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8am-9:15am Jay Hodgsons Poster Session Science Building

Matthew Borders, Ronald Hayes, and Christina Miller, The Evolution Of The Gray Wolf (Canis
Mentor Jay Hodgson: CST
The gray wolf (Canis lupus) is an important apex predator, as well as keystone species,
in many habitats across North America, Europe, Asia, the Middle East, and north Africa. Having
appeared in the Middle Pleistocene, around 781-126 thousand years ago, it has been shaped
and is continuing to be shaped by many environmental and ecological changes, including the
presence of humans. There are believed to be four lineages of the modern gray wolf, all arising
from the Eastern Hemisphere. The widespread colonization of the species allowed for a great
number of subspecies to arise and become key members of their respective habitats. While it
has shown itself historically to be adaptive, the future of the gray wolf is uncertain, due to
climate change, loss of crucial wilderness habitat, human encroachment and persecution.

Jalesia Horton, James Conner, and Caryn Nelson, Modern Day Horse Evolution.
Mentor Jay Hodgson: CST
Equus feres is the modern day horse. Both wild and domestic horses belong to this species.
Currently, it is commonly held that the earliest ancestor, Hyracotherium, arose approximately 55
mya in the early Eocene era. Hyracotherium was a small forest animal that had distinctly
different toe and teeth structure compared to Equus feres. There was a gradual evolutionary
trend from Hyracotherium to Equus feres of a reduction/loss of the outer metacarpals and digits,
elongation of central metacarpal and formation of a bony hoof. The teeth also a followed a trend
of elongation and the premolar/molar developed complex patterns of ridges that were more
geared to grinding food. Key transitional fossils that showed such trends were Hyracotherium
(55 - 45 may), Miohippus (33 - 29 mya), Merychippus (17 - 11 mya), Pliophippus (arose approx.
15 may) and Dinohippus (arose approx. 12mya). Equus feres is unlikely to go extinct due to
widespread domestic use as in agriculture, sports and general entertainment. To this day there
is only one surviving true feral sub-species (never domesticated) which is Equus feres
przewalskii or commonly known as the Mongolian Wild Horse. These feral horses did disappear
from the wild due to loss of habitat in the 1980s but were reintroduced in 1992 from surviving
zoo populations.

Erica Janocha and Richard Watkins, The Evolution of Man.
Mentor Jay Hodgson: CST
Humans have been evolving into fine-tuned organisms for millions of years. The group
Australopithecus, one of the earliest ancestors of Homo sapiens, lived roughly 3.8 and 3.0
million years ago in eastern Africa, the birth place of the human race. The fossil record can be
utilized to track human evolution among the Hominini group. The fossils show the development
of bipedal movement, an upright posture and an ever increasing skull size, among many other
developments. Eventually humans began to migrate out of Africa and came to occupy nearly
every continent on Earth; becoming masters of the environment and other organisms. But what
does the future hold for the human species? Other organisms have faded into extinction as
environmental pressures proved too great to adapt. Present day humans have evaded such fate
due to key evolutionary adaptations that allow him to circumvent all but the most drastic of
environmental changes.
Catherine Jones, Roshni Patel, and Yeni Jacob, Morphological Changes to the Modern Horse
Mentor Jay Hodgson: CST
The modern day horse, according to some, is one of the most majestic mammals to walk
the Earth, but did they always look, eat and live where they are found now? The answer to
those questions is simple, no. The modern day horse has undergone many changes over the
last fifty-five million years. Changes to teeth structure, height and feet structure all point to
evolution. These changes are evident in the transitional fossils, but the question is, why where
these changes necessary? Was it climate change, predation, food shortage or something else?
A change in the climate is the most likely ecological pressure that occurred that caused the
ancestral horse to undergo adaptation. Due to the change in climate, resources, such as food,
became limited, changing the niche of the species. This, in turn, forced the species to adapt to
the environment; those that could not adapt died off. This would not only account for the teeth
change but also the change in morphology. By becoming larger and faster than the competition,
the survival rate of the species is higher. Another question is what does the future look like for
the modern horse? Will there be something to push it to evolve again? If the climate changes in
either direction, it will force the species to evolve and adapt.

Sasha Lesure, Brian Hall, and Raymond Johnson, The Evolution of the Trilobite to Limulus
polyphemus, the Horseshoe Crab.
Mentor Jay Hodgson: CST
The trilobites first appeared in the Paleozoic era of the Phanerozoic Eon. They
flourished in many types of oceanic environments such as shallow flats and reefs, deeper ocean
bottoms and the water column as free floating plankton. Their closest extant descendent is the
Limulus polyphemus, the horseshoe crab. The most notable characteristic change is its
morphology. The trilobites body shortened and elongated throughout its evolution. The
changes were made predominantly within in the segments and spines on the organism. This
may be due to the theory of feel big, look small as a protective mechanism from predators.
The trilobites extinction at the end of the Permian era was due to many variables. Today,
Limulus polyphemus, is a vibrant and strong species. They are capable of surviving extreme
temperatures, going extended amounts of time without eating, and changes in salinity. This is
why they have survived for 250 million years. The future of this organism, per our research, is
still uncertain at this point due to the strain from pollution, global warming, and over fishing
causing a decrease in the number of spawning horseshoe crabs. Limulus polyphemus is an
important food source for the long distant migrant shore birds. Its extinction could bring about a
drastic change in the ecosystem.

Emily Mathis, Anthony Ravita, and Laura Jones, The Chambered Nautilus and How it Has Been
Favored in an Evolving World.
Mentor Jay Hodgson: CST
The chambered nautilus has been in existence since the early Pleistocene, and has
remained relatively the same for the number of years that has been living in earths waters.
Through fossils, pictures, and scholarly sources the way in which the nautilus has survived and
evolved has been examined and explained. The chambered nautilus differs from its other
members in the class cephalopoda, and that is the reason we have looked into every aspect of
this animal in order to explain how the chambered nautilus has been so close to its original form
in an ever changing environment that it surrounds itself in.

Rafael Oropesa, Cody Struthers, and Nell Brennan, The Evolution of Whales.
Mentor Jay Hodgson: CST
We will be presenting the theory of whale evolution and the problems faced by modern
whales in relation to their survival. Fossil evidence supports this theory, from their evolutionary
roots (the artiodactyls which split from the mesonychians) to the modern day whales. While
there is a line of organisms which shows the successive evolution of whales; these organisms
are not direct ancestors of the modern whale, but rather offshoots of the whales lineage. They
are all closely related however and show the evolution of the modern day whales skull and
skeletal structures.
The artiodactyls were omnivores which had begun to adapt to an aquatic environment
and hunted both land and aquatic organisms along water shores. We can see the skull and
skeletal evolution and adaptation of the whales evolutionary lineage from organism to
subsequent organism starting from this point. Across the whales lineage, the modern day
whales' large size and unique bone structures were evolved to support life in first a freshwater,
then a colder marine habitat.
The future of whales is uncertain. They have been hunted (some species to near
extinction) as a source of meat and blubber. There has been a ban placed on whaling in 1986,
but whales are still hunted in many parts of the world. Whales also consume vast quantities of
food due to their immense size. This means that they are at a great risk for the bioaccumulation
of pollutants such as mercury.
Adam Parker, Chelsea Cheek, and Janie Ussery, The Evolutionary History of the American
Alligator (Alligator missisippiensis).
Mentor Jay Hodgson: CST
Alligator missisippiensis is an ancient species of reptilians that has been thriving for
around 230 million years. They inhabit all types of freshwater and brackish ecosystems
including rivers, lakes, ponds, marshlands, swamplands, and estuaries. Currently they are only
found in the Southeastern United States. One of the most successful reptilians worldwide, they
prey on a multitude of organisms allowing them a broader niche and a certain degree of
resistance to ecological pressures. The crocodylomorphs of the late Triassic gave rise to the
American Alligator and we expect to see a large number of transitional fossils as evidence
linking the alligator to its ancestors. By examining the current fossil record, effects of climate
change, and anthropogenic effects such as habitat loss, we will describe how the American
Alligator has become a modern day top predator in various ecosystems.
Trevor Rawlinson, Chandler Goldman, and Young Vo Evolution of Cyanobacteria
Mentor Jay Hodgson: CST
Cyanobacteria are known to have existed as far back as 3.2bya and initiated an
environmental change via carbon fixation. They used oxygen as an electron acceptor in their
electron transport chains, but specifically the utilization of the antenna complex and
to split water molecules, releasing oxygen gas as a byproduct into the Chlorophyll
atmosphere. The release of oxygen by cyanobacteria drastically changed the conditions of the
atmosphere and paved the way for the evolution of organisms capable of utilizing free oxygen
gas. Because oxygen is a very efficient, high energy-yielding molecule, larger forms of life were
able to evolve. Marine cyanobacteria have since diverged into five strains that are capable of
surviving in many environments, some even quite extreme. Activity of cyanobacteria can
provide a sanctuary to small marine organisms, but can also disrupt the feeding activities of
crustaceans. Cyanobacteria will continue to shape the environment, both macro and micro, by
its metabolic activities.

Jessica Young and Joseph Snooks, Elephant Evolution.
Mentor Jay Hodgson: CST
Although Elephant evolution is well known this research shows a clear representation of
how the ancestors of elephants lived in their environments and evolved from a tiny mouse-like
creature to the elephants known today. Elephants are unique in how large they have become
and also their trunks that can be precisely controlled. Elephants have not done much more
evolving in the past years and may stay how they are however, if they were to further evolve
they may acquire a more sleek body plan or further trunk control. Most research about elephant
evolution is scattered and vague, however, my group will explain why elephants have evolved to
acquire certain traits of their ancestors and why other traits were not favored. By organizing all
the previously known research about their ancestors and the changing environment a complete
picture of how elephants came to be can finally be achieved.


Mahmud Abdallah and Morgan Greenlee Candida Mannan Activates TLR4-transfected Cells in
a Cox-2 Dependent Manner
Mentor Traci Ness: CST
The yeast Candida albicans is often found on healthy skin and mucosa but can become
pathogenic in immunocompromised individuals. Pattern recognition receptors on epithelial cells
are responsible for initiating local immune responses to invading pathogens. Macrophages
have been shown to bind mannans in the fungal cell wall through cooperative interactions
between toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and mannose receptor (MR). Since most epithelial cells lack
MR, we hypothesized that mannan could activate TLR4 in the absence of MR. We used human
embryonic kidney cell lines stably-expressing human TLR4, MD2, and CD14, but lack MR.
These cells (HEK-Blue hTLR4) are engineered to express secreted embryonic alkaline
phosphatase (SEAP) following receptor-induced NFB activation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a
well-known TLR4 activator of NFB, triggers a strong SEAP response and was used as a
positive control. HEK-Blue hTLR4 cells exhibited a dose-dependent response to purified C.
albicans mannan with peak activation occurring at 40g/ml. LPS is a potent inflammatory
stimulus which activates the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway leading to prostaglandin synthesis.
Indomethacin, a selective COX-1 inhibitor, had no effect on LPS- or mannan-induced SEAP
responses even at high doses (80 M). Treatment of HEK-Blue hTLR4 cells with Celecoxib, a
COX-2 inhibitor, significantly reduced SEAP activation by LPS and mannan in a dose-
dependent manner. These data indicate that mannan binds and activates TLR4 and triggers the
COX-2 pathway of prostaglandin synthesis. Future studies may help elucidate the role that the
interactions between mannan and TLR4 play in the epithelial cell recognition of invading

**Lindsey Allen, Brittany Pritchard, and Marjory Taylor, Group versus Individualized therapy on
the Cognitive Communication Skills of Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury.
Mentor April Garrity: CHP
Our research seeks to answer the question: Are post-acute TBI patients who participate
in group/holistic-style therapies more or less likely to achieve functional cognitive and
communication skills than TBI patients who received traditional individualized intervention? We
chose this question due to the increasing use of group therapy versus more costly individual
intervention. Group therapy has been presented as a more economical way to deliver therapy
services. Recent economic and political developments have necessitated cost cutting measures
by insurance companies, service providers and government agencies. Beyond its economics
advantages, is group therapy effective?
To answer this question, we looked at the three components of evidence-based practice:
external scientific research, clinical expertise/ opinion, and client/ caregiver perspective. We
conducted a search and analysis of available literature including meta analyses. We also
gathered a clinical consensus of individuals in the area of cognitive and communicative
intervention for individuals post TBI.
Three studies were identified as resourceful: Cicerone, K. (2011); Teasell, R. (2012); Goldblum,
G. (2001) & Ownsworth, T. (2008). Results of the studies provided levels of evidence that
proved clinically significant suggesting that group/ holistic intervention strategies and
individualized intervention strategies can both provide beneficial outcomes on functional
cognitive and communication skills.
Group therapy as an intervention method can be as effective, and in some cases more effective,
in rehabilitating the cognitive and communicative abilities in individuals with TBI. Group therapy
may not only be a solution for insurance companies and other agencies to cut costs but can
provide realistic positive outcomes.
Alex Allison, Evidence of A Political Business Cycle in the Firearms Market.
Mentor Michael Toma: CoLA
This research presents evidence of fluctuations in the US firearms market created by the
government in the form of federal legislation and a regime challenge in election. OLS time
series analysis is used to investigate price level changes in small arms that are associated with
the complete implementation of the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act of 1993, a
Republican President being challenged for office in election, and the unusually high levels of
uncertainty associated with Barrack Obama campaigning for, and winning the office of
President. All else equal, The threat of losing Republican rule in the White House surprisingly is
associated with a 1% lower inflation rate, and The Obama uncertainty factor accounts for 2%
higher gun price inflation. The Brady bill did not have a significant effect on gun price trends.
Firearms price inflation is also higher in the period following a return home of troops deployed
Claudia Alvarado and Rebekah Robinson, Construction of a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in
the Human TLR4 gene.
Mentor Traci Ness: CST
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are responsible for recognizing pathogens and
initiating appropriate immune responses in many cell types. Toll-like receptor four (TLR4), a
well-studied PRR, is the receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) found in the outer membrane of
Gram-negative bacteria. However, it has been demonstrated that the fungal polysaccharide
mannan is also capable of binding and signaling through TLR4, but the details of this interaction
are poorly understood. TLR4 Asp299Gly is a naturally-occurring polymorphism which has been
shown to eliminate LPS-binding. Individuals with this polymorphism are highly susceptible to
Gram-negative bacterial infections. Our lab is interested in determining if this polymorphism will
also eliminate mannan binding and signaling through TLR4 in human cells. The goal of this
project was to construct the TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphism in the plasmid pUNO-hTLR04a
using circular mutagenesis. A single nucleotide change (adenineguanine) was introduced
which changed the amino acid at site 299 from an aspartic acid to a glycine residue. The
success of our mutagenesis strategy has been verified by antibiotic resistance of bacterial
transformants, PstI digestion of the isolated plasmids, and direct sequencing of the plasmid.
Future studies will include transfection of the TLR4 Asp299Gly plasmid into a reporter cell line to
test mannans ability to bind and activate this polymorphic form of the TLR4 receptor.

