used pump to circulate the liquid Increase liquid-film heat transfer Use for viscous liquids

liquid-film heat transfer  Use for viscous liquids

http://www.niroinc.com/evaporators_crystallizers/forced_circulation_e

vaporator.asp

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
 

    Agitated Film Evaporator http://www.technoforce.net/agitated-thin- film-evaporators.html Mechanical

Agitated Film Evaporator

    Agitated Film Evaporator http://www.technoforce.net/agitated-thin- film-evaporators.html Mechanical

http://www.technoforce.net/agitated-thin-

film-evaporators.html

Mechanical agitation of liquid film to increase turbulence in

this film, and hence the heat

transfer coefficient Modification of falling film evaporator with only a single , large, jacketed tube containing an internal agitator.

Liquid enters at the top of the tube and as it flows downward, it is spread out into a turbulent film by vertical agitator blades. The concentrated solution leaves at the bottom and vapor

leaves through a separator and

out the top.

bottom and vapor leaves through a separator and out the top. http://distilleryplants.tradeindia.com/agitated-thin-
bottom and vapor leaves through a separator and out the top. http://distilleryplants.tradeindia.com/agitated-thin-
bottom and vapor leaves through a separator and out the top. http://distilleryplants.tradeindia.com/agitated-thin-

http://distilleryplants.tradeindia.com/agitated-thin-

film-evaporator-355261.html

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Method of Operation of Evaporators  Single effect evaporators  Forward feed multiple effect evaporators
Method of Operation of Evaporators  Single effect evaporators  Forward feed multiple effect evaporators
Method of Operation of Evaporators  Single effect evaporators  Forward feed multiple effect evaporators
Method of Operation of Evaporators  Single effect evaporators  Forward feed multiple effect evaporators

Method of Operation of Evaporators

Single effect evaporators Forward feed multiple effect evaporators Backward feed multiple effects evaporators Parallel feed multiple effect evaporators

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1. Single Effect Evaporators 20
1. Single Effect Evaporators 20
1. Single Effect Evaporators 20
1. Single Effect Evaporators 20

1. Single Effect Evaporators

1. Single Effect Evaporators 20

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Single Effect Evaporators  The solution in the evaporator is assumed to be completely mixed,
Single Effect Evaporators  The solution in the evaporator is assumed to be completely mixed,

Single Effect Evaporators

The solution in the evaporator is assumed to be completely mixed, the concentrated product and the solution in evaporator have the same composition and temperature T 1 , which is the boiling point of solution at P 1 .

The temperature of the vapor is also at T 1 , since it is equilibrium with the boiling solution.

The pressure is P 1 , which is the vapor pressure of the solution at T 1 .

Often used when the required capacity of operation is relatively small and the cost of steam is relatively cheap compared to the evaporator cost

However, energy utilization is poor since the latent heat of the vapor leaving is not used but is discarded.

Vapor, V T 1 , y V , H V to condenser Feed, F T
Vapor, V
T 1 , y V , H V
to condenser
Feed, F
T F , x F , h F .
P
heat-exchanger
1
tubes
T
1
Steam, S
T S , H S
Condensate, S
T S , h S
Concentrated liquid, L
T 1 , x L , h L

The rate of heat transfer (q : W, btu/h)

q = UADT = UA(T s - T 1 )

: overall heat transfer coefficient, W/m 2 .K;

U

btu/h.ft 2 .F

A : heat transfer area, m 2 ; ft 2

T s , T 1 : in K; F

Ts is temperature of condensing steam

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2. Forward Feed Multiple Effect Evaporators  The fresh feed is added to the first

2. Forward Feed Multiple Effect Evaporators

The fresh feed is added to the first effect and flows to the next in the same

direction as the vapor flow.

Used when the feed hot or when the final concentrated product might be damaged at high temperature.

At steady-state operation, the flow rates and the rate of evaporation in each

effect are constant.

