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1/2008



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205

ROLUL SERVICIILOR DE
TRANSPORT I EXPEDIII
INTERNAIONALE N
ACTIVITATEA FIRMEI



LPDUI MIHAELA
LOREDANA, ASIST.UNIV.DRD.
UNIVERSITATEA CONSTANTIN
BRNCUI
FACULTATEA DE TIINE
ECONOMICE



Abstract:
Conducerea activitii logistice a firmelor
cu activitate de transport ntr-un mediu de
afaceri dinamic ne arat c acestea trebuie s fie
capabile s se adapteze schimbrii ntruct
mediul de afaceri actual este actualizat de
schimbare. [1] n acest context, firma cu
activiti logistice n domeniul transportului
trebuie s fructifice din plin oportunitile i de a
ncerca s limiteze efectele negative pe care le
genereaz mediul de afaceri deosebit de
concurenial i din ce n ce mai greu de cunoscut.

Transportul internaional reprezint o
problem major pentru o firm internaional
pentru, c aceasta stabilete cum i cnd vor fi
recepionate produsele. Mai mult, costurile
de transport reprezint 7 pn la 15% din
costul total al unei comenzi interne i deci
merit o atenie deosebit. [2]
Societile de transport au ca principal
obiectiv satisfacerea necesitilor de deplasare
(mobilitate) a bunurilor i persoanelor.
Rezultatele procesului de transport fiind
ROLE OF SERVICES OF
INTERNATIONAL
TRANSPORT AND
EXPEDITIONS IN THE
ACTIVITY
OF THE COMPANY

LPDUI MIHAELA
LOREDANA,
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR PHD.
STUDENT
CONSTANTIN BRNCUI
UNIVERSITY
FACULTY OF ECONOMICS


Abstract:
Leading the logistic activity of the
companies with transportation activity in a
dynamic business environment shows us that these
must be capable to adopt to exchange as the
present business environment is updated by
change [1] In this context, the company with
logistic activities in transportation field must fully
fructify opportunities and to attempt to limit
negative effects that business environment which
has an especially concurrence character, generates
and harder and harder recognized.

International transport represents major
problems for an international company,
because it establishes how and when will be
reception products. More, transportation
costs represent 7 up to 15% from total cost of
an internal order and so it deserves special
attention. [2]
Transport societies have as a main
objective satisfaction of movement necessities
(mobility) of goods and persons. The results of
the transport process being complex, they

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complexe, ele trebuie analizate att din
perspectiva ofertantului ct i din cea a
beneficiarului. Astfel activitatea nu trebuie
analizat doar dup indicatorii ce msoar
activitile, ci i prin prisma calitii oferite i
a modalitii n care transporturile contribuie
la satisfacerea cerinelor economice naionale
(din punct de vedere economic, sociale,
politic, etc.) Pn la jumtatea secolului XX,
calculul investiiilor legate de infrastructur
nu intr n categoria problemelor importante.
Puternicele raporturi existente ntre preurile
i economiile de scar au atras ns curnd
atenia economitilor, astfel c transporturile
au intrat din nou n centrul unor dezbateri de
politic economic.
Problema transportului internaional
poate fi mprit n trei componente:
infrastructura, disponibilitatea modurilor
de transport i alegerea acestora dintre
alternativele date.
n majoritatea rilor dezvoltate firmele
pot conta pe o reea stabil de transport. Pe
plan internaional totui, pot fi ntlnite
variaii majore ale infrastructurii.
Unele ri pot avea sisteme de transport
interne i externe excelente, dar legturi
internaionale slabe. Acest lucru se ntlnete
mai ales n fostele colonii, unde sistemele de
transport au fost proiectate s maximizeze
potenialul extractiv al rilor. n asemenea
situaii, expedierea ctre pia poate fi uoar,
dar distribuirea n interiorul pieei poate
reprezenta o sarcin foarte dificil,
consumatoare de timp i costuri crescute.
Lipsa infrastructurii poate de asemenea
fi gsit n rile colonizatoare unde
majoritatea reelelor de transport au fost
stabilite ntre porturile i oraele importante n
secolele trecute. Acele zone care se afl n
afara reelelor majore de transport vor
ntmpina probleme n a aduce produsele lor
pe pia.
Datorit schimbrilor politice care au
avut loc, noi rute de comer au fost deschise,
mai ales ntre fostele blocuri politice din Est
i Vest. Totui perspectiva global arat c
fr o infrastructur corespunztoare,
should be analyzed from the perspective of the
tendered person as from the one of the
beneficiary. So, the activity should not be
analyzed only after the indicators measuring
activities, but from the angle of the quality
offered in which transportation contributes to
satisfaction of national economic requirements
(from economic, social, political point of view,
etc). Until the half of the XX
th
century, the
calculus of the investment connected to
infrastructure does not enter the category of
important problems. The powerful rapports
that exist between prices and scale economies
call on the attention of the economists, so that
transportations entered again the center of
debates of economic politics.
The problem of international
transport can be divided in three
components: infrastructure, availability of
the transportation means and their selection
between given alternatives.
In majority of developed countries,
companies can rely on stable transportation
net. Still, on international plan, can be meet
major variations of infrastructure.
Some countries can have excellent
internal and external transportation systems,
but weak international connections. This is
frequently met in former colonies, where
transportation systems have been designed to
make maximum the attractive extraction
potential of the country.
In such situations, sending towards a
market can be easy, but distribution in the
interior of the market can represent a very
difficult burden, time consumers and increased
costs.
Lack of infrastructure can be found in
colony countries where the majority of
transportation net has been established between
important ports and town in past centuries.
Those areas which are situated outside major
transportation nets will meet problems while
bringing their products on the market.
Due to political exchanges which took
place, new routes of commerce have been
opened, especially between former political
blocks from East and West. Still, the global

