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FOUNDATION

General Overview of Coatings


This foundation level module provides a general overview of paints, lacquers, varnishes, inks, powder
coatings and related products used for coating surfaces. It introduces the various divisions of surface
coatings and explains the reasons for their use. It then describes the functions of different types of
coating, details the components or raw materials used to make these coatings and the properties each
contribute.
The transformation from a liquid (or powder) state to an applied, dried/ stoved film is explained in some
detail together with a general review of the main methods of application.
Media and Solvents
In Foundation Level Module media are classified on the basis of their physical properties and then the
mechanisms of film formation are described.
In this module we look at examples of film formers on the basis of their physical form and outline some
of the health hazards that can arise in their use. Some of their commonly determined properties are
outlined.
Under material properties and test methods the importance of flow and viscosity measurments are
stressed.
The Module then goes on to classify solvents on the basis of their chemical groups and behaviour. In a
practical exercise test methods are used to identify a given sample of hydrocarbon solvent. Attention is
paid to the fire and health hazards of solvents.
The film forming processes of non-convertible resins are then outlined with particular emphasis on
nitrocellulose. Finally an introduction is given to some convertible resins. These are covered in detail in
Intermediate Modules.

Pigments and their Properties
This Foundation Level Module describes and classifies various pigments used in the Coatings Industry,
both by type and physical form.
The main properties of pigments are then considered, in particular, particle size and particle size
distribution, are described in some detail, including the importance of oil absorption. The influence of
particle size and size distribution on oil absorption are explained in some detail.
A number of important aspects of pigment testing are also explained. These include pigment purity, tint
strength and lightening power. This leads on to the optical properties of pigments. Colour principles, the
nature of visible light and the optimum conditions needed for the assessment of colour are described
along with the importance of colour standards. The problem of metamerism and how to minimise it are
also described.
Finally, the Module tackles the important area of health and safety and the hazards associated with the
handling of pigments. Four types of pigment hazard are explained and the section also covers the
precautions, which must be taken to minimise any risk from these hazards.


Paint and Ink Manufacture Rheology
The manufacturing process for paints and inks is designed to produce a final product which has a
uniform consistency and which conforms to appropriate test standards. These tests ensure that the
product can be applied by the end user and that the coating will then dry to provide a film with
acceptable properties.

The process involves the intimate mixing of several raw materials - some solid and some liquid - so that
they form a stable dispersion. The quality of the dispersion can have a profound effect on the storage
properties, ease of application, appearance and performance of the coating.

This module explains the purpose and methods of dispersion, some of the important properties, which
govern the process and the basic tests, used to confirm that this has been achieved.

It is expected that it will take approximately 10 hours to complete this module, including the practical
work involved.

Evaluation
This foundation level module provides a general overview of the reasons for and consequences of
testing coatings - mostly at the manufacturers, but also at times by the user. The control of variables
such as climatic conditions, substrate preparation, film thickness and timing are considered.

Some methods of testing both the liquid coating and the applied film are described, and the student will
have an opportunity to carry out some of these.

Surface Preparation
Module deals with the first stages in preparing a surfaces prior to the actual application of a surface
coating. What is the composition of the surface? What substances are naturally found on the surface
and what do we have to do to remove them so that a subsequent coating applied to the surface will
adhere?

The module first of all examines the nature of the surface itself and the types of surfaces that are
coated, ranging from metals to wood-based substances to plastics to masonry materials. The surfaces
themselves differ with some being absorbent and others non-absorbent, while some are alkaline in
nature. The principal contaminants, rust and mill-scale, and grease, which are found on substrates are
considered and general methods of removing them are introduced.

A Section deals in detail with the mechanical means of removing rust. The on-site and off-site
techniques detailed range from wire-brushing to various methods of shot and grit blasting. The
advantages and disadvantages of each are outlined. The final Section introduces the various chemical
methods of cleaning a surface including degreasing without going into detail of the plant used.
(Chemical methods of cleaning and pretreatment are considered in detail in Intermediate module 329.)

