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COMPORTAREA LINIILOR DE TRANSPORT EXPONENIALE CU

LOSS EXPONENTIAL TRANSMISSION LINE AS IMPEDANCE
TRANSFORMER

Zlata CVETKOVIC Slavoljub ALEKSIC Vesna JAVOR
Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Department of Theoretical Electrical Engineering, P.O. Box 73, 18000 Nis, Serbia & Montenegro,
Tel.: +381 18 529 105, Fax: +381 18 588 399
e-mail: zlata@elfak.ni.ac.yu, as@elfak.ni.ac.yu, vjavor@elfak.ni.ac.yu

Rezumat: n aceast lucrare este considerat linia exponenial
cu pierderi utilizat ca o impedan de adaptare. Sunt examinate
influena frecvenei i a pierderilor termice ale liniei de transport
asupra caracteristicilor exponeniale ale liniei. Este prezentat
valoarea impedanei de intrare adaptat prin intermediul liniei
neuniforme de transport cu form exponenial. Este observat
dependena impedanei de intrare la o distan oarecare de-a lungul
liniei, abaterea sa de la funcia exponenial pentru frecvene
diferite sau pentru forme diferite. Este calculat raportul dintre
unda stabil i frecven pentru diferite forme ale raportului i
rezultatele sunt prezentate n lucrare.

Cuvinte cheie: impedana de intrare, linie de transport expo-
nenial, forma raportului, raport stabil al undei.
Abstract: Loss exponential line used as impedance transformer
is considered in this paper. The influence of frequency and thermal
losses at the transmission line on the character-istics of exponential
transmission line is examined. The value of input impedance trans-
formed through nonuniform transmis-sion line with exponential taper
is presented. Dependence of input impedance at arbitrary distance
along the line, its deviation from exponential function for different
frequencies and for different taper ratio is observed. Standing wave
ratio versus frequency is calculated for different taper ratio and
the results are presented in the paper.

Keywords: input impedance, exponential transmission line, taper
ratio, standing wave ratio.

1. Introducere
Liniile de transport uniforme [1-2] i neuniform [3-7]
pot fi folosite impedane de adaptare. Liniile de transport
uniforme se comport ca impedane de adaptare depinznd
de frecven i lungimea liniei. Lucrarea [1] prezint o
analiz uor de neles i puin documentaie asupra liniei
de transport adaptate. Transformatoarele de frecven de la
radio constnd din linii de transport potrivite de lungime
egal i impedan caracteristic sunt prezentate n lucra-
rea [2]. Lucrarea [3] ofer soluii asupra ecuaiilor de form
nchis pentru valori ale impedanei complexe arbitrare
transformat printr-o linie de transport fr pierderi, neuni-
form de form exponenial, cos
2
i parabolic. Liniile
neuniforme au avantajul ajustrii impedanei mari cnd
sunt folosite ca impedane de adaptare i filtrrii pe lungimi
de band mari, cnd sunt folosite ca filtre [6-7].
n lucrare este prezentat forma nchis a impendanei
de intrare pentru linia de transport exponenial cu pierderi.
Se observ abaterea impedanei de intrare de-a lungul liniei
pentru diferite frecvene i pentru diferite forme ale raportu-
lui i lungime a liniei. Unele rezultate pentru liniile de trans-
port neuniforme cu pierderi exponeniale folosite ca impe-
dan de adaptare sunt deja prezentate n lucrrile [4] i [5].

2. Impendana de intrare a liniei de transport
exponeniale cu pierderi
Este considerat o linie de transport neuniform (Fig. 1).
u
g
este tensiune sursei, Z
g
i Z
p
sunt impedana sursei,
respectiv impedana de sarcin. Considernd modul de
propagare TEM, comportamentul liniei de transport este
descris prin intermediul ecuaiilor telegrafitilor.
1. Introduction
The uniform [1-2] and nonuniform transmission lines
[3-7] can be used as impedance transformers. Uniform
transmission lines act as impedance transformers depending
on the frequency and length of the line. The paper [1] presents
an easily understood analysis and some history of the trans-
mission line transformer. Radio frequency transformers
consisting of matched transmission lines of equal length and
characteristic impedance are presented in [2]. The paper [3]
gives solution of closed-form equation for value of arbitrary
complex impedance transformed through a length of lossless,
nonuniform transmission line with exponential, cosine-
squared and parabolic taper. The nonuniform lines have the
advantage of wide-band impedance matching when used as
impedance transformers and larger rejection bandwidths
when used as filters [6-7].
In this paper closed form of input impedance for loss
exponential transmission line is presented. Deviation of input
impedance along the line for different frequencies and for
different taper ratio and length of the line is observed. Some
results for nonuniform exponential loss transmission line used
as impedance transformer are already presented in papers
[4] and [5].