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deschiderea pieelor este nsoit n multe
cazuri de noi strangulri majore. Din partea
firmei este crucial s aib un acces la pia
larg pentru a putea s satisfac cerinele
diverilor clieni. n acest scop un rol
important l au platformele logistice.
Platforma logistic a firmei este
determinat de uurina locaiei i ct de
convenabil este atins piaa, n condiii de
cost favorabil i este o component cheie a
poziiei competitive a firmei. Fiindc diferite
ri i regiuni pot oferi platforme logistice
diferite, firma trebuie s recunoasc c acele
alternative pot face diferena dintre succes i
eec.
Managerul de logistic trebuie deci s
cunoasc infrastructurile externe i interne
existente i organizate i s le includ n
strategia firmei. n unele ri, de exemplu,
cile feroviare pot fi un mod de transport
excelent, depind cu mult performanele
transportului rutier, n timp ce n altele,
folosirea cilor feroviare pentru transport i
distribuie poate fi n cel mai bun caz un risc.
Ruta viitoare a conductelor trebuie s fie
stabilit nainte de a fi fcut vreun angajament
important pentru o locaie particular, dac
produsul este potrivit transportului prin
conducte. Metodele de transport folosite
pentru a transporta ncrctura la porturile
maritime sau aeroporturi trebuie s fie
investigate.
Variaii extreme exist de asemenea n
frecvena serviciilor de transport. De
exemplu, un anume port poate s nu fie vizitat
de o nav timp de sptmni sau chiar luni.
Cteodat, numai transportatorii cu
caracteristici particulare, cum ar fi dimensiune
redus, pot fi folosii pentru anumite locaii.
Toate aceste probleme de infrastructur
trebuie luate n calcul la planificarea iniial a
locaiei firmei i a schemei de transport.
Dei unele bunuri sunt expediate n
strintate cu trenul sau cu camionul,
transportul internaional necesit de obicei
moduri de transport peste ocean sau transport
aerian, pe care multe companii le folosesc rar
la intern. Mai mult, combinaii precum
perspective shows that without a correspondent
infrastructure, opening markets is accompanied
in many cases by new major strangulation.
From the company is crucial to have access to
the market to be able to satisfy requirements of
diverse customers. In this purpose, an
important role is that of logistical platforms.
Logistic platform of the company is
determined by the facility of the location and
of how conveyable is reached the market, in
conditions of favorable cost and is a key
component of competition position of the
company. Because different countries and
regions can offer different logistic platforms,
the company must recognize that those
alternatives can make difference between
success and failure.
Logistics manager must recognize
the external and internal existing
infrastructures, which are organized and to
include them in the strategy of the company.
In some countries, for example, railways can
be an excellent transportation modality,
exceeding performances of road transportation,
meanwhile others, using railways for
transportation and distribution can be in the
best case a risk. The future route of pipes must
be established before making an important
engagement for a particular location, if the
product is adequate to transportation through
pipes. Transportation means which are used to
transport loading at maritime ports and airports
must be investigated.
Also, there are extreme variations in
frequency of transportation service. For
example, a certain harbor might not be visited
by a certain ship for weeks or even months.
Sometime, only carriers have particular
characteristics, like reduced dimension, can be
used for certain locations. All these problems
of infrastructure should be taken into calculus
in initial planning of the location of the
company and the transportation scheme.
Even if some goods are delivered
abroad by train or by truck, international
transportation requires often transportation
modalities over the ocean or by air
transportation, which most companies use