Angela Bain, Human Papillomavirus
Mentor Denene Lofland: CHP
This abstract provides a literature review of the human papillomavirus, the
consequences of such and available vaccines. Many different cancers have been linked to the
human papillomavirus (HPV). These include: cervical, anal, vulvar, vaginal, penile and
oropharyngeal. HPV is easily spread from any genital area contact because it can sometimes
be asymptomatic, and normal use of condoms alone will not always prevent infection.
Girls, boys, women and men, both heterosexual and homosexual; are at risk of contracting
HPV. At this time, there are vaccines available to protect females and males. These vaccines
offer the best protection if all three (3) vaccinations are received as prescribed and the body has
time to develop an immune response before any sexual activity. Unfortunately, due to the
relatively new introduction of the vaccines, long-term data are not yet available. Studies have
shown assumptions that the vaccines could reduce the mortality rate of cervical cancer by
approximately 40%. When the vaccines are given in combination with pre-cancer screenings,
that number could reduce the mortality rate by up to 60%. Controversies regarding state/school
mandated vaccinations for HPV have limited the number of children vaccinated. Most of this
criticism is due to unfavorable media exposure and costs to the public health care systems.
Human papillomavirus is easily spread and can contribute to serious, even deadly
consequences later in life. The recently created, FDA-approved vaccines have been shown to
increase the bodys immunity to this virus. More studies and research will continue to be
provided as the vaccines become more readily available and mainstreamed into our public
health care system.
Kirk Barber and Chris Hustead, Analysis of diatoms living in water fountains on the Armstrong
campus: ecological interpretations.
Mentor Jay Hodgson: CST
Diatoms are a type of photosynthetic algae found in many environments. Essentially,
they can live in a variety of habitats as long as they have light and water. For our project, we
wanted to understand how diatoms utilized urban habitats, such as water fountains, that may
mimic the natural environments in which these organisms evolved. We sampled two water
fountains on the Armstrong campus weekly for 77 days during summer 2012. Within each
water fountain, we sampled two different regions that had different conditions. One fountain had
a water jet that mimicked a waterfall and a metal sheet that resembled a mist zone. The diatom
community was significantly different between these two regions. This may be the result of
physical separation between these areas within the fountain, different metal types, and/or
different water conditions highlighting diatom sensitivity to habitat type. The other fountain had
a rocky substrate and a metal trim. The diatom communities were significantly correlated
between these regions. This may be the result of the diatoms not discriminating against rocks
and metal as suitable habitats. Also, the species compositions were different between the two
different fountains. Overall, this project showed that some diatom species are sensitive to
habitat types while others may not be.
Elizabeth Beagle and Nicholas Ingebretsen, Enzyme Stereospecificity in YDL124w.
Mentor Scott Mateer: CST
Many reductases are stereoselective, meaning they only produce one enantiomer. This
is important because one conformation of an enzyme binding site will produce only one product
from a substrate. The goal of this class project was to change the stereospecificity of the
YDL124w enzyme. To accomplish this, the entire class has done site-saturation circular
mutagenesis of residue 125 of the YDL124w gene, replacing a phenylalanine with all of the
other amino acids. Our part of the class project was to replace phenylalanine with tyrosine and
histidine. Both amino acids will likely cause a change in the binding site conformation, thus
affecting the enzyme activity. This is because a neutral nonpolar amino acid, phenylalanine, is
being replaced with a basic polar amino acid, histidine, or a neutral polar amino acid, tyrosine.
The mutagenesis was confirmed by first performing a PstI/PvuI restriction digest to screen for
the PstI cut site. The cut site would not be present in the mutated gene. Positive mutants from
the digest were then sent off for DNA sequencing to confirm the results. Enzyme activity would
have to be measured to see if stereospecificity had been changed. Altering the binding site of
the enzyme will provide further evidence of stereoselectivity in the YDL124w gene.
**Kelsey Blyudzhyus, Jocelyn Fawkes, and Kristi Kelly, Reminiscence Therapy in Dementia
Mentor Jean Neils-Strunjas: CHP
Is Reminiscence therapy effective for maintaining cognitive and affective functioning
when treating patients with dementia in comparison to no intervention? Reminiscence therapy
consists of discussing memories and prior events with others. This type of therapy utilizes
prompts unique to the individual such as familiar items from the past and photographs (Woods
et al). In order to answer this question with current literature, we conducted a literature search.
Three studies were identified: Okumura et al (2008), Azcurra (2012) and Wang (2007). These
studies examined cognitive and/or affective outcomes for patients with dementia using a group
intervention design in which one group received reminiscence therapy and control group(s) did
not receive therapy.
The three components of evidence based practice were considered: clinical expertise, current
best evidence, and client values and preferences. The conclusion drawn from the studies
indicated clinical unanimity in individuals receiving Reminiscence intervention reporting an
improved quality of life. In relation to cognition, clients that received Reminiscence therapy had
significant word recall compared to the control group. The results of the studies suggested that
Reminiscence therapy led to significantly greater cognitive and affective function than no
treatment. However, further research is necessary to examine its effectiveness compared to
other non-pharmaceutical forms of therapy.

Brian Bonham, Should America move toward socialized medicine?
Mentor Lara Wessel: CoLA
The use of socialized medicine in the United States has been a topic of discussion for
decades, and one of increased attention in recent years. This growing support is due to the
United States, as an economy and a government, spending enormous amounts on healthcare
that rank among the top globally. A longitudinal study of the U.S. socialized medicine
mammoth, Medicaid, shows the potential costs and benefits of a national healthcare system.
Quantitative results support that social medicine would, in the near future, cost more per capita
and establish a higher quality of care; however, in the long run, the expense would be
potentially more affordable for all social classes in America and present the realm of possibility
for a higher standard of care from a utilitarian perspective. The masses should take notice of
the predicament of our healthcare due to the large possibility that unaffordable care may
become a problem to many citizens in growing years; therefore, socialized healthcare legislation
should be considered for this reason.
Eric Branch, Chiral Lactones.
Mentor Brent Feske: CST
Chiral lactones are biologically active molecules that are most commonly found in
pharmaceuticals and as insect pheromones. We have developed a synthesis toward -keto
nitriles using aliphatic aldehydes as the starting material and umpolung chemistry as the key
step. Several -keto nitriles were screened for their ability to be reduced by a bakers yeast
reductase library of twenty ketoreducatases. The enzyme that resulted in the best e.e. was
chosen for the reaction scale up to give gram quantities of the chiral alcohol. The resulting
hydroxynitrile was hydrolyzed followed by spontaneous cyclization to produce the chiral lactone.
Using the ketoreductases as the key asymmetric step we have shown a synthetic strategy to a
variety of chiral lactones.

Ashlee Brett, Strategies for Injury Prevention in the Military.
Mentor David Lake: CHP
Background: Non-combat related musculoskeletal injuries are a major concern to military
personnel; they result in lost hours and impaired combat readiness. To allow soldiers to perform
at their highest level it is necessary to reduce the number of these injuries that are sustained.
This review aims to survey prevention methods which focus on strengthening and stretching
and determine their efficacy in preventing lower limb musculoskeletal injuries in military
Methods: Six databases were searched to find studies which examined the relationship between
training protocol and injuries. Only studies which evaluated military personnel were included;
studies involving other high level athletes were excluded. Nineteen relevant articles were found
by these database searches. The studies were then rated using the PEDro scale and more
confidence was placed in the results of studies which scored higher.
Results: In the studies with active interventions it was generally found that there was a
statistically significant relationship between strength training and decreased incidence of injury.
However, stretching was not found to have a statistically significant impact on injuries.
Conclusion: According to these studies training strengthening exercises and modification of
training both provide a decrease in musculoskeletal injuries in military personnel. However, it
was not conclusively shown that stretching had a positive effect on injuries. Therefore, to
decrease the incidence of lost hours and decreased performance it is necessary to implement a
modified training protocol which focuses on strengthening prior to high intensity physical activity.
Amber Brisard, A review of the Hepatitis B Virus.
Mentor Denene Lofland: CHP
A Hepatitis B infection is caused by the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). It causes irritation and
inflammation to the liver. The HBV is transmissible through body fluids such as: semen, saliva,
blood. People who have unprotected sex, share needles while using drugs, or get tattoos with
unclean needles are just a few examples of people who are at risk of contracting the HBV.
Symptoms of the HBV may not appear until six months after being infected. Some peoples
immune system can fight off the infection some never get rid of it and result in cirrhosis of the
liver. The test that monitor your liver when having chronic hepatitis B are Albumin level,
prothrombin time, and other liver function test. Treating chronic hepatitis B can be as simple of
an antiviral drug to as complicated as drug therapy and a liver transplant. Acute hepatitis does
not require treatment and will go away on its own. There are vaccines available for this virus
and are highly recommended for babies and for people who are at high risk.
Kathryn Brown, Teaching Future Nurses to Educate Patients.
Mentor Debbie Mulford: CHP
The purpose of this project was to teach student nurses how to provide patient education
using the Teach Back Method. Nurses play a vital role in teaching patients how to care for
themselves. Research has shown that in many cases patient education is not properly carried
out and that an estimated 80% of patients cannot later recall health related teaching for a variety
of reasons. The Teach Back Method integrates assessment of patient comprehension and
provides a flexible framework in which to prioritize teaching based on patient needs and nursing
considerations. Increased patient comprehension is linked to better patient quality of life and
lower health care costs. In my project, I developed and taught an in-service for nursing students
at Memorial Hospital designed to define their role in patient education, introduce them to the
Teach Back Method, and identify patient needs in teaching. Students attending the in-service
took a pre- and post-test. Results from the tests showed that students initially held several
misconceptions about patient needs. Following the in-service, students demonstrated a better
understanding of their role and responsibility in the process of patient teaching, increased
familiarity with the Teach Back Method, were better able to identify patient needs.
Rachel Butler, Gordon Wery, Deondra Curry, and Christy Coberly, Number Priming on
Performance Attainment.
Mentor Angie Koban: CST
Numbers have been used by administrators to differentiate versions of tests in academic
settings. Changes in environment have been shown to alter performance attainment; therefore
numbers used as test markers may affect achievement. The researchers endeavored to
discover whether marking an anagram test with either a high (99) or low (49) number could
affect performance. Participants were asked to read a short article which was followed by an
anagram test comprised of fifteen anagrams marked with either a high or low number, and then
given a questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions about the article, demographics,
and if they were aware of the number as a manipulation check. The researchers hypothesized
that those participants who received the anagram test primed with the higher number (99) would
score better than those who received the test primed with the lower number (49). If the
hypothesis is correct, then administrators of tests should consider an alternative method for
differentiating tests so as not to preemptively affect students performance.

Emily Cattanach, The neurological effects of concussion in soccer at the collegiate level: A
Systematic Review.
Mentor David Lake: CHP
INTRODUCTION/ PURPOSE: The goal of this paper was to critically assess whether
concussions cause neurological effects in collegiate soccer players and the risk of sustaining
such neurological effects.
METHOD: Several databases were searched using the words concuss*, brain damage, head
injur*, soccer or futbol, and college* or higher education or universit*.
RESULTS: Thirty-nine articles were found. Nine articles meet the age and collegiate
participation criteria. All studies dealt with only the acute effects of concussion. Of the nine
articles used six were quasi-experimental, two were observational, and one was a randomized
controlled trial. Six of the nine articles found that soccer players were significantly more likely to
have neurological defects after sustaining a concussion when compared to controls. Of the
three articles that did not find a significant difference, two involved direct assessment of the
athletes and the third reviewed reports to the NCAA from the schools. It was found that
concussions with neurologic impact were mostly secondary to player on player head contact
rather than head contact with the ball, ground or goalposts. Additional differences were also
seen differentially by player gender and player position.
DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence that supports that soccer players are more
likely to suffer neurological consequences from concussions than controls. However there have
been no studies of the long-term neurological consequences of concussions in collegiate soccer
players sustained while playing soccer.
Shieeda Chatfield and Brittany Mallard, Effects of cognitive stimulation therapy and anti-
dementia drugs on increasing the quality of life in dementia patients.
Mentor April Garrity: CHP
This study was conducted to determine if cognitive stimulation therapy or anti-dementia
drug intervention was more effective for maintaining a better cognition and quality of life for
people with dementia. Two interventions currently utilized for maintaining cognitive-
communication and affective functions among patients with dementia are cognitive stimulation
therapy and anti-dementia pharmaceuticals. Cognitive stimulation therapy is a brief treatment
for people with mild to moderate dementia. Each session targets to aggressively motivate and
engage patients with dementia; while providing them with an enhanced learning environment
and social benefits of a group.
A thorough review of the literature on this topic yielded four articles that reported on the effects
of anti-dementia drug interventions and cognitive stimulation therapy interventions on dementia.
Aguire et al., 2011 and Spector et al., 2011 compared the use of anti-dementia drugs and
cognitive stimulation therapy intervention. Gardner et al., 2011 described the impact of cognitive
stimulation therapy intervention on dementia clients and Tjia et al., 2010 described the impact
daily medication has on dementia clients.
Based on the results of the four studies reviewed here, cognitive stimulation therapy intervention
will benefit and improve cognitive functions and quality of life for dementia clients over time
more than anti-dementia drugs.
Quality of life can influence verbal communication, motivation in therapy, and interpersonal
relationships. Cognitive stimulation therapy improves the quality of life of patients with dementia
by helping decrease the likelihood of depression by increasing the persons abilities to
communicate and by restoring confidence through a supportive environment.

