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1.

INTRODUCTION & OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT


The product INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM offers records of students etc. in
an institute. To the users of this project are administrator, staff member. User is a person
of administrative staff at an institute. Therefore !"M#UTE$ INSTITUTE
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM% has been desi&ned in such a 'a( that it 'i)) automate the
manua) 'or* of administrative department b( maintainin& records such as fee records,
pa(ro)) records etc. The user can even manipu)ate the data such as b( editin& the records
to update them from time to time or can de)ete records 'hich are no more re+uired.
PURPOSE OF REQUIRED DOCUMENTATION:
The soft'are re+uirement specification is produced at the cu)mination of the ana)(sis
tas*. The function and performance a))ocated to soft'are as a part of s(stem en&ineerin&
are refined b( estab)ishin& a comp)ete information description, a representation of s(stem
behavior, an indication of performance re+uirements and desi&n constraints, appropriate
va)idation criteria and other information pertinent to re+uirements.
SCOPE OF PRODUCT:
The de)iverab)e product is named as !"M#UTE$ INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM%. The scope of automation of !"M#UTE$ INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM is to provide record of a)) students, courses, fees, pa(ro))s etc. At an institute
about their trainin& or courses at the c)ic* of a button rather than maintainin& fi)es of
papers.!"M#UTE$ INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM% 'i)) automate the 'or*
of administrative staff 'hich before this soft'are 'as made 'as done manua))(. ,ith the
he)p of !"M#UTE$ INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM% administrative peop)e
)i*e receptionist or center mana&er can &et record of students at the c)ic* of a button.
$ecord of students contains their fee status, e-am resu)t status .optiona)/ etc.
I have desi&ned the &iven proposed usin& visua) basic 0 in the he)p of orac)e 12A to
automate the manua) 'or* of administrative department b( maintainin& records.
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FEATURES OF COMPUTER INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
The s(stem is secure in terms that other than authori4ed user, it cannot be
accessed b( an( other person.
User friend)( interface of the soft'are enab)es user to use this easi)( and
convenient)(, proper messa&es and &uide)ines have been provided as the user
navi&ates throu&h the forms.
1ata retrieva) has been done throu&h search forms that is user has fu)) authorit(
to search records based on an( of the prime fie)ds that 'as entered as a part of
insertion modu)e.
Administrator can )o&in, for safe 'a( of purpose.
User can de)ete and update records a)on& 'ith insertion and searchin& the
records.
A)) va)idations and chec*s have been dep)o(ed in the soft'are to prevent
enterin& 'ron& data b( user b( mista*e. A)so user can enter records b( c)ic*in&
the button or b( pressin& enter *e( of *e(board5 simi)ar)(, esc *e( is used to e-it
from one pa&e besides button.
Authent!"t#n$
ADMIN
3. Student Entr(
6. !ourse Entr(
7. Sho' a)) student b( !ourse
8. 9ee $eport
:. Instructor Entr(
0. ;o&in
<. !han&e #ass'ord
U$e% & St"'' Me()e%

3. Student Entr(
6. !ourse Entr(
7. Sho' a)) student b( !ourse
8. 9ee $eport
:. Instructor Entr(
0. ;o&in
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<. !han&e #ass'ord
E$t")*$h the nee+ #' ne, $-$te(
1. P%#)*e( #' Re*")*t-: !urrent s(stem is not re)iab)e. It seems to var( in +ua)it(
from one month to the, ne-t. Some times it &ives &ood output, but some times the output
is 'orst.
.. P%#)*e( #' A!!u%"!-= There are too man( mista*es in reports.
/. P%#)*e( #' t(e*ne$$: In the current s(stem the reports and output produced is
most)( )ate and in most of the cases it is use)ess because it is not on time.
0. P%#)*e( #' V"*+t-: The output and reports most)( contains mis)eadin& information.
The customer>s information is sometimes not va)id.
1. P%#)*e( #' E!#n#(-: The current s(stem is ver( cost)(. ,e have to spend )ots of
mone( to *eep the s(stem up and &oin&, but sti)) not &et the desired resu)ts.
2. P%#)*e( #' C"3"!t-: The current s(stem is sufferin& from prob)em of capacit( a)so.
The staff for or&ani4ation is ver( )ess and the 'or*)oad is too much. 9e' peop)es cannot
hand)e a)) the 'or*.
1.. P%#3#$e+ S-$te(
*. Stu+ent$ Det"*$: The ne' proposed s(stem stores and maintains a)) the student
detai)s.
.. C#u%!e$ Det"*$: The ne' proposed s(stem stores and maintains a)) t(pes of cources
detai)s.
/. Re4$te%$: There is no need of *eepin& and maintainin& records re&ister manua))(. It
remembers each and ever( record and 'e can &et an( report re)ated to students at an(
time.
0. S3ee+: The ne' proposed s(stem is ver( fast 'ith 3??@ accurac( and saves time.
1. M"n3#,e%: The ne' proposed s(stem needs )ess manpo'er. ;ess peop)e can do the
)ar&e 'or*.
2. E''!en!-: The ne' proposed s(stems comp)ete the 'or* of man( sa)es person in
)ess time.
5. Re+u!e$ %e+un+"n!-: The most important benefit of this s(stem is that it reduces the
redundanc( of data 'ithin the data.
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6. Se!u%t- : Securit( has been provided to prevent unauthori4ed access.
1./ SOFT7ARE & HARD7ARE REQUIREMENTS
The need of toda(As soft'are deve)opment is competence in a GUI based frontBend too),
'hich can connect to $e)ationa) 1atabase en&ines. This &ives the pro&rammer the
opportunit( to deve)op c)ient server based commercia) app)ications.
FRONT END
Cisua) Studio pro&rammin& too)s are comp)ete pro&rammin& environments. It a))o's
pro&rammers to bui)d a GUI pro&ram usin& the various onBscreen contro)s such as
buttons, te-t, menus, bo-es etc. These contro)s are p)aced on a form and then the
processin& detai)s re)ated 'ith each contro) are fi))ed in.
In the business 'or)d, competitive strate&ies have become the order of the da( to improve
+ua)it(, cut costs and provide a hi&h response customer service base. Most or&ani4ations
toda( need to be mar*et driven and do a )ot of va)ue addition to their products and
services. This natura))( ca))s for rationa) decision ma*in&, 'hich re+uires information.
Information Techno)o&( or IT provides that effective channe) to support and imp)ement
this strate&(. Techno)o&( that empo'ers the des*top, thus settin& a trend for the 'a(
successfu) or&ani4ations 'i)) use techno)o&( in the ne-t decade.
BAC8 END
In orac)e the )o&ica) and ph(sica) structures are separate and thus this he)ps in data
independence i.e., ph(sica) stora&e of data can be mana&ed 'ithout affectin& the access
to )o&ica) stora&e structures. "rac)e is a major database 'hich a)on& 'ith its added
features passes the A!I1 test, 'hich is important in insurin& the inte&rit( of data. "rac)e
is ver( much suited for enterprise computin& and )ar&e database app)ications.
There are various branches in 'hich one can &o into b( )earnin& orac)e )i*e be a
functiona) consu)tant, or a 1atabase administrator 12A in short, "rac)e #;DSE;
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1eve)oper !ertified Associate desi&nation, "rac)e 9orms 1eve)oper !ertified
#rofessiona) desi&nation and so on.
:
..1 P%e*(n"%- In9e$t4"t#n :
S(stem deve)opment, a proccess consistin& of t'o major steps of s(stem ana)(sis and
desi&n, start 'hen mana&ement or sometimes s(stem deve)opment personne) fee) that a
ne' s(stem or an improvement in the e-istin& s(stem is re+uired. The sustem
deve)opment )ife c(c)e is c)assica))( thou&ht of as the set of activities that ana)(sts,
desiners and users carr( out to deve)op and imp)ement an information s(stem. The
s(stem deve)opment )ife c(c)e consists of the fo))o'in& activities=
#re)iminar( investi&ation
1etermination of s(stem re+uirements
1esi&n of s(stem
1eve)opment of soft'are
S(stem testin&
Imp)ementation, eva)uation, and maintenance
A re+uest to ta*e assistance from information s(stem can be made for man( reasons,
but in each case someone in the or&anisation initiates the re+uest is made, the first
s(stem activit( the pre)iminar( investi&ation be&ins. This activit( has three parts=
3/ $e+uest c)arification
6/ 9easibi)it( stud(
7/ $e+uest approva)
Re:ue$t !*"%'!"t#n= Man( re+uests from emp)o(ees and users in the or&anisations
are not c)ear)( defined, Therefore it becomes necessar( that project re+uest must be
e-amined and c)arified proper)( before considerin& s(stems investi&ation.
... SYSTEM DEVE;OPMENT ;IFE CYC;E
S(stems are created to so)ve prob)ems. "ne can thin* of the s(stems approach as an
or&ani4ed 'a( of dea)in& 'ith a prob)em. In this d(namic 'or)d, The subject S(stem
Ana)(sis and 1esi&n .SA1/, main)( dea)s 'ith the soft'are deve)opment activities.
0
DEFINING A SYSTEM
A co))ection of components that 'or* to&ether to rea)i4e some objective forms a
s(stem. 2asica))( there are three major components in ever( s(stem, name)( input,
processin& and output.
In a s(stem the different components are connected 'ith each other and the( are
interdependent. 9or e-amp)e, human bod( represents a comp)ete natura) s(stem. ,e are
a)so bound b( man( nationa) s(stems such as po)itica) s(stem, economic s(stem,
educationa) s(stem and so forth. The objective of the s(stem demand that some output
is produced as a resu)t of processin& the suitab)e inputs.
SYSTEM ;IFE CYC;E
S(stem )ife c(c)e is an or&ani4ationa) process of deve)opin& and maintainin& s(stems. It
he)ps in estab)ishin& a s(stem project p)an, because it &ives overa)) )ist of processes
and subBprocesses re+uired for deve)opin& a s(stem.
S(stem deve)opment )ife c(c)e means combination of various activities. In other 'ords
'e can sa( that various activities put to&ether are referred as s(stem deve)opment )ife
c(c)e. In the S(stem Ana)(sis and 1esi&n termino)o&(, the s(stem deve)opment )ife c(c)e
means soft'are deve)opment )ife c(c)e.
9o))o'in& are the different phases of soft'are deve)opment c(c)e=
F S(stem stud(
F 9easibi)it( stud(
F S(stem ana)(sis
F S(stem desi&n
F !odin&
F Testin&
F Imp)ementation
F Maintenance
The different phases of soft'are deve)opment )ife c(c)e is sho'n
<
be)o'.
G
PRE;IMINARY
INVESTIGATION
DETERMINATION OF
REQUIREMENTS
REVIE7 RUNNING
SYSTEM AND SYSTEM
MAINTENANCE
SYSTEM
IMP;EMENTATION
SYSTEM TESTING
SYSTEM TESTING
DEVE;OPMENT OF
SOFT7ARE AND CODING
DESIGN OF SYSTEM
DEVE;OPMENT OF
PROTOTYPE SYSTEM
SYSTEM
ANA;YSIS
:?@
1ESIGN
"9