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podurile terestre i cele maritime permit
deseori transferul ncrcturii prin moduri
variate de transport, rezultnd micri
intermodale. Managerul de logistic
internaional trebuie s neleag proprietile
specifice ale diferitelor moduri pentru a le
folosi inteligent.
Competiia internaional i
expansiunea geografic a pieelor a forat
productorii i exportatorii s se concentreze
pe strategiile de producie integrat i
logistica transportului cu scopul de a reduce
costurile i n acelai timp, s obin un
standard mai mare al serviciului. Nevoia de a
controla costurile transportului a devenit la fel
de important ca nevoia de a menine la un
nivel mic costurile de producie. Astfel
apariia serviciilor de transport multimodal a
dus la crearea de noi oportuniti comerciale
la fel ca i creterea competitivitii.
Transportul internaional este strns
legat de acest fenomen pe care noi l numim
globalizare care n esen presupune
integrarea internaional a pieelor de bunuri
i servicii, a pieelor de capital, accesul liber
i nengrdit, pe baze comerciale, la sursele de
materie prim i energie, la noile tehnologii,
la rezultatele cercetrii tiinifice i
tehnologice.
Pe noua scen economic
transporturile internaionale sunt
confruntate cu noi exigene n privina
deplasrii n timp i spaiu a bunurilor i
persoanelor. Deplasarea bunurilor n spaiul
internaional trebuie realizat ct mai repede,
dar n condiii de siguran a transporturilor
i cu costuri ct mai mici posibile, iar pe de
alt parte, economia de timp nseamn bani,
n sensul c procesul de reproducie a
mrfurilor i serviciilor poate fi reluat ntr-un
termen mai scurt. [3]
Realitile economiei mondiale au
demonstrat c sistemul transporturilor (i n
special al transporturilor rutiere) este un
sistem cu aciune global. El asigur
deplasarea n timp i spaiu a bunurilor i
persoanelor n orice punct al globului, ntr-un
termen dinainte stabilit pe baz de calcul
seldom in interior. More, combinations
like terrestrial bridges and maritime ones
allow sometimes the loading transfer through
diverse modalities of transportation, resulting
inter modal movements. Manager of
international logistic must understand specific
proprieties of diverse modalities to use them in
an intelligent manner.
International competition and
geographical expansion of markets forced
producers and exporters to focus on integrated
production strategies and logistic of
transportation with the purpose of reducing
costs and in the same time obtain a higher
standard of the service. The needs to control
transportation costs become a problem as
important as the need to maintain a small level
of production costs. This way the apparition of
multi modality transport services lead to
creation of new commercial opportunities as
well as increasing competition.
International transport is tightly
connected to this phenomena that we name
globalization which, in essence supposes
international integration of goods markets and
services, of capital markets, free and
unconfined access, on commercial basis, at raw
material and energy sources, at new
technologies, at results of scientific and
technological researches.
On the new economic stag
international transports faces new exigencies
regarding time and space movement of goods
and persons. Displacement of goods in
international space must be realized as fast as
possible, but in safety conditions of
transportations and with smallest possible
costs, and on the other side, time economy
means money, in the sense that reproduction
process of goods and services can be
continued in the shortest term. [3]
The reality of world economy showed
that system of transports (and especially road
transportations) is a system with global action.
It ensures time and space movement of goods
and persons in any point of the globe, in a term
that was before mentioned, based on numeric
calculus or based on passed experience.

