Sunteți pe pagina 1din 60

UNIVERSITATEA SPIRU HARET

FACULTATEA DE MARKETING I
AFACERI ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE
SPECIALIZAREA MARKETING
LUCRARE DE LICEN
Coordonator tiin(ific:
Conf.univ.dr. erbulescu Luminia
Absolvent:
Rocan Andreea-Maria
BUCURETI
2012
1
UNIVERSITATEA SPIRU HARET
FACULTATEA DE MARKETING I
AFACERI ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE
SPECIALIZAREA MARKETING
REBRANDING MARCA DELACO
Coordonator tiin(ific:
Conf.univ.dr. erbulescu Luminia
Absolvent:
Rocan Andreea-Maria
BUCURETI
2012
2
Cuprins:
CAPITOLUL I. PIA A LACTATELOR DIN ROMNIA.........................................5
1.1. Beneficii consum prouse !"c#"#e............................................................................5
1.2. Pi" " e !"c#"#e in Rom$ni"...................................................................................%
1.&. O'iceiuri e consum i cump(r"re........................................................................1&
1.). Cuno" #ere" 'r"nuri!or e !"c#"#e in Rom$ni"..................................................15
CAPITOLUL II. BRAND* BRANDIN+ ,I REBRANDIN+.....................................1%
2.1. Ce es#e un 'r"n-..................................................................................................1%
2.2. ."!o"re" e c"pi#"! " 'r"n/u!ui............................................................................1%
2.&. Br"n* 'r"nin0 1i re'r"nin0...............................................................................12
2.). Re!"ns"re" unui 'r"n...........................................................................................21
2.5. Repo3i ion"re" unei
m(rci.....................................................................................2&
2.4. 5#r"#e0ii e re'r"nin0 .........................................................................................2&
CAPITOLUL III. PROMO.AREA .N67RILOR.................................................24
&.1. Ar0umen#e!e e38o!#(rii promo8(rii 8$n3(ri!or....................................................29
&.2. 5copu! promo8(rii 8$n3(ri!or................................................................................22
&.&. Ac:iuni!e e promo8"re " 8$n3(ri!or pen#ru cons"cr"re" 'r"nu!ui......................22
&.). Deci3ii m";ore <n promo8"re" 8$n3(ri!or..............................................................&=
&.).1. 5#"'i!ire" o'iec#i8e!or.........................................................................................&=
&.).2. E!"'or"re" pro0r"mu!ui......................................................................................&%
&.).&. Tes#"re" pre!imin"r( " pro0r"mu!ui...................................................................&9
&.).). Imp!emen#"re" 1i urm(rire" pro0r"mu!ui...........................................................&9
&.).5. E8"!u"re" re3u!#"#e!or.........................................................................................&9
C"pi#o!u! I.. REBRANDIN+ MARCA DELACO....................................................)=
).1. Is#ori"
DELACO....................................................................................................)=
).2. Br"nuri
is#ri'ui#e................................................................................................)=
).&. E8o!u:i" fin"nci"r( " comp"niei De!"co Dis#ri'u#ion...........................................)1
).). Prouse su' 'r"nu! De!"co..................................................................................)2
).5. Ne8oi" e sc>im'"re.............................................................................................)&
).4. Procesu! e re'r"nin0..........................................................................................)9
CONCLU6II 5I PROPUNERI.....................................................................................54
BIBLIO+RA?IE..........................................................................................................59
&
In#roucere
Lucr"re" e f":( <1i propune s( 8"!orifice i s( emons#re3e impor#"n:" unui e!emen#
fun"men#"! pen#ru succesu! oric(rei "f"ceri <n con#empor"nei#"#e@ 'r"nu!. An con#eB#u!
0!o'"!i3(rii 1i " "scensiunii ni8e!u!ui compe#i:iei <n !ume" "f"ceri!or* un 'r"n pu#ernic* 'ine
"minis#r"# e firm(* repre3in#( ce" m"i 'un( me#o( pen#ru o':inere" e "8"n#"; compe#i#i8.
An u!#imii "ni* procesu! e 'r"nin0 " cunoscu# o e38o!#"re "p"r#e* repre3en#$n o so!u:ie
pen#ru cre1#ere" profi#u!ui firme!or. Br"nu! <1i comunic( u#i!i#"#e"* "8"n#";e!e 1i 8"!o"re" cu
un re"! succes* "s#fe! <nc$# pi":" permi#e s( fie 8$nu# !" un pre: m"i m"re ec$# prouse!e
concuren#e* s( c$1#i0e <n #opu! preferin e!or c!ien:i!or* s( cre"sc( 8"!o"re" firmei cu mu!#
pes#e ni8e!u! "c#i8e!or e:inu#e 1i s( <1i p(s#re3e po3i:i" e #op c>i"r 1i <n coni:ii e recesiune
fin"nci"r(. Aese"* im"0ine" es#e consier"#( m"i 8"!oro"s( ec$# "c#i8e!e pe c"re
or0"ni3"i" !e "re !" ispo3i ie. Br"nu! c"r"c#eri3e"3( #o"#e #ipuri!e e comp"nii i ins#i#u ii*
"ces#" repre3en#$n o concre#i3"re sin#e#ic( " comp"niei. Prin urm"re* "ces#" po"#e
ini8iu"!i3"@ o firm(* un prous s"u un ser8iciu* permi $n c!ien#u!ui s( !e is#in0( e "!#e!e
"sem(n(#o"re.
Am "!es "ce"s#( #em( eo"rece "m fos# impresion"#( e "mp!o"re" 1i "scensiune"
eB#r"orin"r( pe c"re " cunoscu#/o <n u!#imii "ni "ces# e!emen# 1i "m ecis s( "profune3
cuno1#in:e!e o'$ni#e <n #impu! f"cu!#(:ii espre "ces# su'iec#. De "semene"* "m ori# s(
re"!i3e3 o "'or"re cuprin3(#o"re 1i sis#em"#ic( " procesu!ui e con#ur"re 1i e38o!#"re "
'r"nin0u!ui* precum 1i "! re'r"nin0u!ui* spri;ininu/m( pe mec"nisme!e 1i po!i#ici!e e
m"rCe#in0. To#o"#(* 'r"nu!* <mpreun( cu procese!e e cre"re 1i re8i3uire "!e "ces#ui"* "u o
impor#"n:( eose'i#( "#$# !" ni8e! microeconomic* inf!uen:$n "c:iuni!e 1i re3u!#"#e!e firmei*
c$# 1i !" ni8e! m"croeconomic.
Pe p"rcursu! ce!or p"#ru c"pi#o!e "m <ncerc"# s( "uc o c!"rific"re #eore#ic( "supr"
#ermeni!or e 'r"n* 'r"nin0 1i re'r"nin0* s( su'!inie3 impor#"n:" 'r"nu!ui pen#ru
succesu! comp"nii!or* precum 1i s( re"!i3e3 o c!"sific"re " me#oe!or ce!e m"i eficien#e
fo!osi#e e c(#re speci"!i1#ii <n m"rCe#in0 <n re"!i3"re" 'r"nin0u!ui 1i "! re'r"nin0u!ui. An
primu! c"pi#o! es#e pre3en#"#( o im"0ine e "ns"m'!u "supr" pie ei e !"c#"#e cu "#e
"c#u"!i3"#e* m";ori#"#e" surse!or i "#e!or fiin in 2=12. C"pi#o!u! "! oi!e" con:ine "spec#e
#eore#ice pri8i#o"re !" procesu! e 'r"nin0 1i e8ien:iere" impor#"n:ei re"!i3(rii unei s#r"#e0ii
in#e0r"#e pren#ru re"!i3"re" 'r"nin0u!ui !" ni8e!u! comp"niei. Apoi* "m pre3en#"#
princip"!e!e #rei orien#(ri pri8i#o"re !" s#r"#e0ii!e e 'r"nin0. Urme"3( pre3en#"re" "spec#e!or
pri8i#o"re !" procesu! e re'r"nin0* precum 1i o e!imi#"re " re'r"nin0u!ui f":( e procesu!
e re!"ns"re. An ce!e in urm(* "m pre3en#"# in m"i mu!#e perspec#i8e* p"1ii ce #re'uie urm":i
<n c"ru! unui proces e re'r"nin0 1i impor#"n:" cerce#(ri!or c"re prece sc>im'"re"
nume!ui* o p"r#e fo"r#e risc"n#( " re'r"nin0u!ui. C"pi#o!u! "! #rei!e" pre3in#( !" ni8e! #eore#ic
eci3ii!e c"re #re'uie !u"#e pen#ru re'r"nin0 <n cee" ce pri8esc 8$n3(ri!e i fo!osire" 'enefic(
i opor#un( " momen#e!or prie!nice. C"pi#o!u! "! p"#ru!e" pre3in#( s#uiu! e c"3* c"re se
"Be"3( pe re'r"nin0u! unui" in#re princip"!ii prouc(#ori e !"c#"#e in Rom$ni"* De!"co.
Procesu! e re'r"nin0 " <ncepu# <n "nu! 2==% 1i s/" <nc>ei"# <n cursu! "ces#ui "n. Repre3in#(
unu! in ce!e m"i reu1i#e re'r"nin0uri rom$ne1#i* o8"( fiin re3u!#"#e!e eBce!en#e o':inu#e
e "ce"s#( comp"nie in 2==9 p$n( "s#(3i* precum 1i pre8i3iuni!e speci"!i1#i!or.
An conc!u3ie* "m con#ur"# impor#"n:" 'r"nu!ui pen#ru orice comp"nie c"re "c:ione"3(
pe pi":(* precum 1i ro!u! 'r"nuri!or <n eB#inere" femonenu!ui e 0!o'"!i3"re. De "semene"*
"m punc#"# e8o!u:i" s#r"#e0ii!or e 'r"nin0* c"re "u e8eni# in ce <n ce m"i comp!eBe* o"#(
)
cu cre1#ere" ni8e!u!ui compe#i:iei in#re firme* precum 1i e !imi#"re" re'r"nin0u!ui e
re!"ns"re.
CAPITOLUL I. PIA A LACTATELOR DIN ROMANIA
1.1.Beneficii consum produse lactate
Beneficii!e prouse!or !"c#"#e pen#ru un s#i! e 8i" ( s(n(#os 1i o "!imen#":ie
corespun3(#o"re sun# e necon#es#"#* or0"nismu! um"n "8$n ne8oie e e!e <nc( in prime!e
!uni "!e 8enirii pe !ume. L"p#e!e 1i prouse!e !"c#"#e se 'ucur( e o #r"i ie* pre3en#( <n #o"#e
cu!#uri!e !umii* !ucru "#or"# 8"!orii !or nu#ri#i8e riic"#e. C"!ciu! es#e inispens"'i! corpu!ui*
";u#$n !" men:inere" unor o"se s(n(#o"se 1i pu#ernice* fiin 'un pen#ru in:i* p(r 1i un0>ii*
cruci"! pen#ru mu!#e "!#e func:ii "!e or0"nismu!ui um"n. L"p#e!e es#e ce" m"i 'un( 1i f"ci!(
surs( e c"!ciu* "r une!e perso"ne nu po# consum" "ces# "!imen# s"u pur 1i simp!u nu !e f"ce
p!(cere. O c"n( e !"p#e "re <n ;ur e &== e m0 e c"!ciu* <n coni:ii!e <n c"re neces"ru!
3i!nic es#e e 1.=== e m0* conform Duffin0on Pos#.
Un p">"r e !"p#e "si0ur( o #reime in o3" 3i!nic( recom"n"#( e c"!ciu. C"!ciu!
es#e fun"men#"! pen#ru me#"'o!ismu! o"se!or* e! "si0ur$n ensi#"#e" i for " !or. Pen#ru " fi
"'sor'i# <n or0"nism* c"!ciu! "re ne8oie e 8i#"min" D i e m"0ne3iu* i"r pen#ru " fi re inu#
es#e neces"r "por#u! e 8i#"mine E i B4. L"p#e!e nu "si0ur( o"r comp!eBu! e miner"!e c"re
";u#( !" conso!i"re" sis#emu!ui osos* c"!ciu! in !"p#e "re o impor#"n ( eose'i#( i <n "!#e
"c#i8i#( i 8i#"!e "!e or0"nismu!ui um"n precum con#r"c i" muscu!"r(* co"0u!"re" s$n0e!ui*
re0!"re" en3ime!or. Un consum re0u!"# e !"p#e po"#e pre8eni os#eoporo3". D"c( "por#u!
ie#e#ic e c"!ciu es#e suficien#* or0"nismu! nu 8" "pe!" !" epo3i#e!e e c"!ciu in o"se pen#ru
" re"!i3" func ii!e enumer"#e m"i sus. Un consum re0u!"# e !"p#e men ine concen#r" ii!e
norm"!e e c"!ciu in s$n0e i o"se!e r(m$n ense* e8i#$nu/se ins#"!"re" os#eoporo3ei.
5#uii meic"!e recen#e "u emons#r"# c( !"p#e!e po"#e ";u#" !" sc(ere" <n 0reu#"#e i
!" men inere" unei 0reu#( i norm"!e. 5#uii!e "u "r(#"# c( un consum e )== m! !"p#e 3i!nic
po"#e reuce riscu! e o'e3i#"#e cu p$n( !" %=F. O ie#( 'o0"#( <n c"!ciu* "cce!ere"3( "rere"
0r(simi!or.
Un "!# m"re 'eneficiu "! prouse!or !"c#"#e cons#( <n "por#u! e pro'io#ice.
Pro'io#ice!e sun# cu!#uri 8ii e '"c#erii c"re #r(iesc <n or0"nismu! nos#ru <n ep!in( "rmonie*
<n sensu! c( nu c"u3e"3( nicio 'o"!(. E!e #r(iesc <n #r"c#u! i0es#i8. An u!#imii 1= "ni* "ces#e
'"c#erii inofensi8e "u fos# supuse unor cerce#(ri "profun"#e. As#fe!* s/" escoperi# c( e!e
;o"c( un ro! eose'i# e impor#"n# <n <n#(rire" sis#emu!ui imuni#"r. Un "por# 3i!nic e
pro'io#ice ";u#( !" #r"#"re" s"u "me!ior"re" " numero"se "fec iuni@ e !" cons#ip" ie* co!on
iri#"'i! i"ree !" copii p$n( !" infec ii 8"0in"!e.
Ro!u! !"p#e!ui <n p"n"cee!e e frumuse e es#e cunoscu# e #o"#( !ume" i es#e
eBp!o"#"# <nc( in ce!e m"i 8ec>i #impuri. C!eop"#r" o'i nui" s( se <m'(ie3e <n !"p#e e
m(0(ri ( pes#e c"re ""u0( miere e "!'ine pen#ru "/ i p(s#r" frumuse e" pie!ii i un #en
e!"s#ic. Amin#esc* pe scur#* c$#e8" 'eneficii "!e prouse!or !"c#"#e <n cosme#ic(@ !"p#e!e
in#e0r"! <n!(#ur( o'ose"!" #enu!ui* !"p#e!e nee0res"# "si0ur( >r(nire" i e!"s#ici#"#e" pie!ii*
i"ur#u! com'"#e "rsuri!e so"re!ui* sm$n#$n" ";u#( !" pre8enire" riuri!or* <n #imp ce !"p#e!e
'(#u# <mpieic( usc"re" pie!ii. 5upr"numi# i s$n0e!e "!'* !"p#e!e es#e "!imen#u! ce! m"i
comp!eB i m"i u or "simi!"'i! e c(#re or0"nism* "#ori#( propri#"#i!or s"!e nu#ri#i8e.
