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UNIVERSITATEA BABE-BOLYAI CLUJ-NAPOCA


FACULTATEA DE LITERE
DEPARTAMENTUL DE LIMBI STRINE SPECIALIZATE
Dr. ROXANA-MARIA GZ
















English for Students
in Psychology and Education Sciences
2
nd
semester, 2013-2014

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Informaii generale

Date de contact ale titularului de curs:

Nume: Dr. Roxana-Maria Gz
E-mail: roxanagz@yahoo.fr
Date de identificare curs:

Numele cursului Limba englez -
curs practic limbaj specializat
Codul cursului LLU0011, LLU0012
Anul, Semestrul anul 1, semestrele
1,2
Tipul cursului - obligatoriu


Condiionri i cunotine prerechizite
Cursul este conditionat de deinerea de cunotine de limba englez care situeaza studentul la
nivel B1, conform grilei de autoevaluare a Cadrului comun european de referinta a limbilor:

Competente A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2
nelegere-
ascultare

1

2

3

4

5

6
nelegere-
citire
1 2 3 4 5 6
Vorbire-
conversaie
1 2 3 4 5 6
Vorbire-
exprimare
1 2 3 4 5 6
Scriere 1 2 3 4 5 6

Trebuie avut n vedere faptul c nscrierea la examenul de licena la finalul ciclului
bachelor este conditionat de susinerea i promovarea unui test de competena
lingvistic ntr-o limba de circulaie internaional la finele semestrului al doilea.

Descrierea cursului
Este un curs cu obiective specifice care vizeaz achiziia de cunotine i dezvoltarea
deprinderilor de limb strin ca instrument de formare i informare academic i profesional.
Tipologia programului de nvare are n vedere crearea unui profil de utilizator cu competene
axate pe studiul limbajelor de specialitate. n acest sens, studenii i vor dezvolta capacitatea
de contientizare a strii actuale a cunotinelor i deprinderilor, se vor deprinde s-i fixeze
obiective reale i realiste, s-i selecteze n mod autonom materialele i s se autoevalueze.

Obiectivele disciplinei: Studenii vor putea utiliza competent limba englez, cel puin la nivelul
B2, n activitatea lor academic i n viitoarea activitate profesional:
1. Cunoaterea i nelegerea aprofundat a contextelor i rolurilor, precum i a conceptelor,
metodelor i a discursului/limbajului specific diverselor situaii de comunicare profesional n
mediul academic de limba englez, cu accent pe situaia retoric, formele de comunicare scris
i oral, etapele procesului de scriere i produsele scrisului academic, precum i pe deontologia
profesional.
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2. Utilizarea cunotinelor aprofundate pentru explicarea i interpretarea diverselor modaliti de
comunicare scris (genuri de texte tiinifice) i oral (comunicri tiinifice) i a conveniilor ce
guverneaz redactarea textelor tiinifice n limba englez n contextul studiilor de licenta i al
comunitii profesionale extinse (naionale i internaionale).
3. Transferul conceptelor/principiilor/metodelor nvate n activiti de receptare a textului scris
i de producere viznd etapele procesului de scriere, organizarea i dezvoltarea ideilor,
structura textului i strategiile de comunicare verbal oral i scris la standarde specifice limbii
engleze specializate pentru discursul tiinific.
4. Utilizarea grilelor de criterii standard ale comunitii academice/profesionale pentru evaluarea
calitii produselor comunicrii academice scrise i orale n limba englez.
5. Elaborarea unor lucrri scrise i prezentri orale originale care s utilizeze principiile i
tehnicile de redactare consacrate n mediul academic, cu accent pe genurile predilecte din
psihologie i tiinele educaiei.
6. Realizarea sarcinilor de lucru individuale n contexte de autonomie/independen.
7. Participarea la realizarea de proiecte de lucru n perechi i n echip, cu accent pe asumarea
de roluri n cadrul echipei de lucru n mediul academic.
8. Managementul propriei nvri, diagnoza nevoilor de formare, monitorizarea i reflecia
asupra utilizrii eficiente a instrumentelor de munc intelectual i a
resurselor/tehnicilor/strategiilor de nvare traditionale si TIC.
Coninut:
SEMESTRUL 2
Sptmna 1 Cognitive Development
Three theories of cognitive development
Sptmna 2 Personality
Types of personality
Sptmna 3 Individual Differences
Sptmna 4 Individual Differences
Sptmna 5 Intelligence
Evolution of intelligence
Sptmna 6 Intelligence
Nature vs. nurture
Sptmna 7 Gardners Theory of Multiple Intelligences
The seven distinct intelligences; Critical reception
Sptmna 8 Psychological Abnormality
Classification; Diagnosis
Sptmna 9 Disorders
Anxiety disorders
Sptmna 10 Disorders
Developmental disorders
Sptmna 11 Addictions
Smoking; Substance abuse
Sptmna 12 Modern Addictions
TV, internet addiction; eating disorders
Sptmna 13 Treatment of Mental Disorders
Somatic therapy; behavioural therapy; alternative therapy
Sptmna 14 Revision
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Bibliografie obligatorie:
1.Side, Richard Wellman, Guy: Grammar & Vocabulary For Cambridge Advanced and
Proficiency, Longman, 2001
2. Prodromou, L., Grammar and Vocabulary for First Certificate, Longman, 2001
3. Tegla, Camelia (coord.), Felea, Cristina, Mezei, Vlad English B2 C1, Social Sciences and
Sport, Seria Autodidact (coord. Liana Pop), Cluj, Ed. Echinox, 2009
4. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, Longman, 2003
5. http://granturi.ubbcluj.ro/autodidact
6. psychologyabout.com
7. http://esl.about.com/c/ec/1.htm
8. owl.english.purdue.edu/
9. www.psychologytoday.com

Evaluare:
Criterii de evaluare: prezena i participarea activ la cursul practice; ndeplinirea corect si la
timp a sarcinilor de lucru; nsuirea vocabularului de specialitate; corectitudinea, fluena i
adecvarea la cerin a limbii engleze (oral i scris); capacitatea de a utiliza eficient limba
englez n contexte academice i profesionale specifice
Metode de evaluare: examen scris la sfritul semestrului

Materiale i instrumente necesare pentru curs:
Derularea activitilor prevzute necesit accesul studenilor la urmtoarele resurse:
- calculator conectat la internet (pentru a putea accesa bazele de date si resursele electronice
suplimentare dar i pentru a putea participa la secvenele de formare interactiv on line)
- imprimant (pentru tiprirea materialelor suport, a temelor redactate, a studiilor de caz)
- acces la resursele bibliografice (ex: abonament la Biblioteca British Council)
- acces la echipamente de fotocopiere

Elemente de deontologie academic
n caz de fraud sau plagiat, vezi poziia UBB.

Studeni cu dizabiliti:
Titularul cursului i exprima disponibilitatea, n limita constrngerilor tehnice si de timp, de a
adapta coninutul i metodelor de transmitere a informaiilor precum i modalitile de evaluare
(examen oral, examen on line etc) n funcie de tipul dizabilitii cursantului. Altfel spus, avem n
vedere, ca o prioritate, facilitarea accesului egal al tuturor cursanilor la activitile didactice si
de evaluare.






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Unit 1: Cognitive Development
Lead In

I. What is Cognitive Development?
Cognitive development refers to the development of the ability to think and reason.
Children aged 6-12 develop the ability to think in concrete ways, such as how to combine,
separate, order, and transform (change things such as 5 pennies=1 nickel) objects and
actions. They are called concrete because they are performed in the presence of the objects
and events being thought about.
Adolescence marks the development of more complex thinking processes (also called
formal logical operations) including:
- abstract thinking (thinking about possibilities),
- the ability to reason from known principles (form own new ideas or questions),
- the ability to consider many points of view according to varying criteria (compare or
debate ideas or opinions), and
- the ability to think about the process of thinking.

