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Universitatea A.I.

CUZA IAI
Facultatea de Economie i Administrarea Afacerilor
Specializarea Marketing anul III,grupa 5
Disciplina Tehnici de comer exterior







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Cuprins



1.Rezumat....3
2.Planificarea operaiunii...4
3.Identificarea clienilor..6
4.Corespondena comercial9
5.Contractarea12









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1.Rezumat

n urma realizrii unei cercetri asupra pieei de ppusi de porelan, am putut
evidenia avantajele competitive ale societtii S.C PORDoll S.R.L. De asemenea
acesta a fost i motivul alegerii activitii economice a firmei ca obiect de studiu al
acestui proiect.
Firma noastr activeaza pe piaa ppuselor de porelan din Romnia i i propune
pentru viitorul apropiat ptrunderea cu success pe piaa internaional. Astfel, n
urma analizelor efectuate i prelucrarea datelor de pe pieele din Europa , am
selectat 3 ri de interes : Grecia ,Ungaria i Bularia .
Am analizat cerina de produse,cantitatea ce poate fi asimilata de piaa
extern,potenialii clieni,consurena si mediul extern de afaceri i am hotrt ca
cea mai potrivit ar pentru exportul de papui de porelan in costum tradiional
este Bulgaria.
S.C.PORDoll.S.A. urmarete pe piata din Bulgaria att obiective de natur
cantitativ ct i obiective de natur calitativ . Pe termen scurt predomin ,att
ca importan ct i ca pondere , obiectivele calitative , datorit poziiei de nou
competitor pe o pia extern .De asemenea, obiectivele de ordin cantitativ
realizeaz baza sistemului de construcie a cotei pe pia ,volumul vnzrilor i
eventual cererii de produse ale companiei
Compania PORDoll a optat pentru exportul direct.S-a stabilit cantitatea total de
export,preul produsului,costul unitar,venituri le i cheltuielile. Astfel vor fi
exportate 1500 de produse la un pre de 150 lei(34 euro).S-a estimat valoarea
total de 51000 euro,din care cheltuieli 20400 euro i venituri 30600 euro.
S-a identificat clientul extern cel mai potrivit , Khan Asparuh AD , i s-a efectuat
corespondena comercial.


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n continuare s-a redactat un contract ntre firma PORDoll i Khan Asparuh AD n
vederea exportrii ppuilor de porelan n costum tradiional.


2.Planificarea operatiunii


S.C.PORDoll.S.A
Adresa: St: Lalelelor, nr85A, bl:C2,
CP:10984352,Galati, Romnia
Telefon: 0236 235245
0753244359
Email: office@pordoll.ro

Fia tranzaciilor

Cantitate total: 1500 buci
Pre unitar: 150 lei
Curs euro:1 = 4.4 lei


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Cost unitar: 15% * 150 = 22.5 lei
Cost unitar euro: 15% * 34 = 5.1 euro

Valoare total : 1500buc * 150 lei= 225000 lei
Valoare total euro: 1500 buc * 34 euro=51000 euro

Cheltuieli totale: 40% * 225000 lei=90000 lei
Cheltuieli totale euro: 40% * 51000 euro=20400 euro

Venituri totale: 60% * 225000 lei=135000 lei
Venituri totale euro: 60% * 51000 euro=30600 euro

Explicaii:
Cost unitar= 15% * pre unitar
Valoare total= cantitate total * pre unitar
Cheltuieli totale= 40% * valoare total
Venituri totale= 60% * valoare total