SYSTEM
7?@

!"1ING
6?@


FIG: SHO7ING GENERA; ;IFE CYC;E PROCESS AND PERCENTAGE OF TIME
DEVOTED
../ FEASIBI;ITY STUDY
The feasibi)it( stud( proposes one or more conceptua) so)ution to the prob)em set of the
project. In fact, it is an eva)uation of 'hether it is 'orth'hi)e to proceed 'ith project or
not.
9easibi)it( ana)(sis usua))( considers a number of project a)ternatives, one that is chosen
as the most satisfactor( so)ution. These a)ternatives a)so need to be eva)uated in a broad
'a( 'ithout committin& too man( resources. Carious steps invo)ved in feasibi)it(
ana)(sis are=
3. To propose a set of so)ution that can rea)i4e the project &oa). These so)utions are
usua))( descriptions of 'hat the ne' s(stem shou)d )oo* )i*e.
6. Eva)uation of feasibi)it( of such so)utions. Such eva)uation often indicates
shortcomin&s in the initia) &oa)s. This step is repeated as the &oa)s are adjusted and
the a)ternative so)utions are eva)uated.
COST AND BENEFIT ANA;YSIS
1eve)opin& an IT app)ication is an investment. Since after deve)opin& that app)ication it
provides the or&ani4ation 'ith profits. #rofits can be monetar( or in the form of an
improved 'or*in& environment. Ho'ever, it carries ris*s, because in some cases an
estimate can be 'ron&. And the project mi&ht not actua))( turn out to be beneficia).
!ost benefit ana)(sis he)ps to &ive mana&ement a picture of the cost, benefits and ris*s. It
usua))( invo)ves comparin& a)ternate investments.
I
!ost benefit determines the benefits and savin&s that are e-pected from the s(stem and
compares them 'ith the e-pected costs.
In performin& cost and benefit ana)(sis it is important to identif( cost and benefits
factors. !ost and benefits can be cate&ori4ed into the fo))o'in& cate&ories=
3. De9e*#3(ent C#$t$ < 1eve)opment costs is the costs that are incurred durin& the
deve)opment of the s(stem. It is one time investment.
6. O3e%"tn4 C#$t$ < "peratin& !osts are the e-penses re+uired for the da( to da(
runnin& of the s(stem. E-amp)es of "peratin& !osts are ,a&es, Supp)ies and
"verheads.
7. H"%+,"%e&S#'t,"%e C#$t$ < It inc)udes the cost of purchasin& or )easin& of
computers and itAs periphera)s. Soft'are costs invo)ves re+uired SD, costs.
8. Pe%$#nne* C#$t$ < It is the mone( spent on the peop)e invo)ved in the
deve)opment of the s(stem.
:. F"!*t- C#$t$ < E-penses that are incurred durin& the preparation of the ph(sica)
site 'here the s(stem 'i)) be operationa). These can be 'irin&, f)oorin&, acoustics,
)i&htnin&, and airBconditionin&.
0. Su33*- C#$t$ < These are variab)e costs that are ver( proportionate)( 'ith the
amount of use of paper, ribbons, dis*s, and the )i*e.
BENEFITS
,e can define benefits as
P%#'t #% Bene't = In!#(e < C#$t$
2enefits can be accrued b(=
Increasin& income, or
1ecreasin& costs, or
2oth
3?
SYSTEM OVERVIE7
The )imited time and resources have restricted us to incorporate, in this project, on)( a
main activities that are performed in an "n)ine Institute Mana&ement S(stem, but utmost
care has been ta*en to ma*e the s(stem efficient and user friend)(. Institute
Mana&ement S(stem% has been desi&ned to computeri4ed the fo))o'in& functions that are
performed b( the s(stem=
3. Ne' records are entered.
6. #resent record can be updated.
7. $ecord not needed can be de)eted.
8. E-istin& record can be searched.
:. #revents unauthori4ed access.
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/.1 IMPORTANCE OF COMPUTERIZED
There are severa) attributes in 'hich the computer based information 'or*s. 2road)(
the 'or*in& of computer s(stem is divided into t'o main &roups=
Transaction S(stem
1ecision Support S(stem
T%"n$"!t#n S-$te(:
A transaction is a record of some 'e))Bdefined sin&)e and usua))( sma)) occurrence in
a s(stem. Transactions are input into the computer to update the database fi)es. It
chec*s the enterin& data for its accurac(. This means that numeric data appears in
numeric fie)d and character data in character fie)d. "nce a)) the chec*s are made,
transaction is used to update the database. Transaction can be inputted in onB)ine
mode or batch mode. In onB)ine mode, transactions are entered and updated into the
database a)most instantaneous)(. In batch mode, transactions are co))ected into
batches, 'hich ma( be he)d for a 'hi)e and inputted )ater.
De!$#n Su33#%t S-$te(:
It assists the user to ma*e ana)(tica) decision. It sho's the various data in or&ani4ed
'a( ca))ed ana)(sis. This ana)(sis can be made to s(rd( preferences and he)p in
ma*in& decisions.

