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Slide 1

Plant commissioning & start up procedure


Slide 2
The Commissioning Process
Key Stages
Preparation and planning
Mechanical Completion and Integrity checking
Pre-commissioning &Operational Testing
Start Up & Initial Operation
Performance and acceptance testing
Post Commissioning
Slide 3
1. Preparation and planning
Appointment of Commissioning Manager or Lead Commissioning ngineer!
Appointment of Commissioning Team Mem"ers and S#pport Staff!
Training!
Information Compilation!
Safety and $isk Assessment!
Commissioning Strategy Development;
Procedures and Checklist Development;
%etailed Plan and &#dget Preparation!
Slide 4
Commissioning Strategyt L
Facility Commissioning Issues
Time phasing constr#ction and commissioning acti'ities
Time phasing the commissioning of the 'ario#s parts of the plant relati'e to each other!
$elationships and timings determining (hen 'ario#s systems need to "e a'aila"le)
lectrical* Steam* +ater* Instr#mentation
Se,#encing of the o'erall plant start#p and sh#tdo(n to ens#re (e do not create #nsafe
conditions!
Initial start #p!
Process Control and Sh#tdo(n!
Performance testing!Slide 6
Developing Startup Procedures
ngineering and constr#ction companies generally follo( a systematic proced#re (here "y
their start#p engineers re'ie( the process design se'eral times as it is de'eloped!
After the first re'ie(* a preliminary start-#p and operations proced#re is (ritten!
%ecide (hat m#st "e added to the design to make the process capa"le of "eing started #p and
operated!
&y the time the final engineering flo(-sheets ha'e "een released a complete start#p and
operating instr#ctions man#al sho#ld ha'e "een completed-
Slide 7
Issues considered
Are 'ario#s part of the process too depend on one another!
Is there eno#gh s#rge capacity!
Are there pro'isions to pre'ent a"normal press#res* temperat#res and rates of reaction!
+here are additional 'al'es and "ypass lines needed!
Special lines to allo( e,#ipment to "e started #p and rer#n prod#ct.ra( materials-
Slide 8
System Level ctivities
Utilities systems - steam* instr#ment air* process (ater* fire (ater* drainage* condensate ret#rn!
lectrical systems!
Instr#mentation and instr#mentation systems!
Cleaning and fl#shing!
P#rging!
Initial start #p and sh#tdo(ns!
Performance testing!
Slide 9
!"uipment Level ctivities
Press#re testing & mechanical integrity testing of 'essel* col#mns and pipe (ork!
/eat 0changers* condensers* coolers etc-
Mechanical e,#ipment and machinery!
Control Systems and Instr#mentation!
Operational testing!
Proof testing and acceptance-
#hat can $e done $e%ore mechanical completiont
Utilities commissioning
L#"e and Seal-Oil Systems Cleaned
Instr#mentation and Control Loops Pro'en
Piping* To(ers and 1essels Cleaned
&oil-O#t* %ry-O#t and Acid Cleaning
T#r"ine* Motor and P#mp $#n-Ins
2itrogen P#rge and Tightness Testing
Slide 12
Procedures
Proced#res are (ritten ro#tines.instr#ctions that descri"e the logical se,#ence of acti'ities
re,#ired to perform a (ork process and the specific actions re,#ired to perform each acti'ity!
If there are no (ritten proced#res* there is no "asis for monitoring performance* foc#s for
impro'ement or mechanism "y (hich to capt#re learning!
The esta"lishment of proced#res and ro#tines allo( more time and mental energy to deal (ith
the #ne0pected* (hich al(ays happen d#ring commissioning-
Slide 13

Commissioning&Startup Logic
A Critical Path 2et(ork 3Plan4 (ith (ritten proced#res (ith related doc#ments are re,#ired-
These sho#ld define for the facility* each plant system)
-----The order in (hich the systems (ill "e started #p!
-----Indi'id#al acti'ities at each stage!
-----Operation testing re,#irements!
-----%#rations* (aiting times* cooling times!
-----Total d#ration for starting #p each system!
-----$eso#rces re,#ired - la"o#r* materials* e,#ipment* ser'ices!
-----Temperat#res* press#res* fl#id flo(s #sed-
Slide 14
Commissioning&Startup and Shutdo'n Issues
At the facility* system and e,#ipment le'el* (e (ant to a'oid)
-----Creation.e0istence of e0plosi'e mi0t#res* #s#ally "eca#se of the presence of air!