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matematic sau n baza experienei trecute.
Serviciile de transport pot fi realizate direct de
ctre firme sau prin conlucrarea mai multor
moduri de transport (transportul multimodal
sau intermodal).
n acest context infrastructura
transporturilor trebuie s asigure deplasarea
unor mijloace de transport tot mai
perfecionate la viteze tehnice i comerciale
din ce n ce mai mari. Timpul de staionare n
porturi sau aeroporturi trebuie redus mai
mult prin mecanizarea operaiunilor de
ncrcare-descrcare i utilizarea
tehnologiilor moderne de transport
(containerizare, paletizare pachetizare). [4]
Transportul internaional reprezint, la
ora actual, una dintre cele mai flexibile, dar
i mai dificile modaliti de micare a
mrfurilor n Europa i n lumea ntreag. Este
nevoie aa cum am artat de o logistic foarte
bine pus la punct, de vehicule speciale
moderne i aspectul cel mai important, de
mult experien i profesionalism.
n ceea ce privete sistemul de transport
al Romniei, globalizarea ridic probleme i
mai mari, dac avem n vedere, pe de o parte,
necesitatea conectrii eficiente la sistemul de
transport european i planetar, iar pe de alt
parte, starea actual necorespunztoare a
infrastructurii cilor ferate, nivelul sczut al
mecanizrii operaiunilor de ncrcare-
descrcare, utilizarea pe scar redus a
tehnologiilor moderne de transport.
Analiznd schimbrile rapide n
sectoarele economice i tehnologice din
perioada postbelic au avut ca urmare o
cretere puternic a produciei internet i a
comerului internaional, ceea ce a dus
automat la creterea cererii de transport,
cerere ce s-a reflectat n creterea
capacitilor mijloacelor de transport, a
numrului acestor mijloace, creterea
numrului companiilor de transport, precum
i extinderea capacitii porturilor. [5]
Transportul este un mijloc de realizare
a unei multitudini de scopuri practice.
Validarea oricrei micri n spaiu a
bunurilor i persoanelor depinde exclusiv de
Transportation services can be realized directly
by companies or by co-operation with many
transportation modalities (multi modalities or
inter modality transportation).
In this context infrastructure of
transportation must ensure displacement of
some transport means that are perfect at
technical and commercial speeds, which are
higher and higher. Period of standing in
harbors or airports must be more reduced
through mechanization of operations of
loading unloading and use of modern
technologies of transportation (tanks, pallets,
packages). [4]
International transport represents at
present moment, one of the most flexible and
the most difficult modalities of movement of
goods to Europe and the entire world. It is
necessary, as we have demonstrated a logistic
that is well established, of modern special
vehicles and the most important aspect, of
many experience and professionalism.
Regarding the system of transportation
from Romania, globalization raises higher and
higher problems, if we take into account, on
one side, the necessity of efficient connection
to the system of European and planetary
transport system, and on the other side, the
actual status that is not correspondent of the
infrastructure of railways, the decreased level
of mechanization of loading unloading
operation, using on reduced scale modern
technologies of transport.
Analyzing rapid exchanges in
economic and technological sectors from post-
war period which had as a result the powerful
increase of internet production and of
international commerce, which brought
automatically to increase of transportation
request, request that was reflected in
increasing capacities of transportation means,
of the number of these means, increasing the
number of transportation companies, as well
as extension of capacity of harbors. [5]
Transportation is a modality of
realizing a multitude of practical purposes.
Validation of any movement in space of goods
and persons depends exclusively on attended