!omputer s(stem 'or*s out best 'ith record maintenance. It 'i)) te)) (ou 'hich
customer 'ou)d &et ho' much pendin&Dreports statements. It 'i)) a)so he)p to search
the information about a particu)ar person b( simp)( enterin& his te)ephone number.
User can store information as per re+uirement, 'hich can be used for comparison
'ith other reports.
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SPECIFIC REQURIMENTS:
Ne' records are entered throu&h the &raphica) user interface i.e the forms and at the c)ic*
of a button the( are entered into the database, so that the( can be retrieved for future use
or an( en+uir(.
E>TERNA; INTERFACE REQUIREMENTS:
U$e% Inte%'"!e : ?C#(3ute% Institute Mana&ement S(stem@ provides comp)ete
&raphica) user interface 'hich 'i)) ma*e soft'are more interactive J convenient to use.
H"%+,"%e Inte%'"!e: !omputer Institute Mana&ement S(stem% 'i)) interact 'ith
a)most a)) t(pes of hard'are avai)ab)e at an institute.
S#'t,"%e Inte%'"!e: Soft'are uses C2.Net for forms desi&nin& and to provide &ood
&raphica) user interface. "rac)e 12A J SE; Server is used at the bac*end to store data.
NON FUNCTIONA; REQUIREMENT:
Pe%'#%("n!e Re:u%e(ent: Usin& C2.Net 'ith the he)pe of orac)e 12A J SE; Server
enhances the performances of project as both are Microsoft products therefore front and
bac*end have been chosen such that the performance increases.
S#'t,"%e Qu"*t- Att%)ute$: !omputer Institute Mana&ement S(stem% 'ith stands
fo))o'in& +ua)it( attributes= correctness in terms of number of computationa) errors,
$obustness.
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/.. FUNCTIONA; REQIREMENTS:
Fun!t#n"* M#+u*e 1: To )o&in and pass'ord faci)it( has been provided to authenticate
the user.
In3ut: pass'ord provided b( administrator.
P%#!e$$= desi&nin& the )o&in form.
Fun!t#n"* M#+u*e .: User enters the data throu&h forms the database.
Pu%3#$e: 1ata is re+uired for )ater use b( the institute a)so to *eep records of students
performance.
In3ut: student that come for courses or trainin& in the institute re&ister themse)ves.
P%#!e$$= desi&nin& the forms and enterin& data into database.
Fun!t#n"* M#+u*e/: To enter and maintain projects bein& made t an institute.
In3ut= Input for these forms is provided to user b( the &roup )eader and &uide of the
project.
P%#!e$$: 1esi&nin& the project record entr( form.
Fun!t#n"* M#+u*e0: T# en")*e u$e% t# e+t +"t"
Pu%3#$e: 1ata or information chan&es 'ith time therefore records need to be updated.
In3ut: month)( assessment of each student
P%#!e$$: Updatin& database 'ith ne' records
Fun!t#n"* M#+u*e1: T# +e*ete %e!#%+$ th"t $ n# (#%e %e:u%e+
Pu%3#$e: Savin& space and memor( re+uirements and thus increasin& accessibi)it( and
retrieva) of data faster.
In3ut: Studetn I1 no of student or primar( *e( of the tab)e.
#rocess= updatin& database.
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Fun!t#n"* M#+u*e2: Ret%e9"* #' +"t"
Pu%3#$e: user needs for future p)annin& or for stud(in& a studentAs performance &raph.
In3ut: primar( *e( of tab)es from 'hich 'e 'ant to e-tract data.
P%#!e$$: &eneratin& reports.
Fun!t#n"* M#+u*eA: Fee Det"*$
Pu%3#$e: Student, #arents needs to &et their updated studentAs 9ee 1etai)s. Administrator
add these detai)s.
In3ut: primar( *e( of tab)es from 'hich 'e 'ant to e-tract data.
P%#!e$$: &eneratin& reports.
3:
/./. DATA DESCRIPTION
D"t" entt- 1:
9irst thin& is the )o&in and the pass'ord faci)it(, it has been provided to authenticate the
user that is other than administrative staff )i*e students etc shou)d not have access to the
records as the( ma( tr( to chan&e the records )i*e fee and attendance status.
D"t" entt- .:
Second important information is re&istration form, fee record form, attendance form and
)ast)( the accessories form. These forms appear a&ain for different cate&or( of students at
an institute that a))o's i.e. one, 'ho come for industria) trainin&D project in their fina)
semesters, second)( those 'ho join an institute 'ith purpose of doin& the courses offered
b( it, in this case one student can opt for more than one course thus he has been
cate&ori4ed as ne' and e-istin& student, fina))( those customers 'ho are or 'ere
emp)o(ees of some or&ani4ation and have joined an institute under some scheme )i*e one
for C$S emp)o(ees.
D"t" Entt- /:
Third important entit( is the data retrieva) forms that ta*e input as user parameters for the
search and &enerate report for the same.
30
DEPENDENCY DESCRIPTION
M#+u*e De3en+en!-:
A)) the modu)es are interre)ated as editin&5 de)etion and retrieva) can be performed on)(
after successfu) e-ecution of the data entr( modu)e, same 'a( un)ess and unti) )o&in and
pass'ord form is e-ecuted user cannot enter the options pa&e.
P%#!e$$ De3en+en!-:
Interdependence of va)idation process, enterin& records process, edit, de)ete and retrieva)
process J a)) its sub processes. A)) the processes are dependent upon the va)idation
process as in if a user does not surpasses this process the user 'i)) not be ab)e to move
onto other processes.
D"t" De3en+en!-:
Strin& of characters entered as pass'ord, a))o's user to move to other pa&e, J options
are disp)a(ed. Thus, va)idation modu)e, basica))( dea)s 'ith data i.e. pass'ord.
$e&istration form entries act as input to databases that *eep record of ne' J e-istin&
students. Information )i*e name of student, data of birth etc entered b( user is entered in
database a)) this data is the part of edit, de)ete J retrieve modu)e of Institute Mana&ement
S(stem.
Te$t D"t":
The user at the time of )o&in, if enters 'ron& pass'ord then appropriate messa&e 'i)) be
f)ashed J user sta(s on the same form.
E.&. Sa( pass'ord is Institute Mana&ement S(stem% J if user enters some other strin&
then error 'i)) be disp)a(ed as inva)id pass'ord.
If 'ron& data is entered in te-t bo-es durin& the fi))in& of $e&istration form then as the
user c)ic*s "K% button va)id t(pes 'i)) appear J inva)id fie)ds 'i)) be made to fi))
a&ain.
3<
S-$te( De$4n
The desi&n document that 'e 'i)) deve)op durin& this phase is the b)ueprint of the
soft'are. It describes ho' the so)ution to the customer prob)em is to be bui)t. Since
so)ution to comp)e- prob)ems isnAt usua))( found in the first tr(, iterations are most )i*e)(
re+uired. This is true for soft'are desi&n as 'e)). 9or this reason, an( desi&n strate&(,
desi&n method, or desi&n )an&ua&e must be f)e-ib)e and must easi)( accommodate
chan&es due to iterations in the desi&n . An( techni+ue or desi&n needs to support and
&uide the partitionin& process in such a 'a( that the resu)tin& subBprob)ems are as
independent as possib)e from each other and can be combined easi)( for the so)ution to
the overa)) prob)em. SubBprob)em independence and eas( combination of their so)utions
reduces the comp)e-it( of the prob)em. This is the objective of the partitionin& process.
#artitionin& or decomposition durin& desi&n invo)ves three t(pes of decisions= B
1efine the boundaries a)on& 'hich to brea*5
1etermine into ho' mone( pieces to brea*5 and
Identif( the proper )eve) of detai) 'hen desi&n shou)d stop and imp)ementation shou)d
start.
2asic desi&n princip)es that enab)e the soft'are en&ineer to navi&ate the desi&n process
su&&est a set of princip)es for soft'are desi&n, 'hich have been adapted and e-tended in
the fo))o'in& )ist=
9ree from the suffer from Ltunne) vision.L A &ood desi&ner shou)d consider a)ternative
approaches, jud&in& each based on the re+uirements of the prob)em, the resources
avai)ab)e to do the job.
The desi&n shou)d be traceab)e to the ana)(sis mode). 2ecause a sin&)e e)ement of the
desi&n mode) often traces to mu)tip)e re+uirements, it is necessar( to have a means for
trac*in& ho' re+uirements have been satisfied b( the desi&n mode).
The desi&n shou)d not repeat the same thin&. S(stems are constructed usin& a set of
desi&n patterns, man( of 'hich have )i*e)( been encountered before. These patterns