Powder Coatings Overview
This Foundation Level module provides an understanding of the most important methods used to apply
both thermosetting and thermoplastic powder coatings. It begins by introducing these two types of
powder, the market areas in which they are used and the two main methods of application.
This is followed by an explanation of the principles of electrostatics and electrostatic spraying and
continues with a description of electrostatic spraying equipment, including guns, booths and recovery
systems.
Stoving methods and equipment are then described.
Finally, a detailed explanation of the fluidised bed method of powder application and the equipment
used completes the module.

Powder Coating Application and Cure
This Foundation Level module provides an understanding of the most important methods used to apply
both thermosetting and thermoplastic powder coatings. It begins by introducing these two types of
powder, the market areas in which they are used and the two main methods of application.

This is followed by an explanation of the principles of electrostatics and electrostatic spraying and
continues with a description of electrostatic spraying equipment, including guns, booths and recovery
systems.

Paint and Ink Application
This module provides a general overview of paints, lacquers, varnishes, related products used for
coating surfaces. It introduces the various divisions of surface coatings and explains the reasons for their
use. It then describes the functions of different types of coating, details the components or raw
materials used to make these coatings and the properties each contribute.








LEVEL 2

Types and Manufacture of Pigments
This Intermediate Level Module starts by describing and classifying various pigments and extenders used
in the Coatings Industry, both by type and by physical form. The importance of pigment particle shape is
presented and examples given of pigments and extenders which fall into these various categories.

The Module goes on to describe the various parts in the pigment manufacturing process, including
pigment after treatments. Pigment grinding, classification, filtering, drying and calcining are covered,
along with pigment flushing and micronising.

Next, the chemical composition and properties of a number of commonly available white pigments and
extenders, are described in some detail, followed by similar sections devoted to the chemical structure
and physical properties of some widely used coloured inorganic and organic pigments.

Finally, the main properties of some widely used metallic pigments are summarised.

Properties of Pigments
The first section of the module describes the general properties of pigments for all coating types, in
terms of cost, stability, variability etc. along with specific requirements for those pigments used in
powder coatings.

Section is dedicated to the optical properties of pigments, in particular, how pigments can affect the
opacity and gloss of coatings.

Section describes the general requirements of pigments for use in the area of powder coatings and the
main differences here between inorganic and organic pigments.

Section is concerned with the pigmentation of coatings and describes the importance of Pigment: Binder
ratio, Pigment Volume Concentration and Critical Pigment Volume Concentration. The effect of PVC on a
number of film properties is discussed. Finally in this section, the effect of pigment particle shape on
coating properties is described.

To finish the module, pigment test methods used in the area of powder coatings are described for a
number of important conditions.



Thermoplastics Powders
Thermosetting coating powders have gained a sizeable foothold in the industrial coating field. As with
any coating, the medium is the predominant factor determining performance.

This module identifies the types of thermosetting media used in the formulation of coating powders,
describing some of the basic chemistry involved. Details are given of the important properties which
development chemists look for when selecting the component resins and hardeners.

Included in the text are examples of typical raw materials and details of some of the principles involved
in creating a coating medium. The module also introduces some of the more recent innovations in the
field, which have been developed to improve features such as appearance and performance or to
reduce curing temperatures.

Thermosetting Powders
Thermosetting coating powders have gained a sizeable foothold in the industrial coating field. As with
any coating, the medium is the predominant factor determining performance.

This module identifies the types of thermosetting media used in the formulation of coating powders,
describing some of the basic chemistry involved. Details are given of the important properties which
development chemists look for when selecting the component resins and hardeners.

Included in the text are examples of typical raw materials and details of some of the principles involved
in creating a coating medium. The module also introduces some of the more recent innovations in the
field, which have been developed to improve features such as appearance and performance or to
reduce curing temperatures.
Module deals with the testing of solvents and resins and is one of a series on the raw materials used in
coatings. Earlier studies on raw materials include the foundation module 202, that discusses general
properties of resins & solvents and intermediate level 303 that deals with the properties of solvents in
some detail.

Solvents and Resins
Starts by defining solvents and their role in coatings and then explains different ways in which they may
be classified. It then goes on to describe the characteristic properties of solvents and explains how their
properties may be determined. A practical exercise is included which requires the student to determine
the composition of a solvent mixture by measuring some of these properties.

