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RENEWABLE ENERGY:
Review of Literature
Carlos A Vega
The University of Texas El Paso







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Abstract
The United States has been executing projects for the research and expansion of
renewable energy. America is developing renewable energy because fossil fuels are finite
sources and at one point or another they will run out or are going to become too expensive for
daily use, to prepare for the climate change and protect the environment for future generations
using clean renewable sources. This paper will answer several questions to inform the audience
about renewable energy development. Renewable energy is identified as energy created from
natural resources like sunlight, wind, rain, nuclear decay, tides and geothermal heat which are
naturally restore. The investment in renewable energy a part of President Obama's 2009
Recovery Act will help the economy by guiding the longer term growth of the U.S. Renewable
energy production and increasing the amount of renewable energy projects that will required
more labor and employees to build and run this renewable energy projects. President Barrack
Obama implemented the Climate Action Plan which is a plan to address climate change. Federal
credit unions will be essential for financing clean energy. Private buyers and corporations will
have a big part in the future for renewable energy. Policies will be needed for the development of
renewable energy in United States. The President will have to take three steps to accomplish his
goals in the Climate Action Plan.




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Renewable energy has been a major topic for all governments around the world for years.
Some countries have already been implementing renewable energy in their countries. The United
States has been executing projects for the research and expansion of renewable energy. There are
many reasons that America is developing the use of renewable energy. It is mainly because fossil
fuels are finite sources and at one point or another are going to run out or they are going to
become too expensive for daily use. Another reason is that the world can save around one
hundred and eighty billion dollars by changing seventy percent of the electricity production to
renewable sources. This literary review will cover several questions about the topic using several
sources. The several sources are to cover different aspects of the questions for a good
understanding by the audience.
What are the different types of renewable energy?
Does sustainable energy help the economy by creating jobs?
Is the government financing clean energy and is it cost effective?
What changes can be made to improve renewable energy for the future?
This paper will talk about renewable energy development in the United States of
America. The main purpose of this paper is to find more information on the topic and inform the
audience about renewable energy using specific questions. These specific questions will inform
the audience about different types of renewable energy, how it will benefit the community, what
is currently being done by the government, and what can be done to improve renewable energy.
The answers to these questions will give the audience better understanding in renewable sources
that can be used to create energy, how the implementation of renewable energy will help the
economy and create more jobs to solve unemployment, what policy is the government using to
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improve clean energy, and what President Obama has to do to accomplish his goal in the Climate
Action Plan.
What are the different types of renewable energy?
There are many sources of energy that are renewable and use natural processes. These
sources provide a cleaner source of energy. These power generation methods can be described as
renewable because they do not consume any resource to create the energy. While there are many
renewable energy projects, renewable technologies are also used in rural and remote areas, where
energy is necessary for human existence. Renewable energy is energy created from natural
resources like sunlight, wind, rain, and geothermal heat which are naturally restored. Renewable
energy can vary from solar power, wind power, hydroelectricity, biomass, and biofuels for
transportation. The next paragraphs will explain some top renewable sources and other
ecofriendly sources used in the world.
Solar power is collecting the Suns energy to make electricity and is the fastest growing
energy sources in the United States. Solar cells are improving every day becoming more efficient
and transportable permitting an easy installation. Solar power has mainly been used to power
small and medium sized structures. The National Academies et al. (2010) said that solar
installations have started to move into residential areas in the recent years because of the
governments incentive programs to make clean energy an economic option (p. 167).
Wind power is wind energy converted by turbines into electricity or mechanical energy.
Large wind farms are combined to the local power with small turbines used to give electricity to
rural areas. Companies began to produce residential wind turbines that are able to power large
appliances to houses. From all energy sources wind farms on agricultural land is one of the most
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ecofriendly of the renewable sources. Ehrlich (2013) said, The global wind power resource is
truly enormous, but wind power is relative inaccessible, being far out at sea or at high altitudes,
where high winds blow continuously (p. 183).
