DKK 2453 UNIT OPERATION
CHAPTER 2: EVAPORATION
Prepared by:
SITI NORAISHAH ISMAIL
Lecturer, Gas Engineering Department, FKKSA, UMP
25/02/2014
Siti Noraishah Ismail
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At a glance………
Introduction
Evaporation is achieved by adding heat to the solution to vaporize
the solvent.
Vapor (usually water) from a boiling liquid solution is removed and a more concentrated solution remains.
Heat is provided by the condensation of a vapor (such as steam) on one side of a metal surface with the evaporating liquid on the other side
The normal heating medium is low pressure exhaust steam from turbines, special heat transfer fluids or flue gases.
Example: concentration of aqueous solutions of sugar, sodium chloride, glue, milk and orange juice.
In some case, the purpose of evaporation is to concentrate the solution so that upon cooling, salt crystal will be formed and separate
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Basic Operation of Evaporator
The typical evaporator is made up of three functional sections: the heat exchanger, the evaporating section, where the liquid boils and evaporates, and
the separator in which the vapour leaves the liquid
and passes off to the condenser or to other equipment.
In many evaporators, all three sections are contained in a single vertical cylinder.
In the center of the cylinder there is a steam heating
section, with pipes passing through it in which the
evaporating liquors rise.
At the top of the cylinder, there are baffles, which allow the vapours to escape but check liquid droplets that may accompany the vapours from the liquid surface.
In the heat exchanger section, called a calandria in
this type of evaporator, steam condenses in the outer
jacket and the liquid being evaporated boils on the inside of the tubes and in the space above the upper tube plate.
The resistance to heat flow is imposed by the steam and liquid film coefficients and by the material of the
tube walls.
http://www.nzifst.org.nz/unitoperations/evaporation1.htm
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Basic Operation of Evaporator
The circulation of the liquid greatly affects evaporation rates, but
circulation rates and patterns are very difficult to predict in any detail.
With dissolved solids in increasing quantities as evaporation proceeds leading to increased viscosity and poorer circulation, heat transfer coefficients in practice may be much lower than this.
As evaporation proceeds, the remaining liquors become more concentrated and because of this the boiling temperatures rise. The rise in the temperature of boiling reduces the available temperature drop, assuming no change in the heat source. And so the total rate of heat transfer will drop accordingly.
Also, with increasing solute concentration, the viscosity of the liquid will increase, often quite substantially, and this affects circulation and the
heat transfer coefficients leading again to lower rates of boiling.
Yet another complication is that measured, overall, heat transfer coefficients have been found to vary with the actual temperature drop, so that the design of an evaporator on theoretical grounds is inevitably subject to wide margins of uncertainty.
http://www.nzifst.org.nz/unitoperations/evaporation1.htm
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Processing Factor in Evaporation
1. Concentration in liquid
2. Solubility
3. Temperature sensitivity of materials
4. Foaming or frothing
5. Pressure and temperature
6. Scale deposition and materials of construction
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Processing Factor in Evaporation
1. Concentration in liquid
– Usually liquid feed to evaporation is relatively dilute and has a lower viscosity and higher heat transfer coefficient, h
– As evaporation proceeds, the solution become more concentrate
and high viscosity, then will drop the heat transfer coefficient value.
– Therefore, adequate circulation and turbulence must be present to keep the h value becoming too low.
2. Solubility
– As solutions are heated, the concentration of solute increase and solubility is decrease and can be exceed the solubility limit of the solution, then the crystal formed.
– Solubility is increase as temperature increase. This means when hot concentrated solution from evaporation is cooled to room temperature, crystallization may occur.
3. Temperature sensitivity of materials
– Many food products or biological materials may be temperature sensitive and degrade at higher temperatures or after prolonged heating.
– Must be considered in the operation of evaporation.
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Processing Factor in Evaporation
4. 
Foaming and frothing 
– Caustic solutions, some food solutions such as milk, some fatty acid solutions form foam/froth during boiling. 

– This foam will losses from the solution by the vapor comes out from the evaporation. 