The boiling temperature decrease from effect to effect, cause pressure also decrease (e.g. if first evap is at 1 atm the last evap. will be under vacuum).

first evap is at 1 atm the last evap. will be under vacuum).  1 kg
first evap is at 1 atm the last evap. will be under vacuum).  1 kg
first evap is at 1 atm the last evap. will be under vacuum).  1 kg
first evap is at 1 atm the last evap. will be under vacuum).  1 kg
first evap is at 1 atm the last evap. will be under vacuum).  1 kg

1 kg of steam will evaporate 1 kg of

water in each evaporation

vapor T 1

vapor T 2

(2) T 2
(2)
T 2

vapor T 3

(1) T 1
(1)
T 1

concentrate

from first

effect.

(3) T 3
(3)
T 3

to vacuum

condenser

The 1 st evap. operates at a T high enough that the evaporated water serves as the heating medium to the 2 nd evap.

Very rough estimation, 3kg water will be evaporated for 1 kg steam

vapor

is

Steam

feed, T F

steam, T S

condensate

concentrate

concentrated

from second

product

effect.

economy

(kg

evaporated/kh

increased

steam

used)

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3. Backward Feed Multiple Effect Evaporators  Fresh feed enters the last and coldest effect
3. Backward Feed Multiple Effect Evaporators  Fresh feed enters the last and coldest effect
3. Backward Feed Multiple Effect Evaporators  Fresh feed enters the last and coldest effect
3. Backward Feed Multiple Effect Evaporators  Fresh feed enters the last and coldest effect

3. Backward Feed Multiple Effect Evaporators

Fresh feed enters the last and coldest effect and continues on until the concentrated product leaves the first effect.

Advantageous when the fresh feed is cold or when concentrated

product is highly viscous.

Liquid pump are used in each effects, since the flow is from low to high pressure.

The high temperature in the first effect reduce the viscosity and give reasonable heat-transfer coefficient.

vapor T 2 vapor T 3 (2) (3) T T 2 3
vapor T 2
vapor T 3
(2)
(3)
T
T
2
3

vapor T 1

vapor T 2 vapor T 3 (2) (3) T T 2 3 vapor T 1 to

to vacuum

condenser

(1) T 1
(1)
T
1

feed, T F

steam, T S

condensate

3 (2) (3) T T 2 3 vapor T 1 to vacuum condenser (1) T 1

concentrated

product

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4. Parallel Feed Multiple Effect Evaporators  Involves the adding of fresh feed to each
4. Parallel Feed Multiple Effect Evaporators  Involves the adding of fresh feed to each
4. Parallel Feed Multiple Effect Evaporators  Involves the adding of fresh feed to each

4. Parallel Feed Multiple Effect Evaporators

Involves the adding of fresh feed to each

effect and the withdraw of concentrated

product from each effect.

However, the vapor from each effect is still

used to heat the next effect

Mainly used when the feed is almost saturated and solid crystal are the product, as

in the evaporation of brine to make salt

used when the feed is almost saturated and solid crystal are the product, as in the

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Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients in Evaporator  Components contribute to the overall heat transfer coefficient
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients in Evaporator  Components contribute to the overall heat transfer coefficient
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients in Evaporator  Components contribute to the overall heat transfer coefficient
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients in Evaporator  Components contribute to the overall heat transfer coefficient

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients in Evaporator

Components contribute to the overall heat transfer coefficient , U in evaporator

steam-side condensing coefficient can be predicted using Eqs 4.8-20 to

4.8-26.

metal wall resistance usually negligible due to high thermal conductivity of metal; increase velocity to decrease the rate of scale formation

resistance of the scale on the liquid side cannot be predicted

liquid film coefficient, h - usually inside the tube - can be predicted using

various eq depend on type of tubes configuration/evaporator type

h - usually inside the tube - can be predicted using various eq depend on type

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Calculation Method for Single Effect Evaporator (additional notes) MATERIAL BALANCE Total mass balance F =
Calculation Method for Single Effect Evaporator (additional notes) MATERIAL BALANCE Total mass balance F =
Calculation Method for Single Effect Evaporator (additional notes) MATERIAL BALANCE Total mass balance F =
Calculation Method for Single Effect Evaporator (additional notes) MATERIAL BALANCE Total mass balance F =

