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Senzorul HALL

Senzor Hall la arborele cu came.


Descoperit de Edwin Hall in 1879, efectul Hall se refer la apariia unui cmp electric
atunci cnd un conductor strabatut de curent electric este poziionat !ntr"un cmp
ma#netic staionar. $erpendicular pe flu%ul de curent, precum &i pe cmpul ma#netic,
'ectorul de tensiune pe conductor este numit tensiune Hall ()
H
*, dup descoperitorul ei.
$in
1
+ ,-
S.mbol
$in
/
01D
$in
2
Si#nal
Scopul senzorului Hall este de a caracteriza e%act primul cilindru (!n termeni de3 start
in4ecie de combustibil, bataie de control, aprindere de control*, !n coordonare cu
senzorul arborelui cotit. 5u toate acestea, senzorul Hall poate efectua si alte funcii3
6 de !nre#istrare a 'itezei de transmisie de ie&ire7
6 de detectare a 'itezei acti'e !n sistemele 89S7
6 de inre#istrare a parametrilor de aprindere.
senzor Hall
1. :otatin# bell in a
distributor wit; four
sectors
/. <a#net permanent
2. senzor Hall
Functionare
E%emplu de sensor la arborele cu came3 :otorul realizat din material ma#netic se roteste
in 4urul arborelui cu came. Senzorul Hall este situat !ntre rotor &i un ma#net permanent.
=n cazul !n care un dinte trece peste elementul senzorului (o plac de semiconductor*, se
sc;imb intensitatea cmpului ma#netic perpendicular pe elementul Hall. 8cest lucru
produce o tensiune Hall !n senzor.
8 > Sensor ;ousin#
9 > $ermanent ma#net
5 > E'aluation circuit
D " Hall ?5
Howe'er, t;is 'olta#e is 'er. low, bein# in t;e order of a few milli'olts. @;e sensor
contains an inte#rated e'aluation circuit w;ic; processes t;e si#nals and outputs t;em in
sAuare"wa'e form to t;e motor control unit.
$rinciple of a Hall sensor3
? $late current
?
H
Hall current
?
-
?nput current
)
H
Hall 'olta#e B si#nal
)
:
:eference 'olta#e
9 <a#netic field
a Deflection of electrons b. t;e
ma#netic field
8s opposed to t;e inducti'e sensor, t;e si#nal 'olta#e ;ere does not depend on t;e
relati'e speed of t;e sensor and rotor (i.e. en#ine speed*.
$ut more simpl.3 @;e rotation of t;e #ear rim c;an#es t;e Hall 'olta#e of t;e Hall ?5 in
t;e sensor ;ead, t;e output comprisin# sAuare"wa'e si#nals. @;e 'ariable 'olta#e is
routed to t;e control unit w;ere it is anal.zed in order to acAuire t;e necessar. data.
De fiecare dat cand un dinte trece peste senzorul Hall, se #enereaz o tensiune Hall, care
este transmisa la unitatea de control a motorului. =mpreun cu semnalul de la senzorul
arborelui cotit, semnalul senzorului Hall permite unitatii de control sa determine care
cilindru nu functioneaza la parametrii pre'azuti.
Experimente sensor Hall
<otorul este ec;ipat cu / senzori Hall, fiecare la capetele cilindrilor.
@;e en#ine wit; Hall sensors. @;e circuit dia#ram.
:ealizati e%perimentul urmator3 $entru msurtorile ulterioare, montai discul senzor Hall
pe motor (stn#a sus* &i lsai motorul sa se roteasca. 1u uitati sa porniti sursa de
alimentare.