Stephen Cooke, Replication of a Spatial Learning Task Using Java.
Mentor Ashraf Saad: CST
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the applicability of
spatial learning research from cognitive psychology to the field of
computer science and the shared value of interdisciplinary research. This was accomplished by
comparing data obtained from human subjects in a spatial learning task to that obtained from a
computer program running an analogous task. In a study with humans, participants were
required to navigate bins situated in 5x5 grids in a virtual environment in order to locate four
goals oriented in a randomly placed diamond pattern. To recreate this task with a computer,
Java was used to develop a program that simulates the basic parameters of the aforementioned
spatial learning study. After creating a program capable of performing the spatial learning task I
was able to analyze the methods that were implemented in order for the program to learn the
required diamond pattern. The methods by which the program was able to learn the
associations between goals are relevant to cognitive psychology and the methods for storing the
associations in memory are applicable to cognitive neuroscience. Future research using the
programming developed in this study will involve programming robots to perform the same
spatial learning task. Through this and future studies I hope to foster interest in cross-
disciplinary work by bridging a gap between psychology and computer science.
Morgan Connor, Metal Ion Uptake by Polyacrylate Hydrogels.
Mentor Catherine MacGowan: CST
The use of superabsorbent polyacrylate materials (e.g. hydrogels) for the remediation of
heavy metal ions from water is an area of interest. Hydrogels are hydrophilic, lightly cross-
linked polymer chains that have the ability to absorb up to 300 times their mass in water,
depending on environmental conditions. The objective of our project was two-fold: 1) to
investigate the interaction of superabsorbent polymeric materials with multi-valent metal cations
(e.g. Cu
, Ni
, Fe
, Fe

) and 2) determine the efficiency of the metal remediation
by the hydrogels. For each of the trials, five hydrogel beads were measured for their mass and
diameter prior to being placed in 20.0mL of a solution containing metal cations at concentrations
of 25.0, 50.0, 100.0, and 150.0 parts per million (ppm). After a 24-hour adsorption period, the
swelled beads were removed from the solution and measured for mass and diameter changes.
The concentrations of metal ions in the remaining solution were determined using atomic
absorption spectroscopy. Preliminary results indicate that the beads were very effective for
metal remediation, and that the efficiency is concentration dependent.

Shannon Counihan and Mehul Sheth, Site Saturation Mutagenesis of YDL124Wp Protein.
Mentor Scott Mateer: CST
Site-saturation mutagenesis is a form of site directed mutagenesis in which one specific
amino acid is mutated to every other possibility. Creating a mutation at a specific site will
determine the importance of the specific amino acid at that particular position as well as its
effects on the stereochemistry and chirality of the protein. In our experiment, the class is doing a
site saturation mutagenesis on the YDL124W protein in which our group will be changing
residue 125 from a phenylalanine to tryptophan and valine. YDL124W belongs to the aldose
reductase superfamily, which reduce aromatic alpha-keto amides. If the mutation is successful,
the PstI restriction site will be removed and the plasmid won't be digested and we will then
screen for a positive clone by doing a PstI/PvuI digest. We hypothesize that the change from a
phenylalanine to a tryptophan will have a greater change to the stereochemistry than the
change to a valine due to the physical properties such as hydrophobicity, charge and size of the
side chains. The change from a phenylalanine to a tryptophan will change the side chain from
being hydrophobic to having a slight charge whereas the change to a valine will decrease the
hydrophobicity as well as the size of the side chain. If our mutation is successful, the mutation
will show the importance of phenylalanine at reside 125 when compared to tryptophan and
valine as well as help provide the foundation for further mutagenic research.
Zachary Crawford and Cassy Cooper, The Versa-Pencil.
Mentor Priya Goeser: CST
This product is based on the concept of a mechanical pencil with a redesigned lead
intake mechanism. Repurposing the mechanical function of a drill chuck, the versa-pencil is
adaptable for using multiple lead sizes like a chuck to a drill bit, unlike normal pencils that use
only one lead size. There are several toothed prongs set inside of an angled guide with a
threaded ring placed around all the prongs. The thread on the ring moves over the teeth on the
prongs; this rotation forces the prongs to move in or out along the direction of the guide. The
area enclosed by the prongs decreases as the prongs move out and vice versa as the prongs
move in. This design allows the chuck to accommodate varying sizes of lead.
The roles of each major part in the chuck mechanism are summarized below:
Chuck guide - provides an angled path for the prongs to slide
Four prongs - move up and down along the path to tighten or loosen grip on lead of different
Ring re-sizers - come together to fit on the teeth of prongs to move them up and down with
the rotation of the ring
Currently the design has been completed in SolidWorks and a prototype has been made.
Further research is being done to develop a fully functional prototype

Nicholas Degroot, Pulmonary effects of dioxin exposure from burn pits in the war on terror.
Mentor Douglas Masini: CHP
Introduction: Although enlistees into United States military service are required one to be
free of pulmonary disease, acute onset small airway disease was on the rise within the veteran
population, particularly in those returning from deployment. In nations under which the war on
terror (WOT) operated, burning waste within an open air pit was the primary method of disposal.
This billowing smoke made us question if it could be a potential source of illness. Dioxin is a
known product of low-temperature chlorinated material combustion, and the literature revealed
these low-temperature conditions were reproduced in the burn pit waste disposal method.
Problem statement: Could WOT veterans acute onset airway disease symptoms be explained
by inhalation of dioxin, whose production was secondary to burn pit exposure? Review of the
Literature: Dioxin production was increased in burn-pits with low combustion temperatures and
higher chlorine material content, and dioxin may then become bound to particulate matter < 2.5
m diameter. Dioxin was lipid soluble, and its effect on CD34+ cell gene expression showed
221 gene modulations. Post-deployment rates of blood cancers such as leukemia, lymphoma,
and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have noticeably surged among those with significant
burn pit exposure. Method: We examined multiple burn-pit studies that demonstrated and
estimated dioxin production, particulate travel, presence in human tissue, recognition as a toxin,
known symptomology and the possible materialization of those symptoms among the exposed.
In the absence of directly measured data on burn-pit derived dioxin exposure, these known
capabilities were compared to the plausibility of being reproduced under similar conditions.
Uncontrolled temperature within WOT burn pits have greater potential to produce dioxin from
chlorinated material disposed within, and particulate-binding (< 2.5 m) that allowed for
prolonged atmospheric pollution, deposition after inhalation and alveolar exposure. Early reports
gave tentative evidence that symptomology was becoming increasingly common in young,
previously asymptomatic veterans of the WOT. The variables of short timespan since the start
of the WOT (and the beginning of U.S. veteran burn-pit exposure) may not allow for short term
recognition of dioxins health effects in this sample of the population. We noted that retention of
dioxin within the human body after initial exposure would possibly explain later-in-life symptoms,
and wide-ranging genotoxic qualities would produce equally wide-ranging symptomology.
Conclusion: While more research was recommended, we found that that the literature supported
our contention that service members who participated in burning, or lived next to burn-pits,
could have been exposed to dioxin which has been responsible for atypical lung diseases.

Serina Doolittle and Deep Patel, Mutagenesis of F125.
Mentor Scott Mateer: CST
YDL124w is an enzyme that has been shown to be enantioselective for some carbonyl
substrates. In the binding region of YDL124w, residues 123-125, the amino acid sequence
encodes for serine, proline, and phenylalanine all of which contribute to the binding of a
carbonyl substrate molecule to produce a stereospecific alcohol. During Cell/Molecular lab, the
class preformed site saturation mutagenesis, a type of circular mutagenesis, to residue 125
(phenylalanine). The focus of this group is to modify phenylalanine at residue 125 to either a
proline or glutamine residue. Mutating this residue could potentially change the stereospecificity
of the enzyme YDL124w. Phenylalanine and proline have similar chemical properties, such as
being nonpolar, that may lead to the binding regions of the enzyme being able to produce the
same enantiomer as YDL124w Glutamine, however, is opposite in chemical properties
compared to phenylalanine, it is polar, which may lead to the binding region to produce another
enantiomer. A Pst1 and PVU1 Restriction Enzyme Digest will screen for the mutants. If the
mutagenesis was successful then the Pst1 restriction site should have been eliminated. To
completely verify that the correct mutation has been made at residue 125 the suspected mutant
will have its DNA sequenced. By mutating the F125 site to proline and glutamine, a better
understanding of how the binding region of YDL124w works can help predict the
stereochemistry of enzymes.

James Duddleston and Amanda Murrell, A multi-proxy record of paleohydrogeology in a
southeastern USA tidal marsh: diatoms and sediment composition.
Mentor Jay Hodgson: CST
We cored the sediments of Groves Creek near Savannah, GA, which is a marsh
characteristic of southeastern USA tidal environments, for diatom frustule and sediment grain
analysis. Our working hypothesis for this marsh is that it underwent hydrogeologic changes
through time, and these changes would be evident in shifts in diatom community structure and
sediment composition. The top 300 cm of the core was dominated by epipelic (attached to clay)
and epiphytic (attached to plants) species of diatoms, and the lower 300 cm of the core was
dominated by episammic (attached to sand) and haptobenthic species. The upper 300 cm of
the core was primarily clay, with a maxima of 78% of the sediment composition, and the lower
300 cm of the core was primarily sand, with a maxima of 93% of the sediments. Diatom PC1
was significantly correlated with both % clay (r = 0.445, p < 0.0001) and % sand (r = -0.469, p <
0.0001). These results suggest that this environment transitioned from a shallower, sandy
environment to a deeper, muddy environment through time.
Patrick Ellington and Natasha Hall, Circular Site Saturated Mutagenesis on YDL124w.
Mentor Scott Mateer: CST
The YDL124W protein is a highly enantioselective alpha-keto reductase that uses
NADPH to reduce achiral molecules to chiral molecules. In a class-wide project, circular site
saturated mutagenesis was used to saturate position F125 on the YDL124w gene. In particular,
our group mutated the F125 residue to glycine (G) and glutamic acid (E). By introducing these
two mutations, the PSTI site in the 123-125 region was eliminated. A PSTI/PVUI digest was
then used to screen the DNA samples and clones that were positive for the PSTI site elimination
had their mutations verified by DNA sequencing. Measuring enzymatic activity post-
mutagenesis has the potential to provide insight about the importance of the F125 residue to
making enantiospecific chiral molecules. When mutating phenylalanine (F) to glutamic acid, a
significant decrease in activity is suspected because of the vast difference in the chemistry of
their respective side chains. However, a change from phenylalanine to glycine should not cause
major activity differences because both amino acids have non-polar side chains which give
them similar chemical properties. Once more is known about the nature of enantiospecific
activity of enzymes like YDL124wp, the making of enantiomerically pure substances could be
greatly benefitted.

Madison Esposito, The Meat Eaters Mouth
Mentor Debbie Tucker: CST
Purpose/subjects: This experiment will compare the effects of animal product based
diets on the cheek cells, the salivary amylase production and efficiency, and the bacterial
environment of the human mouth. The experimental subjects will have varying diets in relation
to their intake of animal products. One subject will eat an average amount of meat and animal
products, one subject will eat no meat but will eat animal products, one subject will eat neither
meat nor animal products, and the final subject will eat twice the animal product intake of the
average meat eater.
Procedure: A saliva sample will be taken from the subjects twice daily for a week, once after
brushing and rinsing with mouthwash and again after a midday meal. Petri dishes of sheep
blood agar will be inoculated with the samples saliva. The cultures will be grown and the
species and number of CFU of the cultures will be compared between subjects. The level of
hemolysis of the cells will also be observed and compared. At the beginning and end of the
week long experimental period cheek cells will be harvested from each sample and observed for
swelling or other abnormalities. At the end of the week a 1 ml saliva sample will be obtained
from each subject and then introduced to a 1 ml sample meal relative to the subjects diet. The
sample meal will be tested for glucose levels before introduction of saliva and then again after
Katharine Field, Samantha Cain, Jessica Ferguson, and Jenna Birch, Effect of Positivity on
Memory Recall.
Mentor Angie Koban: CST
Feedback can be beneficial or detrimental in many different settings. For example,
positivity in the classroom can motivate, encourage, and improve a students overall perception
of their own capabilities. Previous research on feedback has suggested that positive feedback
improves memory performance. Our study examined the effects of positive or doubtful
comments on memory recall. There were three experimental groups, a positive comment group,
a doubtful comment group, and a no comment (control) group. We examined these effects by
testing the participants ability to recall specific details from a given article. The participants read
an article and then were tested with a fact recall sheet and five multiple-choice questions. We
hypothesized that we would see a significant increase in the amount of facts recalled and
correct questions answered in the positive comment group, and a significant decrease in the
doubtful and control groups. We believe our results may be able to create a more positive
learning environment where positive feedback can be used to improve memory.