shou)d a)'a(s be chosen as an a)ternative to reinvention. Time is short and resources are
3G
)imitedM 1esi&n time shou)d be invested in representin& tru)( ne' ideas and inte&ratin&
those patterns that a)read( e-ist.
The desi&n shou)d Lminimi4e the inte))ectua) distanceL bet'een the soft'are and the
prob)em as it e-ists in the rea) 'or)d. That is, the structure of the soft'are desi&n shou)d
.'henever possib)e/ mimic the structure of the prob)em domain.
The desi&n shou)d e-hibit uniformit( and inte&ration. A desi&n is uniform if it appears
that one person deve)oped the entire thin&. $u)es of st()e and format shou)d be defined
for a desi&n team before desi&n 'or* be&ins. A desi&n is inte&rated if care is ta*en in
definin& interfaces bet'een desi&n components.
The desi&n of a s(stem is essentia))( a b)ueprint or a p)an for a so)ution for the s(stem.
,e consider a s(stem to be a set of components 'ith c)ear)( defined behavior that
interacts 'ith each other in a fi-ed defined manner to produce some behavior or services
for its environment. A component of a s(stem can be considered a s(stem, 'ith its o'n
components. In a soft'are s(stem, a component is a soft'are modu)e.
The desi&n process for soft'are s(stems, often, has t'o )eve)s. At the first )eve), the
focus is on decidin& 'hich modu)es are needed for the s(stem, the specifications of these
modu)es, and ho' the modu)es shou)d be interconnected. This is 'hat is ca))ed the
s(stem desi&n or topB)eve) desi&n. In the second )eve), the interna) desi&n of the modu)es,
or ho' the specifications of the modu)e can be satisfied, is decided. This desi&n )eve) is
often ca))ed detai)ed desi&n or )o&ic desi&n. 1etai)ed desi&n essentia))( e-pands the
s(stem desi&n to contain a more detai)ed description of the processin& )o&ic and data
structures so that the desi&n is sufficient)( comp)ete for codin&.
2ecause the detai)ed desi&n is an e-tension of s(stem desi&n, the s(stem desi&n contro)s
the major structura) characteristics of the s(stem. The s(stem desi&n has a major impact
on the testabi)it( and modifiabi)it( of a s(stem, and it impacts its efficienc(. Much of the
desi&n effort for desi&nin& soft'are is spent creatin& the s(stem desi&n.
The input to the desi&n phase is the specifications for the s(stem to be desi&ned. Hence,
reasonab)e entr( criteria can be that the specifications are stab)e and have been approved,
hopin& that the approva) mechanism 'i)) ensure that the specifications are comp)ete,
consistent, unambi&uous, etc.
3I
The fina) de)iverab)e from s(stem ana)(sis is a document containin& an unambi&uous
statement of the c)ient>s re+uirements from the ne' s(stem and 'hat the deve)opment
project 'i)) have to de)iver in order to be considered a success.
The functiona) specification is the startin& point for desi&nin&, 'hich depends to a )ar&e
e-tent on the accurac( and thorou&hness 'ith 'hich the ana)(sis has been carried out.
Understandin& of the business, appreciation of the c)ient>s prob)ems and documentation
of re+uirements provide the foundation on 'hich the desi&nin& is based.
A *e( factor in this approach is the use of the structured techni+ues.
Ana)(sis ends 'ith a description of 'hat the ne' s(stem must do to fu)fi)) the
re+uirements of the or&ani4ation, 'hi)e desi&n specifies ho' this 'i)) be done b(
se)ectin& one of the man( 'a(s of doin& it.
The structured techni+ues used durin& the ana)(sis 'hich provide this )o&ica) vie' are=
F 1ata f)o' dia&rams B representin& the process, 'hich manipu)ate the data as it passes
throu&h the s(stem.
F Entit( mode) B sho'in& the re)ationship 'ithin the data items he)d 'ithin the s(stem.
F A data dictionar( B providin& an overa)) consistent definition of the data used durin& the
s(stem deve)opment. This definition inc)udes the content of the data stores, data f)o's
and the process sho'n on the data f)o' dia&rams, and the entities that ma*e up the entit(
mode).
6?
ANA;YSIS
1escribin& ,HAT the
S(stem 'i)) doN
DESIGN
1escribin& H",
the s(stem 'i)) do
it
The &ap
DESIGN OBJECTIVES AND CONSTRAINTS:
F*eB)*e <
The desi&n 'ou)d enab)e future re+uirements of the or&ani4ation to be incorporated
'ithout much difficu)t(. "ften the or&ani4ationa) needs and objectives chan&e over time
and hence such a desi&n enab)es the s(stem to ref)ect these chan&es.
C M"nt"n")*e D
A &ood desi&n is eas( to maintain and this reduces the c)ient>s maintenance cost, 'hich
usua))( represents a proportion of the )ifetime of the s(stem.
C P#%t")*e D
A c)ient for 'hom the soft'are 'as deve)oped ma( 'ish to chan&e the hard'are on
'hich the s(stem run. A &ood desi&n is portab)e B in other 'ords it is capab)e of bein&
transferred from one machine environment to another 'ith minimum amount of effort.
C E"$- t# u$e D
,ith increasin& number of &enera) users havin& e-posure to computers and access to 'eb
sites, e-pectations of computer app)ications in term of their ease of use are a)so
increasin&. A &ood desi&n 'i)) resu)t in a s(stem 'hich is Ouser B friend)(> B eas( to
understand, not difficu)t to )earn ho' to use and strai&htfor'ard to operate.
C Re*")*e D
The s(stem desi&ned must be secure a&ainst human error, de)iberate misuse or machine
fai)ure, and 'hich the data 'i)) be stored 'ithout corruption.
63
0.1 PHYSICA; DESIGN
The desi&n phase focuses on the detai)ed imp)ementation of the s(stem recommended in
the feasibi)it(. Emphasis is on trans)atin& performance specifications into desi&n
specifications. The desi&n phase is a transition from userBoriented document to a
pro&rammerBoriented document.
". De$4n Meth#+#*#4-:
1esi&n Methodo)o&( is a 'a( to transform the LartL of s(stem ana)(sis and desi&n into an
Len&ineerin& B t(peL discip)ine. It e-p)ains the re)ationship amon&st various modu)es and
pro&rams 'ith in the s(stem. It standardi4es the approach to ana)(sis and desi&n,
simp)ifies desi&n b( se&mentation, improves documentation and subse+uent maintenance
and enhancements.
The fo))o'in& structured dia&ram can appropriate)( represent the re)ationship bet'een
various modu)es .
). De$4n O9e%9e,:
In ana)(4in& the present s(stem a &reat dea) of information 'as co))ected durin& the
investi&ation and feasibi)it( phases throu&h )ist of prob)ems and re+uirements, intervie'
reports, +uestionnaires, onsite observations, manua)s and determinin& potentia) so)utions.
It is important to record this information in an unambi&uous, concise manner
'hich 'i)) be c)ear and accessib)e to others, and 'hich can be used b( other ana)(sts
and desi&ners invo)ved in deve)opin& the s(stem. Structured techni+ues he)p us to record
the information in this 'a(, usin& dia&rams and minimum amount of the te-t.
Structured ana)(sis is a set of techni+ues and &raphica) too)s that a))o' the
ana)(st to deve)op a ne' *ind of s(stem specification that are easi)( understandab)e
to the user. The traditiona) approach of or&ani4in& data throu&h f)o'charts support
66
future deve)opments and simp)if( communication 'ith the user but focus on the
costDbenefit and feasibi)it( ana)(sis, project mana&ement, hard'are and soft'are
se)ection, and persona) considerations. In contrast, structured ana)(sis considers ne'
&oa)s and structured too)s for
ana)(sis, 'hich provide the basis for desi&n and imp)ementation.
!. P%#!e$$ M#+e*n4:
S(stem desi&n &oes throu&h t'o phases of deve)opment= )o&ica) and ph(sica). ;o&ica)
imp)ementation represented b( 1ata 9)o' 1ia&ram sho's the )o&ica) f)o' of a
s(stem and defines the boundaries of the s(stem it describes the input .source/,
outputs .destinations/, data bases .data stores/, and procedures .data f)o's/ B a)) in
the format that meets the user>s re+uirements. The )o&ica) imp)ementation of the
'ho)e project can be represented as under throu&h 1ata 9)o' 1ia&rams .191/.
67
0.. ER +"4%"($
C#(3ute% In$ttute M"n"4e(ent S-$te(
$eport Status
Ac*no')ed&ement Admission Entr(
sho'