5onectati senzorul Hall la bord conform listei3
De la La
,- senzor Hall pin 1
?nterfata 8+ senzor Hall pin 2
?nterfata 8> senzor Hall pin /
<asurati semnalele conectate la senzor si tensiunea de alimentare utilizand -oltmetrul 83
Voltmetru A setari
0ama de masura3 , - D5
<od3 $
<asurati tensiunea intre cone%iunile senzorului Hall. Desc;ideti osciloscopul 'irtual
meniul Instruments -> Measuring devices si setati ca mai 4os3
Oscilloscope settings
5;annel 8 / - B di'
5;annel 9 CDD
@ime base3 1EE ms B di'
<ode3 FB@, D5
@ri##er3 5;annel 8 B :isin# ed#e B $re"tri##er /,G
<rii 'iteza discului cu came utiliznd potentiometrul rpm la o setare 4oasat. 5opiai
oscilo#rama rezultant in tabelul pre'zut !n acest scop3
@ime base3 ms B D?-
Channel A:
8mplitude factor3 - B D?-
5ouplin#3 85 D5
Channel B:
8mplitude factor3 - B D?-
5ouplin#3 85 D5
5resteti rpm la o 'aloare medie, lsnd setrile de osciloscoape cum sunt. Efectuai o
msurare la 'itez ma%im, cu poteniometru rpm la limita din dreapta. Has setrile de
osciloscoape nesc;imbate. Determinati 'iteza ma%im !n rpm. $entru aceasta, citii
perioada de o rotaie @, lund !n considerare factorul de scala a osciloscopului.
Hampa de control al motorului se aprinde si 'e;iculul intra in modul de operare de
ur#en. =ntr"un dia#nostic iniial cu tester, 'ei #si c un cod de eroare a fost eliberat,
indicnd un defect pe senzorul de arborele cotit. )n control 'izual al senzorului nu
dez'luie defecte e%terne. 5are ar putea fi cauza de defect
Senzorul inducti'.
eoria senzorului in!ucti"
Senzorul inducti' functioneaza pe principiul inductiei, dupa care o tensiune este produs
!ntr"o bobin atunci cnd se mi&c relati' sub un cmp ma#netic. Senzorul inducti'
utilizeaza acest fenomen, permitand masuratori de un#;iuri, distante si 'iteze.
$in 1 Si#nal
S.mbol
$in / Si#nal
Scopul aplicatiei
<asurarea 'itezelor > e%. Ha arborele cotit, cutia de 'iteze sau 89S7
Determinarea pozitiei arborelui cotit7
0enerarea de impulsuri pentru aprindere7
Description o# a cran$sha#t sensor as an example
5omprisin# a permanent ma#net and an induction coil wit; a soft iron core, a cranIs;aft
sensor measures en#ine rpm. @;e pulse #enerator (motion"based* comprises a #ear rim
mounted on t;e fl.w;eel, cranIs;aft or belt pulle.. Cnl. a narrow air #ap separates t;e
inducti'e sensor from t;e #ear rim.
8 > Electrical connections
9 > 5oil
5 > $ermanent ma#net
D > Soft iron core
@;e ma#netic flu% t;rou#; t;e coil depends on w;et;er a space or marI is in front of t;e
sensor. 8 marI (i.e. co#* concentrates t;e ma#netic field, w;ile a space weaIens t;e
field.
J;en t;e cranIs;aft and #ear rim rotate, eac; passin# co# c;an#es t;e ma#netic field.
@;is c;an#e induces a 'olta#e in t;e coil. @;e number of pulses per unit of time are a
measure of t;e en#ine speed. Dedicated spaces on t;e #ear rim also permit t;e control
unit to identif. t;e en#ineKs instantaneous position.
?nduced 'olta#e and <a#netic fieldKs
intensit.
@;e en#ine speed ser'es as a main control 'ariable in calculatin# t;e in4ection and
i#nition points. @;is arran#ement results in t;e si#nal s;own ne%t.
?nducti'e sensorKs si#nal3 1 > co#7 / > space7 2 > reference marI (lar#e space*
?f t;e sensor fails3
t;e en#ine mi#;t misfire.
t;e en#ine mi#;t stall.
an error code is sa'ed.
$ossible causes3
Jindin# s;ort circuit
Hine interruption or s;ort circuit
<ec;anical dama#e to t;e #ear rim
Hea'. soilin#
E%cessi'el. lar#e air #ap
Fault localization
:ead out t;e error memor.