The second half of Module reviews the classification of resin types used in coatings and their
characteristic properties. It then proceeds to explain the general tests that are carried out to measure
these properties. An outline of the polymerisation processes involved in the manufacture of resins is
given and some of the tests carried out during manufacture explained. Finally, brief reference is made to
properties of specific chemical types of resin and the effect of these properties on manufacture and
coating performance.

The Testing of Pigments
Module is concerned with the testing of a number of important pigment characteristics and
properties, such as tinting strength, weathering resistance, resistance to light and heat etc.
In Section the importance of contrast ratio is described along with its determination.
In Section you are encouraged to compare and contrast the properties described in Section 1, for
a wide range of pigments which are currently used in the coatings industry.
Manufacture Paint
This Intermediate Level module describes the technology and practice of paint manufacture. The basic
stages of the manufacturing process are reviewed and the key roles of dispersion and stabilisation
explained. The various types of dispersion mill used for paint manufacture are classified and the
construction & operation of each class described.

In the last section of the module, a manufacturing flow chart is examined and the efficiency &
economics of the process is discussed.

Manufacture Powder Coatings
Module begins by giving an overview of the processes used in the manufacture of thermosetting and
thermoplastic powder coatings and then proceeds to describe the nature of the raw materials used.

Following this outline, a detailed description of each of the separate stages in the manufacturing process
for thermosetting powders is provided.

The theory of the dispersion process is examined and the mechanism explained together with a
consideration of the extruders used. Grinding and classification are discussed and a description of the
plant and processes used provided.

In the final section specific processes used for the manufacture of some thermoplastic powder coatings
are explained.

A general consideration of the incorporation of pigments and metallic powders completes this study of
powder coatings manufacture.



Evaluation of Coating Powders
This module describes the methods commonly used to evaluate thermosetting coating powders, at all
stages of development and processing.
As the coatings industry has developed, it has been necessary to invent standard test procedures, in
order to define and control the production, application and performance characteristics of our
products.
As a relatively recent addition to the coatings range, powders are still in a very innovative phase of their
development. Accordingly, there are still many new questions that need to be answered. A cured film of
powder coating is often indistinquishable from its liquid equivalent. However, in the powder form, the
materials have certain features that demand closer and more specific scrutiny.

The Evaluation of Colour
This module deals with a number of important aspects of the evaluation of colour.

Section 1 is concerned with the main principles of colour. These include the illuminant , absorption and
reflection of light and the workings of the eye, along with certain visual defects.

Section 2 covers colour mixing and pigment selection. Here we look at both additive and subtractive
mixing and important considerations to make when selecting pigments for coloured formulations.

Finally, in Section 3, we deal with the important subject of colour measuring instruments. We look at
various spectrophotometers and colorimeters and examine their use in quantifying important optical
properties of coatings.

Application Equipment for the Application of Powder Coatings
Module contains a comprehensive study of the equipment used to apply powder coatings by
electrostatic spraying, fluidised bed and a number of other less widely used application techniques.

Although this module repeats some of the material in the foundation module Powder Coating
Application & Cure, the main focus of this intermediate level module is on the equipment and methods
used on the production line. Also covers a wider range of application techniques.

After reviewing the components and set up of powder coating application lines, the module proceeds
with the equipment and methods employed for each application technique.

The final section explains production control procedures including on-line quality control. This section
also discusses problems that may occur on a production line, the causes of these problems and possible
solutions.

Theory of Application of Powder Coatings
Module is concerned with the theory of applying powder coatings. It begins with a brief review of the
background to electrostatics, how particles can be charged and the properties of these charged
particles. It then goes on to introduce some of the phenomena that occur when applying powder
coating by electrostatic spray, including self-limiting, back ionisation, faraday cage effect and
overcoating.
The next section deals with the theory of fluidisation of powder and how this influences the design and
operation of fluidised bed systems. The design of articles to be coated by the fluidised bed method is
included in this section, together with a discussion on the thermal properties of these articles. This
section concludes with a review of a typical fluidised bed coating line.

The third section is devoted to a more detailed study of the electrostatics involved in a powder coating
spray installation.

Application Metallic Substrates
Module is an Intermediate module following on from the Foundation Module 206 on Surface
Preparation. In Module a study of the features of a surface and contaminants on the surface of a
substrate was made. This was followed by a summary of methods of removal of the contaminants by
mechanical means and a preliminary look at the processes where surfaces are cleaned chemically.