To i "ce #i nu#rien i con#ri'uie !" s#"re" 0ener"!( e s(n(#"#e i po# ;uc" un ro!
impor#"n# <n cure!e e s!('ire. De i eBis#( "numi#e con#ro8erse <n ce pri8e #e inf!uen "
!"p#e!ui "supr" sc(erii poner"!e* sun# s#uii c"re "r"#( c( "c( #inerii "u! i consum( !"p#e
up( un "n#ren"men# spor#i8 pier m"i mu!#( 0r(sime poner"!( ec$# cei c"re consum( "!#e
5
!ic>ie cu "cee" i ener0ie i "cei" i m"cronu#rien#i. Consumu! e !"c#"#e e0res"#e ";u#( !"
sc(ere" poner"!( i !" "simi!"re" unor c"n#i#( i e c"!ciu neces"re or0"nismu!ui. EBis#( un
consens 0ener"! c"re "r"#( c( "por#u! crescu# e c"!ciu* m"i "!es in surse s(r"ce <n 0r(simi*
";u#( !" pre8enire" epunerii 0r(simi!or i e#ermin( o cre #ere " me#"'o!ismu!ui.
C"!ciu! " fos# "soci"# i cu o' inere" "!#or "8"n#";e pen#ru s(n(#"#e@
/ Cre #ere" ni8e!u!ui e !ipopro#eine cu ensi#"#e crescu#( GDDL/co!es#ero!H II 'une
pen#ru inim(J
/ Am'un(#( ire" c"!ciu!ui sc>e!e#"!* "#$# <n #impu! cre #erii c$# i !" femei up(
menop"u3(J
/ Reucere" recuren ei !i#i"3ei ren"!eJ
/ Am'un(#( ire" simp#ome!or sinromu!ui premens#ru"!.
5/" es#im"# c( un "u!#* <n #impu! Epocii e pi"#r(* in0er" <n#re 2=== i &=== e m0 e
c"!ciu pe 3i* e & p$n( !" 5 ori m"i mu!# ec$# un "u!# in 3i!e!e no"s#re.
1
Un s#uiu " "r(#"#
c( perso"ne!e c"re "u consum"# 12== e m0 e c"!ciu pe 3i* "!(#uri e o ie#( cu pu ine
c"!orii* "u s!('i# m"i mu!# ec$# cei c"re "u consum"# m"i pu in c"!ciu. Desi0ur* eBis#(
perso"ne* cum sun# p"cien ii c"re "u suferi# oper" ii pen#ru " piere <n 0reu#"#e* c"re necesi#(
p$n( !" 25== m0 e c"!ciu pe 3i.
T"'e! 1.1. Neces"ru! e c"!ciu pe 3i <n func ie e 8$rs#(
Vrsta-etapa Aportul zilnic recomandat de Calciu (mg/zi)
1/12 "ni 9== m0 C"!ciu 3i!nic
1&/12 "ni 12== m0 C"!ciu 3i!nic
?emei <ns(rcin"#e 12== m0 C"!ciu 3i!nic
?emei c"re "!(p#e"3( 12== m0 C"!ciu 3i!nic
?emei !" menop"u3( 14== m0 C"!ciu 3i!nic
.$rs#nici K 45 "ni 14== m0 C"!ciu 3i!nic
5urs"@ >##p@LLm"re"8i#"mini3"re.roLprouseM"i#i8"/c"!cium//8i#/&M14
I"#( c$#e8" sf"#uri pen#ru " cre #e ni8e!u! e c"!ciu <n or0"nism@
U#i!i3"re" e !"p#e e0res"# s"u cu 1F 0r(sime !" pre0(#ire" cere"!e!orJ
Consum"re" 'r$n3ei p"r i"! e0res"#e <n !oc e "!#e 0us#(riJ
A(u0"re" e i"ur# 0recesc Gf(r( 0r(sime s"u p"r i"! e0res"#H* <n mi!C/s>"Ce "!(#uri
e fruc#eJ
Perso"ne!e cu in#o!er"n ( !" !"c#o3( po# fo!osi !"p#e e soi" <m'o0( i# cu c"!ciuJ
Ur" s(r"c( <n 0r(simi* cu <nu!ci#or i scor i o"r( po"#e e8eni un eser# fo"r#e 'unJ
D"c( meicu! recom"n( un sup!imen# cu c"!ciu* cum "r fi ci#r"#u! e c"!ciu* es#e
impor#"n# s( se "f!e c"n#i#"#e" e c"!ciu e!emen#"! i nu pe ce" e ci#r"# e c"!ciu.
Pen#ru perso"ne!e cu pro'e!eme ren"!e es#e recom"n"# "ce#"#u! e c"!ciu nu ci#r"#u!.
1
>##p@LLNNN.sf"#u!meicu!ui.roLA!imen#"#i"/s"n"#o"s"L'eneficii!e/!"p#e!uiM9%12
4
Es#e 'ine e re inu# c( or0"nismu! um"n nu po"#e "'sor'i !" o m"s( m"i mu!# e 4==m0
e c"!ciu* "s#fe! c( o3( "minis#r"#( o "#( nu #re'uie s( ep( e"sc( "ce"s#( c"n#i#"#e. De
"semene"* es#e inic"# s( fie e8i#"#( "sociere" c"!ciu!ui cu mu!#i8i#"mine i fier* <n#ruc$# 8"
eBis#" o compe#i ie <n#re "ces#e"* <n cee" ce pri8e #e "'sor' i".
EBis#( s#uii c"re "r"#( c( perso"ne!e c"re consum( !"p#e "u un risc m"i mic e " <nce#"
in 8i" ( in c"u3" unor "fec iuni cum "r fi ce!e c"ri"ce i "ccien#u! 8"scu!"r cere'r"! cu
15/2=F. Ace"s#( cerce#"re es#e prim" c"re "soci"3( consumu! e !"p#e cu ecesu! c"u3"# e
"ces#e "fec iuni. To#u i* eBis#( i #eorii con#r"ic#orii c"re "firm( c( !"p#e!e* e f"p#*
con#ri'uie !" "p"ri i" "ces#or 'o!i. De f"p#* consumu! e !"p#e e#ermin( cre #ere" 8"!ori!or
co!es#ero!u!ui i <n "ce!" i #imp presupune o sc(ere " #ensiunii "r#eri"!e* "m'e!e fiin
mec"nisme <n#$!ni#e <n "fec iuni!e c"rio/8"scu!"re.
M"!"ii!e c"rio/8"scu!"re nu sun# sin0ure!e inf!uen "#e e consumu! e !"p#e. A!#e s#uii
"r"#( o mic( sc(ere " incien ei ecesuri!or ec!"n "#e <n urm" "fec iuni!or c"rio/
8"scu!"re* "ccien#u!ui 8"scu!"r cere'r"!* i"'e# e #ip 2* c"ncer e co!on i posi'i! "
c"nceru!ui e 8e3ic( urin"r(.
O'e3i#"#e" / Con#r"r crein ei comune* s#uii!e "r"#( c( perso"ne!e c"re consum( !"p#e i
prouse !"c#"#e sun# m"i sup!e ec$# ce!e c"re nu !e consum( . Consumu! e !"c#"#e <n c"ru!
unei ie#e ce con#ro!e"3( "por#u! c"!oric se "soci"3( cu sc(ere" poner"!(* <n speci"! in
re0iune" "'omin"!(. Aces# !ucru es#e <n speci"! impor#"n# eo"rece 0r(sime" !" ni8e!u!
#runc>iu!ui es#e <n mo speci"! "soci"#( cu pro'!eme!e e s(n(#"#e. Mec"nismu! imp!ic"# es#e
nec!"r* "r se p"re c( inc!ue "c iune" c"!ciu!ui in !"p#e i !"c#"#e.
Di"'e#u! e #ip 2 / 5#uii!e "r"#( c( un consum re0u!"# e !"p#e i !"c#"#e e0res"#e po"#e
e#ermin" reucere" riscu!ui pen#ru i"'e#u! e #ip 2* c"re repre3in#( o impor#"n#( pro'!em(
e s(n(#"#e " "u!#u!ui i " e8eni# in ce <n ce m"i frec8en# !" copii i "o!escen i. An p!us*
cu c$# consumu! e !"c#"#e es#e m"i m"re cu "#$# riscu! e i"'e# sc"e. 5e consier( c( "ces#
efec# se "#ore"3( nu#rien i!or 'enefici con inu i <n !"p#e* prin#re c"re c"!ciu i m"0ne3iu s"u
f"p#u!ui c( !"c#"#e!e "u un inice 0!icemic sc(3u# c"re ";u#( !" con#ro!u! 0!icemiei.
C"nceru! / EBis#( e8ien#e consier"'i!e c"re su0ere"3( c( !"p#e!e "re efec#e
pro#ec#i8e f" ( e c"nceru! co!orec#"! i ce! m"m"r. Un s#uiu recen# " "r(#"# c( '(r'" ii c"re
"u consum"# <n meie 1*5 p">"re e !"p#e pe 3i s"u m"i mu!#* "u "8u# cu &5F un risc m"i mic
pen#ru c"nceru! co!orec#"! ec$# '(r'" ii c"re "u consum"# m"i pu in e 2 p">"re pe
s(p#(m$n(. Un "!# s#uiu " "r(#"# c( femei!e c"re "u '(u# m"i mu!# !"p#e <n copi!(rie i "u
con#inu"# s( consume !"c#"#e c( "u! i "u "8u# un risc m"i mic e " e38o!#" c"ncer m"m"r.
C"!ciu! i "ciu! !ino!eic con;u0"# sun# consier"#e " fi componen#e!e pro#ec#i8e pen#ru
c"nceru! e co!on.
Am "!es "ce"s#( #em( pen#ru !ucr"re" e !icen:( eo"rece consumu! e !"c#"#e es#e
fo"r#e impor#"n#* "s" cum "m emons#r"# m"i sus* i"r "ce"s#( pi":( ocup( un !oc primori"!
pen#ru co1u! 3i!nic e cump(r(#uri.
1.2. Pia(a de lactate din Romnia
Pi" " prouse!or !"c#"#e in Rom$ni" 8" con#inu( s( se iminue3e <n urm(#orii &/)
"ni* in c"u3" sc(erii consumu!ui e !"p#e* se "r"#( <n#r/un s#uiu "! comp"niei Te#r" P"C*
remis A0erpres <n m"i 2=12 .
2
As#fe!* <n #imp ce "!#e c"#e0orii e prouse !"c#"#e !ic>ie con#inu( s( cre"sc( cu un
ri#m meiu "nu"! es#im"# !" 4*2F <n perio"( 2=11/2=15* consumu! e !"p#e simp!u 8"
con#inu( s( sc"( cu o meie "nu"!( e )*2F.
2
>##p@LLNNN.oin0'usiness.roLroLs#iri/"f"ceriL295&&L#e#r"/p"C/pi"#"/prouse!or/!"c#"#e/in/rom"ni"/8"/
con#inu"/s"/se/iminue3e/in/urm"#orii/&/)/"ni
%
Ace"s#( reucere " consumu!ui e !"p#e es#e e#ermin"#( <n m"re p"r#e e sc(ere"
ce!ui ne"m'"!"# Gneproces"#H. De i !"p#e!e "m'"!"# con#inu( s( cre"sc( cu o meie "nu"!( e
2*9F <n perio"( 2=11/2=15 G!"p#e!e UDT "8$n o cre #ere meie "nu"!( e &*2FH* "ce"s#(
cre #ere nu compense"3( sc(ere" m"si8( " c"n#i#( i!or e !"p#e neproces"#.
?enomenu! e sc"ere <n consum es#e c"u3"# i e pierere" o'iceiu!ui e " 'e"
3i!nic !"p#e. Un s#uiu Euromoni#or efec#u"# <n 2=1= "r"#( c( Rom$ni" se si#ue"3( prin#re
u!#ime!e #rei (ri in Europ" <n pri8in ( consumu!ui e !"p#e pe !ocui#or* urm"#( o"r e
5!o8"ci" i Bu!0"ri". As#fe!* <n 2=1= consumu! "nu"! pe c"p e !ocui#or <n Rom$ni" er" e &4
e !i#ri Gec>i8"!en#u! " "proBim"#i8 1== e m!L3iH* comp"r"#i8 cu o meie europe"n( e 4)/45
!i#ri <n (ri precum E!8e i"* O!"n"* Be!0i"* 5!o8eni" s"u 5er'i" .
Din punc# e 8eere s#"#is#ic i crono!o0ic* pi" ( e !"c#"#e " "8u# i momen#e m"i
'une <n 2==2* "#unci c$n 8o!umu! 8$n3(ri!or " ep( i# %=.&52*5 !i#ri* <n #imp ce 8"!o"re"
c"#e0oriei se riic" !" 2&4.2&9*2 mii !ei.
An in#er8"!u! ecem'rie 2==9 / noiem'rie 2==2* primii cinci ;uc(#ori "u reu i# s(
"#r"0( %1*)F in 8o!umu! 8$n3(ri!or pe se0men#. Primii prouc(#ori in c"#e0orie <n func ie
e 8o!ume!e ru!"#e sun# A!'"!"c# A!'" Iu!i"* ?ries!"n* L"c#"!is* Br"i!"c# Rom$ni" i
Pro!"c#". An 8"!o"re* #opu! es#e simi!"r pen#ru prime!e p"#ru po3i ii* <n sc>im' "uce pe
u!#imu! !oc un ;uc(#or nou " Tnu8" Isr"e!. Cei cinci prouc(#ori e in <mpreun( %9F in
8"!o"re" c"#e0oriei. An cee" ce pri8e #e m(rci!e cu ce!e m"i 'une re3u!#"#e* s#uiu! Nie!sen
Rom$ni" p!"se"3( 6u3u pe primu! !oc* urm"# e m(rci!e Mi!!i* L"Dorn"* Cer" i ?u!0". Ce!e
cinci 'r"nuri <nsume"3( 41F in 8o!umu! c"#e0oriei i 4)*%F in 8"!o"re.
Din perspec#i8" c"n"!e!or e is#ri'u ie cu ce!e m"i 'une ru!";e* m"0"3ine!e moerne
sun# prefer"#e!e c"#e0oriei* <n perio"" ecem'rie 2==9 / noiem'rie 2==2* "ces#e"
re8enic$n %5*5F in 8o!umu! 8$n3(ri!or i %)*5F in 8"!o"re. Ponere" !or #o#"! c"n"!e e
is#ri'u ie es#e <n cre #ere cu )*2 pp <n 8o!um i cu &*1 pp* <n 8"!o"re.
?i0. 1.1. Princip"!ii prouc(#ori e pe pi" " e !"c#"#e in Rom$ni"
9
5urs"@ >##p@LLNNN.m"0"3inu!pro0resi8.roL"r#ico!L1199LL"p#eMRu!";eM'uneMpeMmoernM#r"e.>#m!*
"pri!ie 2=1=
I"ur#u! es#e prousu! prefer"# "! !ocui#ori!or Rom$niei in c"#e0ori" !"c#"#e!or u!#r"/
pro"spe#e* cu o frec8en ( meie e consum e "pro"pe 3ece ori pe !un(* po#ri8i# unui s#uiu
"! comp"niei e cerce#"re e pi" ( Ipsos Rese"rc> .L"c#"#e!e u!#r"/pro"spe#e* c"#e0orie c"re
inc!ue* pe !$n0( i"ur#* s"n"* !"p#e '(#u# i Cefir* sun# "c>i3i ion"#e <n princip"! in comer u!
moern* <n speci"! in >Operm"rCe#uri* ce!e m"i impor#"n#e cri#erii e "!e0ere " "ces#or" fiin
#ermenu! e 8"!"'i!i#"#e i !ips" conser8"n i!or.
D"#e!e s#uiu!ui PO'iceiuri e consum i percep ii "supr" c"#e0oriei e !"c#"#e u!#r"/
pro"spe#eQ re"!i3"# e Ipsos Rese"rc> "u fos# cu!ese <n !un" fe'ru"rie " "ces#ui "n* prin
in#ermeiu! in#er8iuri!or f" ( <n f" ( !" !ocuin e!e responen i!or. E "n#ionu! e 921 e
perso"ne es#e repre3en#"#i8 pen#ru popu!" i" in meiu! ur'"n* e !" ni8e!u! <n#re0ii (ri* cu
8$rs#e cuprinse <n#re 19 i 4) e "ni. Din#re perso"ne!e in#er8ie8"#e* 52F "u fos# femei i
)9F '(r'" i.