5;ecI t;e connections
5;ecI for soilin# and mec;anical dama#e
%er#orm a chec$ &ith an ohmmeter
'mportant: 8 direct c;ecI of t;e cranIs;aft sensor wit; an o;mmeter s;ould be
performed onl. after maIin# sure t;at t;e sensor is inducti'e and not a Hall sensor,
because t;e latterKs electronics can #et dama#ed b. an o;mmeter. Sensors wit; 2
connections and e'en t;ose wit; / connections mi#;t turn out to be Hall sensors. 8cti'e
w;eel speed (Hall* sensors formin# part of t;e 89S also ;a'e a /"pole connector.
5aution s;ould be e%ercised in all suc; cases.
?nternal resistance3 /EE " 1EEE o;ms (dependin# on t;e setpoint 'alue*
S;ort circuit at E o;ms7 interruption at 'er. ;i#; 'alues
0round connection (pin to #round* > setpoint 'alue3 L 2E me#o;ms.
Senzor in!ucti" ( experiment
@;e sensor is positioned on t;e cranIs;aft ;ousin# near t;e fl.w;eel.
@;e sensor. ?dentif. t;e cranIs;aft sensor in t;e circuit
dia#ram.
8n inducti'e sensor can be connected to an oscilloscope, and t;e sensorKs si#nal obser'ed
as t;e #ear rim turns. 5onnect t;e inducti'e sensor appropriatel. on t;e board. <ount t;e
accompan.in# toot;ed disc on t;e motor s;aft at t;e top left.
5onnection list
From o
?nterface 8+ ?nducti'e sensor pin 1
?nterface 8" ?nducti'e sensor pin /
Cpen t;e 'irtual oscilloscope 'ia t;e menu pat; Instruments -> Oscilloscope and set it as
s;own in t;e table below.
Oscilloscope settings
5;annel 8 /EE m- B di'
5;annel 9 CDD
@ime base ,E ms B di'
<ode3 FB@, D5
@ri##er3 5;annel 8 B :isin# ed#e B $re"tri##er EG
@urn on t;e 1/"- power suppl. and increase t;e cranIs;aft discKs speed b. means of t;e
MrpmM potentiometer to a low settin#. 5op. t;e resultant oscillo#ram to t;e place;older
pro'ided for t;is purpose.
8fter t;at, conduct a measurement at ma%imum speed wit; t;e rpm potentiometer set to
its ri#;t limit. 5ompare t;e two measurement results.
?f t;e 'olta#e drops below a minimum le'el or a space is not detected, t;e control unit
can no lon#er reliabl. e'aluate t;e si#nal and assumes t;e emer#enc. mode.
Decide on t;e possible causes of t;e fault based on its description at t;e be#innin# of t;e
e%ercise. 8s an aid, t;e fault is outlined once a#ain below.
@;e en#ine control lamp comes on.
@;e 'e;icle assumes t;e emer#enc. operatin# mode.
8n initial dia#nosis wit; t;e tester re'eals t;at an error code ;as been issued.
@;e code indicates a fault on t;e cranIs;aft sensor.
8 'isual c;ecI of t;e sensor re'eals no e%ternal faults.
8 customer brin#s t;eir car to t;e worIs;op wit; t;e complaint t;at t;e en#ine responds
poorl. and 4erIs on attempts to accelerate rapidl.. 9ased on t;eir lon# .ears of
e%perience, t;e worIs;op super'isor assumes t;at t;is is due to a fault. t;rottle 'al'e
switc;.
Design o# a throttle "al"e s&itch unit
8 t;rottle 'al'e switc; unit ser'es to reflect t;e t;rottle 'al'eKs settin# and is mounted
directl. on t;e 'al'e a%is. @;e switc; settin#s are si#nalled to t;e motor control unit and
used to ;elp calculate t;e reAuired fuel suppl..
1 > @;rottle 'al'e a%is
/ > ?dle contact >
micro"switc;
2 > Dull load contact
$in 1 Si#nal
$in / 5C<
$in 2 Si#nal
@;e t;rottle 'al'e switc; unit ;ouses two switc;es operated 'ia a s;ifter mec;anism.