Hydroelectricity is generated by hydropower and is the most used form of renewable
energy. Hydropower is the creation of electricity by falling or flowing water. One of the most
popular alternative energy sources are small scale hydro power especially in remote areas. Small
scale hydro power systems can be installed in small rivers or streams using water wheels to
generate energy. Ehrlich (2013) comments, that some hydroelectric projects supply electricity to
serve specific industrial enterprises (p. 221).
Compressed natural gas is fossil fuel replace gasoline, diesel, or propane fuel. Its
combustion makes greenhouse gases. However, compressed natural gas is more ecofriendly to
other fuels and is much safer to handle. It is used in gasoline engine cars that have been changed
into bi-fuel vehicles. The book Renewable Energy: A First Course explains that CNG is starting
to be used in vehicles and pickup trucks, school buses, and trains because of high fuel prices and
environmental concerns (Enrich, 2013, p. 60).
Geothermal energy is a natural process that can be done to provide heat for houses or for
energy production in geothermal power plant. Geothermal power has is limited to areas close to
tectonic plate boundaries. Geothermal energy has improved, increasing the range and size of
resources. Geothermal power do not requires fuel, and that why is not any fuel cost. Large
geothermal plants can provide electricity for cities and small power plants can provide electricity
for rural towns. The U.S. Department of Energy said, The U.S. Geological Survey estimates
that, in the United States alone, 30 gigawatts of undiscovered hydrothermal resource capacity
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and more than 100 gigawatts of EGS potential lie deep in the subsurfaceequivalent to 10% of
today's energy needs (Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, n.d.).
Nuclear power is equipment designed to remove energy by controlled nuclear reactions.
The method in use in the world is by nuclear fission. Other methods are nuclear fusion and
radioactive decay. Nuclear power creates virtually no air pollution in comparison with fossil
fuels. Utility-scale reactors boiled water for steam, which is then made into electricity or
propulsion. Nuclear power is a sustainable energy source that may reduce dependencies on fossil
fuels. It will reduce carbon monoxide emissions and increases energy production. According to
Ehrlich (2013), nuclear power is a potentially dangerous energy source because storing
radioactive waste may cause radioactive contamination by accident or sabotage. New technology
may decrease this risk (p. 111).
Does sustainable energy help the economy by creating jobs?
Investment within the renewable energy business is an integral part of President Obama's
2009 Recovery Act. The White House website said that this act aims at recuperating the
economy and guiding the longer term growth of the U.S. The property at intervals a country's
energy sector will increase potency and security, encouraging prosperity and growth through
energy access, business development, job creation and competitive technological innovation
(White House, n.d.).
Renewable energy production is often a lot of labor more intensive than current fuel
energy, that the variety of required employees is anticipated to extend proportionately with the
quantity of renewable energy created. Peripheral jobs also will be created in sectors that develop
and maintain associated systems, technology and instrumentation. As these sectors increase
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employment rates, further income at the social unit level can stimulate the economy by
increasing demands in amusement, services and different sectors.

Figure 1: National Solar Jobs Census 2012. Today, solar [energy] is one of the fastest-
growing industries in the United States, providing good-paying jobs for more than 119,000
American workers, said Rhone Resch, president and CEO of SEIA (EcoWatch, 2013).
The sustained enlargement in renewable energy investments triggered by the economic
stimulant program and therefore the forthcoming Clean Energy and Security Act will generate
increase of regarding one point seven million jobs. Polling, in his article Clean Energy
Investment Creates Jobs in Every State, explains that the enlargement in job opportunities will
continue as long as the economy maintains a commitment to renewable energy investments
within the hundred and fifty billion dollars per year range. Roughly two point five million new
jobs are going to be created by outlay hundred and fifty billion dollars on renewable energy
investments, whereas near eight hundred thousand jobs would be lost if typical fuel outlay were
to say no by the same quantity (Polling, 2009).
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Is the government financing clean energy and is it cost effective?