+ater hammer and (ater "ased e0plosion effects* d#e to contact "et(een (ater and
hot
s#"stances 3steam* oil* etc-4!
In partic#lar* d#ring commissioning hot fl#ids and gases (ill "e coming into contact (ith cold
s#rfaces in places that (o#ld "e hot #nder normal operations-
Slide 15
(. )echanical Completion and Integrity Chec*ing
Inspection
Press#re testing
Cleaning and 5l#shing
Machinery checko#t
Slide 17 Categories o% Process !"uipment
$e"oilers & Other Shell & T#"e /eat 0changers
&oilers and 5ired /eaters
Press#re 1essels and Pipe-(ork
5in-5an Coolers
Condensers
Machinery.$otating ,#ipment
1al'es
Instr#mentation
lectrical ,#ipment
Slide 18
)achinery& +otating !"uipment
P#mps
Steam T#r"ines
6as T#r"ines
Compressors
6as ngines
lectric Motors
Slide 19
)echanical Completion and Integrity Inspection
In'ol'es checking that e'erything has "een "#ilt and it there as per specification-
$efer)
----- Piping Plan %ra(ings!
-----Layo#t and constr#ction dra(ings!
-----P & I%7s
lectrical systems* Instr#mentation and control systems checko#t do(n "y appropriately
,#alified personnel 3lectricians and Instr#mentation technicians4-
6eneral commissioning engineers generally do not get in'ol'ed in this in a hands-on
manner-lide 20
)echanical Completion and Integrity Inspection Procedure
%i'ide plant into managea"le areas!
In a large plant* assign indi'id#als or teams to specific areas!
sta"lish a master set of piping plan dra(ings and P&I%7s* mark #p areas)
Indi'id#al commissioning engineers or teams (alk e'ery line and mark #p e'ery item that can
"e confirmed as present on master set of dra(ings!
Use different colo#red 8highlighter9pens to indicate different ser'ices-Slide 21
'ery line m#st "e (alked: Physically sight e'erything:
Slide 22
)echanical Completion and Integrity Inspection Procedure , -ints&Tips
ns#re pipes* 'essels* 'al'es etc- are all in the right place!
1al'es are correct type - glo"e* gate* control!
1ents* drains* steam traps etc-
5langes* "olts* types of "olts!
&lind flanges and s(inga"le "linds in place* correct rating!
Check all tag n#m"ers!
P#nchlist any non-conformances-de
23
Pipe Stressing
Piping sho#ld pro'ide ade,#ately for e0pansion and contraction d#e to temperat#re changes*
(itho#t .placing e0cessi'e stresses on e,#ipment!
Misalignment "et(een matching flanges on pipe(ork - partic#lar (here there are changes in
direction 3el"o(s4 can ca#se stressing!
Misalignments (here pipe-(ork connects to machinery* 'essels and other process e,#ipment!
Can often "e seen 'is#ally* or checked (ith ga#ges #sing the same proced#res (e #se to align
rotating e,#ipment-
Slide 25
Piping and !"uipment Supports
Slide 26
Mo"ile s#pports permit and g#ide the thermal gro(th of e,#ipment #ndergoing temperat#re
change!
If they do not f#nction correctly* 'essels* e,#ipment* pipe (ork* no;;les heat e0changers
etc- may "e damaged-
Slide 27
Slide 28
Piping and e"uipment supports
Inspection prior to start #p)
-----Check that installed according to specification and not <ammed!
Inspection d#ring (arm #p)
-----Check thermal gro(th is occ#rring and s#pports are responding as per design!
Check that there is no s#rface "#ckling or crimping - this needs to "e corrected!
-----Check e0pansion <oints!
Check long straight r#ns of piping for "o(ing or s#pport shoes that may ha'e
slipped!
Rule of thumb - bowing is excessive if you can see it.
Slide 29
Piping and e"uipment supports
Inspection after cool-do(n)
Check that sliding s#pports ha'e ret#rned to original positions!
sta"lish that e,#ipment can e0pand and contract as re,#ired-
Slide 30
Inspection o% spring supports
&efore hydro-testing)
-----Check that spring stops are installed- 3If not* the (eight of (ater in pipe (ill deform the
spring4-
After hydro-testing "#t "efore heating)
Check that stops are remo'ed!
Check that spring pointer is positioned to cold setting!