Steven Finnell and Joey Grasso, Coordinate Point Navigation for a Mobile Robot.
Mentor Ashraf Saad: CST
My research project consists of getting a robot to navigate to a certain point on a 5x5
grid by using the shortest route possible. By doing this we will be displaying an example of how
programming and math form a type of union and increasing interest in programming as well as
the robotics field.
By using the built in thumbwheel as well as the built in screen, the robot prompts the user for its
current orientation as well as the starting x and y coordinates and the end x and y coordinates.
Using the data gathered from the user we will use a mathematical approach by treating the 5x5
grid as the first quadrant of a coordinate plane. By doing this we see that each intersection is
identified by a coordinate. We take the user input and use the slope formula to find the distance
we need to travel. This way if the starting coordinate is [1,0] and the end coordinate is [2,3] we
know that the robot needs to travel one intersection over and 3 intersections up.
To keep the IntelliBrain-bot from running into the white space, we plan on using the robots four
line sensors. The way the line sensors work is that the robot sends out a signal which returns a
voltage between 0 and 5. 0 being pure white and 5 being pure black then the robot will return a
value from 0-1023 depending on the voltage it reads. This leaves a wide margin to identify
whether a color is black and white. The robot follows the line using its inner line sensors by
turning slightly right every time the left sensor picks up white and turning left every time the right
sensor picks up white. The outer line sensors will be used to count the amount of intersections
that the robot has passed by. This lets use tell the robot to go up or over until a specific amount
of intersections have been counted.
By combining the programming aspect of this project as well as the mathematical concept being
used, a clear demonstration of the integration between math and programming through the use
of an easy concept is demonstrated. Due to the ease of the math, students in middle school or
higher can understand how the robot does what it does. This is the goal we are aiming for
because our end goal is to promote students interest in the computer science field.
**Abigail Foos, Brittany Hughes, and Ashleigh Hurd Comparing Inpatient and Outpatient
Treatment for Reintegrating Military Personnel with Traumatic Brain Injury Back into the
Mentor April Garrity: CHP
According to the U.S. Department of Defense, traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the
signature injury associated with the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan ( We use
two primary models of rehabilitation for our military with TBI. Inpatient facilities allow for
intensive treatment, however, the patient is required to remain at the facility for extended
periods of time. Outpatient therapy permits the patient to receive services for a short amount of
time each day, and return home to their families. Given the differences in these models, we
asked: Which of these models is associated with more positive outcomes for reintegrating
military service members with varying degrees of TBI into the community? Our literature search
produced three articles addressing this question. Braverman et al. (1999) discuss the use of an
intensive 8-week inpatient TBI treatment program to target a variety of social, cognitive, and
vocational areas. The Group Interactive Structured Therapy (GIST) is a 13-week, outpatient,
group intervention for individuals with varying degrees of TBI, targeting better community
functioning (Hawley & Newman, 2010). Trudel et al. (2007) provides a systematic review
discussing various methods of intervention for members of the military suffering from a TBI,
including inpatient and outpatient treatment. Results of these studies suggest that inpatient and
outpatient methods are both effective, but family and personal aspects should be the deciding
factor in determining which method to pursue. More research evidence about both of these
models is required in order to prescribe optimal treatment to our military service members with
Arianne Gauthier, Anthony Ravita, and Elise Santorella, Cellular localization of two Golgi
tethering proteins.
Mentor Sara Gremillion: CST
In order to maintain proper Golgi function, this organelle must continually recycle
membrane and enzymes lost by departing vesicles. The Conserved Oligomeric Golgi (COG)
complex is a tethering complex involved in the retrograde transport, or recycling, of vesicles
within the Golgi. Studies in animal and yeast cells revealed that the COG is an eight-protein
complex with the essential subunits of COGs1-4. In the filamentous fungus Aspergillus
nidulans, very little is known of the COG complex. Fusion PCR and cell transformations were
used to create two new strains of A. nidulans with GFP-tagged versions of the homologues of
COG2 and COG4. A punctate pattern of fluorescence was observed in each strain. These
results are indicative of Golgi localization in fungi; therefore, the homologues likely carry out a
similar function in A. nidulans as COGs of other organisms.

Catherine Gallahue, Juanita Velez, Lindsay Langton, and Kayla Martin, Correlates of Sub-
Clinical Narcissism.
Mentor Nancy McCarley: CST
The goal of our study was to investigate the relationship between forms of narcissism
and both compulsiveness and dissociation. Given that grandiose narcissism includes repression
of negative representations (of self and others) and distortion of disconfirming information
(Pincus & Lukowitsky, 2009), we hypothesized a positive correlation between grandiose
narcissism and dissociative experiences. Because vulnerable narcissism entails a lack of
engagement in compensatory behaviors that effectively ameliorate self-doubt, social anxiety,
and hypersensitivity, we anticipated a negative correlation between vulnerable narcissism and
The participants were 379 undergraduate Introduction to Psychology students who received
research credit for completion of the online survey. Narcissism was measured using the
Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI; Pincus et al., 2009). Additional personality traits were
assessed using the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES; Carlson & Putnam, 1993) and the
Compulsiveness Inventory (CI; Kagan & Squires, 1985).
Pearson correlation coefficients were computed among the PNI subscales, CI, and DES. As
predicted, significant correlations were obtained between grandiose narcissism and DES scores
(r = .354, p < .001, 2-tailed) and between vulnerable narcissism and CI scores (r = -.248, p <
.001, 2-tailed).
Although the hypotheses were confirmed, two concerns emerged. First, the overall magnitude of
the relationships was modest. Also, we did not find a differential pattern of associations among
the scales. Thus, dividing narcissism into subtypes would appear to have limited utility vis a vis
compulsiveness and dissociation. This is consistent with Ronningstams (2009) observation that
the narcissistic individual may fluctuate between assertive grandiosity and vulnerability (p.
Natasha Hall, Bilateral Modeling of Jaw Force and Skull Kinetics.
Mentor Austin Francis: CST
Migration of the eye during development contributes to bilateral asymmetry in flatfishes.
Functional consequences of this morphological asymmetry were examined in the gulf flounder,
Paralichthys albigutta. Seven gulf flounder were collected from the Florida coast (Atlantic and
Gulf of Mexico) by hook and line or seine net in 2001-2002. Fish were preserved in 10%
formalin for approximately one week and later transferred to 70% ethyl alcohol. To model the
feeding biomechanics, gulf flounder were dissected to reveal the jaws and muscles of the head.
Important biomechanical landmarks of the ocular and blind sides were digitally photographed
and measured using image analysis software. Measurements included opening and closing in-
levers, the lower jaw out-lever, adductor mandibulae II muscle length, and mandible length. The
adductor mandibulae muscle was subsequently extracted, divided into the three principle
divisions (I, I, and II) and weighed. These measurements were entered into the
biomechanical modeling software MandibLever to generate predicted torque, gape velocity, and
angle velocity. The modeling results were used to compare jaw force and skull kinetics of ocular
and blind sides. For six of the flounder, most modeled variables were not significantly different
between sides. One exception was effective mechanical advantage, which indicated the blind
side consistently demonstrates greater mechanical advantage. Additionally, one small flounder
(13 cm SL versus an average of 22 cm SL) exhibited asymmetry across a number of variables.
As a result, future work will increase the sample size of smaller flounder to examine ontogenetic
changes in feeding performance.

Ronald Hayes and Scott Sadler, Mutagenesis of YDL124w.
Mentor Scott Mateer: CST
YDL124W is a NADPH-dependent alpha-keto amide reductase used to make chiral
alcohols. Enantoselectivity refers to the production of one enantiomer over another.
Enantoselectivity is also important because enantiomers are chemically the same, but the
optical rotation and functionally divergent; this is extremely important when pharmaceutical
industries make new drugs for human health purposes. The class is using circular mutagenesis
to perform site saturation at F125 (phenylalanine 125) in the YDL 124W gene. Our group is
responsible for mutating the F125 to either an Arginine or a Serine residue. When compared to
Phenylalanine, Arginine introduces a more bulky side chain that is positively charged and basic,
while Serine is smaller with a polar side chain. By changing the F125 site to the intended
residues we will determine enzyme stereoselectivity to prefer one specific enantiomer
configuration allowing for an enzymatic reaction to happen. Our mutagenesis will eliminate the
F125 site so in order to screen for our mutant clones we will use the restriction digest with the
enzymes PstI/ PvuI and further verify changes by DNA sequencing.

Terika Howard, The Rubeola Virus.
Mentor Denene Lofland: CHP
The Rubeola virus is commonly known as measles. It is a member of the Paramyxovirus
family and contains a haemagglutin protein in the lipid bilayer. The Rubeola virus is antigenically
stable as well. It is a respiratory virus that grows in the cells of the lungs and throat. The virus
mode infection is through droplets in the air or by direct contact with infected nasal discharge
from people. Due to vaccination in the United States, the number of reported cases of the
Rubeola Virus is on the decline, as opposed to other parts of the world. The Rubeola virus
presents itself as a rash, cough, high fever and can cause encephalitis. Testing for Measles
includes; serological testing, PCR, and isolation of measles. Preventative measure for the
Rubeola virus is through live and inactivated vaccination.

Lara Kemp, American Alligators: The History of Hunting and Conservation in the American
Mentor Michael Hall: CoLA
This study was chosen as my main research paper for my History 3500 course, and I
believed that this would be interesting and informative subject. I have mainly done my research
by reading scholarly articles on the American Alligator, and I have also contacted DNRs from
Southern states to see what information they could provide on their conservation efforts and
their restricted huntings. I also have contacted groups who are part of the removal of nuisance
alligators and how they remove them from the area they are in and what happens to them after
their removal.
My findings so far have been that all the Southern states have their own specific ways of
dealing with the removal of nuisance alligators and that their restricted hunting seasons varies
per state. My findings have also shown that a lot of people in the past believed that the
alligators where monsters created by the devil because of their looks which is one of the
reasons why they were hunted so ferociously, another reason that I have found is that people
liked the looked of tanned alligator hides for fashion purposes.
Stephen Kennedy, Synthetic Efforts toward New Bis(pyrazolyl)alkane Ligands.
Mentor Brandon Quillian: CST
Literature precedence has shown that minor changes to the surrounding environment of
an organometallic complex can heavily influence its reactivity. Indeed, the simple conversion of
a proton to a methyl group can either enhance or inhibit certain reactivity. We have prepared
Ru(II) complexes with bis(pyrazolyl)acetate (BPA) as support ligands as precursors for the
preparation of olefin hydroarylation catalysts. We now are interested in preparing similar support
ligands with methyl substitution at the methine position to examine its coordination chemistry
with ruthenium and to mask the acidic methine proton of BPA, which may be problematic during
future studies. We describe in this presentation our current efforts and future strategies to
prepare 2,2-bis(pyrazolyl)propionic acid.

Lia Kerkes, Gene Expression in Spanish Moss.
Mentor Robert Gregerson: CST
Objective: The objective of the project is to measure expression of a set of genes
associated with nutrient assimilation in Spanish moss.
Methods: RT-PCR was used to qualitatively measure gene expression. We used a variety of
primers to measure the expression of multiple genes followed by gel electrophoresis to visualize
the PCR products.
Conclusion: We cannot determine what the mode of regulation is at this time but will continue

Justin Kriske, Mapping the Shores of MATLAB: Exploring Beginners and Advanced
Mentor Priya Goeser: CST
This work presents recent updates to MatLab Marina, a Virtual Learning Environment
(VLE) dedicated to teaching programming concepts using MATLAB. The VLE now includes a
number of programming concepts that have instructional multimedia tutorials especially
addressing particularly difficult concepts. Recent efforts have been focused on completing the
content and number of tutorials available for the freshmen programming course Computing for
Engineers (ENGR 1371). The various topics included are cell arrays, structures, functions, and
iteration. A few advanced programming concepts such as nested functions, integration and
roots of equations that are extensively used in a sophomore course Computational Modeling
(ENGR2010) have also been included.
The tutorials are created to be viewed in five minutes or less, with video, audio, and captions
used to quickly and effectively explain concepts in a multimedia experience. The tutorials are
developed using various software: PowerPoint and MATLAB for constructing the visual aids;
Natural Reader for audio; Camtasia for synthesizing the visual and audio components to
produce the final video; and the tutorials are housed on YouTube with links from the
corresponding website.
MATLAB is used by engineering students and professionals globally and so building effective
instructional material is beneficial to this community. Currently there are a total of 65 tutorials,
with a total of 57,693 views, with 22,164 views within the U.S. which shows their extensive use
locally and globally. This and other assessment statistics show that MatLab Marina is being
used and has significantly improved student learning of programming concepts.

John Lamb, M Walker, and C. Weed, Detection of Fusarium solani in Failed Loggerhead Sea
Turtle (Caretta caretta) Eggs from Jekyll Island, GA.
Mentor Jennifer Bailey: CST
Loggerhead hatch success is significantly lower in Georgia than for sea turtles globally.
Microbial infection represents one explanation for why eggs fail to hatch. The fungus Fusarium
solani has been implicated in the death of loggerhead eggs on Boavista Island (Cape Verde,
Africa), a major global nesting site, and has been detected in failed eggs collected from
Australia. The potential involvement of F. solani in loggerhead embryo mortality in coastal
Georgia has not been explored. In 2010, failed loggerhead eggs were collected from northern,
central and southern coastal regions of Jekyll Island, GA. DNA was extracted from aseptically
collected egg fluid. Thirty eight DNA samples were then screened by PCR using fungal-specific
primers (ITS5F and ITS4Rev) that amplify the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. With
each PCR run, a positive control (Fusarium solani genomic DNA) and a no template control was
performed. Products formed from 18 samples, 11 of which were cloned and sequenced.
While members of the fungal genera Penicillium, Capnodiales, Aspergillus and Dothideales
were present, sequences corresponding to Fusarium solani (99-100% identity) were the
dominant type recovered (77% of 61 sequences). Four out of the six nests screened had at
least one egg containing F. solani. While it was not known whether this organism contributed to
embryo mortality in the sampled eggs, this is the first known report of F. solani in North
American loggerhead eggs.
Haley Lattke, Colombia: The European Unions Attempts at Conflict Resolution through Official
Development Aid and Peace Laboratories
Mentor Jose daCruz: CoLA
For more than fifty years, Colombia has been ravaged by a violent internal armed
conflict. Illegal armed groups such as the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and
the National Liberation Army (ELN) are guilty of systematic human rights and humanitarian
abuses against the civilian population in Colombia. Such atrocities have attracted the attention
of prominent international actors, including the European Union. This paper examines the
intervention efforts made by the European Union since the early 1990s to build lasting and
sustainable peace in the Republic of Colombia. These efforts include, but are not limited to,
Official Development Aid and Peace Laboratories as the primary instruments for carrying out the
objectives the European Union hopes to achieve through its aid to Colombia. Through its Official
Development Aid and Peace Laboratories, the European Union, in conjunction with the
Colombian government, has been able to alleviate the conflict at the local level and help set the
foundation for a more peaceful and stable Colombia. Although efforts made by the European
Union have certainly yielded positive results, they have also had their shortcomings. This proves
the need for further peace building initiatives outside of the areas targeted by the European

Christiaan Layer, Dominque Walker, and James Parker, Effects of Note-Taking on Lecture
Mentors Joshua Williams and Nancy McCarley: CST
Note-taking has been one of the most prominent pillars of student learning. Traditionally,
students construct their notes in real-time during lectures. Past research inquired whether it
would be more beneficial for students to wait until after lecture to devise notes. Would doing so
increase short term and long-term retention of information? In this study, three introductory
psychology courses listened to a lecture under three conditions: note-taking in real-time,
delayed note-taking, and no note-taking at all. Each condition was given a consolidation period
of ten minutes after the lecture, during which students were to actively engage in the information
they received. The short-term retention was assessed using a quiz that immediately followed
the consolidation period. In a month, the same quiz will be re-administered to assess long-term
retention. It is hypothesized that the students under the delayed note-taking condition will exhibit
greater long-term retention because they were able to actively engage in the lecture material
without the distraction of writing notes in real-time. They also had a second opportunity to
actively engage in the information by constructing their notes after the lecture.