$eceipt Entr(


9ees Sho'

Mana&ement $eports
68
U$e%E
In$t%u!t#%
Stu+ent
In$t%u!t#%
Ent%-
C#(3ute%
In$ttute
M"n"4e(en
t S-$te(
Fee
C#(3ute% In$ttute
M"n"4e(ent S-$te(
A** Re3#%t$

C#u%$e
Ent%-
!ourses
8.7 P%#!e$$ ;#4! '#% E"!h M#+u*e:
V"*+"t#n: This )o&in and pass'ord faci)it( has been provided to authenticate the user.
The process is desi&nin& the )o&in form.
Re!#%+ Ent%-: Enterin& the records via forms desi&ned for user convenience and fina))(
records are stored into the database.
E+tn4 the %e!#%+$: The process is to enab)e user to edit. 1ata or information chan&es
'ith time therefore records need to be updated )i*e month)( assessment of each student
etc.
De*etn4 the Re!#%+$: The process is to de)ete records that are no more re+uired.
#urpose is to save space and memor( re+uirement and thus increasin& accessibi)it( and
retrieva) of data faster.
0.0 D"t" M#+e*n4
D"t" St%u!tu%e Re:u%e(ent$ "!!#%+n4 t# the (#+u*e$:
Identif( The Carious Tab)es $e+uired.
9ie)ds for These Tab)es.
The Carious Ke( 9ie)ds .for e-amp)e #rimar( *e( and forei&n *e(/.
Identif( The Carious !onstraints )i*e Not Nu)), Uni+ue etc.
De$!%)n4 D"t" E*e(ent$:
Each entr( in the data dictionar( consists of a set of detai)s describin& the data used or
produced in the s(stem. Each item is identified b( a data name, description, a)ias, and
)en&th and has specific va)ues that are permissib)e for it in the s(stem bein&
studied.
6:
60
0.1 SCHEDU;ING
Schedu)in& of a soft'are project does not differ &reat)( from schedu)in& of an( mu)tiB
tas* en&ineerin& effort. Therefore, &enera)i4ed project schedu)in& too)s and techni+ues
can be app)ied 'ith )itt)e modification to soft'are projects.
#ro&ram eva)uation and revie' techni+ue .#E$T/ and critica) path method .!#M/ are
t'o project schedu)in& methods that can be app)ied to soft'are deve)opment. 2oth
techni+ues are driven b( information a)read( deve)oped in ear)ier project p)annin&
activities.
E$t("te$ #' E''#%t
A decomposition of the product function.
The se)ection of the appropriate process mode) and tas* set.
1ecomposition of tas*s.
2oth #E$T and !#M provide +uantitative too)s that a))o' the soft'are p)anner to .3/
determine the critica) pathBthe chain of tas*s that determines the duration of the project5
.6/ estab)ish Lmost )i*e)(L time estimates for individua) tas*s b( app)(in& statistica)
mode)s5 and .7/ ca)cu)ate Lboundar( timesL that define a time 'indo'L for a particu)ar
tas*.
2oundar( time ca)cu)ations can be ver( usefu) in soft'are project schedu)in&. S)ippa&e in
the desi&n of one function, for e-amp)e, can retard further deve)opment of other
functions. It describes important boundar( times that ma( be discerned from a #E$T or
!#M net'or*= .I/ the ear)iest time that a tas* can be&in 'hen precedin& tas*s are
comp)eted in the shortest possib)e time, .6/ the )atest time for tas* initiation before the
minimum project comp)etion time is de)a(ed, .7/ the ear)iest finishBthe sum of the ear)iest
start and the tas* duration, .8/ the )atest finishB the )atest start time added to tas* duration,
and .:/ the tota) f)oatBthe amount of surp)us time or )ee'a( a))o'ed in schedu)in& tas*s
so that the net'or* critica) path maintained on schedu)e. 2oundar( time ca)cu)ations )ead
to a determination of critica) path and provide the mana&er 'ith a +uantitative method for
eva)uatin& pro&ress as tas*s are comp)eted.
6<
6G