Following a review of Module is a more detailed study of the plant used in degreasing including the
vapour, liquid and spray baths, and a study of the advantages and disadvantages of the degreasing
solvent, trichloroethene. Section 3 considers the cleaning of a metal surface by inorganic means, by
treating the surface with acids and alkalis and the effect of this on the metal itself

The final section looks at the chemical basis for chemical pretreatment of metal surfaces, principally iron
and aluminium. Phosphating and chromating in different situations and in different coating weights are
considered. In addition, anodising as a technique is covered. The situations where each of these three
applications are used concludes the module. Included in this section is a practical on phosphate
pretreatment.

Application Non-Metallic Substrates
In Module, we considered the different types of substrates and explained the importance of cleaning
surfaces before applying coatings and some of the techniques used to do so. This Module expands upon
that basic information, concentrating on a wide variety of non-metallic substrates. We discuss the range
of properties and how these affect the techniques available to us for surface preparation and
application of coatings.



The Curing of Coatings
This module is divided into three sections.
Section 1 is concerned with the drying and curing of coatings by both stoving and radiation processes.
Both box ovens and conveyorised forced draught ovens are described along with disposal of solvents
and waste fumes. Finally in this section, the special requirements of powder coatings are presented.

Section is devoted to radiation curing, where particular emphasis is placed on IR curing, listing both
advantages and disadvantages. The principles of UV and electron beam curing are described, along with
the importance of oven siting in manufacture.

Coatings Safety, Health and Environmental Aspects
On almost every surface we see there is some form of coating. They enhance the appearance of the
finished article and they are essential for the protection of materials. However, the coatings are made of
chemicals, many of which have adverse effects on human beings and on other living things. There are
mechanical and electrical hazards involved in their manufacture and application and hazards due to
flammability and toxicity of components in the coatings. There is the risk of pollution, should they
escape to the outside environment.

The law requires that the workplace be safe to work in and that a company does not put employees or
others at risk. Lately, greater emphasis has been put on environmental issues, adding to the pressures
on the coatings industry. Conservation of resources and pollution control must somehow be balanced
against the need for economical and effective coatings.

This module aims to provide a general awareness of the law and of the safety and environmental issues
in our particular industry. Hopefully, it may whet the appetite of some readers enough for them to seek
formal qualifications in the subject.

Solvents and Additives
Module is one of a series at Intermediate level dealing with the raw materials used in surface coatings. It
introduces the solvents used in coatings and the additives or modifiers are used to control or modify the
performance of coatings. Students requiring a more detailed study of additives should refer to the
relevant Advanced level modules.

This module begins by defining solvents, explains how they can be classified and then goes on to
describe their characteristic properties.

It then proceeds to a review of additives, starting with those used in the dispersion process of
manufacture. Then, additives used to maintain product stability, after manufacture, are described,
including both water- and solvent-based products. The general stability, skinning, pigment settlement,
moisture absorbers and corrosion inhibitors are dealt with.

Media - Introduction and Manufacture of Media
Module introduces the different types of media used in surface coatings and how they may be classified.
The formation of polymers is described and the mechanism of film formation by non-convertible and
convertible media explained. A detailed description of some non-convertible media is given together with
some information on their manufacture. This is supplemented by an overview of other non-convertible
media.

Two categories of convertible media are discussed in detail, including their manufacture. An overview of
other convertible media is then provided.

The final section contains an introduction to water-borne media and how resin polymers may be made
water reducible.
Non-Convertible Media
In this Intermediate Level Module naturally based and synthetic media are covered in some detail.
After a discussion of the various film forming processes of non-convertible naturally based media
ranging from shellac, nitrocellulose, plastisols and bitumens their properties and typical uses are
outlined.
The synthetic media described in this Module include acrylics, vinyl copolymer resins and emulsions.
Oils, Driers and Oleoresins
In this Intermediate Level Module the major fatty acids found in various vegetable oils are listed. The
properties of an oil are shown to derive from the particular combination of fatty acids they contain.

Test methods to determine the properties of oils are given to enable them to be classified with regard to
their drying potential.
The importance of driers is stated and the composition and properties of the principal metallic
derivatives of synthetic and Naphthenic acids given.