I"ur#u! es#e e ep"r#e ce! m"i consum"# prous in c"#e0ori" "n"!i3"#( e Ipsos
Rese"rc>* 94F in#re responen i "firm$n c( !/"u consum"# ce! pu in o "#" <n u!#ime!e
ou(spre3ece !uni. Aces#" es#e urm"# !" o is#"n ( semnific"#i8( e !"p#e!e '(#u# G)9FH i
s"n" G)2FH. Ce" m"i sc(3u#( pene#r"re es#e <nre0is#r"#( <n rep#u! Cefiru!ui G2=FH.
&
An cee" ce
pri8e #e frec8en " !un"r(* i"ur#u! es#e consum"# <n meie e 2*4 ori. An ciu( incien#e!or
iferi#e <n#re s"n" i !"p#e '(#u# pe e o p"r#e i Cefir* pe e "!#( p"r#e* mei" !un"r( e
consum pen#ru "ces#e #rei c"#e0orii es#e "propi"#(. As#fe!* !"p#e!e '(#u# es#e consum"#* <n
meie* e 5*2 ori pe !un(* s"n" e 5*4 ori* i"r Cefiru! e 5*& ori.
?i0. 1.2. Incien " i frec8en " e consum pe pi" " in Rom$ni"
5urs"@
>##p@LLNNN.m"0"3inu!pro0resi8.roL"r#ico!L&149LPen#ruMconsum"#oriMcri#erii!eMeMc"!i#"#eMprime"3"MinMf"#"Mpr
e#u!ui.>#m!* "pri!ie 2=12
&
>##p@LLcon#en#.Ouu.comLLi'r"rOLA1N'fsLRe8is#"Pro0resi8ApriLresourcesL54.>#m
2
5#uiu! m"i "r"#( c( 11F in#re consum"#orii e i"ur# o'i nuiesc s( consume "ces#
prous cu o frec8en ( 3i!nic(. Eefiru!* <n sc>im'* es#e consum"# 3i!nic e 4F in#re
perso"ne!e c"re op#e"3( pen#ru "ces# prous* !"p#e!e '(#u# e o"r )F* i"r s"n" e &F in#re
consum"#orii su'/c"#e0oriei. A " cum er" e " #ep#"#* micu! e;un es#e princip"!" oc"3ie e
consum <n c"3u! i"ur#u!ui G%5FH* <ns( i pen#ru s"n"* Cefir i !"p#e '(#u# "ces#" es#e momen#u!
ce! m"i impor#"n# pen#ru consum* cu o ponere e ce! pu in 5=F. 5"n" m"i es#e conum"#" i
c" 0us#"re <n#re mese!e princip"!e G&2FH* !"p#e!e '(#u# es#e prefer"# <n !ocu! mesei e se"r(
G29FH* i"r Cefiru! !" mese!e princip"!e* <mpreun( cu "!#e "!imen#e G24FH.
Po#ri8i# s#uiu!ui Ipsos Rese"rc> " ien#ific"# i princip"!e!e #ipuri e m"0"3ine in
c"re consum"#orii rom$ni se "pro8i3ione"3( cu !"c#"#e u!#r"/pro"spe#e@ >Operm"rCe#u! es#e
princip"!u! !oc e "c>i3i ie* fiin urm"# !" o"rec"re is#"n ( e superm"rCe#. An orine"
preferin e!or consum"#ori!or c" !oc e cump(r"re pen#ru i"ur# i Cefir* pe !ocu! "! #rei!e" se
re0(sesc minim"rCe#uri!e Gm"0"3ine!e mici cu "u#oser8ire i c"se e m"rc"#H. Prouse!e s"n"
i Cefir sun# cump(r"#e in m"0"3ine!e e #ip iscoun# <n#r/o propor ie m"i m"re ec$# i"ur#u!
i !"p#e!e '(#u#.
An sc>im'* m"0"3ine!e e iscoun# se si#ue"3( pe po3i i" " cince" <n c"3u! !ocuri!or
prefer"#e pen#ru "c>i3i i" i"ur#u!ui* <n urm" m"0"3ine!or "!imen#"re cu 8$n3"re !" #e;0>e"* i"r
<n c"3u! Cefiru!ui "ces#e" se si#ue"3( !" e0"!i#"#e cu m"0"3ine!e "!imen#"re. C>io curi!e i
m"0"3ine!e c"s>Rc"rrO sun# prefer"#e <n#r/o fo"r#e mic( m(sur( e consum"#ori pen#ru
"c>i3i i" !"c#"#e!or u!#r"/pro"spe#e conform s#uiu!ui Ipsos Rese"rc>.
?i0. 1.&. Locuri e cump(r"re pen#ru !"c#"#e <n Rom$ni"
1=
5urs"@>##p@LLNNN.m"0"3inu!pro0resi8.roL"r#ico!L&149LPen#ruMconsum"#oriMcri#erii!eMeMc"!i#"#eMprime"3"MinMf
"#"Mpre#u!ui.>#m!* "pri!ie 2=12
A#unci c$n "!e0 !"c#"#e!e u!#r"/pro"spe#e* consum"#orii "u c" princip"! cri#eriu
#ermenu! e 8"!"'i!i#"#e. As#fe!* prouse!e #re'uie s( fie pro"spe#e* i"r #ermenu! e 8"!"'i!i#"#e
"ccep#"# es#e e m"Bim ou( s(p#(m$ni* conform men iuni!or " "proBim"#i8 #rei sfer#uri
in#re perso"ne!e in#er8ie8"#e.
Pen#ru "proBim"#i8 ;um(#"#e in consum"#orii e !"c#"#e u!#r"/pro"spe#e* #ermenu! e
8"!"'i!i#"#e op#im pen#ru "ces#e prouse "r #re'ui s( fie m"i mic e o s(p#(m$n" / "firm" i"
"p"r ine unui procen#"; e )=F in#re consum"#ori* <n c"3u! Cefiru!ui* i unui procen#"; e
5=F in#re consum"#ori* <n c"3u! i"ur#u!ui. Trei sfer#uri in#re responen i sun# e p(rere c(
i"ur#uri!e "r #re'ui s( "i'( un #ermen e 8"!"'i!i#"#e m"i mic e ou( s(p#(m$ni. Pe e "!#(
p"r#e* consum"#orii e !"c#"#e u!#r"/fres> sun# in#eres" i <n#r/o mic( m(sur( "c( prouse!e pe
c"re !e c"u#( sun# recom"n"#e e un speci"!is# Gmeic s"u nu#ri ionis#H* "c( "u rec!"me
in#eres"n#e s"u "c( !"c#"#e!e u!#r"/pro"spe#e sun# recom"n"#e e prie#eni* rue s"u
cuno #in e.
An "ce!" i #imp* consum"#orii rom$ni urm(resc c" !"c#"#e!e u!#r"/pro"spe#e pe c"re !e
"c>i3i ione"3( s( nu con in( conser8"n i i 'inecunoscu#e!e E/uri. Pre u! 8ine "'i" up(
"ces#e ou( cri#erii e c"!i#"#e. An ier"r>i" cri#erii!or e "!e0ere " prousu!ui* pre u! "ccesi'i!
es#e urm"# e con inu#u! reus e 0r(sime i e pro8enien " !oc"!( " prousu!ui.
An c"3u! <n c"re perso"ne!e in#er8ie8"#e "r #re'ui s( "!e"0( pen#ru un "!# prous ec$#
fiec"re in#re ce!e p"#ru c"#0orii e !"c#"#e u!#r"/pro"spe#e* !"p#e!e u!ce "r fi primu! su'si#u#
pen#ru i"ur# s"u Cefir. As#fe!* i"ur#u! "r pu#e" fi <n!ocui# cu !"p#e u!ce G&2F in#re
responen i "u men ion"# "ces# !ucruH* !"p#e '(#u# G12FH s"u s"n" G12FH. An c"3u! Cefiru!ui*
!"p#e!e G&=FH es#e urm"# <n #opu! "!imen#e!or e su's#i#u# e c(#re i"ur# G22FH* "poi e s"n"*
!"p#e '(#u# i 'r$n3( <n propor ii e0"!e G%FH.
Pen#ru s"n" i !"p#e!e '(#u#* princip"!u! <n!ocui#or es#e i"ur#u!* cu o r"#( e
men ion"re e &9F* respec#i8 &5F. 5"n" m"i es#e <n!ocui#( e !"p#e u!ce G22FH i !"p#e
'(#u# G2FH* i"r !"p#e!e '(#u# es#e su's#i#ui# #o# e !"p#e u!ce G&2FH i e s"n" G%FH.
Conform "n"!i3ei e im"0ine re"!i3"#e e Ipsos Rese"rc>* i"ur#u! es#e percepu# c"
fiin un prous cu con inu# sc(3u# e 0r(simi* po#ri8i# pen#ru " fi consum"# <n momen#e e
isconfor# fi3ic* i"r consum"#orii "u <ncreere <n c"!i#"#e" prousu!ui. De "semene"* i"ur#u!
es#e prousu! cu pre u! ce! m"i "ccesi'i! in#re #o"#e c"#e0orii!e "n"!i3"#e* conform
ec!"r" ii!or consum"#ori!or.
L" r$nu! s(u* !"p#e!e '(#u# es#e percepu# c" fiin un prous consis#en# i #r"i ion"!*
<n #imp ce s"n" es#e percepu#( c" un prous pr"c#ic* cu un 0us# 'un i cu in0reien#e n"#ur"!e.
Eefiru! es#e sin0uru! prous in#re !"c#"#e!e u!#r"/pro"spe#e c"re nu "re o im"0ine c!"r efini#(
<n min#e" consum"#ori!or* nefiin "soci"# <n#r/un mo c!"r cu "#ri'u#e!e e im"0ine #es#"#e.
A!#e c"#e0orii in "f"r" !"c#"#e!or <n#re0esc im"0ine" consum"#ori!or espre un s#i! e 8i" (
s(n(#os in punc# e 8eere "! "!imen#" iei. De eBemp!u* fruc#e!e sun# e ";u#or pen#ru
con#ro!u! c"!orii!or s"u <n #impu! re0imu!ui* i"r !e0ume!e sun# 8(3u#e c( "8$n un con inu#
'o0"# <n 8i#"mine* fiin neces"re pen#ru o ie#( ec>i!i'r"#(. Cere"!e!e sun# percepu#e c" fiin
s(n(#o"se* fiin "preci"#e i pen#ru c( po#o!esc fo"me"* <n #imp ce nuci!e i semin e!e ofer( o
s#"re e 'un( ispo3i ie se m"i "r"#( <n s#uiu! re"!i3"# e Ipsos Rese"rc>.
Din punc# e 8eere "! re0iuni!or e e38o!#"re* i"r#u! es#e consum"# cu prec(ere <n
3on" Bucure #i i I!fo8* "poi <n re0iune" 5u/Es#. De "!#fe!* Bucure #i i I!fo8 es#e re0iune"
c"re <nre0is#re"3( ce! m"i riic"# consum pen#ru #o"#e c"#e0orii!e e !"c#"#e u!#r"/pro"spe#e.
L" po!u! opus* ce! m"i sc(3u# ni8e! <n c"3u! consumu!ui e i"ur# es#e <n re0iune" Nor/Es#* <n
11
#imp ce s"n"* !"p#e!e '(#u# i Cefiru! "u o pro'"'i!i#"#e m"i m"re e " <nre0is#r" un consum
reus <n 5u/Es#.
Pi" " e !"p#e
De i !"p#e!e pro"sp(# f(r( "rome es#e consum"# e 9%F in#re rom$nii in meiu!
ur'"n* o"r o #reime <! inc!u <n meniu! 3i!nic* cee" ce <nse"mn( c(* pe #ermen meiu*
c"#e0ori" po"#e cre #e m"i "!es in impu!sion"re" frec8en ei e consum. Conc!u3i" "p"r ine
ce!ui m"i recen# s#uiu "! comp"niei e cerce#"re e pi" ( I5RA Cen#er .
Un p!us e 8$n3(ri <! po"#e "uce i con8er#ire" "ce!or consum"#ori c"re prefer( <nc(
!"p#e!e neinus#ri"!i3"# i "! c(ror procen# po"#e ";un0e* <n une!e re0iuni* c>i"r p$n( !" 1=F.
Pen#ru !"p#e!e cu "rome* c"re "re o pene#r"re mu!# m"i mic(* e o"r 12F* princip"!"
pro8oc"re r(m$ne "cee" e " "#r"0e m"i mu! i consum"#ori. Re#"i!erii i prouc(#orii "r
#re'ui s( !ucre3e i !" cre"re" unor noi oc"3ii e consum* "8$n <n 8eere c( 51F in#re
consum"#orii e !"p#e f(r( "rome i 9&F in#re cei c"re o'i nuiesc s( 'e" !"p#e cu "rome <!
consum( simp!u.
D"#e!e s#uiu!ui "u fos# cu!ese e c(#re comp"ni" e cerce#"re <n perio"( 1% / 22
fe'ru"rie 2=12 prin me#o" in#er8iuri f" ( <n f" ( !" omici!iu! responen i!or* pe '"3( unui
c>es#ion"r c"n#i#"#i8. E "n#ionu! " fos# form"# in 1.111 e perso"ne cu 8$rs#" cuprins( <n#re
2= i 4= e "ni c"re !ocuiesc <n meiu! ur'"n Gor" e cu pes#e 5=.=== e !ocui#oriH. 5#uiu! "re
o ero"re e e "n#ion"re e AS 2*2F.
?i0. 1.). Preferin e !"p#e pro"sp(#Lcu "rome
5urs"@ >##p@LLm"0"3inu!pro0resi8.roL"r#ico!L&2))LCres#ere"Mfrec8en#eiMeMconsumMprinci p"!"Mpro8oc"re.>#m!
12
* m"i 2=12
L" ni8e!u! c"#e0oriei c" c"8"!* num"i <n 2==9 cre #eri!e <nre0is#r"#e !" ni8e!u!
8o!umu!ui e 8$n3(ri " ep( i# cu 25*&F cifr" <nre0is#r"#( <n "nu! 2==% i cu "pro"pe
;um(#"#e G)%*2FH 8"!o"re" 8$n3(ri!or in 2==%* conform "#e!or e "ui# furni3"#e e
comp"ni" e cerce#"re Nie!sen.
)

Co#e <n cre #ere pen#ru princip"!ii ;uc(#ori
Prouc(#orii cu ce!e m"i <nsemn"#e co#e e pi" ( <n 8o!umu! 8$n3(ri!or <n prime!e #rei !uni
in 2==2* conform ier"r>iei re"!i3"#e e comp"ni" Nie!sen* sun# Doc>!"n* ?ries!"n* De!"co*
?i8e Con#inen#s ?e#e #i i L"c#o 5o!omonescu. Aces#e" "u cumu!"# o ponere #o#"!( <n 8o!um
e 5)*%F* !ucru ce eno#( f"p#u! c( ce"!"!#( ;um(#"#e " pie ei es#e fr"0men#"#(* ispu#"#( e
mici ;uc(#ori re0ion"!i. An cee" ce pri8e #e 8"!o"re" 8$n3(ri!or* ier"r>i" es#e simi!"r(* cu o
co#( cumu!"#( e 52*4F.
?i0. 1.5. Top 5 prouc(#ori c" c"8"! in 2==9/2==2
5urs"@
>##p@LLNNN.m"0"3inu!pro0resi8.roL"r#ico!L5&4LC"sc"8"!u!MinM#opu!Mce!orMm"iM8"nu#eMpro
useMinMcomer#u!Mmoern.>#m!* "n 2==2
1.3. Obiceiuri de consum i cumprare
Re3u!#"#e!e s#uiu!ui re"!i3"# e I5RA Cen#er "r"#( c( !"p#e!e pro"sp(# f(r( "rome es#e
consum"# e 9%F in#re rom$nii in meiu! ur'"n cu o frec8en ( e ce! pu in o "#( !" ou(
s(p#(m$ni* <n #imp ce !"p#e!e cu "rome "re o pene#r"re mu!# m"i mic(* e o"r 12F.