6I
;o&in ,indo' Main ,indo'
User Entr( ,indo' Instructor Entr( ,indo'
Student Entr( Entr( !ourse Cie' ,indo'
1.. C#+e E''!en!-
$evie'in& of !ode efficienc( for a modu)e is carried out after the modu)e is successfu))(
compi)ed and a)) the s(nta- errors e)iminated. !ode efficienc( revie' is e-treme)( costB
effective strate&ies for reduction in codin& errors in order to produce hi&h +ua)it( code.
Norma))(, t'o t(pes of efficienc( are carried out on the code of a modu)e B code
optimi4ation and code inspection. The procedure and fina) objective of these t'o
efficienc( techni+ues are ver( different as discussed be)o'.
1./ O3t(F"t#n #' C#+e
!ode optimi4ation is an informa) code ana)(sis techni+ue. In this techni+ue, after a
modu)e has been coded, it is successfu))( compi)ed and a)) s(nta- errors are e)iminated.
Some members of the deve)opment team are &iven the code a fe' da(s before the
optimi4ation meetin& to read and understand the code. Each member se)ects some test
cases and simu)ates e-ecution of the code b( hand .i.e. trace e-ecution throu&h each
statement and function e-ecution/. The main objectives of the optimi4ation are to
discover the a)&orithmic and )o&ica) errors in the code. The members note do'n their
findin&s to discuss these in a optimi4ation meetin& 'here the coder of the modu)e is a)so
present.
Even thou&h a code optimi4ation is an informa) ana)(sis techni+ue, severa) &uide)ines
have evo)ved over the (ears for ma*in& this naPve techni+ue more effective and usefu).
"f course, these &uide)ines are based on persona) e-perience, common sense, and severa)
subjective factors. Therefore are based on persona) e-perience, common sense, and
severa) subjective factors. Therefore, &uide)ines shou)d be considered as e-amp)es rather
than as ru)es to be app)ied do&matica))(. Some of these &uide)ines are the fo))o'in&=
The team performin& the code optimi4ation shou)d not be either too bi& or too sma)).
Idea))(, it shou)d consist of three to seven members.
7?
2.1 Te$tn4 Ph"$e
"ne of the purposes of the testin& is to va)idate and verif( the s(stem. Cerification means
chec*in& the s(stem to ensure that it is doin& 'hat the function is supposed to do and
Ca)idation means chec*in& to ensure that s(stem is doin& 'hat the user 'ants it to do.
No pro&ram or s(stem desi&n is perfect5 communication bet'een the user and the
desi&ner is not a)'a(s comp)ete or c)ear, and time is usua))( short. The resu)t is errors
and more errors. Theoretica))(, a ne')( desi&ned s(stem shou)d have a)) the pieces in
'or*in& order, but in rea)it(, each piece 'or*s independent)(. No' is the time to put a))
the pieces into one s(stem and test it to determine 'hether it meets the user>s
re+uirements. This is the best chance to detect and correct errors before the s(stem is
imp)emented. The purpose of s(stem testin& is to consider a)) the )i*e)( variations to
'hich it 'i)) be subjected and then push the s(stem to its )imits. If 'e imp)ement the
s(stem 'ithout proper testin& then it mi&ht cause the prob)ems.
3. !ommunication bet'een the user and the desi&ner.
6. The pro&rammer>s abi)it( to &enerate a code that ref)ects
e-act)( the s(stem specification.
7. The time frame for the desi&n.
Theoretica))(, a ne' desi&ned s(stem shou)d have a)) the pieces in 'or*in& order, but in
rea)it(, each piece 'or*s independent)(. No' is the time to put a)) the pieces into one
s(stem and test it to determine 'hether it meets the re+uirements of the user.
The process of s(stem testin& and the steps ta*en to va)idate and
prepare a s(stem for fina) imp)ementation are=
73
;EVE;S OF TESTING:
The different t(pes of testin& are as fo))o's=