The U.S. government through federal credit programs loans hundreds of billions of
dollars to households and businesses in the United States. President Barack Obama explained
ways that the loans would be used to help clean energy development, in his Climate Action Plan
public released. The Climate Action Plan is a plan to address climate change. The Executive
Office of the President (2013) published this plan that includes: policies to reduce carbon
pollution created by power plants and transportation by implementing fuel-economy standards
for trucks and large vehicles. It substitutes eco-destructive energy sources with ecofriendly
energy sources. Also, combine the global treaty on pollution reductions with the local efforts and
helps people in investing in structures that will resist extreme weather caused by climate change.
Alternative objectives within the set up might even be supported by federal credit. For
example, the goal of deploying advanced transportation technologies may be assisted by loans
from the Advanced Technology Vehicle producing program, which has existing budget authority
to issue billions of dollars in loans. Numerous housing-credit programs that are run out of the
Department of Housing and concrete development and are meant to assist build enhancements on
existing buildings may be targeted to energy and even small-scale renewable energy.
Every year, the presidents budget includes data on what number loans and loan
guarantees the government expects to create from numerous programs. By distinguishing the
programs that might doubtless be used for clean energy as opposition those like student loans
that don't realistically have an energy angle is known over hundred billion dollars that might be
mobilized in support of clean energy every year. There are two main reasons why people should
always use federal credit to support clean energy. First, once somebody borrows cash from the
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government, they sometimes pay it back. This implies that moving a hundred billion dollars in
loans and loan guarantees ultimately prices taxpayers solely a little portion of that hundred
billion dollars within the actual tag for defaults. In different words, the government may move a
hundred billion dollars toward clean energy readying, and taxpayers solely ought to obtain but
one percent of it. Second, moving cash through credit programs solves a key challenge facing
clean energy, that is finding engaging finance. Despite important advances achieved within the
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, clean energy remains hindered by a lack of
reasonable capital for large-scale investments. Exploitation federal credit to lower the danger to
investors and convey down the price of renewable energy for customers is one necessary tool the
president should deliver to accomplish his goals.

Figure 2: US Department of Energy Discretionary Funding History FY 19772018 (The
Department of Energy's Office of Budget, 2013). This chart shows the budget approve by the
government for energy, nuclear cleanup, science, nuclear security, and provision & regulation
mission support from the years 1977 to 2018.
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What changes can be made to improve renewable energy for the future?
The United States is presently facing a state of affairs as tend to decide a way to upgrade
and expand our energy infrastructure. The community is afraid that financing a new energy
system is simply too expensive and would value trillions of dollars. The reality is that the
investment decisions we tend to create nowadays can verify whether or not we tend to build a
resilient, reliable energy system. What the country wants may be a trendy system which will
maximize economic advantages, place the buyer up to the mark, and utilize innovation and
technology all whereas attaining steep reductions in gas emissions. As difficult as it might sound
to hit that mark, a clean, reasonable energy future is obtainable. If the community tends to
leverage new and rising renewable energy technologies, United States buyers will begin to relish
a customer-centered, cost-efficient, safe and secure energy system inside consecutive decade.
To accomplish these goals, people want to alter the means that are expected regarding our
energy system. The new path toward property renewable energy and climate improvement is
targeted on private buyers, homes, and businesses. The concept is to relinquish private buyers the
ability to generate electricity from clean and renewable sources. Private buyers can connect with
clean, native or on-the-spot electricity that provides insert for cars and heaters, use additional
economical appliances and sensible controls at homes and businesses.
Policies will work to assist clean energy commitment and enlargement at the State, and
national levels. Dr. Virgilio Gonzalez said that half of United States has established Renewable
Portfolio Standards (RPSs) or equivalent policies that support increasing amounts of unpolluted
power (personal communication, April 28, 2014). Requiring utilities to steady increase purchases
of renewable energy provides key financial backing for rising renewable technologies like wind
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and solar, the square measures competitors against the generation of fossil fuels that have long
benefitted from public subsidies and emit harmful greenhouse gases with minimal value or
penalty.
There are three steps President Obama will have to do to make sure that credit programs
have the most effective potential climate impact. The Executive Office of the President (2013)
explains these three steps that President Obama must follow. The first step is that President
Obama must make sure that all federal credit programs are operating along to advance clean
energy.