5
Pen#ru
)
5urs"
>##p@LLNNN.m"0"3inu!pro0resi8.roL"r#ico!L5&4LC"sc"8"!u!MinM#opu!Mce!orMm"iM8"nu#eMprouseMinMcomer#u!M
moern.>#m!* "n 2==2
5
>##p@LLcon#en#.Ouu.comLLi'r"rOLA1Np!CLM"0"3inu!Pro0resi8M"LresourcesL54.>#m
1&
"ces# in urm( se0men#* "rom( e cioco!"#(Lc"c"o es#e "!e"s( ce! m"i es G4)FH i es#e
urm"#( e ep"r#e e sor#imen#e!e cu "rome e c(p uni G15FH i 8"ni!ie G1=FH.
D"#e!e socio/emo0r"fice "uc inform" ii sup!imen#"re@ !"p#e!e pro"sp(# f(r( "rome
es#e consum"# m"i es <n c"#e0ori" e 8$rs#( &= "II &2 e "ni G&)F 3i!nicH i e c(#re femei
G&4F 3i!nicH. An sc>im'* es#e consum"# m"i r"r e c(#re perso"ne!e cu 8eni#uri pes#e &.=== e
!ei i e c(#re !ocui#orii in Bucure #i. De ce"!"!#( p"r#e* !"p#e!e cu "rome es#e consum"# m"i
mu!# <n r$nu! ce!or cu 8$rs#( cuprins( <n#re 2= i 22 e "ni G&2F consum( f" ( e 2)F <n
#o#"! popu!" ieH i <n Mo!o8". M"i pu ini consum"#ori se 0(sesc prin#re cei cu 8eni#u! pe
0ospo(rie e su' 1.9== e !ei.
An cee" ce pri8e #e frec8en " e cump(r"re* 2 in 1= consum"#ori "c>i3i ione"3( ce!
pu in o "#( pe s(p#(m$n( un prous in "ce"s#( c"#e0orie. Pen#ru !"p#e!e f(r( "rome*
is#ri'u i" pe c"n"!e e cump(r"re se <mp"r#e <n mo ec>i!i'r"# <n#re superm"rCe#* m"0"3in
#r"i ion"! i >Operm"rCe#* <ns( 5F in#re consum"#ori prefer( prouse!e ne'r"nui#e
pro8eni#e in 0ospo(rii!e (r(ne #i. Aminis#r"#orii m"0"3ine!or #r"i ion"!e* <n mo
p"r#icu!"r* "r #re'ui s( #ie c( perso"ne!e cu euc" ie sc(3u#(* cu 8eni# su' 1.9== e !ei pe
0ospo(rie i cu 8$rs#( e pes#e 5= e "ni o'i nuiesc s( cumpere m"i mu!# !"p#e pro"sp(# in
"ces# #ip e comer . L" po!u! opus se po3i ione"3( responen ii cu s#uii superio"re i
8eni#uri m"ri* "ce #i" <nrep#$nu/se <n#r/o m(sur( m"i m"re spre >Operm"rCe#. Nu <n u!#imu!
r$n* ;um(#"#e in#re cei in#er8ie8" i* c"re "u ec!"r"# c( o'i nuiesc s( consume !"p#e cu
"rome* "c>i3i ione"3( "ces#e prouse in superm"rCe#.
Do"r )5F in#re responen ii c"re consum( !"p#e f(r( "rome <! prefer( <n com'in" ie
cu "!#e "!imen#e* <n speci"! cu cere"!e G4%FH. Din "ce"s#( c"#e0orie f"c p"r#e #inerii*
perso"ne!e cu euc" ie superio"r(* c$# i cei cu 8eni#uri m"ri.
?i0. 1.4. ?rec8en " e cump(r"re " !"p#e!ui
1)

5urs"@ >##p@LLm"0"3inu!pro0resi8.roL"r#ico!L&2))LCres#ere"Mfrec8en#eiMeMconsumMprinci p"!"Mpro8oc"re.>#m! *
m"i 2=12
Tenin " e "/! consum" <n com'in" ie cu "!#e "!imen#e es#e semnific"#i8 m"i m"re <n
Mo!o8" i O!#eni"* <n #imp ce simp!u es#e consum"# m"i "!es e c(#re 'ucure #eni i e cei
cu 8eni#uri e pes#e &.=== e !ei. O "n"!i3( " momen#e!or in 3i "!oc"#e consumu!ui e !"p#e
"r"#( c( ce! f(r( "rome es#e u#i!i3"# <n speci"! !" micu! e;un* <n #imp ce !"p#e!e cu "rome es#e
consum"# m"i e0r"'( <n#re mese.
Trei sfer#uri in#re consum"#orii e !"p#e pro"sp(# f(r( "rome prefer( !"p#e!e !" cu#ie e
c"r#on* %)F in#re "ce #i" "!e0$n !"p#e!e p"s#euri3"#. Cerce#"re" " m"i "r(#"# c( m"i mu!# e
;um(#"#e in#re responen i G42FH consum( !"p#e semine0res"# cu 1*5/2F 0r(sime.

1.4. Cunoa terea brandurilor
An #opu! cuno" #erii spon#"ne e m(rci e !"p#e se si#ue"3( Mi!!i* 6u3u i L"Dorn"*
u!#ime!e ou( 'eneficiin e o cuno" #ere m"i m"re <n r$nu! responen i!or in c"pi#"!" i
"! perso"ne!or cu 8eni#uri m"ri. An cee" ce pri8e #e cuno" #ere" promp#(* "p#e m(rci se
e#" e"3( c!"r@ Mi!!i* 6u3u* ?u!0"* L"Dorn"* N"po!"c#* C"s" Bun( i OCe. An #op #rei m(rci
e !"p#e consum"#e <n u!#im" !un(* "r i ce! m"i frec8en#* se "f!( 6u3u* Mi!!i i L"Dorn". An
u!#im" !un(* "r i ce! m"i frec8en#* 6u3u " fos# consum"# m"i mu!# e c(#re !ocui#orii
c"pi#"!ei* c$# i e c(#re perso"ne!e cu 8eni#uri m"i m"ri* <n #imp ce Mi!!i " fos# consum"# m"i
mu!# e c(#re cei cu euc" ie sc(3u#(* e c(#re cei in Tr"nsi!8"ni" i e c(#re popu!" i" in
ur'"nu! m"re Gor" e cu pes#e 25=.=== e !ocui#oriH. Locui#orii in Mo!o8"* <n p"r#icu!"r*
prefer( 'r"nu! L"Dorn".
?i0. 1.%. Perform"n " m(rci!or e !"p#e <n "#r"0ere" i !oi"!i3"re" consum"#ori!or
15
5urs"@
>##p@LLm"0"3inu!pro0resi8.roL"r#ico!L&2))LCres#ere"Mfrec8en#eiMeMconsumMprincip"!"Mpro8o
c"re.>#m!* m"i 2=12
L" <n#re'"re" PPe c"re in#re urm(#o"re!e m(rci e !"p#e !e !u" i <n consier"re pen#ru
" !e cump(r"* c>i"r "c( !e/" i m"i "c>i3i ion"# p$n( "cum s"u nu-Q* prime!e cinci m(rci
men ion"#e e c(#re responen i "u fos# Mi!!i* 6u3u* L"Dorn"* N"po!"c# i ?u!0". Tinerii*
'ucure #enii i perso"ne!e cu 8eni#uri m"ri i"u <n consier"re pen#ru consum <n#r/o m(sur(
m"i m"re m"rc" e !"p#e 6u3u* <n #imp ce Mi!!i es#e men ion"# <n speci"! e c(#re
responen ii in Tr"nsi!8"ni".
5#uiu! " m"i scos <n e8ien " i f"p#u! c( 6u3u i Mi!!i "u ce" m"i m"re c"p"ci#"#e e "
e#ermin" consum"#orii s( i" <n consier"re m"rc". An p!us* 6u3u "re i ce" m"i 'un( "'i!i#"#e
e " 0ener" <ncerc"re" m(rcii. N"po!"c# "re o perform"n ( <n !inie cu mei" pie ei* <ns(
piere c$n 8ine 8or'" e "/i con8in0e pe consum"#ori s( i" <n consier"re m"rc".
Pe '"3" re3u!#"#e!or s#uiu!ui* speci"!i #ii I5RA Cen#er "u ien#ific"# i c$#e8" p$r0>ii e
cre #ere " c"#e0oriei pen#ru perio"" urm(#o"re@
/ !"p#e!e pro"sp(# f(r( "rome es#e consum"# e "pro"pe <n#re"0( popu!" ie "u!#( in meiu!
ur'"n* repre3en#$n o pi" ( cu po#en i"! e e38o!#"re c"re po"#e 8eni <n speci"! in
impu!sion"re" frec8en ei e consum* eo"rece o"r o #reime in popu!" i" 8i3"#( consum(
!"p#e pro"sp(# 3i!nic G24F <! consum( e 2 / & ori pe s(p#(m$n"* i"r 19F o "#" pe s(p#(m$n"
s"u o "#( !" ou( s(p#(m$niHJ
/ o "!#( opor#uni#"#e e cre #ere " pie ei cons#( <n posi'i!" con8er#ire " ce!or c"re <nc( prefer(
!"p#e!e neinus#ri"!i3"#* pro8eni# irec# in 0ospo(rii!e (r"ni!or. Un procen# e 5F in
#o#"!u! consum"#ori!or "u "ce"s#( preferin (* i"r procen#u! cre #e !" 9F <n Tr"nsi!8"ni"*
respec#i8 !" 2F prin#re !ocui#orii in or" e!e meii i !" 1=F prin#re cei cu euc" ie sc(3u#(J
14
/ !"p#e!e cu "rome e ine o ponere mic( <n consum* fiin m"i e0r"'( un prous e consum
oc"3ion"!. An c"3u! "ces#or prouse* pro8oc"re" 8ine #ocm"i in <ncerc"re" e " "#r"0e m"i
mu! i consum"#oriJ <n "ces# sens se po"#e #"r0e#" cu prec(ere se0men#u! e consum"#ori
#ineri G2= / 22 e "niH* une "ces# prous "re succesJ
/ !"p#e!e f(r( "rome es#e consum"# simp!u e c(#re ;um(#"#e in#re cei c"re "!e0 "ces# prous*
i"r "#unci c$n es#e com'in"# cu "!#e "!imen#e sun# prefer"#e <n speci"! 8"ri"n#e!e c!"sice "II
!"p#e cu cere"!e* p$ine s"u u!ciuri. Oferire" unor iei pen#ru m"i mu!#e posi'i!i#( i e
consum po"#e repre3en#" o surs( e 0ener"re " cre #erii frec8en ei cu c"re se consum(
!"p#e!e. Acee" i recom"n"re es#e 8"!"'i!( i <n c"3u! !"p#e!ui cu "romeJ
/ !"p#e!e simp!u es#e consum"# <n speci"! imine" (* !" micu! e;un. Din "ce"s#(
perspec#i8(* opor#uni#( i e cre #ere " c"#e0oriei po# 8eni in sus inere" consumu!ui i <n "!#e
momen#e "!e 3i!eiJ spre eBemp!u* !"p#e!e es#e consum"# <n#re mese o"r e c(#re un sfer#
in#re cei in#er8ie8" i* i"r se"r(* <n"in#e e cu!c"re* e o"r 2=F in#re responen iJ
/ !"p#e!e cu "rome es#e consum"# m"i "!es <n#re mese* <ns( eBis#( o ni ( impor#"n#( c"re
po"#e fi e38o!#"#(@ consumu! <n"in#e e cu!c"re i <n speci"! 8"ri"n#e!e cu miere s"u 8"ni!ie*
recunoscu#e pen#ru efec#u! !or re!"B"n#.
CAPITOLUL II . BRAND, BRANDING I REBRANDING
2.1. Ce este un brand?
Un 'r"n es#e un nume* un semn* un sim'o!* un esen s"u o com'in":ie " "ces#or"*
"8$n c" scop ien#ific"re" 'unuri!or s"u ser8icii!or unui 8$n3(#or s"u 0rup e 8$n3(#ori 1i
eose'ire" "ces#or 'unuri s"u ser8icii e ce!e "!e compe#i#ori!or.
An esen:(* un 'r"n <! ien#ific( pe 8$n3(#or s"u prouc(#or T po"#e fi un nume* o
enumire comerci"!(* o em'!em( s"u un "!# sim'o!. Un 'r"n es#e "n0";"men#u! unui
8$n3(#or e " !e procur" cump(r(#ori!or * <n mo cons#"n#* un "numi# se# e "#ri'u#e
c"r"c#eris#ice* "8"n#";e 1i ser8icii. M(rci!e fo"r#e 'une comunic( o 0"r"n:ie " c"!i#(:ii. D"r o
m"rc( es#e un sim'o! c>i"r m"i comp!eB ec$# "#$#.
4

Mes";u! comunic"# e un 'r"n* po"#e "8e" p$n( !" 1"se #ipuri e semnific":ii@
A#ri'u#e T e8oc( <n min#e" cump(r(#oru!ui "numi#e "#ri'u#eJ
A8"n#";e T "#ri'u#e!e #re'uie #r"use <n fo!o"se func:ion"!e 1i emo:ion"!eJ
."!o"re T 'r"nu! spune ce8" 1i espre sis#emu! e 8"!ori "! prouc(#oru!uiJ
5im'o!uri cu!#ur"!e T 'r"nu! po"#e s( repre3in#e un "numi# #ip e cu!#ur(J
Person"!i#"#e T po"#e s( e8oce un "numi# 0en e person"!i#"#eJ
4
Ue"n/ Noe! E"pferer* Strategic Brand Management:New Approches to Creating and Evaluating Brand Equity
GLonon@ Eo0"n P"0e* 1222H* p"0.&9 1i urm.J Uennifer L. A"Cer* VDimensions of Br"n Person"!i#OQ* Journal of
Mareting !esearch" "u0us# 122%* p"0. &)%/54.
1%
+en e u#i!i3"#or T su0ere"3( 0enu! e consum"#or c"re cump(r( s"u u#i!i3e"3(
prousu! s"u ser8iciu!.
Ce!e m"i ur"'i!e semnific":ii "!e unui 'r"n sun# 8"!ori!e pe c"re !e in8oc(* "!(#uri e
cu!#ur( 1i person"!i#"#e. Aces#e #rei imensiuni efinesc <ns(1i esen:" unui 'r"n.
M"rc" es#e posesiune" "f"cerii* se <nre0is#r"3( <n c"ru! unei "u#ori#(:i speci"!i3"#e in
fiec"re :"r(. Br"nuri!e <ns" nu sun# proprie#"#e" comp"niii!or ci 8"!o"re" 1i impor#"n#" pe
c"re c!ien#ii !e/o "cor(. ,i "ici nu e 8or'" o"r e consum"#ori ci 1i e c!ien:ii in#erni 1i e
"c:ion"ri.
C>i"r "c( or0"ni3":i" in8es#e1#e sume enorme <n c"mp"nii e comunic"re "
'r"nu!ui* consum"#orii sun# cei c"re eci "c( e! se riic( !" ni8e!u! "s#ep#(ri!or* "c( se
po"#e "c>i#" e promisiune" pe c"re o f"ce c!ien#u!ui.
C!ien:ii in#erni sun# o c"#e0orie fo"r#e sensi'i!(. M(sur" <n c"re 'r"nu! #r(ie1#e prin
ei* fe!u! <n c"re "n0";":ii <! percep 1i <n:e!e0 "re e ce!e m"i mu!#e ori o impor#"n:( c"pi#"!(.
Aces# !ucru se o'ser8( ce! m"i simp!u <n c"ru! unei comp"nii c"re ofer( ser8icii. M"rf"
in#"n0i'i!( "re ne8oie e repre3en#"n:i* "n0";":ii firmei* c"re s( o recom"ne. A1""r*
o"menii c"re f"c !e0(#ur" <n#re firm( 1i c!ien:i sun# insu1i 'r"nu! respec#i8. De !" 1ofer !"
irec#oru! 0ener"!* fiec"re "n0";"# #re'uie s( #r(i"sc( 'r"nu!* s( "c:ione3e <n spiri#u! s(u <n
fiec"re momen# "! 3i!ei.