Renee Louis, Philip Rapillard, Samantha Galbraith, Annastacia Laing, and Lilianny Stephenson,
Does the Presentation of Music Affect Memory?
Mentor Angie Koban: CST
Research demonstrates that adults with musical training have better verbal memory and
more developed cognitive functioning than adults without musical training. Music, when paired
with advertisements, creates favorable associations and enhances the memorization of product
information. This musical pairing could be useful for scholastic learning. Our experiment was
designed to examine the effect of music on memory. Three conditions were used to manipulate
memory: lyrics spoken alone, lyrics spoken with background instrumental, and lyrics presented
in song form (i.e. sung with background instrumental). Participants then listened to an audio clip
of one of the three manipulations. They then completed a questionnaire designed to measure
memory recall. We hypothesized that information presented in song form (both sung and
spoken) would promote significantly higher memory recall than information being spoken
without music. If our results show a significant difference in the amount of information retained
with music compared to without music, than it would be logical to assume that music is capable
of enhancing memory. Educators should therefore consider implementing coursework and
lessons that involve music.
Sami Mastrario, W. E. B. Du Bois and the Wings of Atlanta.
Mentor Mary Barr: CoLA
My poster presentation is on my attendance to the W. E. B. Du Bois and the Wings of
Atlanta 50 Anniversary Commemorative Conference. My poster will focus specifically on the
bust dedication ceremony of W. E. B. Du Bois. It will show prominent speakers at the dedication
including W. E. B. Du Bois great-grandson Mr. Arthur McFarlane, project manager Stephanie
Evans, and the sculptor, Professor Ayokunle Odeleye. The poster is also going to have detailed
images of the bust and analysis in how it portrays Du Bois.

**Patty Mattingly, Lindsey Bartlett, and Annie Heekin, Group Therapy in Individuals with Chronic
Mentor April Garrity: CHP
Clinical Question: Aphasia is a disorder resulting from damage to the language centers
of the brain. Two primary models of aphasia intervention include individual services and
services rendered in a group environment. In order to determine which of these models has
greater clinical efficacy, we asked: Do individuals with chronic aphasia who attend group
therapy see greater improvement in communication skills and quality of life when compared to
those who do not engage in group therapy?
Methods/Procedures: A literature search yielded four articles addressing communication skills
and quality of life among individuals with aphasia who participated in-group intervention models.
Schoten et al. (2011) and Vickers (2010) focused on research collected from individuals who
participated in group therapy and completed patient interviews and questionnaires about
perceived quality of life.
Outcomes: Group intervention techniques were effective in improving both communication skills
and various measures of quality of life. Specifically, Schoten et al. (2011) and Vickers (2010)
found positive psychosocial outcomes reflected in group therapy participants increased
involvement in community activities.
Conclusion: The articles suggest that individuals with chronic aphasia who participate in group
intervention showed greater improvements with regard to communication skills and in various
aspects of quality of life when compared to individuals with aphasia who do not engage in group
Daniel Meis, The Effect of Fire on Florida Sand Skink Effective Population Size.
Mentor Aaron Schrey: CST
The Florida Sand Skink (Plestiodon reynoldsi) is precinctive to the Florida Scrub, one of
the worlds most threatened habitats. The Florida Sand Skink is threatened because of their
close association with this disappearing habitat. An additional concern for conservation and
management is that the Florida Scrub is maintained by infrequent fire. These fires are known to
affect genetic characteristics of Florida Sand Skink populations. We characterized the effect of
fire on the effective population size of Florida Sand Skinks (n=611) from 13 locations at the
Archbold Biological Station. Each location has a well-documented fire history dating back
approximately 70 years. We screened 7 microsatellite loci and used two statistical methods to
estimate the effective population size. The effective population size was maximized in locations
that had not been burned for 10 to 25 years. Also, there was a negative correlation between the
total number of fires in a location and the effective population size. Our data suggest that Florida
Sand Skink populations may benefit from infrequent fires, but they may be negatively affected
by multiple fires in the same location. However, we note that there are multiple species that use
the Florida scrub habitat and each may prefer unique fire return intervals.
Oneida Muniz and Jalesia Horton, Altering Enantiomeric Specificity: Circular Mutagenesis of
YDL124Wp Reductase.
Mentor Scott Mateer: CST
Certain types of mutagenesis provide various pharmaceutical advantages including
fewer adverse effects and lower doses. The purpose of our work is to change the enantiomeric
specificity of the Yeast Reductase YDL124Wp by mutating the Loop A active site of the enzyme
at F125. The active site of this enzyme interacts with carbonyls reducing them to chiral
alcohols. Our enzyme is so stereospecific that it usually produces one enantiomer alcohol from
a carbonyl substrate. By mutating the F125 site we are aspiring to find out if changing the amino
acid will change the enantiomeric specificity of this enzyme. As a class we will perform circular
site-saturation mutagenesis of YDL124Wp by saturating position 125 with every other amino
acid. My partner and I will alter the enzyme by replacing F125 with either a Lysine or Isoleucine.
If mutation occurred, the Pst1 cut site should be eliminated in the clones. We will verify if the
appropriate mutant was made via a PstI/PvuI restriction digest and DNA sequencing. We
speculate that the mutation from Phenylalanine to Isoleucine will not produce significant change
in structural integrity because both molecules are relatively bulky and nonpolar. However the
mutation to Lysine is expected to produce significant change since it is polar charged and is
capable of ionic and hydrogen bonding. During the course of this experiment we will determine if
by mutating F125 we can change the enantiomeric specificity of this enzyme and as a result
produce the other chiral product that is not typically generated.
Megan Netherland, Population Genetics of the Peninsula Crowned Snake.
Mentor Aaron Schrey: CST
The Peninsula Crowned Snake (Tantilla relicta relicta) is a fossorial species that is
adapted to xeric upland habitats in central Florida. This habitat is more commonly known as the
Florida Scrub region, which boasts very diverse reptile inhabitants and is also under severe
threat due to commercial development. Very little information exists about this species and with
the potential need for conservation we have endeavored to learn more about the Peninsula
Crown Snake population. To provide important information about this species, we investigated
the genetic characteristics across its range. We screened genetic variation of a portion of the
mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene and RAG-1 gene in 60 Peninsula Crowned Snakes collected
from 13 Lake Wales Ridge sites. Multiple PCRs were run in order to amplify the desired genes
in the mitochondrial DNA and once obtained the samples were sequenced at the UGA genome
facility. The sample sequences were then compared using multiple phylogenetic software
packages. We detected population structure among geographic locations and identified a
phylogeographic pattern that was similar to other Florida scrub reptiles. This suggests the
various reptile species have inhabited the same geographic region for many generations and
have perhaps evolved together based on their common environmental conditions. These finding
will provide a foundation for future research on this species, especially should the need arise to
conserve the species.
Y. Tram Nguyen and Benjamin Oliver, YDL124w: Expression, Purification, Crystallization.
Mentor Mitch Weiland: CST
The aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily comprises several enzymes that catalyze
many redox reactions by converting carbonyl functional groups to alcohols. One general
structure feature of these enzymes is the adoption of an (alpha/beta)
-barrel structure, which
represents a compact but adaptable scaffolding suitable for a wide range of carbonyl substrates.
Currently, there are 115 members in the superfamily that comprise 14 different families. One
such protein, encoded by the yeast reductase gene YDL-124w, is an NADPH-dependent alpha-
keto amide reductase that functions to reduce aromatic alpha-keto amides, aliphatic and
aromatic alpha-keto esters to alcohols. Previous studies have utilized recombinant YDL-124w
with a GST fusion tag to study protein function. Current efforts focusing on the expression,
purification, and crystallization of the YDL-124w protein will be described.
Ryan Olliff, Using Biocatalysis to Produce Chiral, Biologically Active Lactones.
Mentor Brent Feske: CST
Lactones are cyclic esters found in a number of biologically active compounds, including
the cholesterol-lowering drugs Lovastatin and Simvastatin. Lactones are also found in nature as
chemical signals among other things, including the beetle pheromone (R)--caprolactone. We
have shown the production of enantiomerically pure lactones utilizing biocatalysis. Various
aromatic aldehydes were reacted to the corresponding ketones through a number of organic
syntheses. A library of 20 bakers yeast enzymes over-expressed in Escherichia coli was then
screened for the enzymes ability to asymmetrically reduce the ketones to alcohols. The enzyme
affording the greatest enantiomeric excess was then chosen for scale up to increase yield and
the nitrile was hydrolyzed to afford the asymmetric lactone. Since these reactions were
performed with enzymes, the need for harsh solvents, reactants and heavy metal catalysts was
Nicole Ormand, Dentition Patterns Found in the Upper and Lower Jaws of the Southern
Flounder, Paralicthys lethostigma.
Mentor Austin Francis: CST
Flatfishes are well known for their asymmetrical characteristics, the most common is that
of having both eyes on the same side of the body. Many species of flatfishes have been known
to exhibit a difference in both the number and size of teeth on either side of the head. However,
not much is known about the dentition patterns of the southern flounder, Paralichthys
lethostigma. To better understand the function and occurrence of dental asymmetry in flatfishes,
both the number and size of teeth were examined in the southern flounder. 28 fish were
dissected to examine the upper and lower jaws of both eyed (ocular) and blind sides of the
head. Each jaw element was cleaned and dried to better reveal the teeth. Each jaw element
was then digitally photographed. Number of teeth was counted by hand and image analysis
software was used to measure the length and width each tooth. A comparison between ocular
and blind sides of the head did not reveal any significant difference in the number of teeth, the
length of the teeth, or the width of the teeth for either the upper or lower jaws. Comparing the
average teeth length for blind and ocular sides for both the upper and lower jaws shows a
slightly higher length in the blind sides. However, this difference is very small and may not be a
significant when comparing the two sides. The absence of asymmetrical dentition is probably
the result of their diet. The southern flounder typically eats crustaceans and shrimp, which walk
along the bottom and smaller fish. Because their prey size is smaller and may not be as quick
as some other type of prey, differences in blind and ocular sides for feeding may not be
essential to catch their prey.

Erin ORourke, The Therasuit Method: A Systematic Review.
Mentor Dr. David Lake: CHP
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Cerebral palsy (CP) describes a group of disorders of
movement and posture that cause activity limitation. Common symptoms include tight muscles
with decreased strength, abnormal gait, and lack of overall motor control and coordination. One
recent development in the treatment of CP is the Therasuit method, which utilizes a dynamic
proprioceptive orthosis that is worn by the patient during their rehabilitation sessions. The aim of
this review is to assess the effectiveness of the use of the Therasuit in treating the symptoms
of CP in children.
METHOD: Several databases were searched using the terms cerebral palsy, treatment, and
Therasuit. Seven articles were found and one was eliminated as it pertained to adults. The
remaining six articles included a pilot study and case studies in addition to a randomized
controlled trial, and all were used due to the paucity of the literature. PEDro scale was used to
rate the articles.
RESULTS: Articles scoring lower on the PEDro scale noted improvements in both GMFM and
PEDI scores of the participants while the higher quality articles did not report any significant
changes in these scores.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the minimal research that has been conducted, children who
participated in the Therasuit method did not appear to show any improvements in their
symptoms that were not also observed in children who participated in more traditional treatment
Ashley Ortiz, Shingles: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Preventative.
Mentor Denene Lofland: CHP
I will be presenting a poster for the Medical Laboratory Science program. The poster will
reflect information about shingles, herpes zoster virus, caused by the same virus that provokes
chicken pox, varicella zoster, years later. It is a painful, blister skin rash that usually resides as
a ring around the torso. Most people at risk for reactivation of the virus are
immunocompromised or over 60 years old. There are other complications associated like vision
loss, postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), and hospitalization if there are more than one
immunocompromised conditions. The diagnosis can be done via polymerase chain reaction,
which is the gold standard molecular technology for amplifying DNA for fastidious organisms in
the lab. Treatments are primary antiviral prescription drugs, where also at the pharmacy the
preventative vaccine can be given.
Kelly OToole, Stem Cell Transplantation for Subjects with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.
Mentor David Lake: CHP
Purpose: This systematic review was done to determine if stem cell transplantation
improves function in subjects with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD).
Hypothesis: It was hypothesized that cell transplantation would be a viable treatment.
Methods: Databases used to find articles include PubMed, Medline, Cinahl and Pedro.
Keywords and phrases used in the search include Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, stem cell,
transplantation, therapy, and treatment.
Results: Twenty-eight articles were found to contain relevant information. After removing
duplicates, Twenty-two articles remained, were screened and assessed. Fifteen articles did not
fit the appropriate improve function criteria for this study. The seven articles remaining were
used for this systematic review. One articles results showed an improvement in contraction
force while another did not show significant improvement of contractility. One article showed no
difference in muscle strength. Two articles showed some levels of donor dystrophin/dystrophin
fibers at early testing, before reducing to non-significant amounts. Three articles did not have
significant amounts of donor dystrophin/dystrophin fibers present. A major problem in comparing
these articles was the differing definition of function in each study.
Conclusion/Summary: Currently, stem cell transplantation cannot be considered as a
therapeutic treatment to improve function and/or contractility in subjects with DMD. Based on
the positive evidence, it is also suggested that with modifications and progression, stem cell
transplantation could improve function in DMD subjects.