Slide 31
Inspection o% spring supports
%#ring and at end of heating)
Check pointer has not e0ceeded hot setting!
After cool do(n)
check to esta"lish piping can e0pand and contract as re,#ired!
esta"lish that springs can a"sor" loads-Slide 32
Slide 33
Inspection o% .essels and Tan*s
The inspection of 'essels* col#mns and reactors sho#ld "e sched#led to "e completed "efore
constr#ction has closed them #p!
Other inspections - e-g- for completeness or piping* ins#lation* safety etc- can "e sched#led
later!
If a 'essel has "een sealed #p "y constr#ction* it is yo#r d#ty to inspect it* e'en it constr#ction
resist-
Slide 34
Inspection o% .essels and Tan*s
Check that distri"#tors ha'e "een installed correctly!
%e-misters installed correctly and of correct materials* design* type!
1orte0 "reakers in place!
Trays - packed or 8"#""le-cap9are correct)
&#""le caps not <ammed or damaged* do(n comers clear* s#pports all O=-
Slide 35
Pressure TestingSlide 36
Press#re Testing - O"<ecti'es
The o"<ecti'e of press#re testing is to confirm the mechanical integrity of the plant!
1erifying capa"ility of containing the press#res it has "een designed to hold!
ns#re there are no leaks and 'erify that the plant can "e relia"ly made leak free!
Identify any '#lnera"ilities (ell "efore the plant is placed into ser'ice!
Meet the re,#irements of legislation* local* international and ind#stry standards-
Slide 37
Pressure Testing , responsi$ilities
Press#re tests of tanks* reactors and piping for mechanical strength and tightness of <oints is
#s#ally done "y the constr#ction team!
Commissioning team representati'es sho#ld (itness and certify the tests!
2eed to 'erify that all necessary safety preca#tions ha'e "een taken!
Slide 38

Pressure Testing , procedures
+ater for testing and fl#shing sho#ld contain a r#st inhi"itor - one lo( in chloride content for
stainless steel lines!
After testing* (ater sho#ld "e drained completely from all lines that do not normally carry
(ater* steam or steam condensate!
All lo( points sho#ld "e checked for presence of (ater!
Lines sho#ld "e dried "y "lo(ing hot air* dry inert gas or instr#ment air-
Slide 39
Pressure Testing , .acuum Systems
5inal checks of 'ac##m systems are "est performed "y p#lling a 'ac##m and o"ser'ing the
rate of press#re rise in the "locked in system!
0cessi'e leaks can then "e located "y applying a mild positi'e press#re and testing each flange
(ith "#""le sol#tion-
Slide 40
Pressure Testing , Procedures (
Isometric dra(ings of all systems to "e tested sho#ld "e displayed on a "oard and marked #p as
each section is tested!
/ydrotesting of piping and e,#ipment according to code re,#irements to confirm mechanical
strength sho#ld "e carried o#t on gro#ps of e,#ipment nat#rally s#ggested "y design press#re
and f#nction!
All (ater* steam* condensate* oil* gas and process steam piping sho#ld "e hydrotested!
Ma<or e,#ipment that has already "een tested as part of man#fact#ring may "e isolated "y
"lanks-
Slide 41 Cleaning and FlushingSlide 42

2eed to ens#re no constr#ction de"ris is left in pipes of 'essels - (elding rods* "olts* glo'es*
rags etc-
Large de"ris 3l#m"er* ca"le* packaging4 sho#ld ha'e "een remo'ed d#ring mechanical integrity
inspections!
Small de"ris 3rags* n#ts* dirt4 m#st "e fl#shed o#t of all pipe and 'essels!
+here oil coatings m#st "e remo'ed* chemical cleaning is necessary-Slide 43
&efore fl#shing is started* check the process thoro#ghly to ens#re)
Screens ha'e "een installed in front of p#mp s#ctions!
-----&linds in front of e,#ipment s#ch as compressors and t#r"ines!
8>#mper9spool pieces to allo( for contin#ity of flo(-
Slide 44 Flushing
Can "e handled "y geographic plant area!
Sections too large for (ater fl#shing)
-----Pipes greater than ?@ in diameter 3@-AB m4* or
-----Pipes that sho#ld not "e to#ched (ith (ater!