9ot; switc;es pro'ide t;e motor control unit wit; information on t;e en#ineKs idle and
full"load states to ensure precise calculations of t;e reAuired fuel Auantit. and firin#
an#le.
?n t;e idle state, t;e t;rottle 'al'e switc; unit essentiall. performs t;e function described
ne%t.
?t permits fuel cut"off durin# self"propulsion, t;us notabl. lowerin# t;e
consumption of fuel in4ection en#ines compared wit; carburettor models. J;en t;e
automobile is in t;e self"propulsion mode (i.e. rollin# under its own momentum wit; t;e
#as pedal closed*, t;e switc; notifies t;e motor control unit t;at t;e t;rottle 'al'e is
closed, so t;at t;e control unit stops fuel in4ection at an en#ine speed abo'e 18EE rpm.
J;en t;e speed drops below 1/EE rpm, fuel in4ection is resumed a#ain to pre'ent t;e
en#ine from stallin#. @;e precise t;res;old 'alues depend on t;e fuel in4ection s.stem. ?n
t;e full"load state, t;e t;rottle 'al'e switc; unit performs t;e function described ne%t.
?t notifies t;e control unit t;at full load is bein# e%erted, w;ereupon t;e control
unit enric;es t;e fuel mi%ture to ensure smoot; acceleration.
E##ects o# #ailure:
8 defecti'e t;rottle 'al'e switc; can ;a'e t;e effects described ne%t.
@;e en#ine stalls in t;e idle state
@;e en#ine 4erIs under full load
A !e#ecti"e throttle "al"e s&itch is attri)uta)le to the #ollo&ing causes:
<ec;anical dama#e (e.#. t;rou#; 'ibrations*
Dault. electrical contact (e.#. t;rou#; corrosion, moisture*
Dault. internal switc; contact (e.#. t;rou#; moisture, soilin#*
Variants
8 t;rottle 'al'e switc; unitKs mec;anical maIeup 'aries accordin# to its manufacturer,
i.e. t;e two switc;es for t;e idle and full"load states can differ in desi#n. 8 micro"switc;
and slidin# contact are alwa.s used for indicatin# t;e idle and full"load states. 8n.
possible combination of t;ese components can be found in a t;rottle 'al'e switc;
dependin# on t;e manufacturer.
Let*s assume that our s&itch unit uses one micro(s&itch #or the i!le state an! one
sli!ing contact #or the #ull(loa! state+
'nclu!e the measures liste! )elo& &hen localizing #aults+
1. 5;ecI t;e t;rottle 'al'e switc; unit for proper assembl..
/. 5;ecI w;et;er t;e s;ifter mec;anism is operable 'ia t;e 'al'e s;aft
(w;en t;e en#ine is at a standstill, mo'e t;e t;rottle 'al'e from its idle limit to its full"
load limit, listenin# w;et;er t;e switc;es are actuated in t;is process*.
2. 5;ecI w;et;er t;e plu# connection is firm and clean.
N. 5;ecI t;e switc;in# contacts wit; a multimeter3
o ?dle switc; closed3 <easurement 'alue O E o;ms.
o ?dle switc; open (important3 slowl. open t;e t;rottle 'al'e until t;e idle
switc; opens*3 <easurement 'alue O L 2E me#o;ms.
o Dull"load switc; open3 <easurement 'alue O L2E me#o;ms.
o Dull"load switc; closed3 <easurement 'alue O E o;ms.
Experiment: hrottle "al"e s&itch unit
Set up t;e e%periment s;own ne%t and connect t;e t;rottle 'al'e switc; unit to t;e
oscilloscope.
From o
?nterface 8+ @;rottle 'al'e switc; unit pin 1
,- @;rottle 'al'e switc; unit pin /
?nterface 9+ @;rottle 'al'e switc; unit pin 2
01D 8" and 9"
:emember to turn on t;e boardKs power suppl.. Cpen t;e oscilloscope and perform t;e
settin#s s;own ne%t.