Quinn Pangborn, Joshua Hill and Austin Esch, Early Religious Involvement as a Predictor of
Sensation Seeking and Feelings of Guilt and Shame.
Mentor Vann Scott: CST
It is undeniable that, as a whole, Western Culture demonstrates an interest in multiple
facets of religiosity. Whether raised in a religious home environment or educated through
personal interest, religious beliefs and environmental influences play key roles in how
individuals perceive the integrity of their past and future behavior. An area of particular interest
in its relationship to religiosity is that of sensation seeking, a term that is characteristically
described as a trait revealed through varied, novel, complex sensations and experiences
(Roberti2004). First measured by Marvin Zuckerman in 1994, sensation seeking includes
behavioral modalities of physical, social, legal, and financial forms. Personal decisions can
either motivate or hinder ones self-image based upon personal beliefs. The following study
used self-report measures to determine levels of guilt and shame based upon hypothetical
situations and sensation seeking variables in relation to religiosity. The hypothesis of this study
supports the notion that individuals revealing a higher involvement in religiosity will experience
increased feelings of potential guilt and shame in those proposed situations than do those with
little religious involvement. A further correlation of interest will be scores of religious involvement
to the measures of the sensation seeking component. Although this study is currently in its data
collection phase, it is believed that the findings will fully support our hypothesis.
James Parker, Question-writing as an active learning method.
Mentor Nancy McCarley: CST
An integral component of active learning in higher education is the design and
implementation of techniques which can be used by students to retain classroom materials.
Studies show that students who write multiple choice questions on textbook material will have
higher exam scores than students who do not write questions. As most college instructors use
the traditional lecture format, I asked if question-writing may be used to enhance retention of
lecture information. I hypothesized that if students wrote multiple choice questions after a
lecture they would score higher on a quiz relative to students who did not write questions.
Participants were students who were enrolled in Introduction to Psychology (N = 103).
Participants were randomly assigned to either the Basic Reflection or Question-writing group.
All students attended a 30-minute lecture given by an instructor who was blind to the prupose of
the study. Following the lecture, the Question-writing group wrote multiple choice questions
based on their lecture notes and the Basic Reflection group simply studied their notes.
Initial results indicated that there was no significant difference between the quiz performance of
the Question-writing and Basic Reflection groups. Further analysis of the Question-writing
group revealed a tendency for students to compose more specific (factual) questions and to
perform better on the quiz if they composed more specific questions. As there was no impact of
the Question-writing method on short term retention, a new phase of the study has been
initiated to examine the long term impact of the method.

Kristina Pascutti, Adam Parker, Evan Boggs, and Melody Johnson, Identification of Fungi from
Failed Sea Turtle Eggs.
Mentor Jennifer Brofft Bailey: CST
Sea turtles, including loggerheads (Caretta caretta), have long been a point of
controversy as concern for their conservation continues to grow. Loggerheads are of particular
interest to researchers in the southeastern United States because of the high number of nesting
beaches found in Florida, Georgia and many other southern states. Previous research done by
Sarmiento-Ramrez et al. 2010 showed that infection of loggerhead sea turtle eggs by the
fungus Fusarium solani was responsible for a large number of failed eggs in nests on Boavista
Island, Cape Verde. Non culture based PCR amplification of ITS regions were used to identify
fungal contaminants in failed loggerhead sea turtle eggs collected from Jekyll Island, Georgia in
2012. Our long term research goal is to provide information that contributes to the continued
protection of this highly treasured and valuable species.
Hitixa Patel, Influenza.
Mentor Denene Lofland: CHP
Using my skills acquired in the medical technology program here I can help diagnose
what organism and/or parasite exist such as bacterial or viral and combined with other factors
as patients location, age, and other lab results I can help diagnose as to what it may be, rubella,
measeles, and in my case influenza. Influenza is spread by respiratory droplets, coughing,
sneezing. Many strains of influenza exist in todays world so how can we tell what strains we
have? It may be strain A and type like H1N1 or H2N2, asian flu, bird flu, swine flu With
Microbiology we can use minimal sample to diagnose it and combined with serogrouping with
antibody we can narrow it down to specific subtypes. This virus has very defined structure
consisting of glycoproteins: hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase which contain the viral RNA and
genome activating the antibodies, according to which type of influenza virus. Nowadays in lab
diagnosis we can easily and quickly find which type of viral infection the patient may have, and
give accurate results with aid of RT-PCR, Viral culture, DFA antibody staining, Enzyme
Immunoassay, etc. Due to the help of microbiology and rapid kits we can help reduce the rate of
mortality in viral infections and help stop pandemics. Using proper hygiene, and in workplace
using masks, and PPE, as well as taking vaccines and antiviral drugs if you are diagnosed with
Kinnaree Patel and Shivam Patel, Site Saturation Mutagenesis of the Yeast Gene YDL124w at
Mutation Site F125.
Mentor Scott Mateer: CST
Changing the stereoselectivity and stereospecificity of an enzyme can have an affect on
how drugs are made and used in our bodies. YDL124w is a yeast gene belonging to the aldo-
keto reductase family of enzymes. Mutating yeast gene YDL124w could cause a change in
enzyme activity that perhaps can also change enzyme stereospecificity. As a class, we are
trying to create a mutation at site F125 by changing amino acid phenylalanine (F) to other amino
acid residues by site saturation mutagenesis via the method circular mutagenesis. My partner
and me are going to change hydrophobic amino acid phenylalanine (F) to hydrophilic amino
acids threonine (T) and asparagine (N) altering the chemical structure of the enzyme as well as
its activity. We will determine if we have a mutation by doing a restriction digest using enzymes
Pst1/Pvu1, where the enzyme Pst1 will be eliminated for positive clones because there would
be no appearance of a cut in the DNA at the restriction site by this enzyme. The positive clones
will then be sent off for DNA sequencing to verify if we have a mutation at the F125 site. Altering
amino acid residues at mutation site F125 would help us further understand entioselectivity of
enzymes that would create different enantiomers. Different enantiomers could be used to make
different drugs that would heavily have an impact on how these drugs work in our bodies.
Reema Patel and Mallory Rawson, The Roles of Leucine and Methionine in Determining
YDL124wp Stereospecificity.
Mentor Scott Mateer: CST
YDL124wp is an aldo-keto reductase that catalyzes oxidation-reduction reactions. The
mechanism involves reducing carbonyls to chiral alcohols, which connotes the stereospecificity
of the protein. Enzyme stereoselectivity is a key component in developing new pharmaceutical
drugs. The class project involves mutating the amino acid at position 125 in the gene YDL124w
through site-saturation mutagenesis, from phenylalanine to every other amino acid. This
experiment involves mutating that residue from phenylalanine to leucine or methionine, to
determine if these specific amino acids will affect enzyme stereoselectivity. Phenylalanine is
aromatic, larger and more hydrophobic than both methionine and leucine. Although these three
amino acids differ in size, they all exhibit nonpolar physical properties that will not contribute to
the enzyme stereoselectivity as the aromaticity of phenylalanine will. This mutation from an
aromatic residue to one of the two non-aromatic residues will be the only factor affecting
enzymatic activity. The desired mutation will be achieved through site-saturation mutagenesis,
specifically circular mutagenesis. A double digest with Pst1 and Pvu1 will be used to screen for
our desired mutation. When making the mutants, the Pst1 site will be eliminated, which will only
allow Pvu1 to cut our mutated DNA. The final DNA will be verified by DNA sequencing. By
focusing on mutating phenylalanine into leucine and methionine, it is possible to determine if
either residue is involved in changing the stereoselectivity of the enzyme, which ultimately aids
in the development of new drugs.
Kaitlyn Patterson and Joshua Hill, Investigating Sex Differences in Gratitude.
Mentor Wendy Wolfe: CST
Gratitude has been found to reinforce social bonds, influence pro-social behavior, and
decrease depression. Gratitude can be defined as a disposition (DG), a mood, or an isolated
emotional experience. While gratitude is increasingly a topic of interest in the research literature,
less focus has been directed to exploring sex differences in gratitude. Research involving DG
found no sex differences (Watkins, Woodworth, Stone, and Kolts, 2003). However, a study by
Kashdan, Mishra, Breen, and Froh (2009) found that women considered gratitude to be more
beneficial and less costly than men did. Further, when receiving something from another,
gratitude was a more of a motivating factor for males than females (Kolyesnikova, Dood, Wilcox,
2009). We sought to investigate sex differences in DG and in the effect of a benefit-triggered
gratitude manipulation on experienced gratitude. Undergraduates completed an online survey
that included two measures of DG (the GRAT and the GQ-6). Participants were then exposed to
two timed tasks in which they were randomly assigned to a beneficiary condition (where they
received assistance from a confederate), a benefactor condition (where they had the chance to
provide assistance to a confederate), or a control condition. Participants were then evaluated on
explicit feelings of gratitude by asking to list all of the things you feel grateful for and implicit
gratitude through a lexical decision task using gratitude-related and neutral words. This
research is exploratory and aims to further contribute to the literature on sex differences in
Kaitlyn Patterson, Olivia Singleton, and Joshua Hill Better to give or to receive?: The Role of
Dispositional Gratitude
Mentor Wendy Wolfe: CST
Gratitude has been found to influence pro-social behavior, strengthen social bonds, and
decrease depression. McCullough, Tsang, and Emmons (2004) described gratitude as existing
at three interactive levels: dispositional gratitude (DG), gratitude as a mood, and gratitude as a
discrete emotional experience. Their research also underscored the idea that event-based
feelings of gratitude did not impact participants high in DG in the same way as those low in DG.
In review of this finding, we speculated that individuals who tend to be grateful as a general
state of being may feel more grateful after they have provided assistance, than after they have
received assistance. This hypothesis was tested in our study. Thirty-three undergraduates (68%
female, 65% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to a benefactor condition (where they were
given opportunity to provide assistance to a confederate during a timed task), a beneficiary
condition (where they received assistance from a confederate), or a control condition. We then
assessed explicit and implicit feelings of gratitude. Our results illustrate a difference in how
exchanges of assistance activate experienced gratitude among those with varying degrees of
DG. Consistent with our hypotheses, those lower in DG feel grateful at an explicit level of
awareness primarily when they receive assistance. At an implicit level, they seem to become
less in touch with feelings of gratitude when they have provided assistance. Those higher in DG
are more likely to have that feeling activated after they provide assistance, particularly on an
implicit level of awareness.
Nathan Peek, Synthesis and X-ray Structure Determination of Transition Metal Complexes
Using Tripodal Imidazole Ligands.
Mentor William Lynch: CST
Our research has been focused on the synthesis and characterization of transition metal
open face complexes using a tridentate ligand. The ligand, tris-1-ethyl-
4methyimidazolylphosphine is used because it creates a labile face which can be used to
perform further experiments on. The complexes are prepared by the reaction of the ligand with
metal precursors to form complexes which are analyzed by various spectroscopic and structural
techniques. The synthesis of the ligand and several transition metal complexes will be
presented as well as the complex characterization by spectroscopic and X-ray methods.
Yolanda Perez, My Latina Identity: Marginalized & Homogenized.
Mentor Rachel Green: CoLA
My art deals with issues of Latina identity and culture, the exploitation of women of color
and feminism ideals. I take on the absolute rejection of Latina stereotypes by acknowledging the
great complexity that is over looked within the many different Hispanic cultures. My work is
deliberately confrontational in order to expose some of the worst marginalized forgotten and
ignored experiences with in the intricacy of our society. I incorporate traditional craft, various
fiber arts techniques with multimedia aspects. Fiber art gives me a broad range of endless
possibilities for personal expression and a sensuality that is universally nostalgic. Although there
may not always be material or construction similarities between the pieces they are connected
in theme and stylistic appearance. I emphasize intense colors, rich texture and expressive line
quality to evoke drama. I am greatly influenced by the Nuyorican Diaspora art movement of the
1970s that revolved around identity, disillusionment, social struggles, and transcending
boundaries. I am materialistically inspired by the many exotic cultures of the world and the
skilled folk artisans within their societies. I bring elements of their craft into my work such as
Indonesian batik, Chinese silk painting, Puerto Rican lace work, Caribbean hammock weaving
and Oaxacan embroidery. I continue the attempt to blend the primitive kitsch elements of these
cultures in to my work through the use of symbolism, pop culture references, iconography, and