Sho#ld all "e "lo(n o#t (ith air or inert gas-
Slide 45
Flushing
$egardless of (hether pipes are cleaned (ith (ater* steam* air or nitrogen* flo( 'elocities
sho#ld "e high eno#gh to ens#re that pipes (ill "e s#ita"ly sco#red!
2eed to ens#re that the de"ris from one piece of e,#ipment (ill not simply "e fl#shed into
another!
+ater 'elocities sho#ld "e at least CD ft.sec 3appro0- ?-AB m.sec4!
Air 'elocities a minim#m of D@@ ft.sec 3appro0- EB m.sec4!
Slide 46
/. Pre,commissioning and 0perational Testing
4. Slide 47
5.
Steam and other #tilities commissioned and introd#ced!
%ry r#nning trials!
/ot r#nning trials!
Safe-fl#id dynamic testing!
Sol'ent dynamic testing!
Process fl#id tests-
Slide 48
Commissioning 1tilities
Slide 49
Utilities commissioning #s#ally represents the first phase of commissioning* as these #s#ally
need to operational first* "efore the rest of the plant can "e commissioned!
The steps for commissioning each #tility sho#ld "e planned in detail!
Pro'ides planning practice for planning the start#p of the main plant-
Slide 50
Commissioning 1tilities , 2road 3uidelines
Check s#pply press#res of all ser'ices - steam* cooling (ater* instr#ment air* nitrogen etc-
At the most distant points* open drains* 'ent 'al'es or pipe flanges and p#rge #ntil fl#ids come
o#t clean and r#st free!
P#rge."lo( o#t lines to each piece of e,#ipment!
Check that instr#ment air is clean and dry* and at correct press#re!
Circ#late (ater to (aste (ater system #ntil (ater lines clear and clean!
5l#sh (aste (ater and drain systems to ens#re no "lockages!
Check operation of steam traps!
%rain condensate to (aste (ater #ntil is is clean- 51
Commissioning 1tilities
Introducing Steam
Steam #s#ally represents the first 8ha;ardo#s9fl#id introd#ced into the 8ne(9system!
Admit steam slo(ly into the distri"#tion system (ith .atmospheric "leeds open)
Cold pipes (ill condense steam in places (here it (o#ld not #nder normal operation!
Can lead to 8(ater hammer9- can distort and r#pt#re lines!
After system has "een (armed* slo(ly raise press#re and "lo( do(n the system (ith traps
"ypassed* #ntil clean!
Then place steam traps into ser'ice and check operation-S
lide 52
-igh Pressure Steam Systems
Specific Issues
The cleanliness and p#rity of high press#re steam systems -partic#larly (here the steam is #sed
to dri'e a steam t#r"ine sho#ld "e checked "y #se of a 8target9!
5or ne( "oilers* or ne( sections added to steam system -"lo( do(n at f#ll press#re!
+hen steam appears clean* fit a target (ith a 8mirrored9 s#rface 3ie- Small steel plate (hich has
"een polished* so that it is in the steam "lo( do(n stream!
&lo( do(n the "oiler or system so that the target is impinged #pon for a fe( min#tes!
Check target - ens#re there are no small 8pock marks9left on the target- If pock marked - repeat
process-
Slide 53 !lectrical SystemsSlide 54
Commissioning lectrical Systems
The following checks are typical of what is required
Open circ#it "reakers and s(itches!
Check that all "#s-"ars are free of dirt and foreign matter!
Check gro#nding systems for contin#ity and resistance- Make s#re all electrical e,#ipment*
'essels* str#ct#res are connected to the gro#nding system in accordance (ith
dra(ings and specifications!
Check that all sealed fittings are filled (ith proper sealants* all e0plosion proof* 'apo#r-tight*
d#st-tight and (eather tight enclos#res are properly closed and sec#red!
Check motor control and po(er circ#itry for correct hook#p-Sl
ide 55
Commissioning lectrical Systems - D
Check all nameplates and panel directories to ens#re that each circ#it "reaker and s(itch does
control the proper circ#it- La"el all s(itches e'en tho#gh their application
may seem o"'io#s!
Close main transformer primary disconnect s(itch and s(itch-gear main circ#it "reaker!
Check 'oltmeter at s(itch-gear for proper 'oltage!
Close first s(itch-gear circ#it "reaker* second* third etc-
Close first motor control centre main circ#it "reaker* then .each motor starter circ#it "reaker-
$epeat for each MCC-
Check o'erload "reakers and heaters to ens#re that the correct capacity #nits ha'e "een
installed-
Slide 56
Commissioning lectrical Systems - ?