3. Unt Te$tn4 =
This is the sma))est testab)e unit of a computer s(stem and is
norma))( tested usin& the 'hite bo- testin&. The author of the pro&rams usua))(
carries out unit tests.
6. Inte4%"t#n Te$tn4 =
In inte&ration testin&, the different units of the s(stem are
inte&rated to&ether to form the comp)ete s(stem and this t(pe of testin& chec*s the s(stem
as 'ho)e to ensure that it is doin& 'hat is supposed to do. The testin& of an inte&rated
s(stem can be carried out topBdo'n, bottomBup, or bi&Bban&. In this t(pe of testin&, some
parts 'i)) be tested 'ith 'hite bo- testin& and some 'ith b)ac* bo- testin& techni+ues.
This t(pe of testin& p)a(s ver( important ro)e in increasin& the s(stems productivit(. ,e
have chec*ed our s(stem b( usin& the inte&ration testin& techni+ues.
76
UNIT TESTING
VA;IDATION
INTREGRATION
N
SYSTEM
7. S-$te( Te$tn4 =
A part from testin& the s(stem to va)idate the functiona)it( of
soft'are a&ainst the re+uirements, it is a)so necessar( to test the nonBfunctiona) aspect of
the s(stem. Some e-amp)es of nonBfunctiona) too)s inc)ude tests to chec* performance,
data securit(, usabi)it(Duser friend)iness, vo)ume, )oadDstress that 'e have used in our
project to test the various modu)es.
S(stem testin& consists of the fo))o'in& steps=
3. #ro&ram.s/ testin&.
6. Strin& testin&.
7. S(stem testin&.
8. S(stem documentation.
:. User acceptance testin&.
8. Fe*+ Te$tn4 =
This is a specia) t(pe of testin& that ma( be ver( important in some
projects. Here the s(stem is tested in the actua) operationa) surroundin&s. The interfaces
'ith other s(stems and
the rea) 'or)d are chec*ed. This t(pe of testin& is ver( rare)( used. So far our project is
concerned, 'e haven>t tested our project usin& the fie)d testin&.
:. A!!e3t"n!e Te$tn4 =
After the deve)oper has comp)eted a)) rounds of testin& and he is
satisfied 'ith the s(stem, then the user ta*es over and reBtests the s(stem from his point
of vie' to jud&e 'hether it is acceptab)e accordin& to some previous)( identified criteria.
This is a)most a)'a(s a tric*( situation in the project because of the inherent conf)ict
bet'een the deve)oper and the user. In this project, it is the job of the boo*stores to chec*
the s(stem that 'hether the made s(stem fu)fi))s the &oa)s or not.
77
7h- S-$te( Te$tn4 N
Testin& is vita) to the success of the s(stem. S(stem testin& ma*es a )o&ica) assumption
that if a)) the parts of the s(stem are correct , the &oa) 'i)) be successfu))( achieved.
Inade+uate testin& resu)ts in t'o t(pe of prob)ems=
3. The time )a& bet'een the cause and the appearance of the
prob)em.
6. The effect of s(stem errors on the fi)es and records 'ithin
the s(stem.
P%e3"%e Te$t
A 'or*ab)e test p)an must be prepared in accordance 'ith estab)ished
desi&n specifications. It inc)udes the fo))o'in& items=
F "utputs e-pected from the s(stem.
F !riteria for eva)uatin& outputs.
F A vo)ume of test data.
F #rocedure for usin& test data.
F #ersonne) and trainin& re+uirements.
S3e!'- C#n+t#n$ '#% U$e% A!!e3t"n!e Te$tn4
#)annin& for user acceptance testin& ca))s for the ana)(st and the user to a&ree on
conditions for the test.
P%e3"%e Te$t D"t" '#% P%#4%"( Te$tn4
As each pro&ram is coded, test data are prepared and documented to ensure that a))
aspects of the pro&ram are proper)( tested.
P%e3"%e Te$t D"t" '#% T%"n$"!t#n P"th Te$tn4
This activit( deve)ops the data re+uired for testin& ever( condition and transactions to be
introduced into the s(stem. The path of each transaction from ori&in to destination is
carefu))( tested re)iab)e resu)ts.
78
C#(3*e & A$$e()*e P%#4%"($
A)) pro&rams have to be compi)ed D assemb)ed for testin&.
S-$te($ te$tn4
The computer department to ensure that the s(stem functions as specified does this testin&. This
testin& is important to ensure that a 'or*in& s(stem is handed over to the user for acceptance
testin&.
A!!e3t"n!e te$tn4.
The user to ensure that the s(stem functions, as the user actua))( 'anted performs this testin&.
,ith protot(pin& techni+ues, this sta&e becomes ver( much a forma)it( to chec* the
accurac( and comp)eteness of processin&. The screen )a(outs and output shou)d a)read(
have been tested durin& the protot(pin& phase.
An error in the pro&ram code can remain undetected indefinite)(. To prevent this
from happenin& the code 'as tested at various )eve)s. To successfu))( test a s(stem,
each condition, and combinations of conditions had to be tested. Each pro&ram 'as
tested and )in*ed to other pro&rams. This unit of pro&ram is tested and )in*ed to other
units and so on unti) the comp)ete s(stem has been tested.
The purpose of testin& is to ensure that each pro&ram is fu))( tested. To do so a
test p)an had to be created. The test p)an consists of a number of test runs such as the
va)id paths throu&h the code, and the e-ception and error hand)in& paths. 9or each
test run there is a )ist of conditions tested, the test data used and the resu)t e-pected.
The test p)an 'as then revie'ed to chec* that each path throu&h the code is tested
correct)(. It is the responsibi)it( of the pro&rammer to co))ect the data that 'i))
produce the re+uired test condition.
7:
0.6 Ve%'!"t#n "n+ V"*+"t#n GV&VH
The objectives of verification, va)idit( activities are to assess and improve the +ua)it( of
the 'or* products &enerated durin& deve)opment and modification of the soft'are.
Eua)it( depends upon the various attributes )i*e correctness, comp)eteness, consistenc(,
re)iabi)it(, usefu)ness, usabi)it(, efficienc( and conformance to standards.
Cerification activities inc)ude provin&, testin&, and revie's. Ca)idation is the process of
eva)uatin& soft'are at the end of the soft'are deve)opment to ensure comp)iance 'ith the
soft'are re+uirements. Testin& is a common method of va)idation. !)ear)(, for hi&h
re)iabi)it( 'e need to perform both activities. To&ether, the( are often ca))ed CJC
activities.
The major CJC activities for soft'are deve)opment are inspection, revie's, and testin&
.both static and d(namic/. The CJC p)an identifies the different CJC tas*s for the
different phases and specifies ho' these tas*s contribute to the project CJC &oa)s. The
methods to be used for performin& these CJC activities, the responsibi)ities and
mi)estones for each of these activities, inputs and outputs for each CJC tas*, and criteria
for eva)uatin& the outputs are a)so specified.
The t'o major CJC approaches are testin& and inspections. Testin& is an activit( that
can be &enera))( performed on)( on code. It is an important activit( and is discussed in
detai) in a )ater chapter. Inspection is a more &enera) activit( that can be app)ied to an(
'or* product, inc)udin& code. Man( of the CJC tas*s are such that for them, an
inspection t(pe of activit( is the on)( possib)e 'a( to perform the tas*s .e.&. trace abi)it(
and document eva)uation/. 1ue to this, inspections p)a( a si&nificant ro)e in verification.
70
2./ S-$te( I(3*e(ent"t#n M"nten"n!e "n+ Re9e,
As 'e *no', creatin& soft'are is one thin& and the imp)ementation of the created
soft'are is another. The process of imp)ementin& soft'are is much difficu)t as compared
to the tas* of creatin& the project. 9irst 'e have to imp)ement the soft'are on a sma))
sca)e for removin& the bu&s and other errors in the project and after removin& them 'e
can imp)ement the soft'are on a )ar&e sca)e.
2efore 'e thin* in terms of imp)ementin& the Soft'are on a )ar&e basis, 'e must
consider the Hard'are re+uirements.
,henever 'e deve)op a soft'are or project a certain hard'are and soft'are is
bein& used b( the pro&rammer for deve)opin& the project. The hard'are and soft'are to
be used b( the pro&rammer for deve)opin& the project shou)d be such that it 'ou)d resu)t
in the deve)opment of a project, 'hich 'ou)d satisf( a)) the basic needs for 'hich the
project has been created b( the pro&rammer. The Hard'are shou)d be such that cost
constraints of the !)ient shou)d a)so be ta*en into account 'ithout affectin& the
performance.
HARD7ARE EVA;UATION FACTORS
,hen 'e eva)uate computer hard'are, 'e shou)d first investi&ate specific physical and
performance characteristics for each hard'are component to be ac+uired. These specific
+uestions must be ans'ered concernin& man( important factors. These hardware evaluation
factors +uestions are summari4ed in the be)o' fi&ure.
Notice that there is much more to eva)uatin& hard'are than determinin& the fastest and
cheapest computin& device. 9or e.&. the +uestion of possib)e obso)escence must be addressed
b( ma*in& a techno)o&( eva)uation. The factor of ergonomics is a)so ver( important.
Er&onomics is the science and techno)o&( that tries to ensure that computers and other
techno)o&ies are LuserBfriend)(L, that is safe, comfortab)e and eas( to use. Connectivity is
another important eva)uation factor, since so man( computer s(stems are no' interconnected
'ithin 'ide area or )oca) area te)ecommunications net'or*s.
7<
HARD7ARE EVA;UATION FACTORS
3/ #erformance
6/ !ost
7/ $e)iabi)it(
8/ Avai)abi)it(
:/ !ompatibi)it(
0/ Modu)arit(
</ Techno)o&(
G/ Er&onomics
I/ !onnectivit(
3?/ Environmenta) re+uirements
33/ Soft'are
36/ Support
SOFT7ARE EVA;UATION FACTORS
Soft'are can be eva)uated accordin& to man( factors simi)ar to the hard'are
eva)uation. Thus the factors of performance, cost, reliability, compatibility, modularity,
technology, ergonomics, and support shou)d be used to eva)uate proposed soft'are
ac+uisitions. In addition, ho'ever, the software evaluation factors are summari4ed in
be)o' fi&ure. 9or e.&. some soft'are pac*a&es re+uire too much memor( capacit( and
are notorious)( s)o', hard to use, or poor)( documented. The( are not a &ood se)ection
for most end users, even if offered at attractive prices.
SOFT7ARE EVA;UATION FACTORS:
3/ Efficienc(= is the soft'are a 'e))B'ritten s(stem of computer instructions that does
not use much memor( capacit( or !#U timeN
7G
6/ 9)e-ibi)it(= can it hand)e its processin& assi&nments easi)( 'ithout major
modificationsN
7/ Securit(= does it provide contro) procedures for errors, ma)functions and improper useN
8/ ;an&ua&e= do our computer pro&rammers and users 'rite it in a pro&rammin&
)an&ua&e that is usedN
:/ 1ocumentation= is the sD' 'e)) documentedN 1oes it inc)ude he)pfu) user instructionsN
0/ Hard'are= does e-istin& hard'are have the features re+uired to best use this soft'areN
</ "ther characteristics of hard'are such as its performance, 'hat about the cost, ho'
much is re)iab)e and etc.
2.0 SECURITY MEASURES
User Name J #ass'ord securit( imp)emented so that nounauthorised person can
hand)e an( operation 'ithout username and #ass'ord.
"n)( authori4ed person can )o&Bon the s(stem.
"n)( authori4ed person can update the records.
"n)( authori4ed person can hand)e the reservation.
"n)( authori4ed person can print the report.
It h"$ t,# In+$ #' u$e%$:
3. Administrator
6. User3
A+(n$t%"t#%: He has comp)ete authorit( .$ead, Add, Modif(/ of operatin& the
soft'are. The User Name and #ass'ord provided to the Administrator in this project is=
User Id= Admin
#ass'ord= admin367
7I
U$e%1: ,hen this user )o&s onto the s(stem, he can on)( vie' information and other
reports. He can &enerate different reports.
User Id= User3
#ass'ord= user367
A. COST ESTIMATION OF THE PROJECT
!ost in a project is due to the re+uirements for soft'are, hard'are, and human resources.
Hard'are resources are computer time, termina) time and memor( re+uired for the
project. Soft'are resources inc)ude the too)s and compi)ers needed durin& deve)opment.
The bu)* of cost of soft'are deve)opment is due to human resources needed. !ost
estimates are determined in terms of personBmonths GPMH.
Tota) No. "f #ersons Invo)ved In This #roject=
3 Administrator
6 Senior #ro&rammer
7 Qunior #ro&rammers
Since this #roject 'i)) comp)ete in 7 months
!ost Estimate= .Sa)ar( of #roject Mana&er R Sa)ar( of Senior #ro&rammer R 6 S Sa)ar( of
Qunior #ro&rammer/ S 6
Fu%the% S!#3e #' the A33*!"t#n
1. Thou&h ma-imum efforts have been put in to ma*e this report authentic in a)) aspects
and to ta*e a)) necessar( presentation to ensure that the information &athered is true,
some uncomfortab)e factors ma( have crept in.
.. Some of the respondents 'ere re)uctant to part 'ith certain information on the prete-t
of the sensitivit( of the information. A)so some facts of fi&ures 'ere not divu)&ed as the
compan( po)ic( came in the 'a( for free reve)ation of the desired input.
8?
/. An e)ement of bias mi&ht have crept in from the side of the officia) intervie'ed. This
cou)d a)so have resu)ted in some *ind of modification of the information divu)&ed.
0. Throu&h an attempt 'as ma*e to co))ect information from the
best possib)e source in the compan(, it 'as difficu)t to meet the top officia)s due to their
bus( schedu)es.
1. Most of the ana)(sis and interpretations, made for this report, are based on secondar(
data obtained. This data cou)d have some inherent mista*es and errors.
2. 9ina))(, a)thou&h due care has been ta*en those can be t(pin& and compi)ation errors in
the report itse)f.
The tas*s specified 'ere not 'e)) defined because nothin& 'as
mentioned re&ardin& va)idations in the project. Thou&h &ave ma-imum
effort to chec* the soft'are 'ith different va)idation tests, a fe' of them
mi&ht be present in this version