Taylor Peterman, Modeling the Feeding Biomechanics of the Southern Flounder (Paralichthys
Mentor Austin Fancis: CST
Feeding biomechanics is the study of how the muscles and lower jaws work together to
allow fish to feed on prey. Biomechanics can be defined as the study of movement due to
different forces. The forces causing movement in feeding are the contraction of the muscles
attached to the lower jaws. The feeding biomechanics of fishes have been extensively studied
for primarily bilaterally symmetrical species. Studies on bilaterally asymmetrical species are a
topic that has not been explored to such degree. Fish that are bilaterally asymmetrical do not
necessarily have the exact same head and mouth structure on each side, therefore when
looking at the feeding biomechanics of these fish there needs to be measurements taken from
both sides instead of just one primary side. These structural differences, even though they could
be slight, could cause one side of the mouth to move or work differently than the other. This
study examined the feeding biomechanics of the bilaterally asymmetrical southern flounder,
Paralichthys lethostigma. Flounder are known to have both of their eyes on one side of their
head, leaving one side to be the blind and the other to be considered the ocular. The interest of
this study was to see what those differences, if any, were between each of the two sides.
Twenty seven fish were dissected to reveal important morphological and biomechanical
landmarks for feeding. The lower jaw and attached jaw closing muscle were excised and
digitally photographed. Using image analysis software, important biomechanical measurements
were made. Additionally, the weight of each division of the jaw closing muscle was determined.
Courtnee Pettus and Melody Johnson, Change in Stereospecificity of YDL-124w through Site
Saturation Mutagenesis.
Mentor Scott Mateer: CST
The purpose of this research is to understand the stereospecificity of the YDL-124w
reductase enzyme and to determine if changing the amino acid at position 125 will result in a
change in stereospecificity. Stereoisomers have a wide range of properties; being able to
determine stereospecificity is a desirable ability when it comes to understanding the
stereoselectivity of an enzyme. Dr. Mateers Spring 2013 Cell and Molecular Lab will be using
circular mutagenesis to preform site saturation at position 125 to change phenyl alanine a bulky,
nonpolar molecule to one of the remaining 20 amino acids. Cysteine and aspartic acid were the
amino acids of interest in this research. Changing position 125 to cysteine or aspartic acid will
result in a change in stereospecificity; however, cysteine will have a greater effect on function
than aspartic acid because of its smaller size and polar nature. PstI/PvuI double restriction
digest will be used to screen for positive clones and the elimination of the PstI cut site by the
mutagenesis reaction will be used to identify putative mutations and the DNA will be sent off for
verification. The ultimate goal of the class research is to determine if replacing the amino acid at
position125 will result in a change in stereospecificity and if so which of the amino acids
produces a desirable outcome, such as a more favored pharmaceutical drug. This will help to
better understand how this particular stereoisomer carries out stereospecificity and if the
stereospecificity can be changed.
Magdala Pierre, Paramyxovirus.
Mentor Denene Lofland: CHP
Mumps is a paramyxovirus that causes an acute viral illness, distributed worldwide. An
individual become infected by the virus through respiratory droplets, like saliva. Mumps first
attack the nasopharynx and regional lymphs node then latter attacks different tissue such as the
testes, ovaries, peripheral nerves, eyes, inner ears, pancreas, and central nervous system. The
symptoms of mump include characteristic of parotitis which consist of painful swollen salivary
gland. A vaccine is available to help reduce the number of cases of mumps virus; it was first
made in 1967 and was not recommended for all children until 1977, when the Advisory
Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) made a routine vaccination for all children of the
age of 12 or older in 1977. Over the decades, the incidence of mumps decrease except an area
where people were not following the laws such as getting one vaccine and not both, or not being
vaccinated at all (CDC, 2012). The virus is diagnosed via serologic test such as enzyme linked
immunosorbent assay (ELISA), direct and indirect fluorescent antibody (Lennette et al., 1985).

Inessa Pinto, Detection of Human Enteroviruses.
Mentor Denene Lofland: CHP
Enteroviruses include a diverse group of closely-related pathogens of the family
Picornaviridae. Human enteroviruses are small nonenveloped single-stranded RNA viruses,
including poliovirus, coxsackieviruses A and B, echovirus, and human enterovirus. They include
over one hundred serotypes and usually cause self-limiting infections including mild upper
respiratory infection, except enterovirus 71 and poliovirus, which may cause neurological
complications. Outbreaks more typically occur in children under the age of five. Viral pathogens
of this family may cause aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, febrile seizures, peripheral neuritis,
and other CNS manifestations. Therefore, it is critical to use specific and sensitive tests aiding in
diagnosis of human enteroviruses. Some of the traditional diagnostic methods are time
consuming and labor dependent or simply ineffective. More sensitive and accurate tests come
in place in diagnosis of human enteroviruses such as real time PCR and molecular tests
targeting specific genes of the enteroviruses aiding in their identification. No vaccine is available
for non-polio enteroviruses therefore personal hygiene and frequent hand washing may help in
reducing the spread of these viruses.
Nicolas Rios and SeungHun Lee, Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea Diversity with S. invicta
Mentor Jennifer Bailey: CST
Solenopsis invicta, the red imported fire ant, is known for its painful sting, but also
contributes to the soil ecosystems through aeration and enrichment processes. S. invicta
excretes ammonia benefitting ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) utilizing ammonia as their
energy source. AOA performs the rate limiting step of nitrification, a process that converts
ammonia into nitrate. Some of the nitrate is leached from the system, potentially impacting plant
productivity. A past study indicates AOA diversity increased with S. invicta presence.
Our current project uses a mesocosm approach to ask how S. invicta mound development
impacts AOA diversity and soil composition over time. Mesocosms are enclosures containing
natural samples that are manipulated and monitored under controlled conditions. Two
mesocosms were established in five gallon containers: treatment (ants) vs. control (no ants).
Both mesocosms were established with non-mound soil from the same site. At time zero, both
mesocosms were sampled before treatment. An active fire ant colony was transferred to the
treatment mesocosm. Samples were then collected weekly at least weekly for one month. DNA
was extracted and subjected to PCR amplification of the amoA gene (encodes for ammonia
monooxygenase). The amoA gene is required by AOA and serves as a marker for this group.
The PCR products will be cloned to sequence amoA genes present within the samples. The
NCBI database will be used to compare sequences of known AOA, and determine AOA
composition and diversity changes over the one month period.

Rebekah Robinson, Stem Cell Transplantation for Subjects with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.
Mentor David Lake: CHP
Purpose: This systematic review was done to determine if stem cell transplantation improves
function in subjects with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD).
Hypothesis: It was hypothesized that cell transplantation would be a viable treatment.
Methods: Databases used to find articles include PubMed, Medline, Cinahl and Pedro.
Keywords and phrases used in the search include Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, stem cell,
transplantation, therapy, and treatment.
Results: Twenty-eight articles were found to contain relevant information. After removing
duplicates, Twenty-two articles remained, were screened and assessed. Fifteen articles did not
fit the appropriate improve function criteria for this study. The seven articles remaining were
used for this systematic review. One articles results showed an improvement in contraction
force while another did not show significant improvement of contractility. One article showed no
difference in muscle strength. Two articles showed some levels of donor dystrophin/dystrophin
fibers at early testing, before reducing to non-significant amounts. Three articles did not have
significant amounts of donor dystrophin/dystrophin fibers present. A major problem in comparing
these articles was the differing definition of function in each study.
Conclusion/Summary: Currently, stem cell transplantation cannot be considered as a
therapeutic treatment to improve function and/or contractility in subjects with DMD. Based on
the positive evidence, it is also suggested that with modifications and progression, stem cell
transplantation could improve function in DMD subjects.

Madelyn Roush, Candace Poole, and Esmeralda Rivas-Torres, Investigating the reductases
YHR104w and YOR120w.
Mentor Scott Mateer: CST
Chiral alcohols are highly desirable pharmaceutical building blocks, but their synthesis
from carbonyl compounds by chemical and industrial methods can be hazardous, difficult, and
costly. One potential strategy to safe, easy, and cost-effective synthesis of these chiral alcohols
is the reduction of keto-esters by aldo-keto reductases (AKRs). However, it is often laborious
and time consuming identifying the ester/enzyme combination that produces the desired
stereochemistry required for a particular medical compound. Our work seeks to explore the
stereoselectivity of YHR104w and YOR120w by identifying amino acid residues that are
important for substrate binding and orientation. For our analysis we have targeted residues
located in the reductases Substrate Specificity Loop A (Loop A). The AKR YOR120w primarily
produces one diasteriomeric product when reducing -Chloro--keto esters while the AKR
YHR104w produces a different diasteriomeric product. Mutagenesis of the residues of Loop A
on YOR120w and YHR104w was conducted because the residues of the Loop A region of these
aldo-keto reductases dictates the stereoselectivity of the enzymes. The Loop A region of
YHR104w was substituted for the Loop A region in YOR120w, and the Loop A region of
YOR120w was substituted for the Loop A region in YHR104w to determine if opposite chirality is
observed in the reduced products of keto-ester substrates. The wildtype and mutant proteins
were expressed in bacteria as GST-chimeras, and the resulting crude lysates were used to
characterize the reduction of several keto-ester substrates.
Jamie Rowell, The diaphoretic effect of exercise: Determination of sweating threshold and
Mentor Lorrie Hoffman: CST
During exercise, there occurs a point at which we begin to sweat. In a study conducted
on sixteen subjects exercising on a stationary bicycle, the esophageal temperatures and sweat
data were collected. In a data set comprised of time since the start of exercise associated with a
measure of sweat collected, the linear regression system follows a typical broken-line model.
This means that there occurs a period of little or no activity, then a linearly increasing
measurement of sweat, followed by a dip (the point at which the subject cannot sweat
anymore), ending with a plateau. In the research conducted on this experiment, we are
interested in what we refer to as the first change point. This change point is the point at which
the data switches from a period of little or no activity to a linearly increasing measurement of
sweat; it is this point where the subject begins to sweat. In order to determine if the occurrence
of a change point exists, Quandt (1958) first suggested using a likelihood ratio test, which
expresses how many times more likely that within the data, a change point occurs than the
alternative that a change point does not exist. Using Quandts method of estimating the
parameters of a linear regression system following a broken-line model, as well as his use of the
likelihood ratio test in determination of the existence of a change point, we examine the point at
which sweating begins for each subject, and their relationship to each other.

Michalle Ruble, A Kindergarten Case Study: An In-Depth Analysis of a Phonemic Awareness
Mentor Anne Katz: CoE
The purpose of my case study research was to analyze the results of a Phonemic
Awareness Assessment administered to a kindergarten student who is beginning to learn how
to read and to apply this knowledge to my future pedagogy. As a teacher candidate, I need to
determine age-appropriate phonemic awareness competencies in the early elementary grades
in order to develop reading instruction that supports student success. Success in reading occurs
when students are skilled in phonemic awareness, among other constructs. This idea is
supported by the National Reading Panel (2000), who concluded that phonemic awareness
instruction improves reading skills in students. The Phonemic Awareness Assessment for this
case study included the following elements: isolation of sounds, deletion of sounds,
segmentation and blending of phonemes, letter name recognition, and phoneme manipulation
(including single consonants, consonant blends, vowel sounds, digraphs, phonograms, and r-
controlled vowels). For the purpose of my poster presentation, I will critically analyze a
kindergarten student's performance on the initial consonant blends portion of the assessment
via various modalities. The subject of the case study displayed greater proficiency in letter-to-
sound than sound-to-letter consonant blend identification. Evaluating and reflecting upon the
student's assessment data will provide insight into the acquisition of phonemic awareness skills
for young readers. An analysis of results affords a valuable opportunity for future teachers to
acquire assessment skills and insight in regards to phonemic awareness acquisition for early
Rebekah Sapp, Tall Ships and Green Beer.
Mentor Michael Toma: CoLA
This study is a time-series analysis measuring the impact of Savannah's local Tall Ships
festival and St. Patrick's day festival on the hotels and motels in Savannah. Impact studies are
common because the information is so important to those that plan the events, and events are
often planned based on the assumption that they will boost economic activity. Contrary to
popular belief, events usually do not have the impact they are expected to bring. Much of the
literature on the topic finds that events bring far less money into the economy; some even find a
negative impact on regional economies. This impact study differs in that it measures the impact
not on the regional economy as a whole, but on the local hotels and motels. The festivals were
tested as determinants for local hotel's and motel's occupancy rates, average daily rates, and
revenue per room. A total of 27 regressions were run with dependent variables accounting for
one of these three rates, and either the location, size, or ranking of the hotels and motels, based
on the prices. Controls for the state of the economy, controls for the hotel and motel rates of the
entire state of Georgia, and dummy variables accounting for the month in which the events took
place and also different characteristics of the events were all included in the regressions. The
model was tested for some typical issues with time-series analyses and was corrected for
statistical errors to make the model workable and valid, which gave our impact for the local hotel
Ashley Schwab, Muscle Activity in Overhead Athletes with Shoulder Impingement Symptoms: A
Systematic Review.
Mentor David Lake: CHP
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Shoulder impingement is one of the most common
causes of shoulder pain found in overhead athletes. It is usually due to weaknesses found
in the surrounding musculature and a subsequent unstable glenohumeral joint. The aim
of this review is to determine the activity of muscles used in the shoulder of overhead
athletes with signs of shoulder impingement.
METHODS: Several databases were searched using the terms shoulder impingement and
overhead athletes.
RESULTS: Ten relevant articles were found. Three of these were review articles and
were eliminated. One was eliminated because it was exactly the same study included in
another article. The six remaining articles included in this review are repeated measures,
quasi-experimental, non-experimental. Basic findings throughout the articles were signs
of decreased force production and muscular weakness of the serratus anterior. In addition,
other findings included decreased activity in the lower trapezius. Each of the previous
findings have been shown to contribute to glenohumeral instability and joint laxity. In a
separate study, it was also found that a six-week scapular rehabilitation program resulted
in improved pain, function and muscular force output and activation in symptomatic
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the research that has been conducted, overhead athletes
with symptoms of shoulder impingement showed decrease forces and imbalances within
muscle groups around the shoulder.