The following checks are typical of what is required
Check that all lighting and po(er circ#its are f#nctioning correctly!
Check motor "earings for proper l#"rication!
$emo'e motor po(er f#ses and check main contractor* .interlock and se,#encing de'ices!
Unco#ple each motor* replace f#ses and check direction of rotation "y momentarily pressing
the start "#tton* then stop!
Check man#al* then a#tomatic operation-
$eplace all co#plings* check dri'e "elts and make s#re g#ards are installed-
Slide 58
0perational TestingSlide 59
Progresses thro#gh se'eral stages!
%ry r#ns of indi'id#al items of e,#ipment
/ot testing of indi'id#al items of e,#ipment and systems!
Se'eral stages of %ynamic Testing of)
Indi'id#al items of e,#ipment!
------Indi'id#al Systems.processes in isolation!
The (hole ne( process plant installation-
Slide 60
Dry runs and -ot Tests
Check that motors are connected correctly and t#rn in the right direction!
Shafts and impellers mo'e freely!
,#ipment that is to "e operated at temperat#re* raise to temperat#re and check!
These tests sho#ld "e performed "y the man#fact#rer7s representati'e "#t (itnessed "y
mem"ers of the client7s operating.commissioning personnel-
Slide 61
-ot testing e"uipment
Applies to e,#ipment (hose leak-tightness m#st "e tested at operating temperat#res and after
temperat#re re'ersals!
5i0ed-"ed catalytic reactors that in normal conditions are heated "y heat transfer fl#ids (here
leakage (o#ld contaminate the catalyst!
Critical e0changers (hose steam or cooling (ater is at a high press#re than the process fl#id!
Any e,#ipment ha'ing complicated seals thro#gh (hich leakage co#ld occ#r!
$otating machinery (hich m#st "e a"le to rotate freely at temperat#re eg- Steam t#r"ines* etc-
Slide 62
-ot testing procedures
The thermal shock tolerance of e,#ipment m#st "e determined "eforehand!
To a'oid thermal shock* the temperat#re of the heating medi#m may ha'e to "e raised
grad#ally!
Time re,#ired for a hot test m#st "e esta"lished in ad'ance!
sta"lish a #niform temperat#re in all parts of e,#ipment that are s#pposed to "e #niformly hot
d#ring operation to a'oid setting #p stresses!
Slide 63
Dynamic Testing
Slide 64
In'ol'es operating the e,#ipment* "efore introd#cing 8li'e9process fl#id!
%#ring dynamic testing* (e progress thro#gh)
-----Safe-fl#id dynamic testing!
%ynamic testing (ith sol'ent!
-----Closed loop testing (ith process fl#id-
Once process fl#id is introd#ced* normal plant safety proced#res m#st come into effect as if it
(ere a li'e operating plant-
Slide 65
Sa%e,Fluid Dynamic Testing
Closed loop dynamic testing (ith safe fl#ids consists of operating e,#ipment systems (ith air*
(ater* inert gases etc-
This permits flo( testing of e,#ipment!
6i'es first indication of ho( control loops (ork!
sta"lishes performance (hile there is still time to modify the plant!
5amiliarises operators (ith the operation of the e,#ipment "efore ha;ardo#s materials are
introd#ced!
6ets rid of a lot of dirt (hich (o#ld "e more diffic#lt to clear once the process fl#id has "een
introd#ced-
Slide 66
3eneral Principles %or Testing
5or most plants* a period of D-? (eeks is #s#ally s#fficient for operational testing* after the
mechanical dry r#nning of indi'id#al pieces of e,#ipment and hot testing complete!
Air and (ater tests sho#ld "e set #p in a closed loop (ith fl#ids contin#o#sly recycled* (ith
loops as large as possi"le!
The loop sho#ld ideally "e the same loop that (ill "e s#"<ect to sol'ent testing!
Tests sho#ld contin#e for se'eral days in order to gi'e all shifts a chance to cond#ct the same
tests!
All shifts sho#ld "e gi'en the opport#nity to start #p and sh#tdo(n each closed loop test
A ro#gh flo(-sheet sho#ld "e de'eloped for air and (ater tests* predicting all information that
normally appears on a process flo( sheet - flo(* temperat#re* press#re* heat transfer* po(er etc-
-----(ill assist in alerting commissioning team to risks from o'er-press#ring* o'erloading*
temperat#re-shocking and stressing e,#ipment!e 68
Cautions during Testing
%ynamic testing may lead to)aead to)
-----Un#s#al or #nforeseen differential e0pansions!