5. 
Pressure and temperature 
– Higher operating pressure, higher boiling temperature of the solution 

– As concentration of the solution increased by evaporation, the 

temperature of boiling may rise called boiling point rise (BPR) 

– To keep the temperatures low in heat sensitive materials, it is often necessary to operate under 1 atm (i.e under vacuum) 

6. 
Scale deposition and materials of construction 
– Some solid material can be deposit on the heating surface of the
evaporation, this will reduce the overall heat transfer coefficient and cleaning is necessary.
– Material for construction of evaporation must be minimize corrosion phenomena.
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Rate of Evaporation
The basic factors that affect the rate of evaporation are the:
– rate at which heat can be transferred to the liquid
– quantity of heat required to evaporate each kg of water
– maximum allowable temperature of the liquid
– pressure at which the evaporation takes place
– changes that may occur in the foodstuff during the course of the evaporation process.
Important practical considerations in evaporators are the:
– maximum allowable temperature, which may be substantially below 100°C.
– promotion of circulation of the liquid across the heat transfer surfaces, to attain reasonably high heat transfer coefficients and to prevent any local overheating,
– viscosity of the fluid which will often increase substantially as the concentration of the dissolved materials increases,
– tendency to foam which makes separation of liquid and vapour difficult.
http://www.nzifst.org.nz/unitoperations/evaporation1.htm
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Type of Evaporator
Open kettle or pan
Horizontaltube natural circulation evaporator
Verticaltype natural circulation evaporator
Longtube verticaltype evaporator
Fallingfilm –type evaporator
Forcedcirculationtype evaporator
Agitatedfilm evaporator
Openpan solar evaporator
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Open Kettle/Pan Evaporator
heat is supplied by condensation od steam in a jacket or in coils immersed in
the liquid
in some cases, kettle is direct fired
inexpensive and simple to use
heat economy is poor
in some cases, paddles or scrapers are used for agitation
http://rpaulsingh.com/animated%20figures/fig8_4.htm
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Horizontal Tube Natural Circulation Evaporator

The horizontal bundle of heating tubes 

similar to heat exchanger is used 


The steam enters the tubes, where it condenses, leaves at the other end of the tubes. 


The 
boiling 
liquid 
solution 
covers 
the 
tubes. 


The vapor leaves the liquid surface, often goes through some deentraining device such as baffle to prevent carryover of liquid droplets, and leaves out the top. 