Ac:ion"rii firmei sun# c!ien:ii 'r"nu!ui. In8es#in c"pi#"!u! !or <n "f"cere* "ce1#i" nu
f"c "!#ce8" ec"# s( <1i eBprime <ncreere" <n pu#ere" <n#reprinerii 1i " 'r"nu!ui e " 0ener"
8"!o"re ""u0"#(.
2.2. Valoarea de capital a brand-ului
C"p"ci#"#e" 1i c"!i#( i!e e c"re se 'ucur( un 'r"n pe pi":( 8"ri"3( e !" o comp"nie
!" "!#". L" un" in eB#reme se "f!( 'r"n/uri!e c"re sun# cunoscu#e e fo"r#e pu ini
consum"#ori.* urm$n "poi 'r"nuri!e pe c"re consum"#orii !e cunosc <n#r/un 0r" es#u! e
riic"#. C"#e0ori" urm(#o"re es#e " ce!or" cu 0r" riic"# e "ccep#"re* urme"3( ce!e c"re se
'ucur( e un 0r" es#u! e riic"# e preferin:( pen#ru 'r"n i"r !" ce"!"!#( eB#rem( se "f!(
"ce!e 'r"n/uri c"re impun un 0r" <n"!# e !oi"!i#"#e Gfie!i#"#eH " consum"#ori!or.
A"Cer " efini# cinci ni8e!uri "!e "#i#uinii c!ien#u!ui f":( e m"rc" pe c"re o cump(r(*
e !" ce! m"i sc(3u# !" ce! m"i <n"!#* ni8e!uri pe c"re !e 8oi i!us#r" <n sc>em" e m"i ;os.
?i0.2.1. Ni8e!uri!e "#i#uinii c!ien:i!or f":( e 'r"n
19
5urs"@ D"nciu* .ic#or* >##p@LLs#ore.ec#"p.roL"r#ico!eL1&).pf
Clientul este devotat mrcii.
Clientul valoreaz marca i o consider
o prezen( familiar.
Clientul este mul(umit i ar avea de suferit un cost,
dac ar schimba marca.
Clientul este mul(umit.
Nu are nici un motiv s schimbe marca.
Clientul va schimba mrcile, mai ales din ra(iuni de
pre(. Nu exist loialitate fa( de marc
1
2
3
4
5
12
."!o"re" e c"pi#"! " 'r"n/u!ui G8"!o"re" c"pi#"!i3"#( s"u c"pi#"!u! e pi":( "
'r"n/u!uiH es#e <n s#r$ns( !e0(#ur( cu 0r"u! e ien#ific"re " 'r"n/u!ui* pen#ru c"!i#"#e"
percepu#(* cu c!"ri#"#e" "soci":ii!or men#"!e 1i "fec#i8e pe c"re !e f"c cump(r(#orii*
precum 1i cu "!#e "c#i8e in#"n0i'i!e "!e firmei * cum "r fi 're8e#e!e* enumiri!e comerci"!e
<nre0is#r"#e 1i re!":ii!e cu is#ri'ui#orii
%
.
O 8"!o"re m"re " 'r"n/u!ui "si0ur( o serie <n#re"0( e "8"n#";e concuren:i"!e@
/ Comp"ni" 8" 'enefici" e cos#uri m"i mici e m"rCe#in0* 0r":ie cuno"1#erii
'r"n/u!ui e c(#re consum"#ori 1i " !oi"!i#(:ii "ces#or"J
/ Comp"ni" 8" "8e" o po3i:ie m"i pu#ernic( <n ne0ocieri!e cu is#ri'ui#orii 1i
e#"i!i1#iiJ
/ Comp"ni" po"#e s( perce"p( un pre: m"i m"re ec$# concuren:ii eo"rece 'r"n/
u! "re o 8"!o"re percepu#( m"i m"reJ
/ Comp"niei <i es#e m"i u1or s( !"nse3e eB#ensii "!e !iniei * eo"rece nume!e
'r"n/u!ui inspir( mu!#( crei'i!i#"#eJ
/ Br"n/u! <i ofer( comp"niei un o"rec"re 0r" e pro#ec:ie <mpo#ri8" concuren:ei
prin pre:uri.
Unii "n"!i1#i
9
consier( c( 'r"n/uri!e "u o eBis#en:( m"i <ne!un0"#( ec$# ce" "
prouse!or specifice 1i o#(ri!or comp"niei. An opini" !or* 'r"n/uri!e sun# ce! m"i
impor#"n# "c#i8 e ur"#( "! comp"niei. An "ce!"1i #imp* fiec"re 'r"n pu#ernic repre3in#(
cu "e8(r"# o sum( e c!ien:i !oi"!i. Prin urm"re* "c#i8u! fun"men#"! pe c"re se
<n#emei"3( c"pi#"!u! e pi":( "! 'r"n/u!ui es#e 8"!o"re" e c"pi#"! " c!ien#e!ei c"re
su0ere"3( c( po!u! e "#en:ie "! p!"nific(rii e m"rCe#in0 "r #re'ui s( fie eB#inere" 8"!orii
pe ur"#" e 8i":( " c!ien#u!ui !oi"!* u#i!i3$n m"n"0emen#u! 'r"n/u!ui c" us#ensi!(
princip"!( e m"rCe#in0.
De "semene"* cu #o"#e c(* e o'icei* ne 0$nim !" 8"!o"re" e c"pi#"! " unei m(rci
c" !" un !ucru e c"re 'enefici"3( num"i prouse!e m"#eri"!e* 1i comp"nii!e e ser8icii
pun m"re pre: pe "ce"s#( 8"!o"re.
2.3. Brand, branding i rebranding
An ;uru! unui 'r"n se :ese un sis#em comp!eB e !e0"#uri ce con#ri'uie !"
comunic"re" 8"!ori!or pe c"re o comp"nie !e cree"3(. Un 'r"n se cons#ruie1#e p!ec$n e
!" un !o0o 1i un s!o0"n "r pu#ere" "ces#ui" re3u!#( in #o"#e supor#uri!e pe c"re "ces#"
es#e comunic"# 1i promo8"#@ irec#* prin spo#uri "uio/8ieo* " prin#/uri* '"nnere on!ine*
pos#ere* c"#"!o"0e* coresponen#" irec#(.
Aces#e" sun# o"r p(r:i!e 0r"fice "!e ien#i#(:ii e 'r"n* "r sun# consier"#e
"ese"* <n mo !imi#"#* c" fiin W'r"nin0W.
An 8oc"'u!"ru! con#empor"n* 'r"nin0u! es#e procesu! e cre"re 1i e sus inere "
unui 'r"n. Es#e #o#"!i#"#e" proceee!or prin c"re o or0"ni3":ie s"u un prous comunic(*
sim'o!i3e"3( 1i se iferen:i"3( c(#re pu'!icu! s(u e #"r0e#.
Pen#ru #ermenu! e re'r"nin0 es#e m"i ifici! e "# o efini:ie 'ine e!imi#"#(* e!
fiin fo!osi# "ese" pen#ru " semn"!i3" o sc>im'"re e !o0o s"u nume* o nou" c"mp"nie
%
D"8i A. A"Cer* Building Strong Brands GNeN XorC@ ?ree Press*1225. .e3i 1i Ee8in L"ne Ee!!er*
Strategic Brand Management: Building" Measuring" and Managing Brand Equity GUpper 5"!e Ri8er*
NU@Pre#ince D"!!* 1229H.
9
I'iem* p"0 &&)
2=
e "8er#isin0* un se# nou e 'ro1uri s"u e "fi1e cu un s#i! 8i3u"! iferi#* un nou "m'"!";
pen#ru un prous eBis#en#.
Ce es#e #o#u1i re'r"nin0u!- Prin "ces# #ermen se po"#e in:e!e0e orice "c:iune in
ce!e e m"i sus* cu coni:i" c" procesu! respec#i8 s( uc( !" moific"re" percep:iei
consum"#oru!ui 8is/Y/8is e 'r"nu! <n c"u3( G"! unui prous* "! unui ser8iciu s"u "! unei
comp"niiH.
2

Re'r"nin0u! es#e percepu# frec8en# c" o cosme#i3"re s"u sc>im'"re " ien#i#(:ii 8i3u"!e
Gr"reori 1i 8er'"!eH* <ns" "ces#e" sun# o"r 8$rfu! ice'er0u!ui.consum"#oru!ui 8is/Y/8is e
'r"nu! <n c"u3( G"! unui prous* "! unui ser8iciu s"u "! unei comp"niiH.
1=

?i0. 2.2. Ni8e!uri!e re'r"nin0u!ui / A"p#"re up( Br"nLinC
5urs" @ >##p@LLNNN.m"rCmei".roL"r#ic!eMs>oN.p>p-0MiZ2=9
Deseori re'r"nin0u! p!e"c( e !" ce! m"i ;os ni8e! Gm"n"0emen#u! 1i s#r"#e0i" e
"f"ceriH 1i se prop"0( !" ni8e!u! p!"#formei e 'r"n Gmisiune* 8i3iune* 8"!ori*
person"!i#"#eH cu imp"c# <n p"r#e" 8i3i'i!( " ice'er0u!ui.
Es#e fo"r#e cunoscu# f"p#u! c( succesu! unui 'r"n epine <n fo"r#e m"re m"sur(
e mou! <n c"re "ce"s#" es#e !"ns"#* e cum es#e promo8"# si sus:inu# <n con#inu"re* e
<n#re0u! sis#em pe c"re se cons#ruie1#e* orin c" 'r"nu! s( se e38o!#e 1i s( con#ri'uie !"
succesu! m"i mu!#or 0ener":ii e prouse s"u ser8icii.
Orice prous es#e cons#i#ui# in#r/un se# e c"r"c#eris#ici is#inc#i8e @
2
M"rius Urs"c>e* Ce este re#randingul$" noiem'rie 2==&* NNN.m"rCmei".ro.
1=
M"rius Urs"c>e* Ce este re#randingul$" noiem'rie 2==&* NNN.m"rCmei".ro.
21
Ien#i#"#e 8i3u"!(
1i 8er'"!(
Ar>i#ec#ur" e 'r"n
5#r"#e0ie e 'r"n
Cu!#ur" 1i compor#"men#u! 'r"nu!ui
Po3i:ion"re" 'r"nu!ui
Misiune 1i 8i3iune
Consu!#"n:( e m"rCe#in0
M"n"0emen#
/ C"r"c#eris#ici #e>nice T "#ri'u#e!e fi3ice "!e prousu!ui J
/ C"r"c#eris#ici func:ion"!e T cons#i#uie u#i!i#"#e" pe c"re o furni3e"3( prousu!
<mpreun( cu cos#uri!e fin"nci"re 1i e #imp supor#"#e e u#i!i3"#or J
/ C"r"c#eris#ici psi>o!o0ice T im"0ine" pe c"re o"menii o "soci"3( cu prousu! <n
c"u3(.
?i0. 2.&. C"r"c#eris#ici!e prousu!ui
5urs" @>##p@LLNNN.scri#u'e.comLeconomieLConcep#u!/e/func#ie/" prousu21)1&1=&14.p>p
To"#e "ces#e" !" un !oc Gc"!i#"#e"* 8"!o"re" 1i im"0ine"H "u con:inu# unui 'r"n.
M(rci!e pu#ernice sun# ce!e c"re reu1esc s( se iferen:ie3e pe #o"#e ce!e #rei imensiuni*
eci c"re ofer( c"!i#"#e* 8"!o"re 1i im"0ine eBcep:ion"!(.
To"#e "ces#e e!emen#e se si#ue"3( m"i mu!# s"u m"i pu:in inco!o e pu#ere" e
con#ro! " unei firme* ce" m"i re'e!( fiin componen#" psi>o!o0ic(. Ace"s#( componen#(
psi>o!o0ic( repre3in#( c$mpu! s"u omeniu! e "c:iune "! rec!"mei 1i promo:iei
G promo8"re" 8$n3(ri!orH.
2.4 Ce presupune relansarea unui brand
Unu! in !ucruri!e ce!e m"i c"#e0orice i m"i #r"inice in !ume" "f"ceri!or es#e
>"3"ru!. O "n"!i3( " pie ei in Rom$ni" "r "r"#( c( eBis#( un num(r fo"r#e mic e
supr"8ie#uri#ori. Po#ri8i# s#uii!or in omeniu* 9)F in firme!e c"re "u isp(ru# <n "nii
2==2 i 2=1= fie nu "8e"u "c#i8i#"#e* fie er"u pe pierere. Mo#i8u! fun"men#"! "!
isp"ri iei mu!#or firme se 0(se #e <n ins#"'i!i#"#e" i e8o!u i" perm"nen#( " pie ei. Pe
p"rcursu! ce!or oi "ni e cri3(I "u fos# esfiin "#e 245.55& e socie#( i comerci"!e*
in#re c"re "proBim"#i8 52F in !ips(I e "c#i8i#"#e i &2F c( urm"re " <nnre0is#r(rii e
piereri ne#e. L" ni8e!u! "nu!ui 2==2* procen#u! socie#( i!or <nc>ise in !ips(I e
"c#i8i#"#e i c" urm"re " piereri!or " fos# e 94F* respec#i8 91F <n "nu! 2=1=.
An#r/un "semene" meiu risc"n#* pr"c#ic" e "f"ceri nu "re !" ispo3i ie o "rm(
si0ur( e pro#ec ie <mpo#ri8( f"!imen#u!ui ori un ins#rumen# e 0"r"n#"re " supr"8ie uirii
firme!or. Cu #o"#e "ces#e"* <n meiu! #ur'u!en# "! pie ei "u "p(ru# une!e pr"c#iciL me#oeL
s#r"#e0ii c"re reuc spec#"cu!os riscu! e n(ruire. Prin#re "ces#e" se num(r" i iee" e
Caracteristici
tehnice
Caracteristici
func(ionale
Caracteristici
psihologice
CALITATEA
VALOAREA
IMAGINEA
22
m"rc"* prin c"re se confer( prousu!ui s"u ser8iciu!ui o ien#i#"#e unic( pe pi" (* prin
in#ermeiu! unui comp!eB form"# in nume* esi0n* "m'"!";* pro#ec ie !e0"!( i
promo8"re" unor c"!i#( i unice i ori#e e c!ien#* meni#e s(/i f"ci!i#e3e "ces#ui" is#inc i"
in#re ofer#e!e concuren#e.
D"c( nu ispune e mi;!o"ce simp!e i u or e re inu# " unui prous in#re mu!#e
"!#e!e* c!ien#u! #re'uie s( se '"3e3e pe ;uec"#( proprie i pe eBperien ( e cump(r"re. An
"semene" c"3uri* e! <n8" ( s( "i'( <ncreere <n "numi i furni3ori s"u prouc(#ori.
U#i!i3"re" re0u!"#( " unor surse e "pri8i3ion"re cree"3( o ien#i#"#e e m"rc". As#fe!*
<nc( <n"in#e" "p"ri iei no iunii e m"rc( i " superm"rCe#uri!or* " eBis#"# eBperien (
comun( " cump(r(#ori!or in mici!e m"0"3ine G in ce!e m"i 8ec>i #impuri i p$n( <n "nii
)=H c$n "u <n8( "# s( recuno"sc( ne0us#orii c"re ofere"u m(rfuri e c"!i#"#e m"i 'un( !"
pre uri m"i "ccesi'i!e. B(c"nu! ini8iu"! i/" cre"# "s#fe! o m"rc( e m"0"3in <n nume
propriu* oferin o so!u ie ne8oii e ien#ific"re " consum"#ori!or prin in#ermeiu! m(rcii.
As#fe!* m(rci!e "u "p(ru# c" r(spuns !" ne8oi!e com'in"#e "!e c!ien i!or i prouc(#ori!or.
C!ien#u! 0(se #e ren#"'i! s( po"#( ien#ific" r"pi i !esne prouse!e c"re <i ofer(
s"#isf"c ii i c"re <i #re3esc <ncreere* pe '"3" unei eBperien e "n#erio"re. E! #ie c(
prouc(#oru! es#e in#eres"# s( men in( c"!i#"#e" pen#ru "/ i p(s#r" repu#" i" i pen#ru "
o' ine eBu'er"n " i s#"#ornici" c!ien i!or.