-----Corrosion!
-----0cessi'e (eight of li,#id into parts of the system!
Care m#st "e taken not to collapse or "#rst press#re 'essels and tanks)
----ens#re there is al(ays ade,#ate 'enting!
----a'oid p#lling a 'ac##m
Slide 69
Dynamic Testing , Simulated 0perations
Safe luid Testing
A#0iliary ser'ices m#st "e "ro#ght into operation first)
(ater cooling* inert gas generators* "oiler feed(ater* fire(ater* steam prod#ction* etc-
+ater is p#mped thro#gh the process 3e0cept (here special conditions do not permit it4 and
"oiled #p in col#mns!
Compressors and "lo(ers sho#ld "e operated on air or inert gas-
Slide 70
The .alue o% Dynamic Testing -Simulated 0perations
1al#e of sim#lated operations (ill "e to allo( operator to "ecome familiar (ith the operation of
the process* "efore ha;ardo#s fl#ids are introd#ced!
,#ipment deficiencies can "ecome apparent d#ring dynamic testing!
5ail#res and pro"lems more easily corrected (ith safe fl#ids present
Leaks sho#ld "e fo#nd and tightened!
Instr#ments can "e placed into ser'ice - altho#gh selection of set-points (ill ha'e to "e
deferred!
Inspect the plant for e'idence of design and constr#ction errors-Slide 71
At the end of the sim#lation* (ater sho#ld "e drained - e,#ipment dried and p#rged!
%epending on the process - drying may not "e necessary - "#t p#rging (ill al(ays "e re,#ired!
Slide 72
Dynamic testing 'ith a solvent
After safe fl#id testing and s#"se,#ent repairs and modifications* (e are ready for dynamic
closed loop testing (ith a sol'ent!
The 8sol'ent9is a relati'ely safe fl#id (hose properties are close to that of the process fl#id* or
the process fl#id itself!
In order to allo( for contin#o#s re-circ#lation of the sol'ent and the #se of different sol'ents in
different parts of the plant* temporary lines (ill need to "e installed-
Slide 73

Dynamic Testing 'ith Process Solvent
Introd#ce the process sol'ent- 3if there is more than one* introd#ce only one at this stage4!
The dynamic testing proced#re #sed for the safe fl#id test is repeated for the process sol'ent
dynamic testing!
After operations (ith the first sol'ent ha'e "een "ro#ght completely #nder control* sho#ld the
second sol'ent "e introd#ced 3if there is one4-
Slide 74
Dynamic testing 'ith a solvent
The p#rpose of dynamic testing (ith a sol'ent is to check o#t e,#ipment and instr#ment loops
at* or near design conditions prior to the introd#ction of more ha;ardo#s process fl#id!
2o reactions sho#ld "e allo(ed to occ#r d#ring these tests* so as to ens#re that test fl#ids
remain predicta"le in composition and properties!
6#idelines #sed for safe-testing apply!
2eed to plan ho( sol'ent (ill "e fed into the .system and later remo'ed-
Slide 75
Stages o% dynamic testing 'ith a 4solvent5
%rain safe fl#id and p#rge air #sed in the pre'io#s test from the system!
%ry o#t e,#ipment (here safe fl#id (as (ater- Check flo( sheets for (here (ater is likely to
acc#m#late-
5ill systems (ith the sol'ent- ns#re pro'isions made for 'enting and drains closed!
+hen ade,#ate le'els esta"lished* place p#mps and compressors online to complete filling!
Start closed loop circ#lation!
/eat #p the systems to sim#late operating conditions "y placing refl#0* re"oiler and
condensation systems into .operationSlide 76
Systematically check o#t instr#mentation and control loops!
After instr#ments ha'e checked o#t* place as many as possi"le on a#tomatic control!
All shifts sho#ld go thro#gh starting and stopping e,#ipment* heating and cooling closed loop
systems!
%ynamic 8sol'ent9testing offers the "est opport#nity for operator training "efore the 8real
thing9!
Operate e,#ipment as near as possi"le to design capacities!
$elia"ility of emergency sh#tdo(n systems and alarms m#st "e pro'en!