Relatively cheap, used for nonviscous liquids with high heattransfer coefficient and liquid that do not deposit scale. 
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Vertical Type Natural Circulation Evaporator
The liquid is inside the tubes and the steam condenses outside the tubes
Because of boiling and decreases in density, the liquid rises in the tubes by natural circulation, and flows downward through a large, central open space or downcomer.
Often called as shorttube evaporator
Long Tube Vertical Type Evaporator
The tubes are 3 to 10 m long and the formation of vapor bubbles inside the tubes causes a pumping action, which gives quite high liquid velocities
Liquid passes through the tubes only once and is not
recirculates. Contact time can
be quite low in this type of evaporator.
http://rpaulsingh.com/animated%20figures/fig8_6.htm
In some cases, as when the ratio of feed to evaporation rate is low, recirculation is
made by adding large pipe
connection between the outlet
concentrate line and the feed line
http://rpaulsingh.com/animated%20figures/fig8_5.htm
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Liquid is fed to the top of the tubes and flows down the walls as thin film
VL separation take place at the bottom
widely used for concentrating heat sensitive materials such as fruit juices
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http://www.niroinc.com/evaporators_crystallizers/falling_film_ev
aporators.asp
Used pump to circulate the liquid Increase liquidfilm heat transfer Use for viscous liquids
http://www.niroinc.com/evaporators_crystallizers/forced_circulation_e
vaporator.asp
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Agitated Film Evaporator
http://www.technoforce.net/agitatedthin
filmevaporators.html
Mechanical agitation of liquid film to increase turbulence in
this film, and hence the heat
transfer coefficient Modification of falling film evaporator with only a single , large, jacketed tube containing an internal agitator.
Liquid enters at the top of the tube and as it flows downward, it is spread out into a turbulent film by vertical agitator blades. The concentrated solution leaves at the bottom and vapor
leaves through a separator and
out the top.
http://distilleryplants.tradeindia.com/agitatedthin
filmevaporator355261.html
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Method of Operation of Evaporators
Single effect evaporators Forward feed multiple effect evaporators Backward feed multiple effects evaporators Parallel feed multiple effect evaporators
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1. Single Effect Evaporators
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Single Effect Evaporators
The solution in the evaporator is assumed to be completely mixed, the concentrated product and the solution in evaporator have the same composition and temperature T _{1} , which is the boiling point of solution at P _{1} .
The temperature of the vapor is also at T _{1} , since it is equilibrium with the boiling solution.
The pressure is P _{1} , which is the vapor pressure of the solution at T _{1} .
Often used when the required capacity of operation is relatively small and the cost of steam is relatively cheap compared to the evaporator cost
However, energy utilization is poor since the latent heat of the vapor leaving is not used but is discarded.
The rate of heat transfer (q : W, btu/h)
q = UADT = UA(T _{s}  T _{1} )
: overall heat transfer coefficient, W/m ^{2} .K;
U
btu/h.ft ^{2} .F
A : heat transfer area, m ^{2} ; ft ^{2}
T _{s} , T _{1} : in K; F
Ts is temperature of condensing steam
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2. Forward Feed Multiple Effect Evaporators
The fresh feed is added to the first effect and flows to the next in the same
direction as the vapor flow.
Used when the feed hot or when the final concentrated product might be damaged at high temperature.
At steadystate operation, the flow rates and the rate of evaporation in each
effect are constant.
The boiling temperature decrease from effect to effect, cause pressure also decrease (e.g. if first evap is at 1 atm the last evap. will be under vacuum).
1 kg of steam will evaporate 1 kg of
water in each evaporation
vapor T _{1}
vapor T _{2}
vapor T _{3}
concentrate
from first
effect.
to vacuum
condenser
The 1 ^{s}^{t} evap. operates at a T high enough that the evaporated water serves as the heating medium to the 2 ^{n}^{d} evap.
Very rough estimation, 3kg water will be evaporated for 1 kg steam
vapor
is
Steam
feed, T _{F}
steam, T _{S}
condensate
concentrate 
concentrated 
from second 
product 
effect.
economy
(kg
evaporated/kh
increased
steam
used)
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3. Backward Feed Multiple Effect Evaporators