Finally oleoresinous varnishes are discussed with the distinction between recent and synthetic hard
resins being made.
The formulae of rosin is shown and the manufacture, composition and characteristics of hard resins
obtainable from it are described. Some present day uses for these varnishes are given.

Convertible Media - Alkyds and Polyesters
This Intermediate Level Module commences with the important topic of functionality and its significance
to polymerisation.

A polyester is described as the reaction product of polyfunctional acids and alcohols and examples given
showing the difference between saturated and unsaturated resins.

Alkyds are then discussed and their properties shown to relate to their oil content and the type of oil or
fatty acid used. Their modification with vinyl monomers to give additional hardness and with polyamides
to give thixotropy are described.

Finally some important methods of introducing water solubility to resins and oils are described.

Level - 3
Pigments Colour and Dispersion
This module is concerned with a number of important aspects of pigments.

In the first section, various ways of describing colour are presented, in scientific terms. Both the Munsell
and CIELAB systems are covered and terms such as tristimulus values, 2 and 10 observers, dominant
wavelength, L, a, b values and total colour difference are explained.

The second section describes the manufacture and properties of a selection of important inorganic and
organic pigments. In particular, a range of coloured organic pigments is dealt with in some detail, along
with flow diagrams for the production of TiO2, by two different methods.

In the third section the important area of pigment dispersion stability is studied. This is vital to avoid the
process known as pigment flocculation. This is important during coatings manufacture, when a pigment
millbase is to be converted into the finished paint and there is a danger of destabilisation of the
dispersion.

The efficiency of pigment dispersion is described. This includes a general flow chart for manufacture.
The relationship between dispersion efficiency and operating economics of a plant is explained. Finally,
the efficiency of various types of dispersion machinery is described in terms of both dispersion time and
labour requirements.

Evaluation and Specifications
This module aims to provide the student with guidelines on how to design a test method which will
enable a coating to be produced to meet the full requirements of the customer.

In order to reach this stage we shall be discussing the problems relating to the evaluation of coating
films, what is meant by the terms 'standards' and 'test methods' and what could be the important
components of the specification.

There have already been a number of modules at Foundation and Intermediate level dealing with test
methods, so this module will refer to these, and then add others that may be of help.

The student will be required to produce a suitable test specification as an assignment at the end of the
theory material.

Formulation Determining Factors
This paper is one of a series of Advanced Modules, which consider various aspects of product
formulation.

When formulating a surface coating, the Coatings Chemists will need to take account of a number of
outside constraints, any of which may affect the final formulation. For example performance
specifications, application techniques and the nature of the substrate must all be taken into
consideration when deciding on the optimum surface coatings. Health & Safety or environmental issues
increasingly limit that choice.

This Module investigates the various factors affecting the selection of a coating.

Note: It is assumed that the student already has a thorough grounding in the basis of coating technology
and an understanding of the chemistry involved.

System Components - Decorative Applications
Module contains a comprehensive study of the individual coatings used in a coating system. After
explaining the basic function/requirements of the individual coatings, the module goes on to give the
basic principles used in formulating these coatings, with particular attention to the pigment volume
concentration (PVC) concept. Finally, the concept and impact of the critical pigment volume
concentration (CPVC) is discussed.

As adhesion to the substrate* is usually a critical factor in determining the performance of a coating
system, different substrates and their properties are discussed in the first section of the module,
particularly mild-steel, wood and plaster.

It should be noted that the module is designed to cover a wide range of possible end requirements, and
is therefore written in a general sense. However, the student will be expected to demonstrate an
understanding of the concepts explained by carrying out the Assignment-which can be tailored to reflect
a topic in which the student (or the students company) may have particular expertise.

Formulation Requirements of Industrial Systems - Wood and High Performance
In this Advanced Module the basic formulation requirements of coatings for use on wood, including
furniture, and in high performance applications, including structural steelwork, pipework and marine
situations, are discussed.

For furniture applications stains, cellulose nitrate, polyurethane, UV and acid catalyzed systems are
covered. Also shown are tables comparing the performance properties of a range of clear wood
finishes.