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scopul urmrit, de efectele economico-sociale
ce urmeaz a fi obinute. Aceast activitate
influeneaz toate laturile vieii economico-
sociale, iar dezvoltarea acesteia n pas cu
cerinele economice constituie un obiectiv
important al activitii firmei care i
desfoar activitatea n mediul
internaional. [6]
Dezvoltarea transporturilor, n general,
a celor internaionale n special, a eliminat
izolarea economic, a permis specializarea i
schimbul de activiti, formarea pieei
naionale i dezvoltarea comerului pe plan
intern i internaional. Aadar, transporturile
internaionale sunt activiti care
traverseaz cel puin o frontier de stat,
punctele de expediere i de destinaie a
mrfurilor fiind situate n ri diferite. Ele
constituie mijlocul material ce st la baza
relaiilor economice ale unei ri cu celelalte
ri ale lumii. Ele continu procesul de
producie n sfera circuitului economic
mondial i reprezint un sistem tehnico-
economic complex prin intermediul cruia o
parte din produsul naional brut este realizat
pe pieele externe n schimbul altor mrfuri
necesare economiei. [7]
Acest lucru demonstreaz cum
transporturile internaionale contribuie activ la
procesul realizrii mrfurilor de export-
import, influennd direct rezultatele acestui
proces. Cheltuielile de transport i auxiliare
(cheltuieli de ambalare, marcare, depozitare,
ncrcare-descrcare, asigurare etc.) particip
direct la formarea preurilor internaionale ale
mrfurilor. n situaii specifice, participarea
cheltuielilor de transport i auxiliare la
formarea preurilor de export-import poate s
creasc ntr-o asemenea msur nct ele s
devin factorul principal de care depinde
realizarea sau nu a mrfii pe o anumit pia
extern. n acest mod, transporturile
internaionale joac un rol important n
formarea fluxurilor de schimb pe piaa
mondial favoriznd sau dimpotriv,
acionnd ca un factor de restricie n
derularea fluxurilor de mrfuri pe plan
mondial.
purpose, of the economic social effects that
will be obtained. This activityinfluences all
chains f economic social life and its
development at pace with economic
requirement is an important objective of the
activity of the company which realizes activity
in the international environment. [6]
Development of transports, generally,
of the international ones especially, eliminated
economic isolation, allowed specialization and
exchange of activities, formation of national
market and development of commerce on
internal and international plan. So,
international transports are activities which
cross at least one state order, delivery and
destination points of goods being situated in
different countries. They represent the material
means which is at the basis of economic
relations of a country with the other countries
of the world. They continue the production
process in the area of world economic circuit
and represents a complex technical
economic system through the agency of which
a part of gross national products is realized on
external markets in exchange of other goods
that are necessary for the economy . [7]
This shows the modality in which
international transports contribute actively at
the process of realization of export- import
goods, being a direct influence for the results
of this process. Transportation expenses and
the auxiliary ones (packing, labeling, storage,
loading unloading and insurance expenses,
etc) participate directly at formation of
international prices of goods. In specific
situations, participation of transportation and
auxiliary expenses at costs formation for
import export might increase in such a
measure that they can become main factor on
which depends the realization or not of goods
on a certain external market. This way,
international transports have an important role
in formation of exchange fluxes on world
market, encouraging or on the contrary, acting
like a restriction factor in development of
goods fluxes on world plan.
Continuous supply with raw materials
and import materials, with equipments which