Oscilloscope settings
5;an. 8 / - B di'
5;an. 9 /- B di'
@ime base3 1 s B di'
<ode3 FB@, D5, Sin#le
@ri##er3 5;an. 9B:isin# ed#eB$re"tri##er /,G
@est t;e switc; unitKs response b. turnin# t;e rotar. Inob from t;e centre leftward and
ri#;tward respecti'el. to t;e limit, and cop. t;e resultant oscillo#ram to t;e place;older
pro'ided for t;is purpose.
?nterpret t;e measurement result.
Detac; t;e connection leads from t;e sensor board and use t;e multimeter to measure t;e
resistance between t;e terminals on eac; switc; settin#.
Heft limit3
:esistance between terminals 1, /3
:esistance between terminals /, 23
:esistance between terminals 1, 23
5entre settin#3
:esistance between terminals 1, /3
:esistance between terminals /, 23
:esistance between terminals 1, 23
:i#;t limit3
:esistance between terminals 1, /3
:esistance between terminals /, 23
:esistance between terminals 1, 23
hrottle "al"e potentiometer
8 customerKs 'e;icle ;as been brou#;t in wit; t;e followin# problem3
@;e en#ine 4erIs durin# slow acceleration under partial load, but operates smoot;l. under
full load. Cne of t;e suspected causes is a defecti'e t;rottle 'al'e potentiometer.
hrottle "al"e potentiometer theor,
8 t;rottle 'al'e potentiometer ser'es t;e same purpose as a t;rottle 'al'e switc;, i.e. it
indicates t;e t;rottle 'al'eKs current settin# to t;e motor control unit. 9ein# able to
precisel. determine 'al'eKs settin#, t;e potentiometer is an ad'ancement of t;e t;rottle
'al'e switc;. Durt;ermore, t;e potentiometer notifies t;e motor control unit of t;e rate at
w;ic; t;e t;rottle 'al'e is bein# opened B closed b. t;e dri'erKs actuation of t;e
accelerator pedal. @;is information allows t;e motor control unit to ad4ust t;e fuel
mi%tureKs ric; B lean le'el more accuratel. t;an usin# si#nals from a t;rottle 'al'e switc;.
$in 1 + ,-
S.mbol
$in / 01D
$in 2 Si#nal
8 potentiometer is a 'ariable resistor comprisin# a slidin# contact, or tap, w;ic; can be
mo'ed alon# a conducti'e tracI. @;e tap is linIed to t;e t;rottle 'al'eKs s;aft, so t;at a
c;an#e in t;e slidin# contactKs position correspondin#l. c;an#es t;e t;rottle 'al'eKs
settin#.
1 5onducti'e tracI
/ Slidin# contact (armature* 2 +, -
N Si#nal
, 0round
8ccordin# to C;mKs law, t;e applied 'olta#e of , - drops full. o'er t;e len#t; of t;e
resistorKs pat; (i.e. t;e conducti'e tracI in t;is case*. ?n ot;er words3 , - are present on
t;e si#nal line if t;e slidin# contact is at its left limit, E - if t;e contact is at its ri#;t limit,
and /., - if t;e contact is in t;e middle.
?n practice, t;e tapKs tra'el is truncated b. stops w;ic; restrict t;e effecti'e 'olta#e ran#e
to E.7 > N.2 - (t;is ran#e can 'ar. dependin# on desi#n*. @;e restriction is meant to
facilitate an identification of s;ort circuits and line interruptions.
@o calculate load, t;e t;rottle 'al'e potentiometerKs si#nal is used to#et;er wit; t;e si#nal
from t;e lambda probe in t;e case of sin#le"point fuel in4ection, and to#et;er wit; t;e
si#nal from t;e air"mass meter or <8$ sensor in t;e case of multi"point fuel in4ection.
?n t;e emer#enc. mode, t;e potentiometer si#nal also ser'es to replace t;e si#nal from
t;e air"mass meter if it is defecti'e.
?n s.stems incorporatin# an electronic accelerator function (E"#as*, t;e potentiometer
si#nal is used for closed"loop control in con4unction wit; t;e ser'o motor for t;e t;rottle
'al'e.