Pen#ru prouc(#or* fo!osire" m(rci!or ofer( "8"n#";e pen#ru c( s#$rne #e i
p(s#re"3( in#eresu! consum"#oru!ui i pen#ru c( "#" e"3( prousu!ui o ien#i#"#e c"re <i
<n#(re #e po3i i" f" ( e concuren i <n !up#( pen#ru suprem" i" pe pi" (. Prin "c iune"
!e0i!or c"re recunosc proprie#"#e"* m"rc" permi#e prouc(#oru!ui s(/ i cree3e o ni ( pe
pi" (* "si0ur$n "n0";" i!or s(i !ocuri e munc( si0ure.
An c"3uri!e ce!e m"i ferici#e* po!i#ic" m(rci!or po"#e cre" <n c"ru! socie#( ii
ien#i#( ii 8ii* #"n0i'i!e* ori#e i c>i"r iu'i#e e un num(r m"re e u#i!i3"#ori i
consum"#ori* c>i"r !" ni8e! in#ern" ion"!. As#fe! Coc" Co!"* C>ris#i"n Dior* +i!e##e* Ro!eB
sun# m(rci recunoscu#e pe p!"n in#ern" ion"! e su#e e mi!io"ne e o"meni.
Nume!e m(rcii ref!ec#( n"#ur" fr"0men#"#( " ce!or m"i mu!#e pie e. ?ie c( es#e
re3u!#"# "! preferin e!or i 0us#uri!or* "! emo0r"fiei 0rupuri!or e consum s"u "!
"spir" ii!or !or soci"!e* " mou!ui e fo!osire " prouse!or s"u "! pre u!ui pe c"re i/! po#
permi#e* n"#ur" mu!#i/fr"0men#"#( " m";ori#( ii pie e!or presupune <nmu! ire" unor m(rci
cre"#e pen#ru s"#isf"cere" fiec(rui se0men#. De i <nsu i nume!e comp"niei T ?or*
C"'urO* +!"Bo T se po"#e ien#ific" cu o pu#ernic( super/m"rc( pe pie e e imensiuni
m"ri* consum"#orii cump(r( nume!e m(rcii T Moneo* [>isp"* 6"n#ec* M"BNe!! Douse.
2.5. Repozi ionarea mrcii
2&
Repo3i ion"re" unei m(rci po"#e necesi#" sc>im'"re" "#$# " prousu!uiL
ser8icii!or* c$# i " im"0inii s"!e.
11
Mo#i8e!e c"re po# e#ermin" repo3i ion"re" unei m(rci sun# urm(#o"re!e@
"H un concuren# < i po"#e po3i ion" o m"rc( "!(#uri e o m"rc( " or0"ni3" iei
'H cre #ere" 0"mei e prouse oferi#e
cH "c>i3i ii i fu3iuni <n#re i8erse or0"ni3" ii
H sc>im'"re" preferin e!or consum"#ori!or pen#ru m"rc" or3"ni3" iei respec#i8e
An "8er#isin0 se iscu#( espre cic!u! e 8i" ( "! 'r"nuri!or. Aces#e" sun#
e#ermin"#e e pi" " e consum@ up( !"ns"re* 'r"nuri!e cresc repee* ";un0 !"
m"#uri#"#e* up( c"re urme"3( o perio"( e p!"fon"re up( un #impG8"ri"'i! <n func ie
e c"r"c#eris#ici!e pie eiH* <ncepe un ec!inc"re se "ccen#ue"3( r"pi* re3u!#"#u!
<n0ri;or(#or fiin sc(ere" 8$n3(ri!or. Pen#ru cre #ere" "ces#or"* prousu! e re!"ns"#
prin#r/o nou( c"mp"nie.
P C>i"r "c( e 8or'" e "(u0"re" unor noi promosiuni s"u c"r"c#eris#ici* re!"ns"re"
nu es#e re'r"nin0 ec$# "c( sc>im'(ri!e sun# <nso i#e e repo3i ion"reGsc>im"re"
percep iei consum"#oru!ui espre "#ri'u#e!e 'r"nu!uiH* nu es#e o"r o ""p#"re !"
in"mic" pie ei. O c"mp"nie nou(* c>i"r <nso i#( e o cosme#i3"re " "m'"!";u!ui nu es#e
re'r"nin0.V
12
Un 'r"n "re ne8oie e/" !un0u! 8ie ii* e "numi#e ";us#(ri* e sc>im'(ri* e
imensiuni m"i mici s"u m"i m"ri. De "cee" eBis#( & e#"pe c"re efinesc "c iuni!e
m"n"0emen#u!ui unei comp"nii pen#ru <m'un(#( ire" unui 'r"n.
1&
1H 5c>im'(ri minore T presupun moific(ri e orin es#e#ici i se re"!i3e"3( prin mici
";us#(ri. Aces#e""p"r c" urm"re " ne8oii e <mprosp(#"re " unui 'r"n c"re " e8eni#
ri0i*<n8ec>i#.
2H5c>im'(ri in#ermei"re T presupun repo3i:ion"re" 'r"nu!ui <n speci"!
princomunic"re* 1i "nume prin c"mp"nii pu'!ici#"re. Aces#e sc>im'(ri nu eBc!u#o#u1i 1i
mici moific(ri "!e im"0inii 'r"nu!ui.
&H5c>im'(ri comp!e#e / repre3en#$n re'r"nin0u!. 5c>im'"re" 'r"nu!ui* im"0ine"1i
8"!ori!e pe c"re !e e8oc( nou! 'r"n #re'uie s( fie comunic"#e "#$# "c:ion"ri!or
1i"n0";"#i!or c$# m"i "!es consum"#ori!or* prin c"mp"nii pu#ernice e comunic"r"re.
2.6. Strategii de rebranding
Ai"n D"!O 1i Deirre Mo!oneO
1)
"u <n#ocmi# un moe! comp!e# pen#ru un proces e
re'r"nin0 e succes* <mp(r:i# <n & sec:iuni @ "n"!i3(* p!"nific"re 1i e8"!u"re.
1. An"!i3" / corespune "n"!i3ei e m"rCe#in0* inc!u3$n 1i "ui#u!* re"!i3"#e
ecomp"ni" c"re in#en:ione"3( s(/1i re'r"n/ui"sc( prousu! s"u ser8iciu!. 5un#
8i3"#e "spec#e c"!i#"#i8e 1i c"n#i#"#i8e@ m(rime" pie:ei* po#en:i"!u! e e38o!#"re "
pie:ei* "#i#uine" 1i preferin#e!e consum"#ori!or* punc#e!e s!"'e 1i punc#e!e for#e"!e
11
er'u!escu* Lumini "* M"n"0emen#u! m(rcii i "! im"0inii e m"rc( * Ei#ur" ?un" iei Rom$ni" e
M$ine* Bucure #i* 2==%* p"0.11)
12
I'iem.* p"0 112
1&
A. D"!O* D. Mo!oneO* M"n"0in0 Corpor"#e Re'r"nin0 <n Iris> M"rCe#in0 Re8ieN 8o!. %* nr 1 i 2* p.&1
1)
I'iem.* p. &)
2)
compe#i#ori!or. De "semene"* es#e impor#"n# e "n"!i3"# efec#u! pe
c"rere'r"nin0u! <! 8" "8e" "supr" proprii!or "n0";":i.
An c"3u! De!"co * cerce#(ri!e "u re!e8"# un po#en:i"! uri"1 "! prouc(#oru!ui e !"c#"#e
e " se eB#ine 1i e " o':ine o po3i:ie e #op pe pi":" e speci"!i#"#e in Rom"ni"*
:in$n con# e "#i#uine" 1i preferin:e!e unor se0men#e impor#"n#e "!e pie:ei* "r 1i e
0r"u! ee38o!#"re " re:e!ei e is#ri'ui#ori.
2. P!"nific"re" T se <mp"r#e !" r$nu! ei <n & f"3e
"H Comunic"re" in#ern( T "re !oc up( ce se "n"!i3e"3( "#i#uine" 1i p(reri!e
"n0";":i!or cu pri8ire !" 8ec>iu! 'r"n 1i !" procesu! e re'r"nin0 1i <1i propune
c$1#i0"re" supor#u!ui "n0";":i!or 1i "poi pre0(#ire" !or pen#ru "/1i <nsu1i 8"!ori!e
nou!ui 'r"n.An c"ru! re'r"nin0u!ui De!"co " "8u# !oc un pro0r"m e Br"n
En0"0emen#
'H Reenumire".Ce" m"i risc"n#( e#"p( " re'r"nin0u!ui es#e sc>im'"re" nume!ui.
Aces# proces "re p"#ru "'or(ri. Aces#e "'or(ri "u fos# pu:in fo!osi#e <n !i#er"#ur" e
speci"!i#"#e* <ns( ce" m"i ci#"#( !ucr"re c"re "'ore"3( "ces# su'iec# es#e P5#r"#e0ic
'r"n m"n"0emen#Q
15
" !ui U.N. E"pferer. Ce!e p"#ru "'or(ri posi'i!e sun#@
Nume in#erim"rLu"! T presupune u#i!i3"re" unui nume pro8i3oriu* c"re s(
prece"( sc>im'"re" nume!ui. 5e fo!ose1#e "ese" <n c"3u! "c>i3i:ii!or s"u "
fu3iuni!or <n#re 'r"nuri.
PrefiBu! T se <n#$!ne1#e <n c"3u! fu3ion(rii " ou( 'r"nuri* i"r "ces#e" nu 8or
m"i eBis#" sep"r"#. Nou! 'r"n es#e "!(#ur"# 'r"nu!ui cu o 8"!o"re m"i m"re
su' form" unui prefiB.
5u's#i#uire" T repre3in#( sc>im'"re" comp!e#( " nume!ui unui 'r"n.Aces#"
es#e un proces fo"r#e risc"n#* e "cee" es#e ne8oie e o cerce#"re"m(nun:i#( "
imp!ic":ii!or c"re reies in sc>im'"re" comp!e#( " nume!ui.
Ap"ri:ieLisp"ri:ie 0r"u"!( T presupune isp"ri:i" #rep#"#( " unui 'r"n
<n8ec>i# 1i <n!ocuire" "ces#ui"* #o# #rep#"#* cu un 'r"n nou. An "f"r( e "ces#e
p"#ru "'or"ri* <n u!#im" perio"( " "p(ru# o nou" me#o( esc>im'"re "
nume!ui* c"re presupune "!(#ur"re" enumirii " ou( 'r"nuri pu#ernice
GEBemp!u@ Price["#er>ouse CooperH. Es#e o me#o( re!"#i8 nou(* :in$n con#
e e38o!#"re" 'r"nuri!or in u!#imii "ni 1i "scensiune" !or <n 8"!o"re.
cH 5#r"#e0i" e m"rCe#in0 " re'r"nin0u!ui T repre3in#( miBu! e eci3ii e
m"rCe#in0 "op#"#e c" urm"re " re"!i3(rii re'r"nin0u!ui. Un 'r"n nou presupune
noi s#r"#e0ii* noi c"mp"nii pu'!ici#"re* precum 1i imp!ic":ii "supr" e!emen#e!or
miBu!ui e m"rCe#in0@ prous* pre:* p!"s"men# 1i promo8"re.
15
U. N. E"pferer* op.ci#.* p. )2.
25
&.E8"!u"re" T u!#im" e#"p( " s#r"#e0iei e re'r"nin0* nu se <nc>eie ec$# o"#(
cuPmo"r#e"Q 'r"nu!ui. Ace"s#" se esf(1o"r( perm"nen# pe ur"#" 8ie:ii unui 'r"n 1i
"re c" scop recep#"re" fee/'"cC/u!ui oferi# e consum"#ori 1i e pi":( <n 0ener"! 1i
""p#"re" con#inu( " 'r"nu!ui pen#ru " f"ce f":( pro8oc(ri!or e momen# cu c"re se
confrun#(.
Asem(n(#or moe!u!ui pre3en#"# "n#erior* L. Mu3e!!ec
14
" ien#ific"# p"#ru p"1i pen#ru
re"!i3"re" unui proces e re'r"nin0 cu succes.
1.Repo3i:ion"re" T repre3in#( e#"p" e "op#"re " eci3ii!or pri8in o'iec#i8e!e
1ime#oe!e procesu!ui e re'r"nin0.
2.Reenumire" / sc>im'"re" nume!ui 'r"nu!ui. Noi!e enumiri sun# c!"sific"#e <n &
c"#e0orii @
o Nume escrip#i8e@ cree"3( "socieri f"ci!e cu #ipu! e prous s"u ser8iciu oferi#
o Nume su0es#i8e@ "soci"3( "numi#e c"r"c#eris#ici "!e 'r"nu!ui cusemnific":ii!e pur#"#e
e nume!e 'r"nu!ui.
o Nume "'s#r"c#e* in8en#"#e@ cre"#e pen#ru " " o no#( e ori0in"!i#"#e 'r"nu!ui* pen#ru "
se iferen:i" e concuren:(.&.5c>im'"re" esi0nu!ui T presupune moific"re" "spec#e!or
8i3u"!e "!e 'r"nu!uiG!o0oH.).Re!"ns"re" T repre3en#"#( <n m"re m(sur( e c"mp"nii!e e
pu'!ici#"#e re"!i3"#eu!#erior re'r"nin0u!ui.5#"#is#ic ce!e m"i mu!#e re'r"nin0uri s/"u
esf(1ur"# c" urm"re " unor "c>i3i:ii s"u fu3iuniG&&*1FH* urm"# e "p"ri:i" unor noi
comp"nii esprinse in "!#e comp"nii m"i m"riG 12*2FH. Domenii!e cu ce!e m"i mu!#e
re'r"nin0uri sun# inus#ri" ITG22*&FH 1i sec#oru! fin"nci"rG14*&FH.
CAPITOLUL III. PROMOVAREA VANZRILOR
Promo8"re" 8$n3(ri!or es#e o p"r#e 8i#"!( " c"mp"nii!or e m"rCe#in0 1i cons#( <n#r/un
sis#em 8"ri"# e ins#rumen#e s#imu!"#i8e* <n m";ori#"#e pe #ermen scur#* es#in"#e s(
14
L. Mu3e!!ec* Corpor"#e Re'r"nin0 T "n eBp!or"#orO re8ieN <n Iris> M"rCe#in0 Re8ieN
24
<ncur";e3e cump(r"re" m"i r"pi( s"u <n 8"!o"re m"i m"re " unor prouse s"u ser8icii* e
c(#re consum"#ori s"u is#ri'ui#ori.
Cu ";u#oru! #e>nici!or e promo8"re " 8$n3(ri!or c!ien:ii sun# mo#i8":i s( #r"0(
prousu! e pe r"f#uri G PULLH* <n #imp ce in#ermei"rii 1i for:" e 8$n3"re sun# mo#i8":i
s( <mpin0( prousu! c(#re cump(r(#ori GPU5DH.
An "c#i8i#"#e" e promo8"re " 8$n3(ri!or* fo"r#e <nsemn"#( es#e preci3"re" " #rei
e!emen#e@ momen#u! inf!uen:ei* mou! <n c"re inf!uen:e"3( 1i inf!uen:" pe #ermen !un0.
?i0. &.1. Momen#u! inf!uen:ei promo8(rii 8$n3(ri!or
5urs"@ Bo0"n* Ane#"* Br"nin0 pe fron#u! e Es#* Ei#ur" Br"ien# Consu!#* Bucures#i*
2=11* p"0. 291
Momen#u! inf!uen:ei
."ri"#e!e forme e promo8"re "c:ione"3( <n e#"pe iferi#e "!e >o#(r$rii eci3ion"!e
e "c>i3i:ion"re* up( cum se o'ser8( 1i in fi0ur" &.1.* pu'!ici#"#e" 1i re!":ii!e pu'!ice
"c:ione"3( <n#runi#e <n prime!e #rei s#"0ii* <n #imp ce 8$n3"re" person"!( "c:ione"3( <n f"3"
c(u#(rii e inform":ii 1i es#im"re" "!#ern"#i8e!or.