Calculation Method for Single Effect Evaporator

(additional notes)

Method for Single Effect Evaporator (additional notes) MATERIAL BALANCE Total mass balance F = L +

MATERIAL BALANCE

Total mass balance

F = L + V

Balance on solute/solids

Fx F = Lx L

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Calculation Method for Single Effect Evaporator (additional notes) ENERGY BALANCE Heat in feed + Heat

Calculation Method for Single Effect Evaporator

(additional notes)

ENERGY BALANCE

Heat in feed + Heat in steam = Heat in concentrat ed liquid + Heat in vapor + Heat in condensed steam

Fh

F

SH

s

Lh

L

VH

v

Sh

s

Fh

F

S

Lh

L

VH

v

;

is latent heat of steam (

= H

s

- h )

s

VH v ;  is latent heat of steam (  = H s - h
VH v ;  is latent heat of steam (  = H s - h
VH v ;  is latent heat of steam (  = H s - h

Heat transfer to the evaporator

q = S(H

Also general design

s

- h ) = S

s

eqution for evaporator

q  UA   T UA T (  T ) S 1 
q
UA
 
T
UA T
(
T
)
S
1
h F and h L often not available, enthalpy-
concentration data are available for
only few substance, some
approximation are made:
– Using latent heat of evaporation of
1 kg water from from steam table
at solution boiling temperature, T 1
– Calculate using heat capacity, c pF
and c pL if available
32
Example 8.4-1 Heat-Transfer Area in Single-Effect Evaporator. A continuous single-effect evaporator concentrates 9072 kg/h
Example 8.4-1 Heat-Transfer Area in Single-Effect Evaporator. A continuous single-effect evaporator concentrates 9072 kg/h
Example 8.4-1 Heat-Transfer Area in Single-Effect Evaporator. A continuous single-effect evaporator concentrates 9072 kg/h
Example 8.4-1 Heat-Transfer Area in Single-Effect Evaporator. A continuous single-effect evaporator concentrates 9072 kg/h

Example 8.4-1

Heat-Transfer Area in Single-Effect Evaporator.

A continuous single-effect evaporator concentrates 9072 kg/h of a 1.0 wt % salt solution entering at 311.0 K (37.8 ºC) to a final concentration of 1.5 wt %. The vapor space of the evaporator is at 101.325 kPa (1.0 atm abs) and the steam supplied is saturated at 143.3 kPa. The overall coefficient U = 1704 W/m2 .K. calculate the amounts of vapor and liquid product and the heat-transfer area required. Assumed that, since it its dilute, the solution has the same boiling point as water.

the heat-transfer area required. Assumed that, since it its dilute, the solution has the same boiling

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Effect of Processing Variables on Evaporator Operation.  Feed temperature, T F – T <
Effect of Processing Variables on Evaporator Operation.  Feed temperature, T F – T <
Effect of Processing Variables on Evaporator Operation.  Feed temperature, T F – T <
Effect of Processing Variables on Evaporator Operation.  Feed temperature, T F – T <

Effect of Processing Variables on Evaporator Operation.

Feed temperature, T F

T < T

F

, some of latent heat of steam will be used to

bp

heat up the cold feed, only the rest of the latent heat of steam will be used to vaporize the feed.

feed is under pressure & T > T

F

, additional

bp

vaporization obtained by flashing of feed.

Evaporator pressure, P

1

desirable T [q = UA(T S

T depends on P 1 - will P 1 T 1 then T (e.g under vacuum) .

T 1

)], A & cost .

1

Steam pressure, P

S

P S will ΔT S but high-pressure steam is costly.

Optimum T S by overall economic balances are need.

38

Boiling Point Rise & Heat of Solution  Majority cases, solutions in evaporator are not
Boiling Point Rise & Heat of Solution  Majority cases, solutions in evaporator are not
Boiling Point Rise & Heat of Solution  Majority cases, solutions in evaporator are not
Boiling Point Rise & Heat of Solution  Majority cases, solutions in evaporator are not

Boiling Point Rise & Heat of Solution

Majority cases, solutions in evaporator are not dilute, thus thermal properties of the solution being evaporated may differ considerably with water.