Fresh feed enters the last and coldest effect and continues on until the concentrated product leaves the first effect.
Advantageous when the fresh feed is cold or when concentrated
product is highly viscous.
Liquid pump are used in each effects, since the flow is from low to high pressure.
The high temperature in the first effect reduce the viscosity and give reasonable heattransfer coefficient.
vapor T 1
to vacuum
condenser
feed, T F
steam, T S
condensate
concentrated
product
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4. Parallel Feed Multiple Effect Evaporators
Involves the adding of fresh feed to each
effect and the withdraw of concentrated
product from each effect.
However, the vapor from each effect is still
used to heat the next effect
Mainly used when the feed is almost saturated and solid crystal are the product, as
in the evaporation of brine to make salt
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Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients in Evaporator
Components contribute to the overall heat transfer coefficient , U in evaporator
– steamside condensing coefficient – can be predicted using Eqs 4.820 to
4.826.
– metal wall resistance – usually negligible due to high thermal conductivity of metal; increase velocity to decrease the rate of scale formation
– resistance of the scale on the liquid side – cannot be predicted
– liquid film coefficient, h  usually inside the tube  can be predicted using
various eq depend on type of tubes configuration/evaporator type
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Calculation Method for Single Effect Evaporator
(additional notes)
MATERIAL BALANCE
Total mass balance
F = L + V
Balance on solute/solids
Fx _{F} = Lx _{L}
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Calculation Method for Single Effect Evaporator
(additional notes)
ENERGY BALANCE
Heat in feed + Heat in steam = Heat in concentrat ed liquid + Heat in vapor + Heat in condensed steam
Fh
F
SH
s
Lh
L
VH
v
Sh
s
Fh
F
S
Lh
L
VH
v
;
is latent heat of steam (
= H
s
 h )
s
Heat transfer to the evaporator
q = S(H
Also general design
s
 h ) = S
s
eqution for evaporator
Example 8.41
HeatTransfer Area in SingleEffect Evaporator.
A continuous singleeffect evaporator concentrates 9072 kg/h of a 1.0 wt % salt solution entering at 311.0 K (37.8 ºC) to a final concentration of 1.5 wt %. The vapor space of the evaporator is at 101.325 kPa (1.0 atm abs) and the steam supplied is saturated at 143.3 kPa. The overall coefficient U = 1704 W/m2 .K. calculate the amounts of vapor and liquid product and the heattransfer area required. Assumed that, since it its dilute, the solution has the same boiling point as water.
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Effect of Processing Variables on Evaporator Operation.
Feed temperature, T _{F}
– T < T
F
, some of latent heat of steam will be used to
bp
heat up the cold feed, only the rest of the latent heat of steam will be used to vaporize the feed.
– feed is under pressure & T > T
F
, additional
bp
vaporization obtained by flashing of feed.
Evaporator pressure, P
1
– desirable T [q = UA(T _{S} –
– T depends on P _{1} _{} will P _{1} T _{1} then T (e.g under vacuum) .
T 1
)], A & cost .
1
Steam pressure, P
S
– P _{S} will ΔT _{S} but highpressure steam is costly.
– Optimum T _{S} by overall economic balances are need.
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Boiling Point Rise & Heat of Solution
Majority cases, solutions in evaporator are not dilute, thus thermal properties of the solution being evaporated may differ considerably with water.
Dühring’s rule – a straight line of solution boiling
point against water boiling point at the same
pressure for a given concentration at different pressures
Heat of solution must be considered in heat
balance for the substance that give a considerable
temperature rise during dissolve in water.
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Duhring’s
Plot
(example)
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EnthalpyConcentration Chart (example)
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Example 8.43
An evaporator is used to concentrate 4536 kg/h of a 20 % solution of NaOH in water entering at 60 ºC to a product of 50 % solid. The pressure of the saturated steam used is 172.4 kPa and the pressure in the vapor space of the evaporator is 11.7 kPa. The overall heattransfer
coefficient is 1560 W/m
2
.K.
Calculate:
1. 
steam used 
2. 
steam economy in kg vaporized/kg steam used 
3. 
heating surface area in m ^{2} 
V, T 1 , H V
F = 4536 kg/h
T F = 60 ºC
x F = 0.2
h F .
x L = 0.5
S = ?
T S , H S
P S = 172.4 kPa
S, T S , h S