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Aprovizionarea continu cu materii
prime i materiale din import, cu utilajele
necesare industriei i bunurile de consum
destinate populaiei, desfacerea ritmic a
produciei pentru export, depind n bun
msur de gradul de organizare i funcionare
a mecanismului transporturilor internaionale.
n contextul globalizrii economiei
mondiale, transporturile internaionale au
devenit efectiv o component tot mai
important a strategiei firmei de desfacere
a mrfurilor pe pieele externe aa cum am
mai precizat cunoscut sub numele de
logistic. Potrivit teoriei generale a
sistemelor, logistica trateaz transporturile
ntr-o viziune larg i modern de marketing,
care include ansamblul activitilor necesare
vehiculrii tehnice, comerciale i juridice a
mrfurilor, de la productor i pn la
consumatorul final.
Realitile economiei mondiale au
demonstrat c ntre starea acesteia i starea
transporturilor internaionale exist o
legtur cauzal obiectiv n sensul c starea
transporturilor internaionale depinde de
starea comerului mondial, iar aceasta din
urm depinde de starea economiei mondiale.
Dac economia mondial se afl ntr-o
perioad de avnt, de expansiune economic,
aceasta va determina o cretere a comerului
mondial i o cerere sporit de mijloace de
transport. Invers, cnd economia mondial
traverseaz o perioad de criz, de recesiune,
comerul mondial regreseaz, iar cererea de
transport scade.
Toate aceste aspecte demonstreaz c
cererea de transport internaional este
determinat de volumul (fizic) activitilor
de export-import. La rndul lor, activitile
de producie i comer se desfoar n
anumite centre economice i pentru c acolo
exist faciliti de transport care s asigure
aprovizionarea fabricilor cu materiile prime
necesare i desfacerea produselor finite pe
piaa intern sau extern. Se profileaz deci
un paradox aparent: cererea de mijloace de
transport depinde de situarea n plan geografic
a activitilor de producie, de export-import,
are necessary to the industry and consumption
goods that are due to population, rhythmic
presentation of export production, depend to a
great extent of the degree of organization and
functioning of the mechanism of international
transports.
In the context of globalization of
world economy, international transports
become effectively a component which is
more and more important of the strategy of
the company of presentation goods on
external markets as we have mentioned ,
known with the name of logistics. According
to the general theory of the systems, logistics
treats transports in a large and modern vision
of marketing, which includes the ensemble of
the activities that are necessary for technical,
commercial and juridical use of goods from
producer and until the final consumer.
Realities of world economy have
showed that between its status and the status of
international transports there is an objective,
causal connection in the sense that status of
international transports depends on status of
world commerce, and the latter depends on the
status of the world economy. If world economy
is in an impetus period, of economic
expansion, this will determine an increase of
world commerce and an increased request by
transports means. On the contrary, when world
economy crosses a crisis period, of recession,
world commerce retrogresses, and transport
request decreases.
All these aspects show that request of
international transportation is determined
by volume (physical) of the activities of
export import. In return, activities of
production and commerce will be realized in
certain economic centers and because there are
transportation facilities that will ensure supply
of factories with necessary raw materials and
outlet of finite products on internal or external
market. It will be contoured an apparent
paradox: request of transportation means
depends on positioning on geographical plan of
production activities, of export import, and in
return, depends on existence of some proper
and economic transportation facilities. This is a

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iar acestea la rndul lor, depind n bun
msur de existena unor faciliti de transport
adecvate i economice. Acesta este un caz
clasic de ofert care genereaz propria sa
cerere. Cererea de transport n general, este
puin sensibil la substituirea ei cu alte
servicii, cum ar fi, de pild, telecomunicaiile
i din aceast cauz este inelastic n raport cu
evoluia preurilor serviciilor de transport. n
consecin, dac preurile acestor servicii
cresc pe piaa mondial, cererea de transport
va fi foarte puin sensibil la aceast cretere
i va scade foarte puin sau chiar deloc. rile
exportatoare, fiind nevoite s-i exporte
produsele pentru c n funcie de ncasrile
din exporturi depinde acoperirea importurilor
cu mijloacele valutare necesare, vor continua
s-i procure tonajul necesar la exporturile
condiia de livrare CIF port de destinaie chiar
n condiiile unui navlu mai ridicat, sau vor
exporta n condiia FOB - port de ncrcare la
preuri mai sczute, dac importatorii nu sunt
dispui s suporte creterea navlului.
Aceast stare de lucruri este
caracteristic rilor n curs de dezvoltare, al
cror export este limitat la o gam restrns
de mrfuri, cu desfacere asigurat n fostele
lor metropole. Creterea cheltuielilor de
transport la produsele lor de export atrage
anual pierderi nsemnate pentru rile
respective. Odat ce gradul de dezvoltare i
diversificare a exporturilor unei ri crete, ca
urmare a dezvoltrii produciei de export,
posibilitile sale de a contracara creterea
preurilor serviciilor de transport cresc, ca
urmare a creterii elasticitii exporturilor fa
de preurile serviciilor de transport. Aceast
situaie permite rilor dezvoltate din punct de
vedere economic s-i reduc sau chiar s
renune la exporturile acelor mrfuri grevate
de creterea preurilor transportului sau s le
reorienteze spre piee mai apropriate din punct
de vedere geografic, dac importatorii nu sunt
dispui s suporte creterea preurilor
serviciilor de transport. n alt ordine de idei
ele pot impulsiona exportul acelor mrfuri de
care importatorii au absolut nevoie i sunt
nevoii s suporte, pe lng contravaloarea
classical case of offer which generated its own
request. The transportation request generally, is
less sensible at its substitution with other
services, like, for example,
telecommunications and because of this is not
elastic in rapport with prices evolution of
transportation services. As a consequence, if
prices for these services increase on world
market, transportation request will be less
sensible to this increase and will decrease a
little or even at all. Exportation countries,
being necessary to export products so that,
depending on receiving money from
exportation depends on covering imports and
necessary currency means, will continues to
obtain the necessary tonnage at exports on
condition of CIF delivery, destination harbor
even in conditions of a increased freight, or
will be exported in condition of FOB loading
harbor at low prices, if importers are not
disposed to bear increasing the freight.
This status is characteristic to countries
in process of development, whose export is
limited at a reduced scale of goods, with outlet
ensured in their former metropolis. Increasing
transportation expenses at their export products
attracts annually significant loss for those
countries. Once the degree of development and
diversification of transports of a country
increases, as a result of development of
production of export, its possibilities of
counteract increasing prices of transportation
services increase, as a result of elasticity of
exportation towards prices of transportation
services. This situation allows developed
countries from economic point to reduce or
even give up at exportation of those goods,
stopped by increasing prices of transportation
or to reorient them towards markets which are
closer from geographical point of view, if
importers are not disposed to bear increase of
prices for transportation services. In other order
of ideas, they can impulse exportation of those
goods that importers need so much and have to
bear, besides the values of FOB of goods and
increased cost of transportation.
Based on those present it results that, if
on world plan, prices of transportation services