2. Input impedance of the loss exponential transmission
line
A nonuniform transmission line shown in Fig.1 is con-
sidered. u
g
is the source voltage, Z
g
and Z
p
are source
impedance and load impedance, respectively. Assuming the
TEM mode of propagation, the behavior of transmission line
is described by Telegraph's equations.
The 6
th
International Power Systems Conference 168
u
g

Fig. 1. Prezentarea schematic a liniei de transport exponeniale
Fig. 1. Schematic presentation of exponential transmission line
n aceast lucrare se consider o linie de transport
exponenial cu pierderi (Fig. 1) de lungime d. Parametrii
primari sunt: , 0 . ' = const R , 0 '= G
sx
o
e L L = ' i C C e
o
sx
' =

unde L
o
i C
o
sunt inductana i capacitatea unitar la sfr-
itul liniei exponeniale. S se determin astfel
P ln
d
s
1
=
,
unde P evideniaz o form a raportului liniei de transport
exponeniale care este definit astfel
A loss exponential transmission line, Fig. 1, of length
d is considered in this paper. Primary parameters are
, 0 . ' = const R , 0 '= G
sx
o
e L L = ' a n d C C e
o
sx
' =

wh e r e
L
o
and C
o
are inductance and capacitance per unit length
at the input end of the exponential line. s is deter-mined
as
P ln
d
s
1
=
, where P denotes a taper ratio of expo-
nential transmission line which is defined as
( ) ( ) 0 Z Z
C C
/ d P = . (1)
( ) 0
C
Z i ( ) d Z
C
sunt impedanele caracteristice ale sursei,
respectiv ale sarcinii de la sfritul liniei.
Parametrii secundari pentru linia de transport consi-
derat sunt
( ) 0
C
Z and ( ) d Z
C
are the characteristic impedances at the
source and load ends of line, respectively.
Secondary parameters for considered transmission line
are
( ) ( )
sx sx
C C
jre e Z x Z

= 1 0 (2)
i and
( ) ( )
sx
o
jre k x

= 1
2 2
, (3)
unde where
r R L =
0
, k L C
o o o
= and ( ) ( )
1
0 0
0

= C L Z
C
.
Starea liniei de transport poate fi exprimat prin inter-
mediul urmtoarelor ecuaii difereniale
State on the transmission line can be expressed by the
following differential equation

( )
( ) 0 1
1
1
2
2 2
= +
+
+

U jre k U
e r
jre s
U
sx
o
x s
x s
. (4)
Impedana de intrare la distana x, se determin astfel The input impedance at the distance x , is determined as

) x ( I
) x ( U
) x ( Z =
. (5)
Rezolvnd (4) i (5) i satisfcnd condiiile ) 0 ( = = x Z Z
c g
,
) ( d x Z Z
c p
= =
i
V 2 =
g
U
, pentru ( ) x Z se obine

Solving (4) and (5), and satisfying conditions ) 0 ( = = x Z Z
c g
,
) ( d x Z Z
c p
= =
and
V 2 =
g
U
, for ( ) x Z is obtained
( ) ( )
( ) [ ] ( ) [ ]
( ) [ ] ( ) ( ) [ ] ( )
x k
d k
x k d k
x k d k x k
d k
e x e d G e x e d G
e e d G e e d G
x Z x Z
1
2
2 1
2 1 1
2
1 2 2 1
1 2
1 1
1 1
+ +
+ +
= , (6)
unde where are

( )
( ) d Z
d Z
G
C

=
,
1 1 1
jb a k + = ,
2 2 2
jb a k + = ,

( )
( ) [ ] ( ) [ ] ( )
2
2
0
2 2 2
2
2
0
2 2 2 2
0
2 2 2
2
0
2
1
2 1
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
k b e r k e r b k e r b
k b re
b a
sx sx sx
sx
+ +
+
+ =