(Source: http://www.urmc.rochester.edu/)


Reading comprehension

1. Read the following text.
Although there is no general theory of cognitive development, the most historically
influential theory was developed by Jean Piaget, a Swiss Psychologist (1896-1980). His theory
provided many central concepts in the field of developmental psychology and concerned the
growth of intelligence, which, for Piaget, meant the ability to more accurately represent the
world, and perform logical operations on representations of concepts grounded in the world.
The theory concerns the emergence and acquisition of schemata - schemes of how one
perceives the world - in "developmental stages", times when children are acquiring new ways
of mentally representing information.
The theory is considered "constructivist", meaning that, unlike nativist theories (which
describe cognitive development as the unfolding of innate knowledge and abilities) or
empiricist theories (which describe cognitive development as the gradual acquisition of
knowledge through experience), it asserts that we construct our cognitive abilities through self-
motivated action in the world.
The Piaget stages of development are a blueprint that describes the stages of normal
intellectual development, from infancy through adulthood. This includes thought, judgment,
and knowledge.


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(Source: http://eductech271.pbworks.com/)

The Sensorimotor Stage
During the early stages, infants are only aware of what is immediately in front of them.
They focus on what they see, what they are doing, and physical interactions with their
immediate environment. Because they don't yet know how things react, they're constantly
experimenting with activities such as shaking or throwing things, putting things in their mouths,
and learning about the world through trial and error. The later stages include goal-oriented
behaviour, which brings about a desired result.
At about age 7 to 9 months, infants begin to realize that an object exists even if it can
no longer be seen. This important milestone -- known as object permanence -- is a sign that
memory is developing. After infants start crawling, standing, and walking, their increased
physical mobility leads to increased cognitive development. Near the end of the sensorimotor
stage, infants reach another important milestone -- early language development, a sign that
they are developing some symbolic abilities.

The Preoperational Stage
During this stage, young children are able to think about things symbolically. Their
language use becomes more mature. They also develop memory and imagination, which
allows them to understand the difference between past and future, and engage in make-
believe. But their thinking is based on intuition and still not completely logical. They cannot yet
grasp more complex concepts such as cause and effect, time, and comparison.

The Concrete Operational Stage
At this time, elementary-age and preadolescent children demonstrate logical, concrete
reasoning. Children's thinking becomes less egocentric and they are increasingly aware of
external events. They begin to realize that one's own thoughts and feelings are unique and
may not be shared by others or may not even be part of reality. Children also develop
operational thinking -- the ability to perform reversible mental actions.
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During this stage, however, most children still can't tackle a problem with several
variables in a systematic way.

The Formal Operational Stage
Adolescents who reach this fourth stage of intellectual development are able to logically
use symbols related to abstract concepts, such as algebra and science. They can think about
multiple variables in systematic ways, formulate hypotheses, and consider possibilities. They
also can ponder abstract relationships and concepts such as justice.
Although Piaget believed in lifelong intellectual development, he insisted that the formal
operational stage is the final stage of cognitive development, and that continued intellectual
development in adults depends on the accumulation of knowledge.
(Sources: http://www.webmd.com/children/piaget-stages-of-development
http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/t/theory_of_cognitive_development.htm )

2. Answer the following questions:
a) Which are the four stages of development, according to Piaget?
b) What does each stage involve?
c) Using your own words, summarize the article in one paragraph. Remember the
guidelines for writing a good paragraph.


Vocabulary

1. Read the text again and try to give a synonym / definition to the following words:

1) cognitive 18) react (v.)
2) influential 19) stage
3) accurately 20) trial
4) grounded 21) milestone
5) emergence 22) crawl (v.)
6) acquisition 23) engage (v.)
7) schemata 24) make-believe
8) nativist 25) intuition
9) unfolding 26) reasoning
10) innate 27) egocentric
11) empiricist 28) reversible
12) assert (v.) 29) tackle (v.)
13) blueprint 30) variable
14) infancy 31) hypothesis
15) adulthood 32) ponder (v.)
16) judgment 33) lifelong
17) aware 34) accumulation

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2. See the following vocabulary quiz and tick the correct answer.

1.

the level at which something starts to happen (n.)
(a) correlation

(b) prejudice

(c) libido

(d) threshold

2.

being too concerned with what others think about your behaviour and appearance (adj.)
(a) down-to-earth

(b) spontaneous

(c) random

(d) self-conscious

3.

a feeling of worry or nervousness (n.)
(a) masochism

(b) gaffe

(c) libido

(d) anxiety

4.

done or chosen without any plan or system (adj.)
(a) random

(b) earnest

(c) external

(d) valid

5.

practice a play, dance, etc. in order to prepare for a performance (v.)
(a) deprive

(b) rehearse

(c) suppress

(d) pacify

6.

from another place, not from inside; (coming or resulting from) outside (adj.)
(a) self-conscious

(b) forensic

(c) laudable

(d) external

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7.

recognize somebody something; (...with) understand someone's feelings or thoughts, feel
that you have similar thoughts (v.)
(a) stimulant

(b) condition

(c) identify

(d) banish

8.

selfless concern for the happiness and welfare of other people (n.)
(a) introspection

(b) altruism

(c) empathy

(d) fecundity

9.

make or become part of a new culture, society, etc. (v.)
(a) assimilate

(b) reinforce

(c) dissociate

(d) perceive

10.

a strong, usually sexual interest in something unusual or strange (n.)
(a) fetish

(b) self-esteem

(c) introspection

(d) hypomania

(Source: http://www.psychologytoday.com/)

3. Try to explain all the other words from the quiz. Make sentences to prove you
understood their meaning.


Language focus

Tense revision 1. Present tenses

1. Complete the sentences. Use the present simple, present continuous, present perfect
simple, present perfect continuous or past simple of the verbs in brackets.

1. Anthony isnt usually easy to get on with but he ________________ very co-operative
these days. (be)
2. What ________________ of her? Will she be easy to work with? (you / think)
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3. I cant talk now. We ________________ a meeting. Ill ring you later. (have)
4. Jessica ________________ back from work and shes exhausted. (just / come)
5. I ________________ Bertha foe ages. Where is she? (not see)
6. He ________________ his car. Someone bought it last week. (already / sell)
7. How long ________________ that youre going to have a baby? (you / know)
8. She ________________ unemployed for a long time but thankfully, shes got a job now.
(be)
9. I ________________ to contact them for days but they ________________ any of my
calls yet. (try, not return)
10. I ________________ his latest book but I ________________ it yet. (read, not finish)
11. Terry ________________ the kitchen all morning. He must be exhausted! (paint)
12. I ________________ preparing dinner yet so Id better hurry. (not start)


2. Circle the correct answer:
The Tower of London survived / has survived centuries of warfare but it could vanish from
sight in the twenty-first century, experts warned / have warned yesterday. The ancient fortress,
which dominates / has dominated the city skyline for almost a thousand years, could be placed
on a United Nations list of endangered landmarks because developers put up / are putting up
new buildings in the area and a number of high-rise buildings ruin / are ruining views of the
famous World Heritage site, according to the UNs cultural body UNESCO.

British officials have until the end of the month to show UNESCO that they can sae the Tower.
If not, the Tower could be put on UNESCOs World Heritage in Danger list. UNESCO
inspectors visited / have visited London last year after they received a damning report that the
City of London doesnt appear / isnt appearing to do enough to protect the setting of some
Britains important sites. Other buildings under threat include / are including Westminster
Abbey and the Houses of Parliament.


3. Complete the article. Use the present simple, present continuous, present perfect simple
or present perfect continuous of the verbs in brackets.
According to research, the demand for alternative medicine (1) _______________ (rise)
recently and approximately 20 per cent of the UKs population regularly (2) _______________
(turn) to alternative treatments when they (3) _______________ (be) ill. Consequently, more
and more British doctors (4) _______________ (offer) their patients choices of treatment
these days and many of them (5) _______________ (usually / combine) alternative treatments
with conventional medicine.

Although alternative medicine (6) _______________ (become) increasingly popular, doctors
(7) _______________ (disagree) about whether or not the treatments are effective. Of course,
people (8) _______________ (use) alternative medicine for hundreds of years but many
practitioners of conventional medicine (9) _______________ (claim) that so far they (10)
_______________ (not see) any convincing proof that alternative treatments are safe or
effective.

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Today, the most widely practised alternative treatments are acupuncture, aromatherapy,
massage and herbal medicine but other forms of treatment (11) _______________ (also /
gain) in popularity.

What about you? (12) _______________ (you / ever / try) an alternative treatment? If so, was
it successful? Send your views and experiences to: ().


4. Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first, using the word in
bold. Use between two and five words.

a) How long have you lived in this house? move
When to this house?

b) I started cooking an hour ago. been
I an hour.

c) I havent seen Vasily for a few days. since
Its a few days Vasily.

d) She paid back the money she owed me very quickly. already
She the money she owed me.

e) A minute ago Katsu told me he has got a new job. just
Katsu me he has got a new job.

f) They started working this morning and they are still working. been
They this morning.

g) They have never been to Paris before. ever
This is the first time to Paris.

h) When did you meet your wife? known
How long your wife?

(Source: Grammar Practice for Upper Intermediate Students)


II. Three Theories of Cognitive Development

Reading comprehension

1. Read the following text. Then answer the questions that follow.
The development of cognitive representation is the main theme of the three classic
theories on how children learn new concepts (Piaget, Bruner, Vygotsky). However, these
theories do not agree on evaluation standards for training effectiveness. According to Piaget, it
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is only when stringent criteria for evaluating training effects are met, i.e. when the child can
solve a wide range of transfer problems after training, and when the results of training are
durable, that one can conclude that the childs representation has changed. Many American
training studies deal with rather specific training effects with only minor transfer. Moreover,
these studies do not investigate the duration of the effect, making it impossible to conclude
that representation changes through training. The outcomes of training studies conducted by
different theoretical schools clarify that one can only examine whether and to what extent
cognitive representation is changed when stringent criteria are used to assess the effect of
training.

Piagets theory of development of cognitive structures
According to Piaget, cognitive development takes place in a sequence of discrete
phases. A childs way of thinking in one particular phase is qualitatively different than in the
previous or subsequent phases. Piaget does not view cognitive development as a gradual
accumulation of knowledge or skills, but rather as a sequence of structural transformations:
rather abrupt, intermittent changes in the way a child thinks. During the transition between two
phases, the child inhabits two quantitatively different worlds. The discrepancy between what
things seem to be and what they really are leads to a conflict in the childs way of thinking. A
young child will judge a small object to be lighter than a large object. Later the childs
experiences with object, such as lifting them, will lead him to reflect on their characteristics. If
the child then realizes that the weight of an object is determined not only by its size, but also
by the material it is made of, then according to Piagetian theory he has undergone a
structural change. His thinking has progressed to a new and higher level and has now become
quantitatively different from his thinking based on the previous structure.
According to Piaget, cognitive development is a genesis of structures. Cognition
develops by refining and transforming mental structures. Structure as defined by Piaget
means an organised totality within which the relationships between elements are clearly
defined. Cognitive structures refer to mental knowledge and production systems that are not
directly observable but that lie at the basis of intelligent action. In simplified form, a structure
can be seen as a type of knowledge database that a child uses to interpret the world. The
child knows the world or observes reality in terms of its own structures.
Successive structures therefore differ quantitatively throughout the course of cognitive
development. When a toddler grasps a block, he is performing a qualitatively different action
than the elementary school child who understands an arithmetic problem. Piaget sees these
different behaviours as representing the distinct structures. The more non cognitive structures
that develop in the first year of life, sometimes known as schemata the grasp schema and
the suckling schema are based on innate reflexes. In the course of time, grasping an object
shifts from being a reflex to being a goal-oriented action. At approximately 18 months, when a
child begins to use symbols, he is taking the first step toward conscious activities that will lead
to the construction of cognitive structures. Once established, a given structure will continue to
exist or, if possible, will develop further. Cognitive development begins ad a schema or
structure; later this structure changes, producing a new structure at a level higher and
therefore qualitatively different than the previous one.
A second aspect of Piagets theory is the notion that the activity of children is intrinsic.
Their structures are intrinsically active, intrinsically curious. Children are not satisfied with what
they already know, but are constantly in search of greater knowledge, the motivation to
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develop being generated from within. Although Piaget acknowledges that environmental and
biological factors play a role, he considers intrinsic activity the engine of cognitive
development. Cognitive development results from the process of construction performed by
the child. The child constructs his own reality and naturally interprets the information that
reaches him from his surroundings in terms of the information he already possesses.
(Source: Educational Practice and Theory, volume 18, no. 1, 1996)

Questions:
a) What are the three theories of cognitive development?
b) What does Piagets theory say cognitive development is?
c) What is a structural change?
d) Summarize Piagets cognitive development theory in approximately 150 words.


2. Go on reading the article about the theories of cognitive development. Certain
phrases have been removed from the text and listed at the end. Put them back in
the text in the correct order.

Bruners theory on the development of cognitive representation
Major age-related changes in behaviour and thinking are largely the result of acquisition
of new, more flexible and more powerful types of representation. Bruner distinguished three
types of representation, namely: the enactive mode (representation by doing), the iconic mode
(representation by conception or spatial schema), and the symbolic mode (representation by
means of description in language).
(A)________ . This form of representation originates during the first two years of life.
Children understand objects in terms of the actions which they can perform with them. A
bicycle is there to be ridden, a ball to be played with, a spade to build a sand castle or dig a
hole with.
A second form of representation, which according to Bruner originates between the
ages of 18-21 months, is iconic representation. In essence, iconic representation is the
accessing of a mental representation in the form of images. (B)________ . These images are
not, however, an identical representation or image of reality. Certain perceptual characteristics
of the object stand out more than others, and these as well as other aspects such as the
degree of interest or prior knowledge, determine what is fixed as a mental image.
Bruner contrasts the more or less stimulus-dependent thinking of the iconic pre-
operational child with the more abstract language-based thinking of a child in the concrete
operational phase. According to Bruner, language is not only used for communication but also
provides a means of manipulating symbols. The power of language as a conceptual tool
originates at approximately seven to eight years of age. According to Bruner, socio-
educational transmission plays a highly significant role in this regard. The development of
symbolic representation contributes to the child no longer being restricted by sensory
experience. The child can reflect on the consequences of an action. Each form of
representation continues to be available to the individual after it has been acquired.
(C)________ .
What Bruner emphasizes is the function of cognitive structure. This structure is
changed by the conflict between the various forms of representation. If this conflict is resolved,
then both the structure and the code of representation are changed. For example, the
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difference between the appearance of an object and its actual identity is an important measure
of the development of representation. An object takes on a different appearance when viewed
from different perspectives (iconic images). (D)________ . The child is conscious of this
conflict and will try to resolve it.
By reflecting, integrating new experiences or asking others (adults) for help, the child
learns, by activating his verbal skills (labelling), to rely less on his own perception. When he
does that, he resolves the conflict between the two forms of representation. The child will no
longer be misled when an object seems to take on a difference appearance (as in a
conservation task), because he has acquired symbolic representation enough to know that he
is dealing with the same object. For Bruner, cognitive development results from the continuous
resolution of conflicts between the various modes of representation. (E)________ .
(Source: Educational Practice and Theory, volume 18, no. 1, 1996)

1. Accessing a persons appearance or the features of a painting are examples of
accessing a mental representation of an image.
2. The first form of representation in cognitive development originates in the enactive
mode; an object or event is understood, known or represented by the actions that have
been performed with it.
3. When a child begins to realize that it is viewing the same object, even if the appearance
differs, he experiences a conflict between the symbolic and the iconic code.
4. He believes that cognitive development can in fact be stimulated by inducting conflicts
between the various modes of representation.
5. The various forms of representation can interact at any age or can be combined to form
more abstract codes of symbolic representation.