Dühring’s rule a straight line of solution boiling

point against water boiling point at the same

pressure for a given concentration at different pressures

Heat of solution must be considered in heat

balance for the substance that give a considerable

temperature rise during dissolve in water.

39

Duhring ’ s Plot (example) 40
Duhring ’ s Plot (example) 40
Duhring ’ s Plot (example) 40
Duhring ’ s Plot (example) 40

Duhrings

Plot

(example)

Duhring ’ s Plot (example) 40

40

Enthalpy-Concentration Chart (example) 41
Enthalpy-Concentration Chart (example) 41
Enthalpy-Concentration Chart (example) 41
Enthalpy-Concentration Chart (example) 41

Enthalpy-Concentration Chart (example)

Enthalpy-Concentration Chart (example) 41

41

Example 8.4-3 An evaporator is used to concentrate 4536 kg/h of a 20 % solution
Example 8.4-3 An evaporator is used to concentrate 4536 kg/h of a 20 % solution
Example 8.4-3 An evaporator is used to concentrate 4536 kg/h of a 20 % solution
Example 8.4-3 An evaporator is used to concentrate 4536 kg/h of a 20 % solution

Example 8.4-3

An evaporator is used to concentrate 4536 kg/h of a 20 % solution of NaOH in water entering at 60 ºC to a product of 50 % solid. The pressure of the saturated steam used is 172.4 kPa and the pressure in the vapor space of the evaporator is 11.7 kPa. The overall heat-transfer

coefficient is 1560 W/m

2

.K.

Calculate:

1.

steam used

2.

steam economy in kg vaporized/kg steam used

3.

heating surface area in m 2

V, T 1 , H V

F = 4536 kg/h

T F = 60 ºC

x F = 0.2

h F .

1 , H V F = 4536 kg/h T F = 60 ºC x F =
P 1 = 11.7 kPa U = 1560 W/m 2 A = ? T 1
P 1 = 11.7 kPa
U = 1560 W/m 2
A = ?
T 1
L, T 1 , h L

x L = 0.5

S = ?

T S , H S

P S = 172.4 kPa

S, T S , h S

42

Solution Example 8.4-3 Refer to Fig. 8.4-4, for flow diagram for this solution. For the
Solution Example 8.4-3 Refer to Fig. 8.4-4, for flow diagram for this solution. For the
Solution Example 8.4-3 Refer to Fig. 8.4-4, for flow diagram for this solution. For the
Solution Example 8.4-3 Refer to Fig. 8.4-4, for flow diagram for this solution. For the

Solution Example 8.4-3

Refer to Fig. 8.4-4, for flow diagram for this solution. For the total balance, F = 4536 = L + V For the balance on the solute alone, F x F = L x L 4536 (0.2) = L (0.5) L = 1814 kg/h of liquid Substituting into total balance and solving, V = 2722 kg/h of vapor

43

Solution Example 8.4-3 44
Solution Example 8.4-3 44

Solution Example 8.4-3

Solution Example 8.4-3 44
Solution Example 8.4-3 44
Solution Example 8.4-3 44

44

Duhring ’ s Plot 45
Duhring ’ s Plot 45
Duhring ’ s Plot 45
Duhring ’ s Plot 45

Duhrings

Plot

Duhring ’ s Plot 45

45

Solution Example 8.4-3 46
Solution Example 8.4-3 46
Solution Example 8.4-3 46
Solution Example 8.4-3 46

Solution Example 8.4-3

Solution Example 8.4-3 46

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Solution Example 8.4-3 47
Solution Example 8.4-3 47
Solution Example 8.4-3 47
Solution Example 8.4-3 47

Solution Example 8.4-3

Solution Example 8.4-3 47

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Solution Example 8.4-3 48
Solution Example 8.4-3 48
Solution Example 8.4-3 48
Solution Example 8.4-3 48

Solution Example 8.4-3

Solution Example 8.4-3 48
Solution Example 8.4-3 48

48



  Calculation Method for Multiple Effect Evaporator The calculation are done using material balance, heat
  Calculation Method for Multiple Effect Evaporator The calculation are done using material balance, heat

Calculation Method for Multiple Effect Evaporator

The calculation are done using material balance, heat balance and heat capacity equation (q=UAΔT) for each effect. Normally using trial and error

method.