5pre eose'ire e ce!e!"!#e confi0ur":ii e promo8"re ce opere"3( <n f"3e!e
pre"!"'i!e* #e>nici!e e promo8"re " 8$n3(ri!or "c:ione"3( !" ni8e! compor#"men#"!* fo"r#e
"pro"pe e e#"p" efec#u(rii "c>i3i:iei* "ces#e #e>nici fiin orien#"#e eB"c# c(#re momen#u!
!u(rii eci3iei e "c>i3i:ie.
Mou! <n c"re inf!uen:e"3(
An#o#e"un" #e>nici!e e promo8"re " 8$n3(ri!or in#ensific( r"por#u! 8"!o"re L pre:
Gfie prin cre1#ere" 8"!orii* fie prin sc(ere" pre:u!uiH. 5c>im'(ri!e <n c"ru! "ces#ui r"por#
ofer( c!ien:i!or po#en:i"!i posi'i!i#"#e" efec#u(rii unor noi #r"n3"c:ii m"i prie!nice ec$# <n
mo o'i1nui#* $n c!ien:i!or un mo#i8 <n p!us s( "c>i3i:ione3e.
2%
Contientizare
a nevoii
Cutarea
informa(ii-
lor
Evaluarea
alternativelor Cumprare
Evaluare
post
-cumprar
ew
publicitate rela(ii
publice
vnzare
personal
promovare
a
vnzrilor
Inf!uen:" pe #ermen !un0 "supr" 'r"nu!ui
Consier"re" mou!ui <n c"re iferi#e!e #e>nici e promo8"re " 8$n3(ri!or
inf!uen:e"3( Gpe #ermen !un0H 8"!o"re" unui 'r"n GBr"n E\ui#OH* c"re "re ou(
componen#e@ Br"n 5#"#ure Gs#"#ur" / "#( e perform"n:e!e ini8iu"!e "!e 'r"nu!ui@
popu!"ri#"#e* "#i#uine* compor#"men#H 1i Br"n .i#"!i#O G8i#"!i#"#e" c"re i" <n consier"re
"cei"1i inic"#ori* "r <n#r/o pos#ur( comp"r"#i8( T prin r"por#"re !" perform"n:e!e
concuren:eiH.
."!o"re" 'r"nu!ui e e#ermin"#( 1i e#ermin( preferin:" cump(r(#ori!or. E" cre1#e
o"#( cu sc(ere" pro'"'i!i#(:ii e#urn(rii c!ien:i!or e !" conui#" o'i1nui#( e cump(r"re
e c(#re "c#i8i#(:i!e promo:ion"!e "!e concuren:i!or.
."!o"re" re3iu"!( " unei promo:ii esemne"3( f"p#u! c( efec#e!e unei promo:ii se
resim# 1i up( <nce#"re" "ces#ei". M"0ni#uine" 1i uri#"#e" efec#e!or epin e si#u":i"
concre#( <n c"re se !ucre"3( "ui#oriu! "res"# 1i #e>nic" e promo8"re " 8$n3(ri!or
fo!osi#(.
An #imp ce pu'!ici#"#e" ofer( un mo#i8 pen#ru " cump(r"* promo8"re" 8$n3(ri!or
ofer( un s#imu!en# <n irec:i" cump(r(rii. Promo8"re" 8$n3(ri!or cuprine ins#rumen#e e
promo8"re es#in"#e consum"#ori!or G mos#re* cupo"ne* ofer#e e res#i#uire " unei p(r:i in
pre:u! p!(#i#* pre:uri cu reucere* sup!imen#e* c$1#i0uri* recompense pen#ru c!ien:ii fie!i*
<ncerc(ri 0r"#ui#e "!e prouse!or* 0"r"n:ii* promo8(ri con;u0"#e* promo8(ri <ncruci1"#e*
eBpuneri !" punc#u! e 8$n3"re 1i emons#r":ii H* ins#rumen#e e promo8"re es#in"#e
is#ri'ui#ori!or G pre:uri cu reucere* 'onific":ii pen#ru pu'!ici#"#e 1i pen#ru eBpunere"
prouse!or* 'unuri 0r"#ui#eH 1i es#in"#e for:ei e 8$n3"re G #$r0uri* <n#runiri* concursuri e
8$n3"re 1i pu'!ici#"#e speci"!( s"u e pro#oco! H.
Ins#rumen#e!e e promo8"re " 8$n3(ri!or sun# u#i!i3"#e e "pro"pe #o"#e
comp"nii!e* inc!usi8 prouc(#ori* is#ri'ui#ori* e#"i!i1#i* "soci":ii p"#ron"!e 1i or0"ni3":ii
non/profi#. EBis#( m"i mu!:i f"c#ori c"re con#ri'uie !" cre1#ere" r"pi( " promo8(rii
8$n3(ri!or* <n speci"! pe pie:e!e e consum.
1%
Prin#re f"c#orii in#erni se num(r(@ conucere" m"n"0eri"!( es#e m"i ispus( s(
"ccep#e promo8"re" c" ins#rumen# efic"ce e 8$n3"re* " crescu# num(ru! m"n"0eri!or e
prous "p:i s( u#i!i3e3e ins#rumen#e!e e promo8"re " 8$n3(ri!or* 1i m"n"0eri!or e
prous !i se cere #o# m"i insis#en# cre1#ere" 8$n3(ri!or curen#e.
Din#re f"c#orii eB#erni f"c p"r#e@ num(ru! m(rci!or e pe pi":( " crescu#* firme!e
concuren#e u#i!i3e"3( frec8en# promo8"re" 8$n3(ri!or* mu!#e m(rci sun# consier"#e
ien#ice* consum"#orii sun# <n m"re m(sur( inf!uen:":i e pre:uri* is#ri'ui#orii !e cer
prouc(#ori!or m"i mu!#e coni:ii "8"n#";o"se* efic"ci#"#e" pu'!ici#(:ii " sc(3u# in c"u3"
cre1#erii cos#uri!or* " 'rui";u!ui pro8oc"# e p!ur"!i#"#e" mi;!o"ce!or pu'!ici#"re 1i "
!imi#(ri!or impuse e !e0e.
De38o!#"re" "cce!er"#( " mi;!o"ce!or e promo8"re " 8$n3(ri!or " cre"# o si#u":ie
e "0!omer"re " "c:iuni!or promo:ion"!e "sem(n(#o"re ce!ei in pu'!ici#"#e. EBis#(
perico!u! c" o p"r#e in consum"#ori s( <nce"p( s( e8in( iniferen:i* cee" ce 8"
e#ermin" sc(ere" c"p"ci#(:ii cupo"ne!or 1i " "!#or mi;!o"ce e promo8"re e " s#imu!"
"c>i3i:ion"re"* i"r prouc(#orii 8or #re'ui s( 0(sesc( noi mo"!i#(:i e " se f"ce rem"rc":i
<n "ce"s#( V m"re <n8(!m(1e"!(Q.
1%
Ro0er A. 5#r"n0* V5"!es Promo#ion T ?"s# +roN#>* ?"u!#O M"n"0emen#Q* %arvard Business !eview"
iu!ie/"u0us# 12%4* p"0. 114/112.
29
3.1. Argumentele dezvoltrii promovrii vnzrilor
Promo8"re" 8$n3(ri!or s/" e38o!#"# co!os"! <n u!#imii "ni in urm(#o"re!e mo#i8e@
Dorin:" firme!or c"re/1i f"c rec!"m( e " 0(si forme m"i ren#"'i!e e
promo8"re T "ese" e!e sun# <n0ri;or"#e e cos#uri!e m"ri "!e rec!"mei <n
m"ss/mei" cu o cre1#ere m"i r"pi( ec$# r"#" inf!":ieiJ
De38o!#"re" !"n:uri!or uri"1e e superm"rCe#uri 1i " compe#i#ori!or e #ip
IEAG In#ern"#ion"! EeO Accoun#sH T precum Me#ro* C"rrefour* 5e!0ros*
Cor"* in "f"r" or"1e!or* no8oi" e "c:iuni promo:ion"!e compe#i#i8e*
"0resi8e !" !ocu! e 8$n3"re* "#$# pen#ru pre3en#"re" m(rfuri!or <n"in#e e
!"ns"re* c$# 1i pen#ru !ic>i(ri e s#ocuriJ
,"nse e promo8"re !oc"!( oferi#e e superm"rCe#uri 1i m"ri!e m"0"3ine
miB#e e 8$n3"re cu "m(nun#u!J
EBi0en:" e " impu!sion" 8$n3(ri!e "#$# pen#ru "si0ur"re" f!uBu!ui e
numer"r "! e#"i!i1#i!or* c$# 1i pen#ru men:inere" prouc:iei f"'rici!or e
m"re c"p"ci#"#eJ
EBis#en:" unei <n"!#e c"!ific(ri <n cre1#ere" pro0r"me!or e promo8"re "
8$n3(ri!or* emons#r"#( e "p"ri:i" 1i e38o!#"re" cu succes " firme!or e
consu!#"n:( speci"!i3"#eJ
L"#ur" e 'une in#en:ii " promo8(rii 8$n3(ri!or c"re #ine s( "propie
prouc(#oru! e e#"i!is#. Rec!"m" <n m"ss/mei" impune is#"n:(* <n #imp
ce promo8"re" 8$n3(ri!or es#e m"i person"!( T !e0(#ur" <n#re f"'ric"n# 1i
c!ien# se f"ce !" punc#u! e 8$n3"re* oriune "r fi "ces#"* "s#fe! i8inu/se pe
pi":( concep#u! e #r"e m"rCe#in0J
In#roucere" <n "c:iuni!e promo:ion"!e " unor e!emen#e is#r"c#i8e 1i
c"p#i8"n#e e c"re se po# 'ucur" c!ien:ii <n c"!i#"#e e p"r#icip"n:i* "s#fe! se
cree"3( 1i iee" e 'r"n en0"0emen#J
C"p"ci#"#e" e " <ncur";" "c>i3i:i" spon#"n( 1i e " "#r"0e noi cump(r(#ori
cu ";u#oru! prouse!or mici
EB#inere" promo8(rii 8$n3(ri!or <n omenii noi@ ins#i#u:ii fin"nci"re*
'unuri e fo!osin:( <ne!un0"#( 1i ser8icii. Ace"s#" nu se !imi#e"3( <n nici
un c"3 !" superm"rCe#uri 1i m"0"3ine!e e pe "r#ere!e comerci"!eJ
De38o!#"re" m"rCe#in0u!ui cu r(spuns irec# T e! fo!ose1#e "ese" "r#ico!e
promo:ion"!e inser"#e <n m"i!/in0/uri s"u oferi#e cump(r(#ori!or c" premii
s"u 'onusuri.
3.2. Scopul promovrii vnzrilor
Ins#rumen#e!e e promo8"re " 8$n3(ri!or urm(resc o'iec#i8e specifice is#inc#e. O
mos#r( 0r"#ui#( <! s#imu!e"3( pe consum"#or s( <ncerce prousu!* <n #imp ce un ser8iciu
0r"#ui# e consu!#"n:( m"n"0eri"!( urm(re1#e s( <n#(re"sc( re!":i" cu un e#"i!is#.
Ac:uini!e promo:ion"!e e #ip s#imu!"#i8 se u#i!i3e"3( pen#ru " "#re0e c!ien:i noi*
pen#ru "/i recompens" pe c!ien:ii fie!i s"u pen#ru " spori frec8en:" e repe#"re "
22
cump(r(rii e c(#re cump(r(#orii oc"3ion"!i. Promo8"re" 8$n3(ri!or pe pie#e cu 0r" <n"!#
e simi!i#uine " m(rci!or e#ermin(* pe #ermen scur#* o cre1#ere rem"rc"'i!( " 8$n3(ri!or
"r nu moific( pre" mu!# co#" e pi":(* <ns(* <n c"3u! pie:e!or pe c"re concure"3( m(rci
fo"r#e iferen:i"#e* promo8"re" 8$n3(ri!or po"#e moific" ur"'i! co#e!e e pi":(.
De o'icei* c$n pen#ru o m"rc( se f"c pre" es promo8(ri pe '"3" pre:u!ui
consum"#orii <ncep s/o esconsiere 1i s/o cumpere m"i "!es c(n in#r( <n !ic>i"re e
s#oc.
?"rris 1i ]ue!c> sus:in c( promo8"re" 8$n3(ri!or ofer( "8"n#";e impor#"n#e "#$#
prouc(#ori!or* c$# 1i consum"#ori!or. Ac:iuni!e promo:ion"!e permi# prouc(#oru!ui s( se
""p#e3e !" f!uc#u":ii!e pe #ermen scur# "!e cererii 1i ofer#ei* s( 8erifice pre:u! m"Bim e
c"#"!o0 pe c"re !/"r pu#e" pr"c#ic"* "# fiin c( "u posi'i!i#"#e" s( ofere reuceri e pre:. Ai
e#ermin( pe consum"#ori s( <ncerce prouse noi* <n !oc s( r(m$n( o"r !" ce!e u#i!i3"#e
curen#. Permi# "p"ri:i" unor forme m"i 8"ri"#e e 8$n3"re cu "m(nun#u!* cum "r fi
m"0"3inu! cu pre:uri promo:ion"!e* <ncur";e"3( o m"i 'un( cuno"1#ere " pre:u!ui e c(#re
consum"#ori* <! ";u#( pe prouc(#or s(/1i ""p#e3e pro0r"me!e !" i8erse!e se0men#e e
consum"#ori. Consum"#orii <n1i1i se 'ucur( e o o"rec"re s"#isf"c:ie* fiinc( "u fos#
Vis#e:iQ 1i "u profi#"# e ofer#e!e speci"!e e pre:.
3.3. Ac(iunile de promovare a vnzrilor pentru consacrarea brandului
Cre"re" nume!ui pe pi":( "! 'r"nu!ui es#e un proces <ne!un0"#. Ac:iuni!e e
promo8"re " 8$n3(ri!or sun# pe #ermen scur# 1i #empor"re* iniferen# "c( es#e 8or'" e o
reucere e pre:* o 8$n3"re con;u0"#( cu "!# 'r"n* un cupon s"u 8reun "!# s#imu!en#.
.oi punc#" <n con#inu"re c$#e8" sf"#uri u#i!e pen#ru #r"nsform"re" unei "c:iuni
promo:ion"!e <n#r/un ins#rumen# efic"ce e cons"cr"re " 'r"nu!ui* e c"re #re'uie s( :in(
con# p!"nific"#orii "c#i8i#(:ii e promo8"re@
Asi0ur"re" c( "c:iune" promo:ion"!( es#e ;us#ific"#( T in"u0ur"re" unui m"0"3in
nou* "ni8"res"re" unei comp"nii 1i orice "!# 0en e s(r'(#ori sun# mo#i8e 'une pen#ru
eru!"re" unei promo8(ri* #o"#e "ces#e" "uc$n <n prim p!"n nume!e 'r"nu!ui.
E8enimen#e!e cu c"r"c#er 0ener"! nu "u* <ns(* mo#i8e 'une pen#ru eru!"re" unei
c"mp"nii e promo8"reJ
con;u0"re" sim'o!ic( " promo8(rii cu im"0ine" unui 'r"n prin
in#ermeiu! "#e!or e n"1#ere 1i "ni8ers(ri!orJ
s#uiere" fiec(rei "c:iuni e promo8"re "#$# in punc#u! e 8eere "!
efec#u!ui posi'i! "supr" 8$n3(ri!or * c$# 1i c" ins#rumen# e comunic"re.
Ac:iune" promo:ion"!( nu es#e ec$# un" in mu!#e!e P8ociQ "!e unui 'r"n 1i
po"#e ";u#" !" cons"cr"re" "ces#ui" "c( spune !ucruri!e po#ri8i#e.