The second step reported in The Presidents Climate Action Plan (2013) is to coordinate
United States actions with international funding entities. This is applicable to United States
government credit programs like the Export-Import Bank, in addition as United States
participation in international funding tools, most notably the globe Bank. Going forward, the
president needs to be sure not to fund new coal plants in the United Sates. The inexperienced
Climate Fund will use several of an equivalent credit tools as United States credit programs, as
well as loans and loan guarantees, to leverage giant amounts of personal capital.
The third step reported by The Executive Office of the President (2013) is moving
quickly to advance renewable energy from the Department of Energys Loan Guarantee
Program. While differing types of unpolluted energy comes are often supported by multiple
federal credit programs. The Department of Energys Loan Guarantee Program is capable of
supporting giant renewable projects. These plans take multiple years to develop and satisfy
specific deadlines to require advantage of alternative federal incentives like the investment tax or
the assembly tax credit.
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Conclusion
America is developing renewable energy because fossil fuels are finite sources and at one
point or another will run out or are going to become too expensive for daily use, to prepare for
the climate change and protect the environment for future generations using clean renewable
sources. In the paper, renewable energy is identified as energy created from natural resources
like sunlight, wind, nuclear decay, and geothermal heat which are naturally restore. President
Barrack Obama implemented the Climate Action Plan which is a plan to address climate change.
The investment in renewable energy a part of President Obama's 2009 Recovery Act will help
the economy by guiding the longer term growth of the U.S. Renewable energy production and
increasing the amount of renewable energy projects that will required more labor and employees
to build and run this renewable energy projects. America needs look for a new path toward
property renewable energy and climate improvement. By doing this, private buyers will have the
ability to generate electricity from clean and renewable sources. The creation of new policies
similar to the Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) will work to assist clean energy enlargement
at the state, regional and national levels. Major utilities corporations need to increase the
purchases of renewable energy to fight against incumbent generation from fossil fuels that have
long benefitted from public subsidies and emit harmful greenhouse gases. President Obama will
have to take three steps to make sure that credit programs have the most effective potential
climate impact. The three steps are: use federal credit programs in an exceedingly coordinated
fight against temperature change, coordinate United States action with international funding
entities, and advance renewable energy from the Department of Energys Loan Guarantee
Program. These steps will guarantee the accomplishment of the increase in renewable energy
development by 2020 and future generations.
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References
EcoWatch. (2013, April 18). Powering America: How Solar Energy Creates Green Jobs and
Grows the Economy. EcoWatch. Retrieved from http://ecowatch.com/2013/04/18/solar-
energy-creates-jobs-grows-economy/
Ehrlich, R. (2013). Renewable Energy: A First Course. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. DOI:
www.crcpress.com
Executive Office of the President. (2013, June). THE PRESIDENTS CLIMATE ACTION PLAN.
Retrieved from
http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/image/president27sclimateactionplan.pdf
National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, National, and Research
Council of the National Academies. (2010). Electricity from renewable resources.
Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. DOI: www.nap.edu
Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. (n.d.). Geothermal. Renewable Electricity
Generation. Retrieved from http://energy.gov/eere/renewables/geothermal
Polling, R. (2009, June 17). Clean Energy Investment Creates Jobs in Every State. Center for
American Progress. Retrieved from http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/green/news
/2009/06/17/6272/clean-energy-investment-creates-jobs-in-every-state/
Smil, V. (2013, January 1). The Long Slow Rise of Solar and Wind. Scientific American, Vol.
310, 52-57.
The Department of Energy's Office of Budget. (2013). [Graph illustration of the 2014 funding
history spreadsheet plot April 1, 2013]. FY 2014 Funding History Detail Spreadsheet.
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Retrieved from http://energy.gov/cfo/downloads/fy-2014-funding-history-detail-
spreadshee
White House. (n.d.). Promoting Clean, Renewable Energy: Investments in Wind and Solar. The
Recovery Act. Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/recovery/innovations/clean-
renewable-energy













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