Vocabulary

3. Read the third part of the article about the theories of cognitive development. Put
the words in the box in the appropriate blank space.
development process anticipate upper
proximal solve without Imitation
education between

Vygotskys theory of cognitive development
Vygotsky states that language often serves to direct the intelligent actions of children.
The relationship between language and thought undergoes a number of changes in the course
of cognitive (A)__________. Through the internationalisation of action through language and
speech, the representation of action has been raised to a symbolic level.
Cognitive development is seen as a (B)__________ in which a child receives from an
adult the cognitive cultural heritage formed in the course of his societys history. Vygotsky
believes that education should (C)__________ development. It is not the task of education to
keep pace with the childs actual developmental level, but rather to cover the region between
the lower limit, what the child can do independently, and the (D)__________ limit, what he can
do with the help of an adult. Vygotsky calls the region between the upper and lower limits the
zone of proximal development.
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The actual developmental level is determined by functions that have already matured,
according to Vygotsky. In other words, they are the end products of development up to that
moment. The zone of (E)__________ development contains those functions that are not yet
ripe, but are still in a process of maturation.
How does one determine the zone of proximal development? In one approach, we
show a child how to (F)__________ a problem and see whether he is able to find a solution by
imitating our example. Another example is to begin to solve a problem and ask the child to
complete our work. A third tactic is to ask the child to solve problems meant for a higher
mental age in cooperation with another, more developed child.
According to Vygotsky, many researchers determine the cognitive developmental level
by giving the child test problems (G)__________ offering him assistance, demonstrations or
suggestions in the form of questions. What is in fact determined is the actual level of imitation
and learning. (H)__________ also plays a role in the zone of proximal development.
Learning the zone of proximal development makes a necessary contribution to
cognitive development. We should therefore not wait until the child is mature enough to handle
the concept to be taught; we should, rather, make use of (I)__________ to bring the child to
maturity; otherwise said, we should contribute to the childs development so that he can
indeed deal with the material.
According to Vygotsky, the process of language acquisition provides a paradigm for the
general problem of the relationship (J)__________ learning and development. Language
becomes not only the tool with which to think, but also a system with which to represent the
world.
(Source: Educational Practice and Theory, volume 18, no. 1, 1996)


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Unit 1. Revision

1. Answer the following questions:
a. What is cognitive development?
b. Which are the four stages of development, according to Piaget?
c. Which are the three stages of cognitive development?

2. Put the words in the box in the right place:
cognitive influential schema innate intuition
reasoning threshold anxiety empathy introspection

a. _____________ development is the construction of thought processes, including
remembering, problem solving, and decision-making, from childhood through
adolescence to adulthood.
b. While John Locke's contribution to pedagogy was _____________, that of Jean-
Jacques Rousseau was no less than explosive.
c. In Piaget's theory, a _____________ is both the category of knowledge as well
as the process of acquiring that knowledge.
d. While temperament has long been thought of as something _____________,
recent research has demonstrated that only some aspects are genetic, while
others are environmental.
e. We think of _____________ as a magical phenomenonbut hunches are
formed out of our past experiences and knowledge. So while relying on gut
feelings doesn't always lead to good decisions, it's not nearly as flighty a tactic
as it may sound.
f. From a psychological perspective, _____________ may be defined as the set of
mental processes used to derive inferences or conclusions from premises.
g. This finding suggests that men apologize less frequently than women because
they have a higher _____________ for what constitutes offensive behaviour.
h. Children who suffer from an _____________ disorder experience fear,
nervousness, and shyness, and they start to avoid places and activities.
i. Perhaps one of the most defining features of humanity is our capacity for
_____________the ability to put ourselves in others' shoes.
j. What we now call '_____________' is described by Hamilton as follows: In an
act of knowledge, my attention may be principally attracted either to the object
known, or to myself as the subject knowing: and in the latter case, although no
new element be added to the act, the condition involved in itI know that I know
becomes the primary and prominent matter of consideration.

3. Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as similar in
meaning as possible to the sentence above.

a) Most of us became salesmen when we left university.
Most of us have

17

b) Our current manager started working here ten years ago.
Our current manager has ..

c) I havent heard from Sarah for a couple of months.
The last .

d) I used to find computers difficult before I started taking these lessons.
Since ..

e) Michael Owen is the best player Ive seen so far in this competition.
Ive yet


18


Unit 2: Personality. Types of Personality
Lead In
Look at the following quotes about personality. Do you agree with them? Yes/no.
Why/why not?
a. We continue to shape our personality all our life. If we knew ourselves perfectly,
we should die.(Albert Camus)
b. Suffering is the substance of life and the root of personality, for it is only
suffering that makes us persons. (Miguel de Unamuno)
c. Personality is the glitter that sends your little gleam across the footlights and the
orchestra pit into that big black space where the audience is. (Mae West)

I. What is personality?
While there are many different theories of personality, the first step is to understand
exactly what is meant by the term personality. The word personality itself stems from the
Latin word persona, which referred to a theatrical mask wore by performers in order to either
project different roles or disguise their identities.
A brief definition would be that personality is made up of the characteristic patterns of
thoughts, feelings and behaviours that make a person unique. In addition to this, personality
arises from within the individual and remains fairly consistent throughout life.
(Source: http://www. http://psychology.about.com/)


Reading comprehension

1. Read the following text.
Almost everyday we describe and assess the personalities of the people around us.
Whether we realize it or not, these daily musings on how and why people behave as they do
are similar to what personality psychologists do.
While our informal assessments of personality tend to focus more on individuals, personality
psychologists instead use conceptions of personality that can apply to everyone. Personality
research has led to the development of a number of theories that help explain how and why
certain personality traits develop.
Some definitions of personality are:
Personality refers to individuals' characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and
behaviour, together with the psychological mechanismshidden or notbehind those
patterns. This definition means that among their colleagues in other subfields of
psychology, those psychologists who study personality have a unique mandate: to
explain whole persons. (Funder, D. C., 1997)
Although no single definition is acceptable to all personality theorists, we can say that
personality is a pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that
give both consistency and individuality to a person's behaviour. (Feist and Feist, 2009)


19

Components of Personality
So what exactly makes up a personality? As described in the definitions above, you
would expect that traits and patterns of thought and emotion make up an important part. Some
of the other fundamental characteristics of personality include:
Consistency: There is generally a recognizable order and regularity to
behaviours. Essentially, people act in the same ways or similar ways in a variety
of situations.
Psychological and physiological: Personality is a psychological construct, but
research suggests that it is also influenced by biological processes and needs.
It impacts behaviours and actions: Personality does not just influence how we
move and respond in our environment; it also causes us to act in certain ways.
Multiple expressions: Personality is displayed in more than just behaviour. It can
also be seen in our thoughts, feelings, close relationships and other social
interactions.
Theories of Personality
There are a number of different theories about how personality develops. Different
schools of thought in psychology influence many of these theories. Some of these major
perspectives on personality include:
Type theories are the early perspectives on personality. These theories suggested that
there is a limited number of "personality types" which are related to biological
influences.
Trait theories viewed personality as the result of internal characteristics that are
genetically based.
Psychodynamic theories of personality are heavily influenced by the work of Sigmund
Freud, and emphasize the influence of the unconscious on personality. Psychodynamic
theories include Sigmund Freuds psychosexual stage theory and Erik Eriksons stages
of psychosocial development.
Behavioural theories suggest that personality is a result of interaction between the
individual and the environment. Behavioural theorists study observable and measurable
behaviours, rejecting theories that take internal thoughts and feelings into account.
Behavioural theorists include B. F. Skinner and John B. Watson.
Humanist theories emphasize the importance of free will and individual experience in
the development of personality. Humanist theorists include Carl Rogers and Abraham
Maslow.
Personality Vs. Temperament and Character
Having closed in on a sense of what personality is, it may be helpful to compare the
concept to others with related meanings. Two concepts that quickly come to mind are
'temperament' and 'character.' In everyday language these terms are sometimes used more or
less interchangeably with 'personality,' and historically they have often been used in contexts
where, in more recent times, 'personality' would be employed. Within psychology, however,
they have somewhat distinct meanings. Temperament usually refers to those aspects of
psychological individuality that are present at birth or at least very early on in child
development, are related to emotional expression, and are presumed to have a biological
basis... Character, on the other hand, usually refers to those personal attributes that are
relevant to moral conduct, will-power, and integrity. (Haslam, N., 2007)
(Source: http://www. http://psychology.about.com/)
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2. Answer the following questions:
a) How is personality defined?
b) What makes up a personality?
c) Which are the five theories of personality?
d) What is the difference between personality and temperament? How about
the difference between personality and character?