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3. Identificarea partenerilor externi

n urma analizelor efectuate pe pia de ctre departamentul de marketing
al firmei noastre, cu scopul lrgirii pieei de desfacere pe plan extern, prin
alegerea i prelucrarea datelor de pe pieele Europei, astfel firma urmnd s
decid unde s introduc pentru export papuile de
porelan.
Firma noastr a selectat 3 piee de interese i
anume: Ungaria, Bulgaria i Grecia. De asemenea
acestea vor fi analizate n continuare din punct de
vedere al mediului demografic, politic, economic,
cultural i al accesului pe piaa.
Ungaria
Situat n Centrul Uniunii Europene, Ungaria este o ar membr a Uniunii
Europene din 2004. Este mrginit la est de Romnia, la sud de Serbia i Croaia,
la vest de Slovenia i Austria, iar la nord de Slovacia i Ucraina. Are o suprafa de
93.030 km2 i nu are ieire la mare. Distana dintre capital, Budapesta i
Bucureti este de 639.77 km. Populaia Ungariei numr 9.956.108 locuitori,


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structurat pe vrste astfel: 0 14 ani 15.3%, 15 64 ani 69.3%, 65 ani i peste
15.4%.
Spre deosebire de alte ri, doar 8.6% din totalul populaiei se afl sub
limita srciei. Ungaria are un PIB de 172.7 miliarde $ cu o inflaie mic (3.7%), cu
o distribuie a PIB-ului pe cap de locuitor de 17.300 $. De asemenea turistii sunt
intr-un numar destul de mare.
Grecia
Localizare: Republica Elen se situeaz n sudul Europei, fiind mrginit la
vest de Marea Ionic, la sud de Marea Mediteran i la est de Marea Egee. n nord
se nvecineaz cu Albania, Fosta Republic Iugoslav a Macedoniei (FYROM) i
Bulgaria, iar grania de nord-est delimiteaz ara de Turcia. Lungimea de coast
este de 13.676 km. Grecia a aderat la UE in anul 1981.
Suprafa:Total: 131.940 km2, din care 13.676 km2 acoperii de ap. Grecia
este una dintre cele mai populare destinaii turistice, locul 10 n lume din acest
punct de vedere.
BULGARIA
Bulgaria este o ar european care a aderat al Uniunea European la 1
ianuarie 2007. Ea se nvecineaz la nord cu Romnia, la sud cu Grecia i Turcia, la
est cu Serbia i Muntenegru i are o suprafa de 110.910 km
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. Capitala, Sofia, se
afl la 296,68 km distan fa de Bucureti. Bulgaria are o populaie de 7.322.858
locuitori, structurat pe vrste astfel: 0 -14 ani 13,9%, 15 64 ani 68,7%, <65 ani
17,4%.
Din totalul acestei populaii, 14,1% triete nc sub limita srciei, aceasta
fiind una dintre cauzele mortalitii ridicate: 14,28/1000 locuitori. Sperana medie


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de via a bulgarilor este de 72,57 ani, sub media speranei de via a populaiei
din Uninunea European.
Bulgaria are o economie care s-a relansat dup anul 2000, ea nregistrnd o
cretere n medie cu 5,1%, fapt care a atras investitori strini n ar. Are un PIB
de 77,13 miliarde $ cu o inflaie de 6.5%, iar distribuia PIB-ului pe cap de locuitor
este 10.400 $.
ntre Bulgaria i Romnia nu exist diferene cultural nete.
n urma analizei caracteristicilor consumatorilor, am identificat segmentul
int cruia se va adresa produsul nostru. Pentru nceput firma dorete s
comercializeze produsul n Bulgaria.
Am optat pentru aceast ar deoarece am deprins ca fiind cea mai bun de
abordat, prin analiza tuturor factorilor ce poate caracteriza aceast pia cum ar
fi: condiii fiscale favorabile companiei noastre ,factori economico-
sociali(PIB,populaie, PIB/loc,stabilitate politic, rat de crestere economica,
stabilitate financiar),de asemenea se manifest o cerere ridicat n domeniul
produselor de porelan mai exact al papuilor de porelan.
Pe aceast piaa am identificat urmatoarele situaii favorabile:
Cantitatea mare de produse care poate fi asimilat de ctre pia;
Cerina de produse cu specific tradiional influenat de o pia n plina
dezvoltare i de o legislaie ce ncurajeaz consumul, mai ales n perioada anului
n care turitii sunt foarte muli;
Numrul mare de cumprtori de obiecte decorative;


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Este o ara vecin, astfel costurile fiind mai mici,la fel i preurile;
Numrul productorilor locali este relativ redus;
Mediul cultural, accesul pe pia destul de usor al acestei ri;.