Mrinali Sharma and Jaleesa Mcqueen, A Base-promoted Alcohol Dehydration Ru(II) Catalyst:
Reaction and Scope.
Mentor Brandon Quillian: CST
(BPA =bis(pyrazolyl)acetate, Ph= phenyl) serves as an alcohol
dehydration catalyst under basic conditions. It was found that (BPA)RuBr(PPh
, in the
presence of potassium hydroxide, silver trifluoromethanesulfonate and dodecene, dehydrates
(R,S)2-phenylethanol and 3-phenylpropanol at 150C over several hours to yield their
respective alkenes (confirmed by GC-MS, IR, and NMR). Though dehydration is commonly
facilitated by converting the alcohol into a better leaving group, it often requires reaction with
strong acids or highly toxic and reactive phosphoryl chloride. Further elucidation of the reaction
properties, could transform this novel reaction into safer method to convert alcohols into
alkenes. We describe herein our current understanding of the properties of this reaction and
future plans.
**Caroline Shem-Tov, Does treatment for depression reduce likelihood of developing dementia?
Mentor April Garrity: CHP
There is a common correlation between depression and dementia that is poorly
understood by allied health professions. Knowing the different types of depression, their
neurological pathologies, and their possible effects can result in early detection, prevention, and
improvement of dementia. This research is a compilation of six peer reviewed meta-analyses of
neurological studies on depression, dementia, and brain damage located on Ebsco Host.
The types of depression reviewed are anhadonia (apathy), dysthemia, and broad
depression. The different forms of dementia considered are insidious regressive dementia,
dementia from neurological lesions, neurovascular dementia, and dementia resulting from
chemical inflammation within the brain. Studies of patients who have unspecified depression
resulting from lesions caused by a cardiovascular attack and other forms of brain damage report
improved cognition when taking anti-depressants. Additionally, treatment of dysthemia and
general depression can reduce the development of dementia caused by chemical inflammation
resulting from depression. Anti-depressants have no effect on depression and dementia
resulting from insidious regressive neurological pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease,
however, early treatment can impede the rate of decline.
By knowing the different types of depression, medical professionals can more
appropriately refer patients to the proper medical provider such as a neurologist or a psychiatrist
in order to properly treat the depression. The treatment of dysthemia and broad depression will
result in a better long-term dementia prognosis, whereas the identification of anhadonia can be
an indicator of brain damage from an insidious regressive neurological pathology, which early
detection and treatment can decelerate the progression of the disease.
Marina Simonet, Heather Hullum, Aaron West, and Marlayna Garvin, Affects of Seating
Arrangement on Personal.
Mentor Angie Koban: CST
Typical classrooms use seating arrangements which do not promote eye contact or
interaction between students, two factors that have been proven to increase student success.
This study examines the impact of different seating arrangements on communication. Numerous
studies have shown that seating arrangement affects students behavior, interaction, and
participation at all levels of schooling. Specifically, circular seating arrangements increase active
participation which is conducive to academic success. Here we are examining the effect of
seating arrangement on willingness to disclose personal information. We theorize that those
students arranged in a circle seating arrangement will be more willing to disclose personal
information than those in row-and-column and back-to-back. This data will help professors and
administrators at the university level to create the optimal classroom environments in which
students feel comfortable among peers and professors.
Olivia Singleton, Kaitlyn Patterson, and Joshua Hill, Better to give or to receive?: The Role of
Dispositional Gratitude.
Mentor Wendy Wolfe: CST
Gratitude has been found to influence pro-social behavior, strengthen social bonds, and
decrease depression. McCullough, Tsang, and Emmons (2004) described gratitude as existing
at three interactive levels: dispositional gratitude (DG), gratitude as a mood, and gratitude as a
discrete emotional experience. Their research also underscored the idea that event-based
feelings of gratitude did not impact participants high in DG in the same way as those low in DG.
In review of this finding, we speculated that individuals who tend to be grateful as a general
state of being may feel more grateful after they have provided assistance, than after they have
received assistance. This hypothesis was tested in our study. Thirty-three undergraduates (68%
female, 65% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to a benefactor condition (where they were
given opportunity to provide assistance to a confederate during a timed task), a beneficiary
condition (where they received assistance from a confederate), or a control condition. We then
assessed explicit and implicit feelings of gratitude. Our results illustrate a difference in how
exchanges of assistance activate experienced gratitude among those with varying degrees of
DG. Consistent with our hypotheses, those lower in DG feel grateful at an explicit level of
awareness primarily when they receive assistance. At an implicit level, they seem to become
less in touch with feelings of gratitude when they have provided assistance. Those higher in DG
are more likely to have that feeling activated after they provide assistance, particularly on an
implicit level of awareness.
**Caitlin Solomon and Leslie Childress, Treatment Options for Individuals with RHD.
Mentor April Garrity: CHP
Our research seeks to answer the question: Should speech language pathologists treat
individuals with right hemisphere damage with treatment that focuses on the clients deficits or a
functional approach to treatment? Right Hemisphere Damage is damage to the right side of the
brain, which can lead to cognitive-communication problems, such as poor reasoning, attention
problems and impaired judgment or attention (ASHA, 2013).
A thorough literature search yielded four articles which reviewed the treatment options for
communication deficits associated with right hemisphere damage: Mackenzie, et al (2008);
Blake (2007); Tompkins (2012); Blake (2013). All of the findings conclude there is not enough
evidence to state whether a certain treatment is effective or not, however two articles state that
a clinician may treat a patient based on their deficits. They emphasize the importance of using
similar treatment methods for treating traumatic brain injury since the two injuries are closely
related, and encourage looking at what the client cannot do and treating each deficit individually.
The latter two articles encourage clinicians to treat with a functional approach focusing on what
the individual with right hemisphere damage can do rather than what they cannot do.
Although research for treatment of right hemisphere damage is in its preliminary stages, we
concluded that clinicians could approach therapy in two different ways. They can target therapy
with a functional approach improving the areas of communication that the client has preserved,
or they can target the clients deficits using similar treatments used for individuals with traumatic
brain injury.
Brittany Speller, Exploitative Medical Science and Race.
Mentor Mark Finlay: CoLA
This project traces the parallels between the treatment of African Americans through the
Tuskegee Syphilis experiment, and those of HIV/AIDS studies centered on minorities. Despite
the existing regulations and ethical standards of health professions that have emerged since the
Tuskegee study ended in 1972, African Americans are still marginalized and exploited by the
medical field. Although African Americans have made undeniable gains made, evidence of
racism can still be found in HIV/AIDS research studies and pharmaceutical testing of HIV/AIDS
medications. The goal of this project is to illustrate corresponding practices of the Tuskegee
study and HIV/AIDS studies involving African Americans by comparing the procedures,
historical context, witness statements, and medical ethics contexts of each study. This type of
information is imperative to African American history, and to understanding the complex
relationship between African Americans and the medical field.
Shyamkumar Sreekumar, Coding in Objective-C to Generate Chemistry Applications.
Mentor Clifford Padgett: CST
Objective-C is the primary programming language that was used to write software for the
iOS Operating system. Objective-C inherits the syntax, primitive types, and flow control
statements of C and includes syntax for defining classes and methods. The compiler
implemented was X-Code, an integrated development environment (IDE) designed for
developing iOS and Mac apps. It also includes editors used to design and implement apps,
such as a source code editor and a user interface editor. These were some prerequisites
necessary to code programs on the iOS SDK Interface. The purpose of this research project is
to create fundamental applications of chemistry exclusively for the iPad market using an object-
oriented computer language. The primary objective is an iPad application that one can utilize in
practicing chemistry concepts such as chemical reactions, atomic structures, stoichiometry, etc.
Using Beginning iOS 5 Application Development by Wei-Meng Lee, step-by-step instructions
were followed to code preliminary projects such as Hello World, random number generators,
and image processing. These were compiled and simulated using the X-Code IDE along with
debugging for syntax errors. Although currently, research advancement is in the preliminary
stages of development, I perceive that through extensive use of this coding compiler further
development of chemistry applications will be successful.
Teresa Stewart, DuBois's View on Double Consciousness.
Mentor Mary Barr: CoLA
I recently had the opportunity to attend a celebration of the life and works of W.E.B.
DuBois at Clark Atlanta University. This included four days of step shows,descendants of
historical black figures, a jazz show, and several panels of educators and community leaders
discussing DuBois's works and views. During a few of the panels they discussed DuBois's view
on Double ConsciousnessWhich is a concept that DuBois first explored in 1903 in the Souls
of Black Folks. It describes the individual sensation of feeling as though your identity is divided
into several parts, making it difficult to have just one identity. DuBois spoke of this within the
context of race relations in the United States, that since American blacks have lived in a society
that has historically repressed and devalued them that it has become impossible for them to
unify their black identity with their American identity. Double consciousness forces blacks to not
only view themselves from their own unique perspective, but to also view themselves as they
might be perceived by the outside world. This is what DuBois meant when he talked about The
sense of looking at one's self through the eyes of others. This really intrigued me as I feel like
this is a way of everyday life for me, living and working in two completely different worlds.
Matthew Trivitayakhun, Examination of 4-(aminomethyl)phenyl)methanol (APM) as a Photo-
liable Linker.
Mentor Brandon Quillian: CST
We are evaluating 4-(aminomethyl)phenyl)- methanol (APM) as a photo-labile linker to
connect an anti-cancer drug to polymer coated nanorods for the controlled release of the drug
under UV radiation. ortho-Nitrobenzyl derivatives (ONBD) are commonly used as UV-labile
linkers in such biological applications, however, the nitroso by-product formed upon decay is
toxic to proteins. We selected 4-aminomethylbenzyl alcohol as a substitute for ONB in this study
to avoid the formation of harmful by-products. We have prepared a complex with
fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (FMOC) connected to the alcohol and amine groups of linker to
form a drug-linker-nanorod mimic. This complex exhibits enhanced decay under UVC radiation,
which suggests APM may be viable linker in our ultimate study of the drug-linker-nanorod
conjugate. Herein, we discuss our syntheses, properties and UV-radiation decay of mono- and
di-FMOC substituted AMP compounds.
Madalynn Walker, M. Lamb, and S. Schwartz, Characterization of Bacteria Present in Failed
Log Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta) Egg.
Mentor Jennifer Bailey: CST
Loggerhead hatch success is significantly lower in Georgia than for sea turtles globally.
Microbial infection represents one explanation for why eggs fail to hatch. In 2010, failed
loggerhead eggs were collected along the coast of Jekyll Island, GA. Thirty failed eggs from 6
nests were analyzed by 16S rDNA clone library analysis to determine the types of Bacteria they
contained. Thirty bacterial groups were detected based on 395 analyzed sequences. Nine
groups were recovered from multiple nests whereas others were only seen in either a single egg
or nest. Seven of these groups were 99% identical to 16S sequences of known or suspected
pathogens, including members of Vibrio, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas,
Hahella, Achromobacter and Klebsiella. The detection of Hahella chejuensis is of interest since
it produces a prodigiosin (red pigment) which inhibits the growth of certain cell types and has
immunosuppressive activity. Failed loggerhead eggs often contain pink-red pigmentation, but
the cause has not been determined. PCR primers specific to H. chejuensis were used to screen
40 DNA samples extracted from failed egg contents. H. chejuensis PCR products were
produced from all eggs containing a pink-red biofilm and/or fluid. A faint product was obtained
from two eggs containing no pigmentation; all other eggs tested negative with the screen.
Primer specificity was confirmed by sequence analysis of the PCR products. Additionally, we
have cultivated H. chejuensis isolates from red-containing failed loggerhead eggs from Jekyll
Island during 2012. Collectively, the data suggests that multiple bacteria may impact loggerhead
eggs on Jekyll Island. Also, we have demonstrated that H. chejuensis has been associated with
failed eggs over nonconsecutive nesting seasons and may be responsible for their frequent red
pigmentation. Further work is needed to determine if H. chejuensis is pathogenic to loggerhead
Blair Weaver, Asymmetric Synthesis of Chiral Lactones.
Mentor Brent Feske: CST
Chiral lactones are used in a variety of pharmaceuticals and commonly found as many
insect pheromones. We have demonstrated the synthesis of -ketonitriles with aliphatic
aldehydes as our starting material through the use of umpolung chemistry. These -ketonitriles
were then screened for their ability to be reduced by a bakers yeast ketoreductase library, and
the enzyme that had the best ee was used for the reaction scale up to the chiral alcohol. The
resulting enzymatic product is hydrolyzed and spontaneously cyclized to yield the chiral lactone.
With the hexanal substrate, we have demonstrated the ability to yield the chiral alcohol using a
bakers yeast reductase library and have made the chiral lactone. With biocatalysis as the key
step, the synthesis of a variety of chiral lactones has been shown.

**Veronique Webber and Alex Hinton, Does Neurologic Music Therapy Improve Aphasia?
Mentor April Garrity: CHP
Aphasia is a speech and language disorder resulting from dysfunction in a specific
region of the brain. The discipline of music therapy seeks to use music within a therapeutic
relationship to address the social, emotional, physical, and even neurological needs of an
individual.The purpose of our research is to determine if expressive language improves more
using neurologic music therapy than it does with traditional non-intonation-based speech
therapies for individuals with aphasia. For this project, terms from the research question were
used to search for appropriate peer-reviewed research journals. This literature search yielded
four appropriate articles for review. Following our detailed search, a systematic review of each
journal article was conducted. The studies reviewed show measurable recovery while using
music therapy for treating neurological language and speech disorders. The clinical expertise
and opinion of a locally certified music therapist was also considered while attempting to answer
our research question. We were given the opportunity to observe music therapy sessions and
conduct interviews with involved individuals to gain client and caregiver perspectives. In addition
to improving verbal expressions, neurologic music therapy was also found to improve personal
motivation and emotional states of patients. According to Wan, et al. (2010), a majority of the
research has shown that singing the intonation of spoken words and phrases can help facilitate
expressive language beyond the limitations of either natural recovery or traditional non-
intonation-based speech therapies in patients with aphasia (p. 291).
Allison Williams and Serina Doolittle, Site Saturation Mutagenesis of YDL124w.
Mentor Scott Mateer: CST
We are interested in using enzymes to do important chemistry in order to make
medicines more efficiently. We are particularly interested in the asymmetric synthesis of chiral
alcohols since they are important precursor molecules for several pharmaceutical compounds.
We have been using the yeast reductase, YDL124w, as a model enzyme to understand how
enzymes select for one enantiomer over another. YDL124w has been shown to reduce keto-
esters into chiral alcohols, and does so in enantioselective manner. Previous research identified
a region in Loop A that was important for substrate binding. Specifically simultaneous mutation
of residues 123 125 (SPF) to Alanines resulted in a mutant enzyme that had a significantly
lower ability to reduce keto-ester substrates. To investigate this result further, we generated
three additional mutants in which the individual residues were changed to Alanines. To verify
that the correct mutants were made, mutant DNA was harvested and putative clones were
identified by Pst I/Pvu I restriction digest. The selected positive clones were then verified by
DNA sequencing. Further research will be conducted to determine more about the role that
residues 123-125 play in determining enzyme enantioselectivity.

** Denotes Graduate Student