Critical instr#ments m#st "e cali"rated o'er their f#ll range-Slide 77
%eli"erately operate e,#ipment near its limits)
5lood col#mns!
ase compressors into mild s#rges and plot s#rge c#r'es!
O'erload condensers!
%o not fear "lo(ing a relief 'al'e or t(o:
After tests ha'e "een completed* plant sho#ld "e ready for initial operation-
Slide 78

Closed Loop Dynamic Testing 'ith Process Fluid
5inally* introd#ce process fl#id!
%#ring this step* instr#ments sho#ld "e cali"rated to co'er their f#ll range of flo(* temperat#re
and press#re!
ns#re that instr#ments* process analysers and safety de'ices are kept (ork properly d#ring
these processes!
After operations (ith process fl#id are "ro#ght completely #nder control sho#ld the final stage
of start-#p "e attempted-
Slide 79
Preparing to introduce process %luids
&efore introd#cing ha;ardo#s li,#ids into the plant* (e complete additional press#re testing
and p#rging!
2eed to check that the stresses and strains of dynamic testing has not ca#sed any leaks - these
m#st "e fo#nd and fi0ed!
Slide 80

Pressure testing and purging
Consists of press#ring and de-press#ring (ith nitrogen se'eral times* #ntil at least F?G o0ygen
is reached!
1ac##m systems sho#ld "e e'ac#ated and then repress#red (ith nitrogen!
Long r#ns of piping are s(ept (ith nitrogen!
+hile #nder press#re* rate of press#re loss of the 8"locked in9system is monitored as a check
for leaks and that no 'ents or drains ha'e "een left open-
Slide 81
Dehydrating $y Circulation
It is #s#ally not possi"le to (ater-free e,#ipment simply "y draining!
Only positi'e method to (ater-free process e,#ipment is oil circ#lation follo(ed "y repeated
draining of lo( points!
ns#re s#fficient lo( point drains are pro'ided on piping* control 'al'e loops* 'essels and
process machinery!
Start#p lines - deli'er oil to #pper part 3trays4 of distillation to(ers 3si;e for D@G of net
distillate prod#ct rate4!
Slide 82
6. Start 1p and Initial 0peration
Slide 83
Introd#ction of process fl#id
Start-#p and initial operation
Tro#"le-shooting and pro"lem correction-
Plant taken to f#ll operations-
Slide 84Slide 85
Start 1p Logic
It is common practice to "#y in prod#ct and start #p the last past of the process first and (ork
"ack(ards to the front- -g-
----Start #p refining* get this (orking and in control!
Then possi"ly start #p reaction and reco'ery!
----5inally* feed preparation-
Slide 86
Into the initial operation
Once ra( materials are fed into the plant H #s#ally at red#ced rate #ntil reaction conditions ha'e
"een esta"lished!
As each section is started #p* esta"lish as ,#ickly as possi"le that process conditions are as
e0pected!
If potentially serio#s pro"lems de'elop* there sho#ld "e no hesitation on going into an
emergency sh#tdo(n-
Slide 87
+amping up the plant
Plant is "ro#ght slo(ly to design feed-rates and operating conditions!
Us#ally done in steps (ith operating data e'al#ated and 'erified as O= at each step!
Plant and la"oratory data are no( "eing collected and sho#ld "e "eing e'al#ated promptly!
Slide 88
Coordination and Supervision during start up
Additional personnel* "oth s#per'isory and 8onthe-gro#nd9are re,#ired at this stage!
Cooperation "et(een start#p personnel and plant s#per'isory personnel is critical at this stage)
2eed a daily meeting at least!
Often* a "riefing each shift-
Slide 89
Trou$le Shooting
At this stage* many pro"lem (ith e,#ipment of the process itself may "ecome apparent!
The commissioning process goes thro#gh (hat is often an intense 3and hopef#lly short4 period
of pro"lem tro#"le shooting* pro"lem sol'ing* engineering correction and plant modification!
Slide 90

7.Per%ormance and cceptance Trails Slide 91
Performance trails!
5ormal Acceptance test
Slide 92
The Per%ormance Trails
Once the plant is f#lly operational* the final 8pro'ing trail9or performance r#n is performed in
order to pro'e the plant can do (hat it is s#pposed to do!
The 'al#es or range of 'al#es for each independent 'aria"le - flo(* temperat#re* press#re*
le'el* concentrations* etc- to (hich the plant m#st "e operated to are determined!