Ca parteneri poteniali din Bulgaria am urmrit mai multe firme cu obiect de
activitate n comer,din care am ales urmatoarea:

Khan Asparuh AD, Isperih
street 1 Ahinora Str.
phone 08431 / 25 77
fax 08431 / 36 13
email info@kai.bg
website www.kai.bg


4.Corespondena comercial
n continuare am prezentat un exemplu de ofert adresat firmei
colaboratoare i rspunsul acesteia. Acestea au fost redactate n limba englez, fiind o
limb de circulaie internaional, astfel fiindu-ne mai uor s comunicm.




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S.C PORDoll S.R.L.
St: Lalelelor, nr85A, bl:C2, CP: 10984352,Galati, Romnia
Khan Asparuh AD, Isperih
street 1 Ahinora Str.
City: Isperih, Bulgaria 6
th
of March

2012
Dear Mr.,
We are an important company that produces and sales porcelain dolls and
we are looking to cooperate with your company. The porcelain dolls that we
produce and sell are nice, with a long tradition, recognized that are hand made,
from the best materials with special qualities.
We enclose here with our catalogue, together with our price list.
Kindly let us know which items would be of interest to you, so that
we can give you the necessary details.
You may be sure of immediate attention to your order, which we look
forward to receiving.
We consider that this partnership will bring advantages to both of us.

Regards,
Blaga Natalia
Sales Manager



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Khan Asparuh AD, Isperih
street 1 Ahinora Str.
City: Isperih, Bulgaria
S.C PORDoll S.R.L
St: Lalelelor, nr85A, bl:C2,
CP: 10984352,Galati, Romnia
March, 8
th
of March 2012
Dear Mr.,
Thank you for your quotation date
6th
of

March 2012.
While appreciating the good quality of all your products and we will be
delighted to become partners.
We trust that you will be willing to meet our terms and look forward to
your prompt reply.


Regards,
Khan Omurtag Shumen
Chief Executive Officer


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5. Contractarea

Contract

Place: S Khan Asparuh AD, Isperih
street 1 Ahinora Str
phone 08431 / 25 77
fax 08431 / 36 13


Concluded between
S.C PORDoll S.R.L S Khan Asparuh AD, Isperih
St: Lalelelor, nr85A, bl:C2, street 1 Ahinora Str
CP: 10984352,Galati, Romnia phone 08431 / 25 77
fax 08431 / 36 13
email info@kai.bg website www.kai.bg




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1. OBJECT OF THE CONTRACT
1.1. The seller undertakes to deliver and the Buyer will take over and pay
according to the conditions of the present Contract the marchendise by the
Romanian producer as per attached Appendix No.1, showing specifications,
quantities, unit prices and delivery terms, which make an integral part of the
present Contract. The total value of this Contract is 51000 EUR.
1.2. The products will be supplied under the PRODoll brand.
1.3. The object of this contract can be enlarged or restricted during its
validity by mutual written consent of the parties.
1.4. This contract may be terminated:
- the either party at any time by 30 days notice in writing in the event of
the persistent failure of the other to observe the terms of this Contract unless
such failure arises from major force.
- by mutual consent at any time
In such an event the goods already manufactured and existing in stock at
the manufacturing factories should be taken in charge by the Buyer in the
conditions of the present Contract.
1.5. The goods making object of the present Contract could be re-exported
by the Buyer only subject to the previous written agreement of the Seller to this
effect (the Buyer is held responsible for any damage arising from non-observing
this obligation).