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FOB a mrfurilor i costul majorat al
transportului.
n baza celor prezente rezult c, dac
pe plan mondial preurile serviciilor de
transport cresc mai repede dect preurile
mrfurilor, sporul cheltuielilor de transport va
fi suportat de rile cu o elasticitate mai
redus a exporturilor i importurilor.
Se mai poate aprecia c o alt trstur
a cererii de transport este reacia ntrziat a
acesteia la creterea preurilor serviciilor de
transport. Aceasta se explic prin faptul c
rile care urmresc s-i modifice structura
exporturilor i importurilor au nevoie de o
perioad relativ lung de timp pentru a-i
restructura industriile. Chiar i modificarea
repartizrii geografice a comerului exterior,
n vederea reducerii distanelor de transport,
necesit o perioad important de timp. Mai
mult, s-a constatat c cererea de transport se
manifest distinct, pe moduri de transport, n
raport cu natura mrfii care face obiectul
transportului, situarea n plan geografic a
locului de expediere i de destinaie a mrfii,
distana dintre acestea, termenul de livrare,
costul transportului, cantitatea mrfii .a.
Totodat, oferta de transport se manifest
distinct pe moduri i mijloace de transport
disponibile la un moment dat, capabile s
ntruneasc condiiile impuse de specificul
fiecrui transport n parte. Ea este elastic n
raport cu preurile serviciilor de transport,
avnd o tendin de cretere cnd preurile
cresc i o tendin de scdere atunci cnd
aceste preuri nu acoper costurile cruilor.
Ca urmare a modificrilor continue din
structura exporturilor i importurilor pe plan
mondial, i a mutaiilor n repartizarea
geografic a acestora, oferta de transport
cunoate modificri continue, n sensul
apariiei de noi mijloace de transport tot mai
perfecionate i mai specializate, mai eficiente
din punct de vedere economic. n fine,
raportul dintre cererea i oferta de transport
tinde s formeze preurile internaionale ale
prestaiilor de transport. n transportul
maritim i cel fluvial, aceste preuri mbrac
forma navlurilor i a chiriilor - n navigaia
increase faster that price of goods, the
augmentation of transportation expenses will
be supported by countries with a reduced
elasticity of exports and imports.
It can be also appreciated that another
characteristic of transportation request is the
late reaction of this to increase of prices of
transportation services. This can be explained
by the fact that countries aiming to modify
structure of exports and imports need a
relatively long period of time to reorganize
industries. Even the modification of
geographical repartition of external commerce,
to reduce transport distances, requires an
important period of time. More, it was
observed that transportation request is
manifested in a different manner, on
transportation modalities, in rapport with
nature of goods which makes the object of
transportation, situation in geographical plan of
the consignation and destination place of the
goods, distance between them, delivery term,
cost of transportation, quantity of goods, etc.
Still, the transportation offer is manifested
differently on means of transportation which
are available at a certain moment, capable of
obtaining conditions imposed by specific of
each transport. It is elastically in rapport with
prices of transportation services, having a
tendency of increasing when prices increase
and a decrease tendency when these prices do
not cover carriers prices.
As a result of continuous modifications
from the structure of exports and imports on
world plan, and mutations in their geographical
allocation, transportation offer knows
continuous modifications, in the sense of
apparition of new transportation means that are
more perfect and specialized, more efficient
from economic point of view. In brief, rapport
between request and transportation offer tends
to form international prices of transportation
performances. In maritime and fluvial
transportation, these prices have the form of
freights and rents - in tramp navigation and
tariffs form in line navigation. In terrestrial
and aerial transportation, the prices of transport
performances have the form of tariffs.