Vocabulary

1. Match the following words from the text to their definition:

a. personality (n.) 1. a reliable sample of traits, acts, tendencies, or
other observable characteristics of a person,
group, or institution
b. stem from (v.) 2. a strong feeling (such as love, anger, joy, hate, or
fear)
c. disguise (v.) 3. control deliberately exerted to do something or to
restrain ones own impulses
d. pattern (n.) 4. the way in which one acts or conducts oneself,
especially towards others
e. thought (n.) 5. a feature or quality belonging typically to a person,
place, or thing and serving to identify them
f. feeling (n.) 6. a period of reflection or thought
g. emotion (n.) 7. a genetically determined characteristic
h. behaviour (n.) 8. the quality of being honest and having strong moral
principles
i. assess (v.) 9. an idea or theory containing various conceptual
elements, typically one considered to be subjective
and not based on empirical evidence
j. musing (n.) 10. the mental and moral qualities distinctive to an
individual
k. mandate (n.) 11. have a strong effect on someone or something
l. trait (n.) 12. an idea, plan, opinion, picture, etc., that is formed
in your mind : something that you think of
m. character (n.) 13. permitting mutual substitution
n. characteristic (n.) 14. related to the normal functions of living organisms
and their parts
o. consistency (n.) 15. to occur or develop as a consequence: have or
trace an origin
p. physiological (adj.) 16. the faculty by which a person decides on and
initiates action
q. construct (n.) 17. an emotional state or reaction


21


r. impact on (v.) 18. the set of emotional qualities, ways of behaving,
etc., that makes a person different from other
people
s. psychodynamics (n.) 19. an official order or commission to do something
t. reject (v.) 20. the quality of achieving a level of performance
which does not vary greatly in quality over time
u. will (n.) 21. evaluate or estimate the nature, ability, or quality of
v. interchangeable (adj.) 22. to change the usual appearance, sound, taste,
etc., of (someone or something) so that people will
not recognize that person or thing
w. will-power (n.) 23. dismiss as inadequate, unacceptable, or faulty
x. integrity (n.) 24. the interrelation of the unconscious and conscious
mental and emotional forces that determine
personality and motivation


Entertainment: The Robin Hood Personality Quiz

You evaluate others relative to your own values. And so, exploring what you find fair,
honest, or acceptable can help you backtrack to discover the values that sculpt your
personality. Read the following story and then rank Robin, Maid Marion, the Sheriff of
Nottingham and Little John from most to least moral.

The sheriff of Nottingham has finally caught Robin Hood and Little John! Instead of
killing them immediately, he makes the mistake of all storybook villains in simply stashing
them in the dungeon. Despite their track record of heroics, there the two benevolent outlaws
rot--until Maid Marion shows up pleading her love for Robin and begging for his release. Sure,
says the Sheriff, if Marion will sleep with him.
She does. Robin and Little John are released. But when Maid Marion tells Robin the
truth of how she earned their freedom, Robin dumps her faster than a leprous leech. Little
John defends her behavior and offers his lifelong devotion if she will ride away from Sherwood
with him forever.
She does. The end.
What do you think? Who's most right and who's most wrong? Your answers say a lot
about you.
(Source: http://www.psychologytoday.com/)

22

The Robin Hood Personality Quiz: Results

RH, LJ, MM, SN: A moralist with conventional ideas. Old fashioned. 5% total.
RH, LJ, SN, MM: Massively puritanical. Women conspire against men. 2% total.
RH, MM, LJ, SN: Your philosophy is a confused mix of romanticism and moralism. 4% total.
RH, MM, SN, LJ: You have high standards and are not predisposed to trust others. 2% total.
RH, SN, MM, LJ: Ruthless authoritarian with weak personal morals. 2% total.
RH, SN, LJ, MM: You see women as the possessions of men and have a weak self-
image .3% total.
LJ, RH, MM, SN: Cautious and insecure-you distrust the opposite sex. 6% total.
LJ, RH, SN, MM: Inferiority complex. Women: you bend in the slightest breeze. Men: you
fear women. 2% total.
LJ, MM, RH, SN: You're a romantic, idealizing women or expecting too much of men. 15%
total.
LJ, MM, SN, RH: Slightly romantic realist. Broadminded, flexible and likely happy. 10% total.
LJ, SN, MM, RH: You believe in common sense and relative morality. You're uncertain. 3%
total.
LJ, SN, RH, MM: Misogynist! You're a prude with an old-school opinion of women. 1% total.
MM, LJ, RH, SN: Happy and well balanced. Some chivalry and/or high standards. 13% total.
MM, LJ, SN, RH: Contended and maybe a little superior. Morality fits the occasion. 10% total.
MM, RH, LJ, SN: You're guilty, lack confidence, and are overly concerned about others'
opinions. 4% total.
MM, RH, SN, LJ: Live a little! You're too stubborn. 1% total.
MM, SN, RH, LJ: Women: you like your men strong and your women stronger. Men:
wannabe lover. 2% total.
MM, SN, LJ, RH: You're strong to the point of ruthlessness. Truth rules all. 3% total.
SN, LJ, MM, RH: Sulky, confused and immature. 2% total.
SN, LJ, RH, MM: Men: you see women as fickle and inferior. Women: get a backbone. 1%
total.
SN, MM, LJ, RH: You claim to be a realist, but you're actually a romantic. 3% total.
SN, MM, RH, LJ: A rebel with a trace of spoilt child. You value truth above morality. 2% total.
SN, RH, MM, LJ: You prefer fantasy sex to real life. 3% total.
SN, RH, LJ, MM: Men: You're afraid of women. Women: you like bad boys.


II. Types of Personality

Reading comprehension
1. Read the article below, then answer the questions that follow.
Have you ever heard someone describe themselves as an
INTJ or an ESTP and wondered what those cryptic-sounding letters
could mean? What these people are referring to is their personality
type based on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The Myers-
Briggs Personality Type Indicator is a self-inventory test designed to
identify a person's personality type, strengths and preferences.

23

The test was developed by Isabel Myers and her mother Katherine Briggs based on
their work with Carl Jung's theory of personality types. Today, the test is one of the most
widely used psychological instruments in the world.

The Development of the Myers-Briggs Test
Both Isabel Myers and her mother Katherine were fascinated by Jung's theory of
psychological types and recognized that the theory could have real world applications. Myers
created the first pen-and-pencil version of the test during the 1940s, and the two women
began testing the assessment on friends and family. They continued to fully develop the
instrument over the next two decades.

Overview of the Myers-Briggs Test
Based on the answers to the questions on the inventory, people are identified as having
one of 16 personality types. The goal of the MBTI is to allow respondents to further explore
and understand their own personalities including their likes, dislikes, strengths, weaknesses,
possible career preferences and compatibility with other people. No one personality type is
"best" or "better" than any other one. It isn't a tool designed to look for dysfunction or
abnormality. Instead, its goal is simply to help you learn more about yourself.
The test itself is made up of four different scales:
1. Extraversion (E) - Introversion (I): The extraversion-introversion dichotomy was
first explored by Jung in his theory of personality types as a way to describe how
people respond and interact with the world around them. While these terms are
familiar to most people, the way in which they are used here differs somewhat
from their popular usage. Extraverts are "outward-turning" and tend to be action-
oriented, enjoy more frequent social interaction and feel energized after
spending time with other people. Introverts are "inward-turning" and tend to be
thought-oriented, enjoy deep and meaningful social interactions and feel
recharged after spending time alone. We all exhibit extraversion and introversion
to some degree, but most of us tend have an overall preference for one or the
other.

2. Sensing (S) - Intuition (N): This scale involves looking at how people gather
information from the world around them. Just like with extraversion and
introversion, all people spend some time sensing and intuiting depending on the
situation. According to the MBTI, people tend be dominant in one area or the
other. People who prefer sensing tend to pay a great deal of attention to reality,
particularly to what they can learn from their own senses. They tend to focus on
facts and details and enjoy getting hands-on experience. Those who prefer
intuition pay more attention to things like patterns and impressions. They enjoy
thinking about possibilities, imagining the future and abstract theories.

3. Thinking (T) - Feeling (F): This scale focuses on how people make decisions
based on the information that they gathered from their sensing or intuition
functions. People who prefer thinking place a greater emphasis on facts and
objective data. They tend to be consistent, logical and impersonal when
weighing a decision. Those to prefer feeling are more likely to consider people
and emotions when arriving at a conclusion.

24

4. Judging (J) - Perceiving (P): The final scale involves how people tend to deal
with the outside world. Those who lean toward judging prefer structure and firm
decisions. People who lean toward perceiving are more open, flexible and
adaptable. These two tendencies interact with the other scales. Remember, all
people at least spend some time extraverting. The judging-perceiving scale
helps describe whether you extravert when you are taking in new information
(sensing and intuiting) or when you are making decisions (thinking and feeling).