2. QUALITY


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2.1. The merchandise, making object of the present Contract have to meet
the standards of the Sellers country, as far as quality, assortments and sizes are
concerned, unless otherwise provided in this Contract and the Seller is not held
responsible for deterioration of the goods after the transfer of risk.
3. QUANTITY
3.1. The quantities mentioned in the Appendix No.1 are to be understood
pieces.
3.2. The goods shall be taken over as to quantity according to the packing
lists and the CMR.
3.3. The Seller is held responsible for the quantity packed in each packing
unit as per packing list.
3.4. A margin of 4 per cent more or less on the quantity of any separate
item is to be allowed to the Seller.
3.5. Buyers shall pay for the quantity actually supplied (should this not
exceed the limits of the above-mentioned margin).
3.6. Should the quantity supplied exceed the Contract quantity plus the
allowed margin, the Buyer is entitled in accept the whole quantity supplied,
paying the Contract price.
3.7. Should the Buyer not accept the excess quantity over the allowed
margin, be is not allowed to reject this quantity shipped in excess, but shall
deposit it on his warehouse, at Sellers risks and expense.
3.8. Should the quantity supplied be below the Contract quantity to an
extent that is less than the allowed margin, the Buyer is not entitled to reject the
goods, but is entitled to the corresponding compensation, by means of


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subsequent delivery of the quantity found short (that is below the contract
quantity minus the margin).
4. PACKING AND MARKING
4.1. The Seller undertakes to pack the goods in adequate packing materials
suitable to the means of transportation in order to ensure the quantitative and
qualitative integrity of the goods to be delivered..
5. DELIVERY AND TRANSPORT
5.1. The Seller undertakes:
- to deliver the goods in 3 days after the coming into force of this contract;
- to supply documentation along with the goods, within the time limits;
5.2. The Seller is entitled to deliver the goods prior to the stipulated dates,
with the Buyers previous written consent.
5.3. Advance delivery can only he made upon obtaining agreement from
the Buyer 30 days before the actual delivery date.
5.4. The Seller should notify the Buyer about:
- the readiness of the goods for shipment from Romania ,Galai
- the weight and the volume of the goods;
- the contract number, dispatch date, goods denomination, quantity, value
and number of the railway truck.
5.5. Within 3 hours of shipment of the goods the Seller is to telex the Buyer
to confirm the delivery has been made.


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5.6. The date on the Way Bill shall be considered as the date of delivery.
5.7. Goods are considered delivered on truck at the loading station.
5.8. The moment of transfer of the risks from the Seller to the Buyer is
considered the moment when the goods have been delivered to the loading
station, proved by duplicate of CMR issued by the truck station.
5.9. The Seller keeps the right of full ownership on the goods sold under
this contract until their value has been entirely collected.
5.10. The goods are considered to be delivered and accepted by the Buyer:
- in respect to quantity: according to the number of cases and the weight,
as shown on the CMR;
- in respect to quantity: according to the Certificate of Quality issued by the
Seller.
5.11. If the Buyer wants to change the destination station, he shall notify
this to the Seller at least 30 days before the respective shipment, giving the name
of the decider destination station.
5.12. Simultaneously with the dispatch of the documentation, the Seller is
obliged to send to the Buyer a letter containing a detailed list of the dispatched
documentation, indicating the type of documents sent and the extract number of
pages per each document.
6. PRICES
6.1. The unit prices in this contract has been agreed taking into account the
delivery terms stated in page 3 of this Contract. The price per unit is 34 Euro.



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6.2. The Contract price is understood CIP (INCOTERMS 2000), payable
entirely in Euro, including packing, marking, as well as carriage and stevedoring.
6.3. If after the conclusion of the Contract, there shall occur - beyond the
Sellers control-any increase in the transport charges which were taken into
account when calculating the unit prices, the Seller shall be entitled to request a
new price negotiation with a view to adjusting it to the new conditions.
6.4. Should the parties fail to reach a written agreement regarding the price
increase within 30 days from the date when the Seller requested the price
readjustment, the Seller is entitled to cancel the Contract.
7. TERMS OF PAYMENT
7.1. Payment of the goods sold in this contract shall be effected in IBAN
(EUR): RO35 BTRL 350 1201 D688 4122.account through banking transfer in a
correspondent bank of the Romanian Commercial Bank, as agreed in this
Contract.
7.2. Payment is to be effected at the rate of exchange of 1 EUR = 4.4 RON
by cash against cable advice of the Romanian Commercial Bank, stating that the
Bank has received from the Seller the following documents:
- invoice in 3 copies
- CMR
- Certificate of Quality
- Insurance Policy


