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Arthritis is derived from Greek words: arthron, that means joint, and itis, that means
inflammation. Arthritis is a condition of a painful joint. Arthritis usually happen in elder people, but its
not always associated with aging process, its also can strikes young people. Beside makes pain in joint,
arthritis also causes swelling of the joints and a reduction in flexibility. People with arthritis may
experience arthralgia, but people with arthralgia may not have arthritis. Arthralgia is aching or pain in
the joints in Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). People usually underestimates seriousness of arthritis.
Actually we shouldnt underestimate it, because arthritis can cause disability.
In IBD, arthritis differentiated by 3 forms. They are: Peripheral arthritis, axial arthritis, and
ankylosing spondylitis. Peripheral arthritis is arthritis which produces pain in the large joints such as
joints of arms and legs, including elbows, wrists, knees, and ankles. Axial arthritis which usually called as
spondylitis or spondyloarthropathy is arthritis which produces pain in the lower spine and sacroiliac
joints. Axial arthritis may cause permanent damage if the bones of the vertebral column fuse together
then creating decreased range of motion in the back. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a rare complication.
AS characterized by an abnormal growth of bone cells where the ligaments attach to the bones, causing
the ligaments to become ossified (boney).
Actually, there are more than 100 types of arthritis, but the most common types are
osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Osteoarthritis is degenerative disease of the cartilage
and bone that results in pain and stiffness in the affected. People with osteoarthritis will experience
pain, stiffness, limited range of motion, and mechanical irregularities in the affected joint. OA usually
affecting hand, shoulder, neck, lower back, hip, and knee. Joint in normal people has smooth, shiny, and
wet joint cartilage. Cartilage normally absorbs nutrient and fluid like a sponge, and this keeps the
cartilage healthy and smooth. In osteoarthritis, the cartilage doesnt get the nutrient and fluid it
requires. Eventually, the cartilage dries out and develops cracks.(Arthritis et al. n.d.)

Besides aging process, a traumatic injury or abrupt impact can trigger the disease as well. Falls,
car accidents, and sports injuries are often implicated in the onset of OA. Traumatic osteoarthritis is a
process that first causes degeneration of the cartilage and articular cartilage. Because the cartilage is no
longer able to absorb shock and cushion the bones, the joint is likely to become painful and feel stiff. As
with OA associated with aging, traumatic OA can lead to a downward spiral of pain, inactivity, and
deconditioning. Extreme cases of OA may require surgery.
The other most commonly arthritis is Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) which causes inflammation in
the lining joints and joint deformity. Unlike OA which is a localized condition, RA is a systemic disease
that may involve the whole body. RA may affect not only the joints, but also internal organs of the body.
Person with RA will experience variation in disease activity over short periods of time. There are times
when the disease is quiet and times when it flares up. What cause RA is still unknown. Anyone can get
RA, including children. RA found mainly in women.
Arthritis, P., Arthritis, A. & Spondylitis, A., Types of Arthritis:
You, W., To, N. & About, K., What You Need To Know About.

ini sumber LI 1
Myckatyn, T.M., Mackinnon, S.E. & Vi, I.T.O., 2007. CHAPTER 9 MICROSURGICAL REPAIR OF