?t is important for a potentiometer to suppl. a continuous si#nal wit;out an.
interruptions. 8s a potentiometer wears, #aps can occur in t;e conducti'e tracI. Suc;
#aps lead to in'alid si#nals w;ic; are not alwa.s identifiable durin# self"dia#nostics.
@;is ;appens w;en a normal 'olta#e readin# between E.7 - and N.2 - is obtained despite
t;e presence of an in'alid 'alue.
Suc; #aps in a potentiometerKs conducti'e tracI can be detected b. means of a noise test.
Durin# t;is test, t;e 'olta#e 'alues measured at t;e tap are 'isualized on an oscilloscope.
Experiment: hrottle "al"e potentiometer
5onnect t;e t;rottle 'al'e potentiometer to t;e ,"- 'olta#e suppl..
5onnections3
From o
,- @;rottle 'al'e potentiometer pin 1
01D @;rottle 'al'e potentiometer pin /
?nterface 8+ @;rottle 'al'e potentiometer pin 2
?nterface 8" 01D
:emember to turn on t;e boardKs power suppl. (refer to t;e pa#e on start"up*.
-oltmeter settin#s3
Voltmeter A settings
<easurin# ran#e3 , - D5
<ode3 8-
<easure t;e output 'olta#e wit; t;e t;rottle 'al'e on t;e open and closed settin#s.
-oise test
5onduct a noise test in order to detect rifts in t;e potentiometerKs conducti'e tracI. @;e
test in'ol'es recordin# t;e 'olta#e c;aracteristic o'er t;e entire conducti'e pat; on an
oscilloscope. @;e e%periment confi#uration can remain unc;an#ed ;ere.
Oscilloscope settings
5;annel 8 / - B di'
5;annel 9 Cff
@ime base3 1 s B di'
<ode3 FB@, D5, Sin#le
@ri##er3
5;annel 8 B :isin# ed#e B $re"tri##er
/,G B He'el appro%. / -
8fter turnin# on t;e oscilloscope, mo'e t;e t;rottle 'al'e from its full. open settin# to its
full. closed settin# and bacI a#ain. E'aluate t;e resultant oscillo#ram. ?nterpret t;e
measurement result.
Air mass meter
8 customer comes to t;e worIs;op wit; t;e complaint t;at t;eir car loses a lot of power
and assumes t;e emer#enc. operatin# mode. 8n initial dia#nosis re'eals a malfunction
on t;e air"mass meter. @;e first s.mptoms appeared some time a#o, w;en t;e carKs
startin# and acceleratin# properties be#an to deteriorate on a re#ular basis.
Air mass(meter theor,
8n air(mass meter or mass air(#lo& sensor ./AF0 measures t;e amount of air flowin#
past per unit of time. 9ecause t;e Auantit. of o%.#en in t;e air stream is proportional to
t;e measured mass flow, t;is 'ariable can be used to control combustion processes,
especiall. in internal combustion en#ines. @;e air"mass meter is installed between t;e air
filter and t;e en#ineKs intaIe pipe.
$in 1 8ir mass si#nal
$in / +, -
$in 2 01D
$in N +1/ -
$in , ?ntaIe air temp. si#nal
@;e air drawn in b. t;e en#ine flows t;rou#; t;e air"mass meter. @;e motor control unit
needs to Inow t;e intaIe air flow rate in order to calculate t;e reAuired fuel in4ection
Auantities. En#ine s.stems wit;out an air"flow meter instead maIe use of a <8$ sensor
8ir"mass meterKs installation point
<otor 'e;icles are usuall. furnis;ed wit; a ;ot"film air"mass meter. ?n t;is case, a
measurin# surface (t;e ;ot film* is ;eated to a setpoint temperature b. an internal circuit
of t;e air"mass meter ($@5*. J;en air flows past t;is surface, it is cooled. @;e film is
t;en re";eated b. t;e internal electronics to t;e setpoint temperature wit; t;e ;elp of a
J;eatstone brid#e.
@;e 'alue of t;e current needed to re";eat t;e film indicates t;e mass of air drawn in.
@;is current 'alue is con'erted b. t;e air"mass meterKs internal electronics into an output
'olta#e si#nal.