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Solution Example 8.43
Refer to Fig. 8.44, for flow diagram for this solution. For the total balance, F = 4536 = L + V For the balance on the solute alone, F x _{F} = L x _{L} 4536 (0.2) = L (0.5) L = 1814 kg/h of liquid Substituting into total balance and solving, V = 2722 kg/h of vapor
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Solution Example 8.43
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Duhring’s
Plot
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Solution Example 8.43
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Solution Example 8.43
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Solution Example 8.43
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Calculation Method for Multiple Effect Evaporator
The calculation are done using material balance, heat balance and heat capacity equation (q=UAΔT) for each effect. Normally using trial and error
method.
Objective to calculate
– Area (A) in each effect
– Amount of steam (S) need
– Amount of vapor (V) leaving each effect
Usually given or known value
– Steam pressure in first effect
– Final pressure in the vapor space of last
effect (P3)
– First condition and flow to first effect (F,
X
_{F} )
– Final concentration of the liquid leaving on the last effect (X _{3} )
– Physical properties such as enthalpies or heat capacity of the liquid and vapor
– Overall heat transfer coefficient on each effect, normally the value is same in each effect, U
F
^{x} F
^{T} F
S
P S1
^{T}
3
^{L}
3
^{x} 3
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Calculation Method for Multiple Effect Evaporator
Assumption made in operation;
– no boiling point rise.
– no heat of solution.
– neglecting the sensible heat necessary to heat the feed to the boiling point.
Heat balances for multiple/tripleeffect evaporator.
– Heat is same in all effect: q = U _{1} A _{1} T _{1} = U _{2} A _{2} T _{2} = U _{3} A _{3} T _{3}
– Areas in all effects are equal,: q/A = U _{1} T _{1} = U _{2} T _{2} = U _{3} T _{3}
– The temperature drops in evaporator (no BPR),
T = T _{1} + T _{2} + T _{3} = T _{S} – T _{3}
– The temperature drops in evaporator (with BPR),
T = T _{1} + T _{2} + T _{3} = T _{S} – T _{s}_{a}_{t}_{@}_{P}_{3} – (BPR _{1} +BPR _{2} +BPR _{3} )
hence we know that T are approximately inversely proportional to the values of U,
T
1
T
1 U
1
U
1
U
2
U
3
similar equations can be written for T _{2} and T _{3}
if we assumed that the value of U is the same in each effect, the capacity equation, q = U A (T _{1} + T _{2} + T _{3} ) = UA T
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Calculation Method for Multiple Effect Evaporator
Calculate V and L in each effect through MEB
If the amounts differ significantly
from the assumed values in step 2;
step 2,3 and 4 must be repeated with
the amounts just calculated.
Obtain new values ΔT _{1} ’= ΔT _{1} A _{1} /A _{m} , , ΔT _{2} ’, ΔT _{3} ’, then determine new T for find new are as step 4.
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Find T _{3} , BPR _{3} and T _{S}_{3}
Assume V _{1} =V _{2} =V _{3}
Calc. L _{1} ,L _{2} ,L _{3} ,X _{1} ,X _{2} ,X _{3} from MB
Calc. BPR _{1} , BPR _{2} , BPR _{3}
Calc. ΣΔT, ΔT _{1} , ΔT _{2} , ΔT _{3}
Adjust for cold feed
Find T _{1} ,T _{2} ,T _{3} ,T _{s}_{1} ,T _{s}_{2} ,T _{s}_{3}
Find H _{1} ,H _{2} ,H _{3} , λ _{s}_{1} ,λ _{s}_{2} ,λ _{s}_{3}
From EB, calc. new V _{1} ,V _{2} ,V _{3} , L _{1} ,L _{2} ,L _{3} ,
Compare V _{1} ,V _{2} ,V _{3} from MB with V _{1} ,V _{2} ,V _{3} from EB
Calc. q _{1} , q _{2} , q _{3} and solve A _{1} ,A _{2} ,A _{3}
Find A _{m}
Compare A _{1} ,A _{2} ,A _{3} with A _{m}
STOP
>10%
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Example 8.51
A tripleeffect forwardfeed evaporator is being used to evaporate a sugar solution containing 10 wt% solids to a concentrated solution of 50 %. The boilingpoint rise of the solutions (independent of pressure) can be estimated from (BPR ºC = 1.78x + 6.22 x ^{2} ), where x is wt fraction of sugar in solution. Saturated steam at 205.5 kPa and 121.1ºC saturation temperature is being used. The pressure in the vapor
space of the third effect is 13.4 kPa. The feed rate is 22 680 kg/h at 26.7 ºC. the
= 4.19 – 2.35x kJ/kg.K. The heat of
solution is considered to be negligible. The coefficients of heat transfer have been
= 1136 W/m ^{2} .K. If each effect has the
same surface area, calculate the area, the steam rate used, and the steam
heat capacity of the liquid solutions is c
P
estimated as U
1
= 3123, U
2
= 1987, and U
3
economy.
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QUESTION & ANSWER SESSION
THANK YOU!!
25/02/2014
Siti Noraishah Ismail
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