,
( ) [ ] ( ) [ ] ( )
2
2
0
2 2 2
2
2
0
2 2 2 2
0
2 2 2
1
2 1
2
1
1
2
1
k b e r k e r b k e r b be b
sx sx sx sx
+ + + =

,

( )
( ) [ ] ( ) [ ] ( )
2
2
0
2 2 2
2
2
0
2 2 2 2
0
2 2 2
2
0
2
2
2 1
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
k b e r k e r b k e r b
k b re
b a
sx sx sx
sx
+ +
+
=

,
03-04.11.2003, Timioara, Romania 169
( ) [ ] ( ) [ ] ( )
2
2
0
2 2 2
2
2
0
2 2 2 2
0
2 2 2
2
2 1
2
1
1
2
1
k b e r k e r b k e r b be b
sx sx sx sx
+ + =

,

( )
x s
e r
s
b
2 2
1 2

+
= , ( ) ( )
( )
x
x k
x x k x
d
d
1
1 1
+ = and ( ) ( )
( )
x
x k
x x k x
d
d
2
2 2
+ = .
Raportul stabil a undei, VSWR, poate fi exprimat ca o
funcie de modulul coeficientului tensiunii reflectate R.

Standing wave ratio, VSWR , can be expressed as a
function of the modulus of voltage reflection coefficient R

R
R

+
=
1
1
VSWR , (7)
unde where
C p
C p
Z Z
Z Z
R
+

= .

3. Rezultate numerice
n aceast lucrare este considerat linia real expo-
nenial cu conductoare din cupru. Rezistena unitar este
calculat ca

=
2
1
o
r
R
. Valoarea de R' =1.43837 / m
i MHz 300 = f . Raza conductorului este mm 1
0
= r .
Dac impedana de intrare este adapat de la
( ) =100 0
C
Z
la impedana de ieire de ( ) = 200 d Z
C
atunci forma ra-
portului este 2 = P . Forma raportului este 3 = P pentru
( ) = 300 d Z
C
; 4 = P pentru ( ) = 400 d Z
C
i 5 = P
pentru ( ) = 500 d Z
C
. Aceste valori sunt de obicei utilizate
n practic.
Fig. 2-5 prezint impedanele de intrare ca funcie de
coordonatele axiale pentru diferite forme ale raportului.
La frecvene foarte ridicate (fig. 5) impedana de intrare
de-a lungul liniei exponeniale are form exponenial
ideal, deoarece pierderile s-au neglijat.

Fig. 2. Impedana de intrare ca funcie de x la 100 MHz
Fig. 2. Input impedance as a function of x at 100 MHz

Fig. 4. Impedana de intrare ca funcie de x la 900 MHz
Fig. 4. Input impedance as a function of x at 900 MHz

3. Numerical results
In this paper real exponential line with copper
conductors is considered. Resistance per unit length is
calculated as

=
2
1
o
r
R
. The value is R' = 1.43837
/m and MHz 300 = f . Wire radius is mm 1
0
= r .
If the input impedance is transformed from
( ) =100 0
C
Z
to output impedance of ( ) = 200 d Z
C
then taper ratio is
2 = P . Taper ratio is 3 P = for ( ) = 300 d Z
C
; 4 = P for
( ) = 400 d Z
C
and 5 = P for ( ) = 500 d Z
C
. These values
are usually used in practice.
Results for /2-transmission line are presented in Figs.
2-5. They show input impedances as the function of axial
coordinate for different taper ratio. At very high frequen-
cies (Fig. 5) input impedance along exponential line has
ideal exponential form, because losses are neglected.

Fig. 3. Impedana de intrare ca funcie de x la 300 MHz
Fig. 3. Input impedance as a function of x at 300 MHz

Fig. 5. Impedana de intrare ca funcie de x la 90 MHz
Fig. 5. Input impedance as a function of x at 90 GHz
Abaterea impedanei de intrare de la forma exponeni-
al, Z , pentru diferite forme ale raportului ca funcie de
frecven este reprezentat n Fig. 6-8, pentru diferite lun-

The deviation of the input impedance from exponential
shape, Z , for different taper ratio as a function of fre-
quency is presented in Figs. 6-8, for different length of
The 6
th
International Power Systems Conference 170
gimi ale liniei de transport, 2 / 3 and ; 2 / = d , respectiv.
Rezultatele obinute arat c variaia impedanei de la forma
exponenial este mai mare la frecvene mai mici i pentru
forme ale raportului mai mari. Abaterea se micoreaz
pe msur ce lungimea liniei se mrete. Fig. 9 prezint
raportul undei stabile, VSWR, la intrare versus frecven,
pentru diferite forme ale raportului.