Thou&h a)) possib)e chec*s have been p)aced but sti)) there are some
contro)s 'here chec*s have not been dep)o(ed, therefore user has to be
carefu) 'hi)e enterin& data throu&h these contro)s. 9or e.&.= data entr(
has to be in .mmDddD((((/ format.
Screen reso)ution has to be 3?68 - <0G other'ise forms
'i)) not be visib)e
1ue to )imited time avai)ab)e surve( cou)d not be underta*en for intended
6? consumers and thus had to be )imited to 3?
!ommunication &aps e-ist bet'een emp)o(ees and mana&ement, as
seniors don>t share prob)em 'ith subordinates resu)tin& in vio)ation of
ps(cho)o&ica) contract.
#oor re'ardin& s(stem.s)o'/
#oor 'or*in& conditions
The )imitations ma( be man( and the ma&nitude of the inf)uence of these )imitin& factors
ma( have a bearin& on the report, but it in no 'a( a)ters the u)timate aim of the project
83
and because it>s hi&h)( USE$ 9$IEN1;Y, it 'ou)d be the choice of a)) *inds of
personne).
86
5. CONC;USIONS
This project has been a re'ardin& e-perience in more than one 'a(. The entire project
'or* has en)i&htened us in the fo))o'in& areas.
,e have &ained an insi&ht into the 'or*in& of the Hospita). This
represents a t(pica) rea) 'or)d situation
"ur understandin& of database desi&n has been stren&thened this is because in
order to &enerate the fina) reports of database
desi&nin& has to be proper)( fo))o'ed.
Schedu)in& a project and adherin& to that schedu)e creates a stron& sense of time
mana&ement.
Sense of team'or* has deve)oped and confidence of hand)in& rea) )ife project has
increased to a &reat e-tent.
Initia))(, there 'ere prob)em 'ith the va)idation but 'ith discussions , 'e 'ere to
imp)ement va)idations.
6. B)*#4%"3h-
C2.NET Qame' 9o-a))
C2.NET #rojects Ton( Martin,1ominic Se))(
C2.Net #rofessiona) #rojects Ku)jit Kaur,#ooja 2embe(
"$A!;E I The !omp)ete $eference Geor&e Koch Kevin ;one(
87
1J.G;OSSARY
TeBt B#B
A te-t 2o- contro), sometimes ca))ed an edit fie)d or edit contro), disp)a(s information
entered at desi&n time, entered b( the user, or assi&ned to the contro) in code at run time.
Butt#n
Use a !ommand 2utton contro) to be&in, interrupt, or end a process. ,hen chosen, a
!ommand 2utton appears pushed in and so is sometimes ca))ed a push button.
;$t B#B
A ;ist 2o- contro) disp)a(s a )ist of items from 'hich the user can se)ect one or more. If
the number of items e-ceeds the number that can be disp)a(ed, a scro)) bar is
automatica))( added to the ;ist 2o- contro).
;")e*
A ;abe) contro) is a &raphica) contro) (ou can use to disp)a( te-t that a user canAt chan&e
direct)(.
GROUPBO>
A G$"U#2"T contro) provides an identifiab)e &roupin& for contro)s. You can a)so use a
9rame to subdivide a form functiona))( U for e-amp)e, to separate &roups of "ption
2utton contro)s.
C#()# B#B
A !ombo 2o- contro) combines the features of a te-t bo- and a )ist bo-. This contro)
a))o's the user to se)ect an item either b( t(pin& te-t into the combo bo-, or b( se)ectin&
it from the )ist.
T(e%
A Timer contro) can e-ecute code at re&u)ar interva)s b( causin& a Timer event to occur.
The Timer contro), invisib)e to the user, is usefu) for bac*&round processin&.
88
P!tu%e B#B
The primar( use for the #icture 2o- contro) is to disp)a( a picture to the user. The actua)
picture that is disp)a(ed is determined b( the picture propert(. The picture propert(
contains the fi)e name .and optiona) path / for the picture fi)e that (ou 'ish to disp)a(.
DATA G%+ C#nt%#*
The 1ATAGrid contro) disp)a(s and operates on tabu)ar data. It a))o's comp)ete
f)e-ibi)it( to sort, mer&e, and format tab)es containin& strin&s and pictures. ,hen bound
to a 1ata contro), MS9)e-Grid disp)a(s readBon)( data.
D"te "n+ T(e P!Ie% C#nt%#*
A 1ate And Time #ic*er .1T#/ !ontro) provides a simp)e and intuitive interface throu&h
'hich to e-chan&e data and time information 'ith a user. 9or e-amp)e, 'ith a 1T#
contro) (ou can as* the user to enter a data and then retrieve his or her se)ection 'ith
ease.
O3t#n Butt#n
An "ption 2utton contro) disp)a(s an option that can be turned on or off.
I("4e C#nt%#*
Use the Ima&e contro) to disp)a( a &raphic. An Ima&e contro) can disp)a( a &raphic from
an icon, bitmap or metafi)e, as 'e)) as enhanced metafi)e, Q#EG, or GI9 fi)es.
Che!I B#B C#nt%#*
A !hec* 2o- indicates 'hether a particu)ar condition is on or off. ,e use chec* bo-es in
an app)ication to &ive users trueDfa)se or (esDno options. 2ecause chec* bo-es 'or*
independent)( of each other, a user can se)ect an( number of chec* bo-es at the same
time.

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