8d'anta#es3
-er. fast reaction
-er. precise measurements of flow rates, especiall. low ones (E to 1
mBs*
5ost"effecti'e
Disad'anta#es3
Susceptible to soilin#
-er. susceptible to mec;anical dama#e
@o maIe t;e air"mass meter less susceptible to soilin# and mec;anical dama#e, a partial
air flow is freAuentl. emplo.ed. ?n t;is case, onl. a part of t;e air stream drawn in b. t;e
en#ine is routed past t;e air"mass meterKs measurin# surface, t;us reducin# t;e potential
for dama#e B soilin#.
8 O Electrical connections
9 O Housin#
5 O 8ir inlet
D O <easurin# element
<ost air"mass meters also incorporate an intaIe air temperature sensor w;ic; supplies its
si#nal 'ia a dedicated line to t;e motor control unit. J;en performin# measurements on
suc; air"mass meters, care must be taIen not to mi% up t;e two si#nals.
How to differentiate3
?f t;e t;rottle 'al'e is opened durin# en#ine operation, t;e 'olta#e of t;e si#nal indicatin#
t;e Auantit. of t;e intaIe air c;an#es, w;ereas t;e 'olta#e of t;e si#nal indicatin# t;e
temperature of t;e intaIe air remains nearl. constant.
8n air"mass meter accordin#l. ;as t;e followin# connections3
0round
+1/ - (for t;e ;eatin# element*
+, - (suppl. 'olta#e for t;e e'aluation electronics*
8ir"mass si#nal line
8ir"temperature si#nal line
Experiment: Air mass meter
Cur air"mass meter ;as t;e followin# connections3
o 0round
o +1/ - (;eatin# element*
o +, - (suppl. 'olta#e for t;e e'aluation electronics and temperature sensor*
o 8ir"mass si#nal line
o ?ntaIe"air temperature si#nal line
@r. to identif. t;e air"mass meterKs connections in t;e circuit dia#ram below.
@;e assi#nments of t;e remainin# lines can onl. be determined wit; t;e ;elp of
appropriate le#ends. ?t must be pointed out t;at not all automobile manufacturers include
suc; le#ends in t;eir circuit dia#rams. ?f t;e le#ends are missin#, 'olta#e measurements
must be performed to ascertain t;e 'arious line assi#nments.
Set up t;e e%periment s;own ne%t.
5onnections3
From o
?nterface 8+ 8ir"mass meter pin 1
,- 8ir"mass meter pin /
?nterface 8", 01D 8ir"mass meter pin 2
1/- 8ir"mass meter pin N
:emember to turn on t;e boardKs power suppl.. @urn on t;e fan wit; t;e to##le switc;
(C1*7 open and close t;e 'al'e se'eral times and record t;e air"mass meterKs si#nal
response on t;e oscilloscope.
Oscilloscope settings
5;annel 8 1 - B di'
5;annel 9 Cff
@ime base3 1 s B di'
<ode3 FB@, D5, Sin#le
@ri##er3
5;annel 8 B :isin# ed#e B $re"tri##er
/,G B He'el appro%. 1., -
Air mass meter summar,
%ossi)le #aults on air(mass meters
8ir"mass meters are 'er. susceptible to !irt an! moisture. ?f an air"mass meter #ets
soiled (e.#. b. an oil filter w;ose replacement is o'erdue or b. oil mist*, it mi#;t start
suppl.in# de'iant si#nals. Stron# de'iations are reco#nized b. t;e motor control unit,
w;en t;en acti'ates t;e motor control lamp and t;e emer#enc. mode in w;ic; t;e en#ine
power usuall. drops si#nificantl..
8 fault occurrin# on an air"mass meter does not necessaril. #enerate a correspondin#
error code. ?f t;e si#nal output b. t;e air"mass meter fluctuates wit;in a plausible ran#e
(O considered normal b. t;e motor control unit*, no fault is assumed, no error code
issued, and t;e motor control lamp remains off. ?n suc; situations, t;e en#ine
performance also drops but t;e source of t;e problem is muc; more difficult to pinpoint.