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8. INSURANCE
8.1. The insurance of the contractual goods is till delivery on the Sellers
charge.
8.2. Seller is to insure the goods for his account against all sort of usual
risks.
8.3. For war risks and all other special risks, the difference of premium is to
be charged to the Buyers account.
8.4. The goods may be insured against war and other risks upon special
request of the Buyer and on the Buyers account.
9. RECEPTION OF THE GOODS
9.1. The quantities, stated by the Seller or its representatives in the CMR,
which accompany and describe the goods on this Contract are considered to be
on Sellers full responsibility.
9.2. The Buyer or its representatives should check at the goods arrival if the
seals are in good conditions and if not, the Buyer should conclude a complaint
report with the carrier.
9.3. The products accepted cannot be anymore claimed by the Buyer from
shortages, except from the hidden faults which appeared within the time granted
for claims.
9.4. Goods are considered taken over quantitatively on the strength of
indications in the CMRl. The number of documents stated in these documents
shall be recognized by the Buyer as quantity received in good order, with no right
for the Buyer in connection with shortage.


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10. CLAIMS
10.1. Claims shall be made on paper and shall include all the necessary
details: Contract number, denomination of the goods, quantity claimed, number
and date of transport documents, substantiation of the claim and compensation
demanded by the Buyer.
10.2. Claims are to be accompanied by the following certifying documents:
deeds bearing out the claimed shortages or faults, imputable to the Romanian
party, countersigned by the Sellers representative in the area or - in his default
by a dully commissioned neutral control authority.
10.3. The Buyer making the claim is to warehouse the goods concerned and
to pay for them. He is not entitled to reject the goods or to retain part of their
value from the total value in compensation for damages.
10.4. Checking expenses shall be on the Buyers account.
10.5. The time allowed for lodging claims is of 30 days for quantity
shortages, counted from the arrival of the truck at the destination station and of
60 days for hidden faults, counted in the same manner.
10.6. In case of substantial claims, the Seller may request inspection of the
goods claimed and the examination of the claim within 15 days from its receipt.
10.7. With no more no less then 45 days from the receipt of claims and
supporting deeds, the Seller shall notify the Buyer in writing as to his position
regarding the grounding of the latters claims.
10.8. Claims which do not comply with the terms agreed shall be rejected
as groundless or tardy as the case may be.


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10.9. The Sellers acceptance of the claim will lead either to the remedying
of the claimed faults, to the replacement of the goods under claim or to the
payment of a compensation for damages. The choice of the manner of
compensation is at the Buyers discretion.
10.10. Claims on one consignment under the Contract shall not entitle the
Buyer to disregard his contractual liabilities in respect of the other consignments,
as each consignament is considered to represent a separate sale.
11. PENALTIES
11.1. In the event of delay of the delivery over the delivery time stipulated
in this Contract, due to reasons imputable to the Seller, the Seller shall pay to the
Buyer a penalty calculated per value of the goods which have not been delivered
in due time.
11.2. The penalty is calculated as follows:
- for a 30 to 45 days delay, 0.05% per day of the delay;
- for over 45 days delay, 0,1% per day of delay;
The entire account of the penalty contact 5% for the value of non-delivered
goods. The same penalty is to be paid by the Buyer if he fails to take over the
goods within the time and on the terms provided for in the Contract. The penalty
is calculated per Contract price.
11.3. Should the Seller fail to fulfill his Contract obligations by delaying
delivery by more than 3 over the contracts previsions, the Buyer is entitled to
claim indemnities for the prejudice caused.
12. MAJOR FORCE
12.1. Should a case of major force prevent or delay, completely or partially,
the execution of the Contract by either of the parties, the affected party should
be released from the liability to fulfill its obligations, but only to the extent and for