Objective to calculate

Area (A) in each effect

Amount of steam (S) need

Amount of vapor (V) leaving each effect

Usually given or known value

Steam pressure in first effect

Final pressure in the vapor space of last

effect (P3)

First condition and flow to first effect (F,

X

F )

Final concentration of the liquid leaving on the last effect (X 3 )

Physical properties such as enthalpies or heat capacity of the liquid and vapor

Overall heat transfer coefficient on each effect, normally the value is same in each effect, U

F

x F

T F

S

P S1

V 1 = F – L 1 V 3 = L 2 – L 3
V 1 = F – L 1
V 3 = L 2 – L 3
V 2 = L 1 – L 2
T
1
T
2
T
3
(1)
P
3
(2)
(3)
U1
U2
U3
T
S1
T
S2
T
S3
T 1 , L 1 , x 1
T 2 , L 2 , x 2

T

3

L

3

x 3

x 3

49

Calculation Method for Multiple Effect Evaporator  Assumption made in operation; – no boiling point
Calculation Method for Multiple Effect Evaporator  Assumption made in operation; – no boiling point
Calculation Method for Multiple Effect Evaporator  Assumption made in operation; – no boiling point
Calculation Method for Multiple Effect Evaporator  Assumption made in operation; – no boiling point

Calculation Method for Multiple Effect Evaporator

Assumption made in operation;

no boiling point rise.

no heat of solution.

neglecting the sensible heat necessary to heat the feed to the boiling point.

Heat balances for multiple/triple-effect evaporator.

Heat is same in all effect: q = U 1 A 1 T 1 = U 2 A 2 T 2 = U 3 A 3 T 3

Areas in all effects are equal,: q/A = U 1 T 1 = U 2 T 2 = U 3 T 3

The temperature drops in evaporator (no BPR),

T = T 1 + T 2 + T 3 = T S T 3

The temperature drops in evaporator (with BPR),

T = T 1 + T 2 + T 3 = T S T sat@P3 (BPR 1 +BPR 2 +BPR 3 )

hence we know that  T are approximately inversely proportional to the values of U,

T

1



T

1 U U

1

1
1

U

1

U1 U 1  2  1 U 3

2

1
1

U

3

similar equations can be written for T 2 and T 3

if we assumed that the value of U is the same in each effect, the capacity equation, q = U A (T 1 + T 2 + T 3 ) = UA  T

50

Calculation Method for Multiple Effect Evaporator From an overall MB , determine V T =V
Calculation Method for Multiple Effect Evaporator From an overall MB , determine V T =V
Calculation Method for Multiple Effect Evaporator From an overall MB , determine V T =V
Calculation Method for Multiple Effect Evaporator From an overall MB , determine V T =V

Calculation Method for Multiple Effect Evaporator

From an overall MB , determine V T =V 1 + V 2 +V 3
From an overall MB ,
determine V T =V 1 + V 2 +V 3
(1 st trial – assumption V 1 =V 2 =V 3 )
Calculate the amount of
concentrated solutions
(L 1 ,L 2 ,L 3 ) & their concentrations
Find BPR & T in each
effect & T.
If the feed is very cold, the
(X 1 ,X 2 ,X 3 ) in each effect using
MB
portions may be modified
appropriately, calculate the
boiling point in each effect.

Calculate V and L in each effect through MEB

If the amounts differ significantly

from the assumed values in step 2;

step 2,3 and 4 must be repeated with

the amounts just calculated.

For the given x 3 and P 3 and find BPR 3 if exist
For the given x 3
and P 3 and find
BPR 3 if exist
Using heat transfer equations for each effect, calculate A required for each effect. Then calculate
Using heat transfer equations for
each effect, calculate A required
for each effect. Then calculate A m
= (A 1 +A 2 +A 3 )/3. Repeat second
trial if the area is not reasonably
close to each other

Obtain new values ΔT 1 = ΔT 1 A 1 /A m , , ΔT 2 , ΔT 3 , then determine new T for find new are as step 4.