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214
tramp - i forma tarifelor - n navigaia de
linie. n transporturile terestre i aeriene
preurile prestaiilor de transport internaional
mbrac forma tarifelor. n general, nivelul i
dinamica preurilor serviciilor de transport
internaional sunt determinate de raportul
dinamic dintre cererea i oferta de transport.
Nivelul lor tinde s creasc dac cererea
crete mai repede dect oferta i invers. Pe
termen lung, preurile serviciilor de transport
internaional manifest o tendin general de
cretere, datorit creterii costurilor
mijloacelor de transport tot mai perfecionate,
creterii costului creditului, a combustibililor
i a forei de munc tot mai calificate,
presiunilor inflaioniste din economia
mondial.


Bibliografie:

[1] NEBNE C., Strategies
concurenciales et techniques internationale,
Les Editions d`Organisation, Paris, 1992, p.
207.
[2] CARAIANI GH., Tratat de
transporturi, Editura Lumina Lex, Bucureti,
2001, p. 16.
[3] LEGRAND L., MARTINI H.,
Management de operations de commerce
international in parter exporter, 7 edition
Editura Durond, Paris, 2005, p. 298.
[4] *** Revista Cargo Romania nr.
4/aprilie 2002, pag. 6.
[5] *** Word Trade Organization
(Organizaia Mondial a Comerului) Raport
anual pe anul 2004/2005 Exportul mondial
de mrfuri pe regiuni i economii selectate.
[6]SNDULECU I., TOMESCU I.,
ntreprinztorul pe piaa extern, Editura
AROMAR, Bucureti, 2001, p. 28.
[7] PAVEANU I., DUPHIL F.,
Practique du commerce international, 19
e

edition, Editions Fancher, Paris, 2005, p. 288.

Generally, the level and dynamics of the prices
of international transportation services are
determined by dynamic rapport between
transport request and offer. Their level tends to
increase if request increases faster than the
offer and on reverse. On long terms, prices of
international transport manifest a general
tendency of increase, due to increase of costs
of perfectionist transportation means,
increasing the cost of credit, fuels and more
qualified work force, inflation pressures from
world economy.

Bibliografie:
[1]NEBNE C., Strategies
concurenciales et techniques internationale,
Les Editions d`Organisation, Paris, 1992, p.
207.
[2]CARAIANI GH., Tratat de
transporturi, Editura Lumina Lex, Bucureti,
2001, p. 16.
[3]LEGRAND L., MARTINI H.,
Management de operations de commerce
international in parter exporter, 7 edition
Editura Durond, Paris, 2005, p. 298.
[4]***Revista Cargo Romania nr.
4/aprilie 2002, pag. 6.
[5]***Word Trade Organization
(Organizaia Mondial a Comerului) Raport
anual pe anul 2004/2005 Exportul mondial
de mrfuri pe regiuni i economii selectate.
[6]SNDULECU I., TOMESCU I.,
ntreprinztorul pe piaa extern, Editura
AROMAR, Bucureti, 2001, p. 28.
[7]PAVEANU I., DUPHIL F.,
Practique du commerce international, 19
e

edition, Editions Fancher, Paris, 2005, p. 288.