For high performance applications specific paint types are illustrated after an introduction on corrosion
mechanisms. These include two-pack epoxies, coal tar epoxies, two-pack polyurethanes, chlorinated
rubber, zinc silicate and vinyl paints.

Examples of paint coating systems, including systems for use on ships, are then described with
recommendations on component thicknesses for optimum performance. These include anti-fouling
compositions.

Liquid Coatings, Modifiers and Drying
Module is one of three advanced modules dealing with additives used in surface coatings. Additives can
be considered to be materials which, when added to another substance, improve the overall properties
or reduce undesirable properties. In most cases, the level of addition is less than one percent.

This module contains a comprehensive study of certain additives including why they are required and
how they work.

In section of the module, factors that affect the dispersion process are discussed. An explanation is given
on how certain manufacturing problems are caused and how they can be avoided. Specific topics
include "foams" wetting, dispersion, flooding and floating.

Section describes materials that can be classified as stabilisers, with particular attention to "in-can"
fungicides, and corrosion preventers.

In the final section, modifiers to the polymerisation process are discussed. In particular, we are referring
to the drying process of oil-based alkyds. The drying mechanism is fully explained, and certain "driers"
discussed, along with their function and approximate levels of use. Anti-skinning additives are also
discussed in some depth.

Application and Special Properties
Module is one of three advanced level modules dealing with additives used in surface coatings.
Additives can be considered to be materials which, when added to another substance, improve the
overall properties or reduces undesirable properties.

This module discusses the reasons for controlling the viscosity of a coating to aid its application
properties and the types of additives used for this purpose. It then goes on to explain the types of
additive used to control or promote flow.

After this, the need to control the conductivity of paints to be applied by electrostatic methods is
considered and the special problems associated with the addition and stability of conductivity
controllers discussed. Types of conductivity controller are then listed.
The module then explains why reodorants are sometimes used in coatings and examples of
commercially available products of this type are given.

A discussion on flash point modifiers is followed by a list of typical classes of these products and a
discussion of their merits provided.

Finally, the nature and use of fire-retardant and intumescent coatings are discussed with regard to their
special properties.

Water Borne Coatings
Water borne products, coatings with water as the main volatile component, are referred to in a number of
the BCF Technical Certificate modules. The growing importance of this type of coating has resulted in a
demand for a module dealing specifically with water borne coatings. This unit is designed to meet this
demand.

The module summarises the existing technology involved in the formulation, manufacture and use of
water borne coatings and includes possible future developments.

It begins by discussing the history of water borne coatings, explains the reasons for their increasing use
and describes their general properties in comparison with non-water borne products.

Relevant legislation relating to the volatile content of coatings is referred to and explained.

The module continues with a discussion on the principal methods available to make water borne film
formers for use in coatings before describing specific types of water borne coating, their properties and
applications. These discussions include both solution and dispersion types.

The final section is devoted to possible future trends.

Coating Powders Manufacture
Here we investigate in depth some of the important factors that need to be controlled when making
thermosetting powders. To keep products and processes within specification, coating chemists and
production staff need to think on their feet recognising and correcting quality issues as they arise.

We also discuss the design and layout of a production unit and the economics of the process.

Note: It is assumed that the student already has a thorough grounding in the basics of powder
manufacturing technology.



Thin Film Intumescent Coatings for Fire Protection of Steel Structures
This advanced level module deals with thin film intumescent coatings used for the fire protection of
steel surfaces. It commences with an explanation of what we mean by an intumescent coating, and
introduces the generic raw material types typically used in the formulation of both water-based and
solvent-based coatings. This is followed by an indication of how these coatings are tested.

The application of these products is then discussed before proceeding to a comparison of various forms
of fire protection. The final section of the module provides a summary of the subject of thin film
intumescents.
This module is intended for anyone requiring an understanding of intumescent coatings whether they
are the formulator or other laboratory personnel, raw-material supplier, applicator, salesperson
architect or specifier - or indeed anyone with an interest in the subject!

The module is designed to cover a wide range of topics associated with thin-film intumescents and,
dpending on their needs and background, some students may find some sections more useful or
appropriate than others.

As the module is set at advanced level, we would expect the student to have some knowledge of
chemistry and physics and some basic knowledge of intumescents.