Each type is then listed by its four letter code: ISTJ, ISTP, ISFJ, ISFP, INFJ, INFP,
INTJ, INTP, ESTP, ESTJ, ESFP, ESFJ, ENFP, ENFJ, ENTP, ENTJ.
Taking the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator can provide a lot of insight into your
personality, which is probably why the test has become so enormously popular. Even without
taking the formal test, you can probably immediately recognize some of these tendencies in
yourself.
According to the Myers & Briggs Foundation, it is important to remember that all types
are equal and that every type has value. When working in group situations in school or at work
for example, recognizing your own strengths and understanding the strengths of others can be
very helpful. When you are working toward completing a project with other members of a
group, you might realize that certain members of the group are skilled and talented at
performing particular actions. By recognizing these differences, the group can better assign
tasks and work together on achieving their goals.

How Does the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Differ From Other Tests?
First, the MBTI is not really a "test." There are no right or wrong answers and one type
is not better than any other type. The purpose of the indicator is not to evaluate mental health
or offer any type of diagnosis. Also, unlike many other types of psychological evaluations, your
test results are not compared against any norms. Instead of looking at your score in
comparison to the results of other people, the goal of the instrument is to simply offer further
information about your own unique personality.

Reliability and Validity
According to the Myers & Briggs Foundation, the MBTI meets accepted standards of
reliability and validity. However, other studies have found that the reliability and validity of the
test have not been adequately demonstrated.

(Source: http://www.psychologytoday.com/)

Questions:
1. What does MBTI stand for?
2. What is the purpose of this test?
3. When was this test developed and who developed it?
4. Which scales are taken into account in this test?
5. How many types of personality are there according to this test?
6. Is this test reliable? Why/why not?

25

Entertainment:

1. Take the following MBTI Test to find your personality type.


MBTI Personality Type Test


1. At a party you: 14. Does it bother you more having things:
a. interact with many, including strangers a. incomplete
b. interact with a few, known to you b. completed

2. You are more: 15. In your social groups you:
a. realistic than speculative a. keep abreast of others happiness
b. speculative than realistic b. get behind on the news

3. Is it worse to: 16. In doing ordinary things you are more likely to:
a. have your head in the clouds a. do it the usual way
b. be in a rut b. do it your own way

4. You are more impressed by: 17. Writers should:
a. principles a. say what they mean and mean what they say
b. emotions b. express things more by the use of analogy

5. You are more drawn towards the: 18. Which appeals to you more:
a. convincing a. consistency of thought
b. touching b. harmonious human relationships

6. You prefer to work: 19. You are more comfortable in making:
a. to deadlines a. logical judgements
b. just whenever b. value judgements

7. You tend to choose: 20. You want things to be:
a. rather carefully a. settled and decided
b. somewhat impulsively b. unsettled and undecided

8. At parties, you: 21. Would you say you are more:
a. stay late, with increasing energy a. serious and determined
b. leave early with decreased energy b. easy-going

9. You are more attracted to: 22. When phoning, you:
a. sensible people a. rarely question that it will all be said
b. imaginative people b. rehearse what you will say

10. You are more interested in: 23. Facts:
a. what is actual a. speak for themselves
b. what is possible b. illustrate principles

11. In judging others you are more swayed by: 24. Visionaries are:
a. laws than circumstances a. somewhat annoying
b. circumstances than law b. rather fascinating

12. In approaching others, you tend to be: 25. Most of the times you are:
a. objective a. a cool-headed person
b. personal b. a warm-hearted person

13. You are more: 26. Its worse to be:
a. punctual a. unjust
b. leisurely b. merciless


26



27. One should let events occur: 40. What leads you more:
a. by careful selection and choice a. your head
b. randomly and by chance b. your heart

28. You feel better about: 41. You are more comfortable with work that is:
a. having purchased something a. contracted
b. having the option to buy something b. done on a casual basis

29. In a group: 42. You tend to look for:
a. initiate conversation a. the orderly
b. wait to be approached b. whatever turns up

30. Common sense is: 43. You prefer:
a. rarely questionable a. many friends with brief contact
b. frequently questionable b. a few friends with lengthy contact

31. Children often dont: 44. You go more by:
a. make themselves useful enough a. facts
b. exercise their fantasy enough b. principles

32. In making decisions, you feel more
comfortable with:
45. You are more interested in:
a. standards a. production and distribution
b. feelings b. design and research

33. You are more: 46. Which is more of a compliment:
a. firm than gentle a. You are a very logical person
b. gentle than firm b. You are a very sentimental person

34. Which ability is more admirable: 47. You value in yourself the fact that you are:
a. to organize and be methodical a. unwavering
b. to adapt and make do b. devoted

35. You put more value on: 48. You are more likely to prefer:
a. infinite a. final and unalterable statement
b. open-minded b. tentative and preliminary statement

36. New and non-routine interaction with
others:
49. You are more comfortable:
a. stimulate and energize you a. after a decision
b. tax your reserves b. before a decision

37. You are: 50. You:
a. a practical sort of person a. speak easily and at length with strangers
b. a fanciful sort of person b. find little to say to strangers

38. You are more likely to: 51. You are more likely to trust:
a. see how others are useful a. experience
b. see how others see b. hunch

39. Which is more satisfying: 52. You feel:
a. to discuss an issue thoroughly a. more practical than ingenious
b. to arrive at an agreement on an issue b. more ingenious than practical


27



53. Which person is to be more complimented: 62. Which situation appeals to you more:
a. one of clear reason a. the structured and scheduled
b. one of strong feeling b. the unstructured and the unscheduled

54. You are more inclined to be: 63. You are a person who is more:
a. fair-minded a. routinized than whimsical
b. sympathetic b. whimsical than routinized

55. It is preferable to: 64. You are more inclined to be:
a. make sure things are arranged a. easy to approach
b. b. Somewhat reserved

56. In a relationship, most things should be: 65. In writings, you prefer:
a. re-negotiable a. the more literal
b. random and circumstantial b. the more figurative

57. When the phone rings, you: 66. It is harder for you to:
a. hasten to get to it first a. identify with others
b. hope someone else will answer b. utilize others

58. You prize more in yourself: 67. Which do you wish more for yourself:
a. a strong sense of reality a. clarity of reason
b. a vivid imagination b. strength of compassion

59. You are more drawn to: 68. Which is the greater fault:
a. fundamentals a. being indiscriminate
b. overtones b. being critical

60. Which seems the greatest error: 69. Do you prefer:
a. to be too passionate a. the planned event
b. to be too objective b. the unplanned event

61. Basically, you see yourself as: 70. You tend to be:
a. hard-headed a. more deliberate than spontaneous
b. soft-hearted b. more spontaneous than deliberate

(Source: http://www.im.org/)


See next page for test results

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SCORING

Col. 1 Col. 2 Col. 3 Col. 4 Col. 5 Col. 6 Col. 7
A B A B A B A B A B A B A B
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14
15 16 17 18 19 20 21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28
29 30 31 32 33 34 35
36 37 38 39 40 41 42
43 44 45 46 47 48 49
50 51 52 53 54 55 56
57 58 59 60 61 62 63
64 65 66 67 68 69 70

Copy to Copy to Copy to


E I S N T F J P






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Language focus

Tense revision 2. Past tenses


1. Circle the correct answer.

1. When I was a child, we often used / would often sit in the garden on summer evenings.
2. As soon as she put the phone down, she started / had started to cry.
3. I used to / would own a house in the country but I sold it.
4. We waited until we had finished work and then we took / had taken a break.
5. They didnt used to line / werent used to living in a flat but they dont mind it now.
6. It was now evening and we were driving / had been driving all day.
7. Where did you used to / would you work before you got this job?
8. Giles and Max used to argue / were used to arguing but they get along fine now.


2. Complete the conversation. Use the past simple or continuous of the verbs in
brackets.

A: I (phone) you this morning, but you
(not answer). What (you /
do)?

B: I (hear) the phone, but I
(have) a shower. Anyway, what (you / want)?

A: Well, last night I (clear) out my desk when I
(find) these old photos. Do you want them?


3. Complete the extract from a story. Use the past simple, past perfect simple or
past perfect continuous of the verbs in the box.
arrive go only / be rain smell talk

It was a beautiful morning. It in the night and the next morning the air
fresh. No one was awake, though, because we
to bed late the night before. Our cousins
unexpectedly that evening and we for most of the night. By eight
oclock in the morning we in bed for three hours.


30


4. Complete the article. Use the past simple, past continuous, past perfect simple or
past perfect continuous of the verbs in brackets.