For second trial, using new value of L1,L2,L3, V1,V2,V3 and calculated solid concentration in each
For second trial, using new
value of L1,L2,L3, V1,V2,V3
and calculated solid
concentration in each effect

51

>10% Find T 3 , BPR 3 and T S 3 Assume V 1 =V
>10%
>10%

Find T 3 , BPR 3 and T S3

Assume V 1 =V 2 =V 3

Calc. L 1 ,L 2 ,L 3 ,X 1 ,X 2 ,X 3 from MB

Calc. BPR 1 , BPR 2 , BPR 3

Calc. ΣΔT, ΔT 1 , ΔT 2 , ΔT 3

Adjust for cold feed

Find T 1 ,T 2 ,T 3 ,T s1 ,T s2 ,T s3

Find H 1 ,H 2 ,H 3 , λ s1 ,λ s2 ,λ s3

From EB, calc. new V 1 ,V 2 ,V 3 , L 1 ,L 2 ,L 3 ,

Compare V 1 ,V 2 ,V 3 from MB with V 1 ,V 2 ,V 3 from EB

Calc. q 1 , q 2 , q 3 and solve A 1 ,A 2 ,A 3

Find A m

Compare A 1 ,A 2 ,A 3 with A m

STOP

2 , q 3 and solve A 1 ,A 2 ,A 3 Find A m Compare
2 , q 3 and solve A 1 ,A 2 ,A 3 Find A m Compare

>10%

52

Example 8.5-1 A triple-effect forward-feed evaporator is being used to evaporate a sugar solution containing
Example 8.5-1 A triple-effect forward-feed evaporator is being used to evaporate a sugar solution containing
Example 8.5-1 A triple-effect forward-feed evaporator is being used to evaporate a sugar solution containing
Example 8.5-1 A triple-effect forward-feed evaporator is being used to evaporate a sugar solution containing

Example 8.5-1

A triple-effect forward-feed evaporator is being used to evaporate a sugar solution containing 10 wt% solids to a concentrated solution of 50 %. The boiling-point rise of the solutions (independent of pressure) can be estimated from (BPR ºC = 1.78x + 6.22 x 2 ), where x is wt fraction of sugar in solution. Saturated steam at 205.5 kPa and 121.1ºC saturation temperature is being used. The pressure in the vapor

space of the third effect is 13.4 kPa. The feed rate is 22 680 kg/h at 26.7 ºC. the

= 4.19 2.35x kJ/kg.K. The heat of

solution is considered to be negligible. The coefficients of heat transfer have been

= 1136 W/m 2 .K. If each effect has the

same surface area, calculate the area, the steam rate used, and the steam

heat capacity of the liquid solutions is c

P

estimated as U

1

= 3123, U

2

= 1987, and U

3

economy.

V 1 = 22,680 – L 1 V 2 = L 1 – L 2
V 1 = 22,680 – L 1
V 2 = L 1 – L 2
T
3
V 3 = L 2 - 4536
F = 22680
T
1
T
2
x F = 0.1
T F = 26.7 ºC
P 3 = 13.4 k Pa
(2)
(1)
(3)
U2=1987
U1=3123
U3=1136
S
= ?
T S1 = 121.1 ºC
T
S1
T
S2
T
S3
P S1 = 205.5
k Pa
T
3
L 3 = 4536
T 1 , L 1 , x 1
T 2 , L 2 , x 2
x 3 = 0.5

53

QUESTION & ANSWER SESSION

QUESTION & ANSWER SESSION THANK YOU!! 25/02/2014 Siti Noraishah Ismail 54
QUESTION & ANSWER SESSION THANK YOU!! 25/02/2014 Siti Noraishah Ismail 54
QUESTION & ANSWER SESSION THANK YOU!! 25/02/2014 Siti Noraishah Ismail 54
QUESTION & ANSWER SESSION THANK YOU!! 25/02/2014 Siti Noraishah Ismail 54

THANK YOU!!