The plant is "ro#ght #p to those conditions and the pre-agreed trial period "egins-
Slide 93
2e%ore the trail or per%ormance run need to ensure thatI
Control of plant operating conditions has "een achie'ed- I-e- temperat#re* press#res* le'els and
analyses are reasona"ly constant or in the case of a "atch process* there is repeata"ility!
%aily material and energy "alanced can "e performed and that these agree (ith 8official9
prod#ction fig#res!
Prod#ct specifications are "eing achie'ed consistently-
Slide 94
8eed to veri%y 9 .
Physical operation* capa"ility and capacity of plant and e,#ipment!
nergy and mass "alance!
Process chemistry!
fficiencies* yields and ,#ality!
All to specification-
Slide 95
cceptance
+hen the plant has met the Performance and Acceptance test re,#irements designed "y the
commissioning team there is #s#ally a formal acceptance process in'ol'ing signing of
acceptance certificates!
Once the plant is accepted it is officially part of the normal operations - the responsi"ility of
operations and maintenance!
Commissioning is officially o'er!
The may still "e o#tstanding p#nchlist items
Slide 96
cceptance Testing
It is common practice to pro'e performance repeata"ility and plant integrity as part of the
performance test- That is)
-----Sh#tdo(n and Start Up the plant on se'eral occasions and "ring it #p to test conditions to
pro'e repeata"ility- Also ramp do(n and ramp #p (hile online!
-----$e-inspection of critical process e,#ipment -partic#larly col#mns to ens#re they ha'e not
"een damaged "y the performance r#n-
Slide 97

Commercial Signi%icant o% cceptance
5ormal Acceptance represents formal ackno(ledgment that the
Contractor has f#ll-filled their contract#al o"ligations!
Commissioning team ha'e f#ll-filled their o"ligations!
Completion of the Capital Pro<ect and transfer to Operations!
0penses and costs from acceptance on(ards are no( operating e0penses not capital pro<ect
costs!
All s#"<ect to agreed p#nch-list items-
Slide 98
7.Post,Commissioning
Slide 99
5rom plant on-stream to settled do(n and in reg#lar prod#ction!
Ad<#stments* modifications and fa#lt correction!
Completion of o#tstanding p#nchlist itemsSlide 100
Co'ers the period immediately after Acceptance!
O#tstanding p#nch-list items are completed!
The first ro#tine maintenance checks are performed* findings e'al#ated and reported!
Process e,#ipment and items co'ered "y (arranty are scr#tini;ed for signs of premat#re (ear-
o#t or pro"lems!
Operating data is collected and e'al#ated to ens#re consistent plant operations are maintained
and s#staina"le-
Typical chec* list
Installation of gland packing and l#"rication of 'al'es and minor machinelJ* checking rotation
of dri'ers and so on-
Isolating e,#ipment* remo'ing e0pansion <oints* r#pt#re discs and relief 'al'es from pipe(ork
and e,#ipment "efore line fl#shing* cleaning and testing-
Cleaning of pipe(ork "y fl#shing* steaming* "lo(ing and so on-
/ydra#lic and.or pne#matic press#re testing of e,#ipment and pipe(ork-
Application of special treatment or other preparation of inside s#rfaces-
Testing of relief 'al'es-
$emo'ing loose material and dirt* installation of internals* inspection and closing #p of 'essels
and so on-
Installation of orifice plates after line cleaning* installation of temporaly strainers* remo'al of
slip-plates and so on-
Checking electrical installations-
Checking alignment of ma<or machinery and dri'ersK cleaning and fl#shing l#"ricating oil
installations and so on-
II- Carrying o#t short r#nning-in tests on machinery as re,#ired-
Checking action of instr#ments and control 'al'es* testing electrical controls and alarms and so
on-
Cali"ration of instr#ments-
%rying o#t refractories-
Ad<#stment of pipe s#pports for e0pansion-
$emo'al* cleaning and replacement of temporary strainers-
Checking orifice plates and permanent "lanks* relief systems* safety pro'isions and so on-
Charging ra( materials* process chemicals* f#el and so on* as re,#ired-
+arming-#p* starting-#p fl#id flo(s and so on* as re,#ired-
Tightening of hot <oints-
Starting-#p and operating the 'ario#s plant items-
$o#tine maintenance* cleaning* plant ad<#stments and so on-