Fig. 6. Abaterea impedanei de intrare de la forma exponenial
pentru diferite forme ale raportului cnd 2 / = d
Fig. 6. The deviation of the input impedance from exponential
shape for different taper ratio when 2 / = d

Fig. 8. Abaterea impedanei de intrare de la forma exponenial
pentru diferite forme ale raportului cnd 2 / 3 = d
Fig. 8. The deviation of the input impedance from exponential
shape for different taper ratio for 2 / 3 = d

transmission line, 2 / 3 and ; 2 / = d , respectively. Ob-
tained results show that variation of impedance from the
exponential shape is greater at lower frequencies and for
greater taper ratio. The deviation decreases as the length of
transmission line increases. Fig. 9 presents standing wave
ratio, VSWR , at the input end versus frequency, for different
taper ratio.

Fig. 7. Abaterea impedanei de intrare de la forma exponenial
pentru diferite forme ale raportului cnd = d
Fig. 7. The deviation of the input impedance from exponential
shape for different taper ratio for = d

Fig. 9. VSWR versus frewcven pentru diferite forme ale raportului
Fig. 9. VSWR versus frequency for different taper ratio

4. Concluzii
Se consider n aceast lucrare linia de transport expo-
nenial ca impedan adaptat pe un domeniu de frecven
mare. Analizele amnunite arat caracteristicile liniei de-
pinznd de frecven i de forma raportului. Variaia impe-
danei de-a lungul liniei de la funcia exponenial crete
pe msur ce frecvena descrete. Se poate concluziona c
la frecvene ridicate numrul pulsaiilor de la funcia expo-
nenial ale impedanei de intrare cresc, dar amplitudinile
lor descresc. Pentru frecvene foarte ridicate se obine
aproape doar dependena ideal exponenial. Linia de
transport se comport ca o impedan excelent de adaptare
pentru un domeniu larg de frecvene, cu excepia frecvenelor
foarte joase.

4. Conclusion
The exponential transmission line as impedance trans-
former in large frequency range is considered in this paper.
Detailed analysis shows that line characteristics depend on
frequency and on taper ratio. Impedance variation along the
line from the exponential function increases as frequency
decreases. It can be concluded that at higher frequencies the
number of ripples from the exponential function of the input
impedance increases but their magnitudes decrease. For very
high frequency almost ideal exponential dependence is
obtained. The transmission line acts as an excellent impedance
transformer for a large frequency range, except at very low
frequencies.

References (Bibliografie)
1. Sevick, B. J.: A Simplified Analysis of the Broadband Transmission Line Transformer, High Frequency Electronics, pp. 48-53, 2004.
2. Rothilz E.: TransmissionLine Transformers, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. vol. MTT-29, No. 4, pp. 327-331, 1981.
3. Ahmed, M, J.: Impedance Transformation Equations for Exponential, CosineSquared, and Parabolic Tapered Line Transmission
Lines, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. vol. MTT-29, No. 1, pp. 67-68, 1981.
4. Cvetkovic, Z. Z.: Exponential Transmission Line Used as an Impedance Transformer, II Telecommunication Proceeding TELFOR'94,
5. Cvetkovic Z. Z., Petkovic R.A.: Characteristics of Loss Exponential Line Network, Proc. of 4
th
Electronic Devices and Systems
Conference EDS96, pp.34-38, Brno, Czech Republic, 1996.
6. Hsue, Ch. W., Hechtman, Ch. D.: Transient Analysis of Nonuniform, High-Pass Transmission Lines, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory
Tech. vol.38, No. 8, pp. 1023-1029, 1990.
7. Hsue, Ch. W.: Time-Domain Scattering Parameters of an Exponential Transmission Line, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.
vol.39, pp. 1891-1895, November 1991.

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