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period of the time the fulfillment of its obligations is prevented or delayed by the
major force situation. Both parties shall make all reasonable efforts to reduce the
delay caused by the major force as much as possible.
12.2. By major force are understood all the events or circumstances beyond
the control of the party claiming major force, which are unforeseeable, or, if
foreseeable , unavoidable, and which, occurring after the conclusion of the
contract, prevent or delay, totally or partially, the fulfillment of the Contract
obligations.
12.3. The party claiming major force shall notify the other party by telex or
by registered letter within 15 days of the date of commencement of events or
circumstances deemed as major force, concurrently sending a confirming
document issued by the Chamber of Commerce or by other similar, competent
authority in its own country, to certify the reality and the accuracy of the facts,
dates and circumstances contained in the abovementioned notification. The same
procedure and terms of notification and confirmation are applicable regarding the
cessation of the major force.
12.4. If the notification and confirmation of the commencement and
cessation of the major force are not dispatched within the time provided for the
Contract, the guilty party is held responsible for the damages caused by the other
party by this oversight.
12.5. On receipt of the above-mentioned notification and configuration,
both parties shall get in touch at once and decide within 15 days on the action or
step to be taken on behalf parties in order to limit or overcome the aftermath of
the major force.
12.6. The occurrence of the major force shall not, however, exonerate the
Buyer of his obligation to make due payment for the deliveries made prior to
major force.


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12.7. For any delay or non-fulfillment of the Contract obligations by one
party due to major force, the other party shall not be entitled to clam penalties,
interests or damages which would otherwise have been payable.
12.8. Should the delay due to major force exceed 4 months, either party
shall be entitled to cancel the Contract or that part of the Contract which has not
been carried out, by written notice addressed to the other party, without any
other formality, in this case, unless otherwise agreed upon, the arbitration
commission decide upon the terms of the Contract termination
13. ARBITRATION
13.1. The parties have concluded this Contract in good faith and in the spirit
of equity being understood that the fulfillment of the obligation assumed by
either party depends on the fulfillment of the obligation incumbent on the other
party and in that spirit they shall endeavor to settle all the disputes likely to arise
out of or in connection with this contract.
13.2. Any dispute which may arise between the parties to the Contract
resulting from the interpretation or fulfillment of the Contract or in connection
with it, which cannot be settled by the parties by amicable agreement shall be
submitted to the Arbitration Commission of the Chamber of commerce, Geneva,
for settlement, in keeping with the rules of Organization of this Commission.
13.3. The arbitrators shall take into consideration any dispute or difference
arising between the parties and their award shall set forth the reason for their
decision and shall also fix the arbitration costs for both parties.
13.4. The arbitrators shall endeavor to give their award within 2 months
since their appointment in the Arbitration Commission.


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13.5. The arbitration award shall be final and binding upon both parties.
The parties to the contract undertake to conform and to comply with the award
of the Arbitration Commission unconditionally and without delay.
14. CANCELLATION OF THE CONTRACT
14.1. Should the Seller not execute the Contract obligations in due time, by
delaying the delivery of the goods for a period of more than 4 months as against
the Contract terms, the Buyer is entitled to cancel the Contract and to owe
indemnities. The Seller shall not pay compensation for indirect prejudices.
15. MISCELLANEOUS
15.1. Neither party is entitled to transfer their rights and obligations to the
present Contract to third parties without a written consent thereto of the party.
15.2. Any modification or addition to this Contract will be done in writing
only and by mutual consent of the parties.
15.3. The present Contract has been made in 4 copies in the English
language, 2 for each party, each of them having the same value.
16. THE CONTRACT SIGNING AND COMING INTO FORCE
16.1. The undersigned have decided that the present contract is valid from
the day of its signing.
Made on 22
th
of April 2012 Galati, Romania

For and on behalf of the Seller: For and on behalf of the Buyer:
Sales Manager Chief Executive Officer
Blaga Natalia Khan Omurtag Shumen



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