A Japanese businessman recently made medical history by surviving without food and water
in near-freezing weather for about three weeks.
Mr Mitsutaka Uchikoshi, 35, climbed up Mount Rokko in western Japan for a barbecue
party with friends, but decided to come back down on his own. While he
(walk) down the mountain, he (slip) in a
stream and (break) his pelvis. Until he
(become) unconscious, he survived by sipping the remains of a bottle of barbecue sauce that
he (carry) with him at the time of the accident.
When researchers (rescue) him, he
(appear) to be in a coma. His pulse was almost undetectable and his body temperature
(drop) to 32 degrees. He (also / lose) a lot
of weight. Doctors (treat) Mr Uchikoshi for hypothermia, multiple
organ failure and blood loss. By the time he was rescued, he (miss)
for twenty-five days.
Remarkably, he (recover) fully. One of his doctors said, He
was frozen alive and survived. If we can understand why, it opens up all sorts of possibilities
for the future.


5. Complete the texts. Use the correct form of used to or be / get used to and the
verbs in brackets.



















(Source: Grammar Practice for Upper Intermediate Students)
I (hate) working at
weekends, but I it now and
I dont mind it anymore.
I cant the idea that my
daughter is grown up. I still think of her as a child. I
remember how I . (hold)
her in my arms when she was a baby.
My wife and I (never / go)
abroad for our holidays. We
(spend) our summers in
Cornwall.
31


Unit 3: Individual Differences
Lead In
Look at the following quotes about individuality. Do you agree with them? Yes/no.
Why/why not?
a. Most people are other people. Their thoughts are someone else's opinions, their
lives a mimicry, their passions a quotation. (Oscar Wilde)
b. Our culture has made us all the same. No one is truly white or black or rich,
anymore. We all want the same. Individually, we are nothing. (Chuck Palahniuc)
c. The individual has always had to struggle to keep from being overwhelmed by
the tribe. If you try it, you will be lonely often, and sometimes frightened. But no
price is too high to pay for the privilege of owning yourself.(Friedrich Nietzsche)

Listening

1. Listen to Katy Perrys song Firework and fill in the blanks with the missing
words.

Do you ever feel like a plastic bag
Drifting through the __________, wanting to start again?
Do you ever feel, feel so paper thin
Like a house of __________, one blow from caving in?

Do you ever feel already __________deep six feet under?
Screams but no one seems to hear a thing
Do you know that there's still a __________for you
'Cause there's a spark in you?

You just got to ignite the light and let it shine
Just own the night like the 4
th
of July

Chorus: 'Cause, baby, you're a firework
Come on, show 'em what you're __________
Make 'em go, "Aah, aah, aah"
As you shoot across the sky-y-y
Baby, you're a firework
Come on, let your colours __________
Make 'em go, "Aah, aah, aah"
You're gonna leave 'em all in awe, awe, awe

You don't have to feel like a __________ space
You're original, cannot be __________
If you only knew what the future holds
After a hurricane comes a __________

Maybe a reason why all the __________are closed
So you could open one that leads you to the __________road
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Like a lightning bolt, your heart will __________
And when it's time you'll know

You just got to ignite the light and let it shine
Just own the night like the 4th of July

Chorus: []

Boom, boom, boom
Even brighter than the moon, moon, moon
It's always been __________ of you, you, you
And now it's time to let it through-ough-ough

Chorus: []


Reading comprehension

1. Read the following text, then answer the questions.

The Identity Dance (Part 1)
Sandra and Marisa Pena, identical twins, seem to be exactly the same. They have the same
thick dark hair, the same high cheekbones, the same habit of delicately rubbing the tip of the
nose in conversation. They had the same type of thyroid cyst at the same age (18) in the
same place (right side). They even have the same dreams.
The sisters are as alike as two people can be. At the same time, they are opposites.
Sandra is outgoing and confident; Marisa is reserved. They have the same pretty face, but
those cheekbones make shy Marisa look mysterious and brooding, while Sandra looks
wholesome and sweet. They see themselves as a duobut more like complementary photo
negatives rather than duplicates of each other.
When their father passed away in 1994 from pancreatic cancer and their mother died
soon after, the deeper differences between the two became obvious. Their family had been
very loving and protective, and the sisters were traumatized by the sudden loss. But as Marisa
sank into a depression, Sandra picked up and changed her life. She left San Antonio for
Germany to live with her boyfriend. Marisa stayed put, catatonic with sadness. It was the first
time the two had ever been apart.
Then, after a few months in Germany, Sandra headed to New York Citythe buzzing
metropolis in which she had dreamed of living since she was a teenager. Marisa soon followed
Sandra, but when she arrived in New York, "She just couldn't let go of [her sadness]," says
Sandra. "I didn't know what to do with her."
We've come to believe that genes influence character and personality more than
anything else does. But spend a few hours with identical twins, who have exactly the same set
of genes, and you'll find that this simplistic belief crumbles before your eyes. If DNA dictates
all, how can two people with identical geneswho are living, breathing clones of each other
be so different?
To answer such questions, scientists have begun to think more broadly about how
genes and life experience combine to shape us. The rigid idea that genes determine identity
has been replaced with a more flexible and complex view in which DNA and life experience
33

conspire to mould our personalities. We now know that certain genes make people susceptible
to traits like aggression and depression. But susceptibility is not inevitability. Gene expression
is like putty: Genes are turned on and off, dialled up or down both by other genes and by the
ups and downs of everyday life. A seminal study last year found that the ideal breeding ground
for depression is a combination of specific genes and stressful triggerssimply having the
gene will not send most people into despair. Such research promises to end the binary debate
about nature vs. nurtureand usher in a revolution in understanding who we are.
New technological advances made it possible to quickly identify human genes. Not only
were scientists rapidly discovering genes linked to illnesses such as cancer and birth defects
like dwarfism, they also found genes associated with such traits as sexual preference and
aggression as well as mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. Genetic discoveries
transformed the intellectual zeitgeist as well, marking a decisive shift from the idea that
environment alone shapes human personality. Behavioural geneticists offered refreshingly
simple explanations for human identityand for social problems. Bad parenting, poor
neighbourhoods or amoral television didn't cause bad behaviour; genes did.
Despite these ground-breaking insights, it quickly became clear that complex human
behaviours couldn't be reduced to pure genetics. Apart from a few exceptions, scientists
couldn't find a gene that directly caused depression or schizophrenia or any other major
mental or mood disorder.
(Source: http://www.psychologytoday.com/)

Questions:
1. What is the purpose of this article?
2. What does the article describe?
3. What do you understand by intellectual zeitgeist?
4. This article was written in 2004. Have researches advanced? Are there new discoveries
in this field? What do you know?


Vocabulary

1. Read the text again and try to find synonyms/explanations for the following
words:
1. habit 13. seminal
2. outgoing 14. breeding
3. brooding 15. trigger
4. wholesome 16. despair
5. pass away 17. binary
6. obvious 18. debate
7. sudden 19. nurture
8. catatonic 20. usher
9. crumble 21. linked
10. broadly 22. zeitgeist
11. mould 23. shift
12. putty 24. ground-breaking

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2. Read the following text. Some words have been removed. Put them back in the
correct order.
variations favour consequences key data
personality similar understand

Individual differences are the (A)___________ from one person to another on variables
such as self-esteem, rate of cognitive development or degree of agreeableness. Historically,
psychological science has overlooked individual differences in (B)___________ of focusing on
average behaviour.
For instance, we know that, on average, girls first experience signs of puberty around
10.5 years of age. While this is important information, it's also valuable to consider differences
in pubertal development. Some girls experience puberty very early or very late. Psychologists
have realized that either situations can have major (C)___________ for the girl's future. If we
only studied the averagein other words, if we overlooked individual differenceswe would
miss out on (D)___________ information about child development.
Individual differences have been most often studied in the area of personality
development. Psychologists have collected vast amounts of (E)___________ on how people
vary from one another in terms of their traits. For instance, they have noted that individual
differences on the "Big Five" (F)___________ traits first strongly appear during the tween
years.
All in all, the study of individual differences helps us to understand not only what makes
humans (G)___________ to one another, but also what makes them different. By considering
the variations that can occur from one person to another, we can best understand the full
range of human behaviour. We can also come to (H)___________ what constitutes normal
variation-such as starting puberty at 9 years of age instead of 10.5 years-and which
developmental rates may be red flags for intervention, such as in the case of learning
disorders.
(Source: http://tweenparenting.about.com/)


Language use

Tense revision 3. Future forms

1. Complete the sentences. Use will, be going to or the present continuous and the
verb in brackets.

1. I to the concert this evening with Andy. What about you? (go)
2. I think you should know: I Ben you borrowed his car without
asking him. (tell)
3. You look as if you . Are you ill? (faint)
4. We anything special at the weekend. I expect we
at home. (not do, stay)
5. me lift this, please? Its heavy. (you, help)

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2. Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first, using the
word in bold. Use between two and five words.

1. We were getting ready to leave when we got the call. about
We . we got the call.

2. Avril is leaving her job very soon. point
Avril is . her job.

3. According to the schedule, the project will finish next year. due
The project . next year.

4. You must not write on the question paper. are
You . on the question paper.

5. When are they going to get married? plan
When . married?

6. I had arranged to meet Liz for lunch but she cancelled. meeting
I . Liz for lunch but she cancelled.

7. I was about to ring you when you rang me. going
I . you when you rang me.

8. We expected to see them at the concert. would
We thought we . them at the concert.

3. Circle the correct answer.

If the British government gets its way, the fuel of the future will / is about to be the air
we breathe. The government is on the point of using / plans to use electricity from wind farms
to help meet its targets for renewable energy. With government approval, private firms will
have built / are to build offshore wind farms in the southeast of England. One of these, the
London Array wind farm, will be / will have been the largest in the world when it is / will have
been completed. Together, the London Array and Thanet wind farms will produce / are
producing enough electricity to power a million homes.
London Array have not yet announced when they begin / will begin construction of the
wind farm. However, they expect that they will be completing / will have completed it by 2010
or 2011. The smaller wind farm in Thanet is going to supply / will be supplying electricity to
about 240,000 homes by 2008.
However, the farms are controversial. Developers were hoping / would hope to build a
third farm in the Lake District but the government rejected their plans because they are
concerned about the effect of the farm on the countryside and on tourism.
Environmentalists say we will have to / are having to do much more than build wind
farms in the future. Otherwise, climate change will have / will be having a devastating effect on
the environment.
(Source: Grammar Practice for Upper Intermediate Students)
36


Reading comprehension

1. Go on reading the article about individual differences. Certain phrases have been
removed from the text and listed at the end. Put them back in the text in the
correct order.

The Identity Dance (Part 2)
The new research failed to answer a lot of common-sense questions: If identical twins
are genetically indistinguishable, how could just one end up schizophrenic or homosexual?
And it couldn't address subtler questions about character and behaviour. (A)_______ . Why
are some people ruthlessly ambitious and others laid-back?
(B)_______ . Moffitt and Caspi turned to a long-term study of almost 900 New
Zealanders, identified these subjects' transporter genes and interviewed the subjects about
traumatic experiences in early adulthoodlike a major breakup, death in the family or serious
injuryto see if the difficulties brought out an underlying genetic tendency toward depression.
(C)_______ . Psychiatrists were delighted. "It's just a wonderful story," says Insel. "It changed
the way we think about genes and psychiatric disorders."
While scientists don't exactly know how genes are influenced by environment at the
molecular level, there are clues that genes have the equivalent of molecular "switches" and
can be programmedturned on or off, up or downvery early.
The prenatal environment also has a major influence on differences between identical
twins. (D)_______ . Twins experience different environments even in the womb, as they
compete with each other for nutrients. One can beat out the other, which is why they often
have different birth weights: Marisa Pena was born first and is a bit taller and heavier than her
sister.
Prenatal experiences are just the first in a lifetime of differentiating factors. Only about
50 percent of the characteristics twins have in common are due to genes alone. Researchers
now believe that an illness suffered by only one twin, or different amounts of attention from
peers or parents, can set the stage for personality differences. (E)_______ . By the time their
parents died, "these twins had had a lifetime of experiences which might have made them
react differently," says Moffitt. "In addition, some pairs of identical twins individuate themselves
in early childhood. They seem to take on the roles of 'the shy one' and 'the outgoing one' and
then live up to those roles." In other words, they customize their environment, and the world
treats them accordingly.
(Source: http://www.psychologytoday.com/)

1. This makes it easier to understand why the Pena sisters reacted as they did.
2. Caspi and Moffitt's study was one of the first to examine the combined effects of genetic
predisposition and experience on a specific trait.
3. Terrie Moffitt and Avshalom Caspi, a husband-and-wife team of psychologists at King's
College in London, had the insight that environmental influences might be the missing
part of the puzzle.
4. Why do some people bounce back from terrible trauma that shatters others?
5. Mothers of multiples will tell you that their babies were distinct the moment they were
born, and research backs them up.
37


Vocabulary

1. Read again the article above and find words in the text that correspond to the
following definitions. The first letter of each word is given.

a. Something that cannot be identified as different or distinct is i.
(indistinguishable)

b. A s. is someone suffering from a long-term mental disorder of a type
involving a breakdown in the relation between thought, emotion, and behaviour, leading
to faulty perception, inappropriate actions and feelings, withdrawal from reality and
personal relationships into fantasy and delusion, and a sense of mental fragmentation.
(schizophrenic)

c. Someone who has or shows no pity or compassion for others is r.
(ruthless)

d. An illness that disrupts normal physical or mental functions is a d.
(disorder)

e. The w. is the organ in the lower body of a woman or female mammal
where offspring are conceived and in which they gestate before birth (the uterus).
(womb)

f. A substance that provides nourishment essential for the maintenance of life and for
growth is a w.
(nutrient)


Language focus

Modals 1: Obligation, recommendation, ability

1. Underline the correct form.
a. You mustnt / dont have to conduct any chemistry experiments unless you are wearing
safety glasses.
b. There are a lot of books which Anna didnt have to read / neednt have read as part of
her university course, but which she decided to read out of interest.
c. We dont have to / Wed better not talk too long. These calls are expensive.
d. I went to see the dentist yesterday, but luckily I didnt need to have / I neednt have had
any painful treatment!
e. You didnt have to tell me / shouldnt have told me about the party. Now its not a
surprise!
f. Some people believe that the government does not have to / should not allow
genetically modified crops to be grown on a large scale, as they could spread out of
control.
g. These books are on the wrong shelf. They shouldnt / mustnt be here.
h. The report concluded that the rescuers should not have attempted / didnt have to
attempt to move the injured passengers before medical help arrived.
38

i. Please put the paper cups and plates in the bin. We mustnt / dont have to leave the
room in a mess.
j. There is plenty of time. We mustnt be / dont have to be at the cinema until 8.00.

2. Complete the sentence using one word in each gap.

a. In the early years of motoring, drivers didnt ________ to take a driving test.
b. You ________ sign the application form at the end of the page, or it will not be
accepted.
c. Hurry up. We ________ to get to the airport by 9.30.
d. I think we had ________ stop and ask someone the way.
e. This bus is going to take ages. We ________ have taken a taxi.
f. Important notice. All new arrivals ________ to report to the reception desk.
g. Thanks for coming. Im glad you ________ make it.
h. You look really tired. You ________ take a few days off and have a holiday.
i. Sorry Im a bit late. I ________ to pick up the children from school.
j. You ________ not decide immediately whether to join the class.

3. Write a new sentence with the same meaning, beginning as shown.

a. If I were you, Id take an umbrella.
I think youd better take an umbrella.

b. Is Saturday morning school compulsory in your country?
Do students ..

c. In the third week, students must hand in a typed copy of their first lab report.
In the third week, students are ...

d. Sheila changed the battery in her camera, but it wasnt necessary.
Sheila the battery in her camera.

e. You look really ill. It I were you, Id stay at home.
You look really ill. I to stay at home.

f. It was a bad idea to leave the windows open while it was raining.
You

g. The theatre tickets were free, so there was no need for us to pay.
The theatre tickets were free, so ..

h. I can stay here until 10.00.
I leave until 10.00.

i. Helen managed to stop the car before it crashed into a wall.
Helen was ....

j. Steves laptop had a wireless Internet connection, so there was no need for him to
connect it to a phone line.
Steves laptop had a wireless Internet connection, so he ..
........................
(Source: Macmillan English Grammar in Context - Advanced)
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Unit 4: Intelligence.
Evolution of Intelligence
Lead In