Promo8"re" 8$n3(ri!or p"re " se o8ei m"i efic"re "#unci c$n es#e u#i!i3"#( <n
p"r"!e! cu pu'!ici#"#e". Conform s#uii!or in omeniu* promo8"re" 8$n3(ri!or prin
reucere" pre:uri!or " e#ermin"# cre1#ere" 8o!umu!ui 8$n3(ri!or cu o"r 15F. C$n " fos#
com'in"#( cu pu'!ici#"#e"* 8o!umu! 8$n3(ri!or " crescu# cu 12F* i"r c$n " fos#
com'in"#( cu pu'!ici#"#e" 1i eBpunere" !" !ocu! e 8$n3"re* 8o!umu! 8$n3(ri!or " crescu#
cu 2)F.
3.4. Decizii majore n promovarea vnzrilor
&=
An promo8"re" 8$n3(ri!or * comp"ni" #re'uie s(/1i s#"'i!e"sc( scopuri!e* s(/1i
"!e"0( ins#rumen#e!e* s( in8en#e3e pro0r"mu!* s( f"c( #es#"re" pre!imin"r( " pro0r"mu!ui*
s(/! in#rouc( <n mo con#ro!"# 1i s( e8"!ue3e re3u!#"#e!e.
&.).1. 5#"'i!ire" o'iec#i8e!or
O'iec#i8e!e promo8(rii 8$n3(ri!or eri8( in o'iec#i8e!e 0ener"!e "!e promo8(rii*
c"re* !" r$nu! !or* eri8( in o'iec#i8e!e princip"!e e m"rCe#in0 s#"'i!i#e pen#ru prous.
O'iec#i8e!e specifice "!e "c#i8i#(:ii e promo8"re " 8$n3(ri!or se s#"'i!essc <n func:ie e
#ipu! pie:ei T :in#(.
As#fe!* <n c"3u! promo8(rii es#in"#e consum"#ori!or* o'iec#i8e!e cuprin @
s#imu!"re" cump(r(#ori!or s( "c>i3i:ione3e uni#(:i e imensiuni m"i m"ri* e#ermin"re"
neu#i!i3"#ori!or s( <ncerce prousu! 1i "#r"0ere" ce!or c"re sc>im'( frec8en# m(rci!e*
f(c$nu/i s( renun:e !" m(rci!e concuren#e.
An c"3u! promo8(rii es#in"#e e#"i!i1#i!or* o'iec#i8e!e cuprin @ e#ermin"re"
e#"i!i1#i!or s( comerci"!i3e3e "r#ico!e noi 1i s( :in( s#ocuri m"i m"ri* <ncur";"re"
"c>i3i:ii!or <n eB#r"/se3on* <ncur";"re" pre!u(rii e "r#ico!e <nrui#e* con#r"c"r"re"
"c:iuni!or promo:ion"!e "!e concuren:i!or* cre"re" fie!i#(:ii f":( e m"rc( 1i o':inere"
"ccesu!ui <n uni#(:i noi e 8$n3"re cu "m(nun#u!.
Pen#ru for:" e 8$n3"re o'iec#i8e!e cuprin <ncur";"re" sus:inerii unui prous s"u
moe! nou* <ncur";"re" prospec#(rii pie:ei 1i s#imu!"re" 8$n3(ri!or <n eB#r"/se3on@
1. A!e0ere" ins#rumen#e!or e promo8"re pen#ru consum"#ori
P!"nific"#oru! "c#i8i#(:ii e m"rCe#in0 #re'uie s( :in( con# e #ipu! pie:ei/:in#(* e
o'iec#i8e!e promo8(rii* e si#u":i" concuren:i"!( 1i e eficien:" e cos# " fiec(rui
ins#rumen#.
2. Princip"!e!e ins#rumen#e e promo8"re es#in"#e consum"#ori!or
Princip"!e!e ins#rumen#e e promo8"re pe pi":" e consum sun# urm(#o"re!e @
Mos#re!e T o c"n#i#"#e 0r"#ui#( e prous s"u ser8iciu* oferi#( in u1( <n u1(*
#rimis( prin po1#(* is#ri'ui#( <n m"0"3in* "#"1"#( !" un "!# prous s"u inc!us( <n#r/o ofer#(
pu'!ici#"r(.
Cupo"ne!e / oferi#e e prouc(#or s"u e#"i!is# c"re <i "u rep#u! posesoru!ui !"
eucere" unei sume specific"#e in pre:u! e 8$n3"re "! unui "numi# prous "c( !e
pre3in#( !" punc#u! e 8$n3"re <n momen#u! cump(r(rii. Cupo"ne!e < i po# o8ei
prouc#i8i#"#e" <n s#imu!"re" 8$n3(ri!or pen#ru un 'r"n m"#ur 1i <n s#imu!"re" cump(r(rii
pen#ru un 'r"n nou.
An 0ener"!* cupo"ne!e sun# fo!osi#e e c!ien:ii cu 8eni#uri mici* pen#ru c"re
con#e"3( fiec"re '(nu 1i c"re 0(sesc suficien#( mo#i8":ie s( !e p(s#re3e 1i s( !e pre3in#e !"
c"s(.
U#i!i#"#e" cupo"ne!or in perspec#i8" emi#en#u!ui* <n speci"! " prouc(#oru!ui es#e
"#( e f"p#u! c( @
se cons#i#uie <n#r/un 8e>icu! pen#ru comunic"re" unei reuceri e pre:
irec# c(#re consum"#ori J
fiin #r"nsmis irec# c!ien:i!or* "ce1#i" "u sen#imen#u! c( sun# #r"#":i
person"!i3"# J
&1
<ncur";e"3( o"menii s( <ncerce prouse noi <n#ruc$# "eseori se cons#i#uie
1i <n supor# "! mes";e!or pu'!ici#"re J
"si0ur( #r"nsmi#ere" reucerii e pre: c(#re cump(r(#orii fin"!i* spre
eose'ire e reuceri!e #empor"re e pre:* c"re po# fi m"sc"#e e e#"i!i1#i
pen#ru in#erese!e proprii J
es#e fo"r#e efic"ce <n sep"r"re" c!ien:i!or sensi'i!i !" pre: e cei insensi'i!i*
c"re "r cump(r" 'r"nu! 1i f(r( o reucere " pre:u!ui J
emi#en#u! po"#e orien#" fo"r#e 'ine is#ri'u:i" cupo"ne!or spre 3one!e
0eo0r"fice s"u c"#e0ori" e c!ien:i c"re necesi#( un "s#fe! e s#imu!en#
G"c( "re o '"3( e "#e 'ine pus( !" punc#H.
Cupo"ne!e se po# is#ri'ui u#i!i3$n o m"re i8ersi#"#e e c"n"!e@ prin #ip(rire" pe
foi inepenen#e c"re sun# is#ri'ui#e o "#( cu 3i"re!e !" !ocuin:e!e cump(r(#ori!or
Ginser ii 0r"#ui#eHJ prin #ip(rire" <n 3i"re s"u <n re8is#e!e e speci"!i#"#e cu #"r0e#J <n p!ic*
prin po1#( irec#( Ge re0u!(* cuponu! es#e 0rup"# cu m"#eri"!e inform"#i8e espre prous
1i prouc(#orHJ prin "mp!"s"re" <n in#erioru! s"u #ip(ri#e pe "m'"!";u! prousu!uiJ prin
#ip(rire" pe 'onu! e cump(r"re emis e c"s" e m"rc"#.
Reuceri!e #empor"re e pre: ofer( cump(r(#oru!ui posi'i!i#"#e" o':inerii
prousu!ui con#r" unei sume m"i mici e '"ni* f(r( impunere" nici unei coni:ii
sup!imen#"re.
Reuceri!e #empor"re e pre: "u efec#e su's#"n:i"!e <n c"3u! prouse!or 1i "
cump(r(#ori!or pen#ru c"re pre:u! sc(3u# es#e princip"!u! cri#eriu e se!ec#"re " m(rci!or
i"r fie!i#"#e" ;o"c( o"r un ro! secun"r. An c"3u! prouse!or pen#ru c"re !oi"!i#"#e" es#e
pu#ernic(* sc(ere" e pre nu po"#e ec>i!i'r" "8"n#";u! percepu# "! m(rcii prefer"#e
G1"mpo"ne* :i0(riH.
De "semene"* reuceri!e #empor"re e pre: nu sun# suficien#e pen#ru " e#ermin"
non/consum"#orii s( e8in( consum"#ori* <n sc>im'* s#imu!e"3( c!ien:ii "c#u"!i c"re o
percep c" pe o opor#uni#"#e.
An r"por# cu "!#e #e>nici e promo8"re " 8$n3(ri!or* reucere" pro8i3orie e pre:
pre3in#( "8"n#";u! f!eBi'i!i#(:ii T sum" s"u procen#";u! e reucere po"#e 8"ri" <n in#er8"!e
!un0i T 1i u1urin:ei* r"pii#(:ii cu c"re se po"#e <n#re'uin ". C" e3"8"n#";* reucere"
#empor"r( e pre: es#e #e>nic" cu ce" m"i mic( 8"!o"re" re3iu"!( pe #ermen !un0.
Reuceri!e e pre: po# fi "p!ic"#e fie e e#"i!i1#i Gc"3 <n c"re se numesc
Pm"rCoNnsQ s"u Ps"!es pricesQH* fie e prouc(#ori GPprice/offsQH.
Mo#i8e!e pen#ru c"re sun# fo!osi#e e e#"i!i1#i sun#@
pen#ru " !ic>i" s#ocuri!e e prouse "f!"#e !" fin"! e se3on s"u <n pr"0u!
eBpir(rii 1i " f"ce !oc T c" sp":iu e epo3i#"re/eBpunere 1i c" resurse
fin"nci"re T prouse!or noiJ
pen#ru " "#r"0e c!ien#ii <n m"0"3in* urm$n c"* pe !$n0( prousu! cu pre:
reus* s( cumpere 1i "!#e "r#ico!eJ
pen#ru " "#r"0e c!ien:ii spre un moe! e prous cu pre: mic urm$n c"*
o"#( in#r":i <n m"0"3in* s( !i se is#r"0( "#en:i" c(#re moe!e m"i noi* m"i
perform"n#e 1i esi0ur* cu un pre: nereus G#e>nic" Pmomo1#e 1i e8i"3(Q
T P'"i# "n sNi#c>QHJ
&2
pen#ru " pre8eni s"u " r(spune "#"curi!or !"ns"#e e concuren:i* <n speci"!
pen#ru escur";"re" po#en:i!"!i!or noi in#r":i <n 'r"n1(J
pen#ru "/1i cre" o im"0ine 0ener"!( e m"0"3in cu pre:uri mici.
To#u1i* fo!osire" reuceri!or e pre: e c(#re e#"i!i1#i pre3in#( 1i une!e
incon8enien#e. De eBemp!u* fo!osire" pre" frec8en#( <i e#ermin( pe cump(r(#ori s(
e8in( fo"r#e sensi'i!i !" pre: 1i s( "1#ep#e <n#o#e"un" reucere" <n"in#e e " cump(r" i
e "semene"* po# ec!"n1" sup(r"re" perso"ne!or c"re "u cump(r"# "n#erior !" pre: <n#re0.
Mo#i8e!e pen#ru c"re prouc(#orii fo!osesc reuceri!e #r"n3i#orii e pre: sun#@
"#r"0 "#en:i" cump(r(#ori!or "supr" prousu!ui "f!"# pe r"f# "#ori#(
e#ic>e#ei 8iu co!or"#e pe c"re se <nscrie reucere"J
permi# con#ro!u! num(ru!ui e "r#ico!e 8$nu#e cu pre: reus pe pie:e s"u
3one 0eo0r"fice iferi#e 1i se po"#e re"c:ion" f!eBi'i! <n func:ie e
"menin:(ri!e concuren:i!or in fiec"re 3on(J
permi# o 'un( pro0no3"re " cos#uri!or comp"niei "#ori#( num(ru!ui 'ine
es#im"# " "r#ico!e!or 8$nu#e cu reucere.
U#i!i3"re" reuceri!or #empor"re e pre: impune une!e "spec#e impor#"n#e e
respec#"# e c(#re prouc(#ori* "s#fe!@
"p!ic"re" unui "s#fe! e pro0r"m so!ici#( efor# e cooron"re 1i comunic"re
<n#re comp"r#imen#e!e proprii* precum 1i " re!":ii!or cu furni3orii 1i
is#ri'ui#oriiJ
reucere" #re'uie s( fie e ce! pu:in 1=/2=F pen#ru " "8e" un efec#
su's#"n:i"! "supr" 8(n3(ri!or. De re0u!(* m(rci!e cu co#e mici e pi":(
#re'uie s( ofere reuceri m"i m"ri ec$# ce!e oferi#e e m(rci!e omin"n#e.
esi0nu! e#ic>e#ei s"u "! "fi1u!ui #re'uie s( "si0ure "#r"0ere" r"pi( "
"#en:iei "supr" ofer#eiJ
cos#uri!e !e0"#e e oferire" reucerii* e e#ic>e#e!e speci"!e 1i e
comunic"re" ofer#ei sun# re!"#i8 riic"#e.
P"c>e#e!e ofer#(
Prin "s#fe! e p"c>e#e se ofer( ce8" P<n p!usQ* concre#* m"#eri"! <n momen#u!
cump(r(rii. P"c>e#e!e of"r#( se pre3in#( pe pi":( <n#r/o m"re 8"rie#"#e e forme c"re po# fi
0rup"#e <n ou( c"#e0orii@ p"c>e#e/'onus 1i p"c>e#e cup!u.
P"c>e#e!e/'onus sun# ce!e prin c"re se ofer( o c"n#i#"#e sup!imen#"r( 0r"#ui#( <n#r/
un "m'"!"; m"i m"re* "r !" "ce!"1i pre: cu ce! "! prousu!ui e '"3(. Aces#e p"c>e#e sun#
fo!osi#e e prouc(#ori <n perio"e!e cu cerere m"Bim( eo"rece "u "8"n#";u! c( "#r"0
c!ien:ii osci!"n:i e !" m(rci!e concuren#e* c>i"r "c( sun# cos#isi#o"re "#ori#( cos#uri!or
sup!imen#"re e "m'"!"re* e #r"nspor# 1i c>i"r e "1e3"re pe r"f#.
P"c>e#e!e/cup!u cons#"u <n "#"1"re" unui prous iferi# e ce! e '"3( T sun#
fo!osi#e pen#ru prouse!e cu 8"!o"re mic(* c"re "u o 8i#e3( m"i m"re e ro#":ie Gfrec8en:(
e cump(r"reH 1i pen#ru c"re 8"!o"re" "r#ico!u!ui <n p!us es#e percepu# c" fiin riic"#(.
A8"n#";u! "ces#or p"c>e#e/of"r#( eri8( in c"p"ci#"#e" m"re e "#r"0ere " "#en:iei !"
punc#u! e 8$n3"re* <ns(* e3"8"n#";u! cons#( <n rupere" p"c>e#u!ui 1i 8inere" sep"r"#( "
prouse!or e c(#re unii e#"i!i1#i.
&&
C$# pri8e1#e 8"!o"re" re3iu"!( " p"c>e#e!or/ofer#(* "ces#e" "u P8"!o"re" <n p!usQ
0ener$n o "#i#uine m"i 'un( " c!ien:i!or 1i* imp!ici#* o preispo3i#ie pen#ru cump(r"re"
u!#erio"r( 1i "u pu#ere" e " e#ermin" consum"#orii s( <ncerce un prous nou prin
oferire" !ui c" "uBi!i"r.
Aces#e ofer#e m"i sun# cunoscu#e su' enumire" e sup!imen#e e s#imu!"re "
8$n3(ri!or s"u c"ouri
19
* repre3en#"#e e m"rf( oferi#( !" un pre: re!"#i8 sc(3u# s"u pe
0r"#is* c" s#imu!en# pen#ru cump(r"re" "!#ui prous. Un sup!imen# "#"1"# !" p"c>e#
<nso:e1#e prousu! promo8"# fie <n(un#ru! "m'"!";u!ui* fie !ipi# <n eB#erior. Un sup!imen#
0r"#ui# prin po1#( es#e #rimis consum"#ori!or c"re "u f(cu# o8"" cump(r(rii prousu!ui
promo8"#* su' form" unui fr"0men# s"u " cou!ui e '"re. Un sup!imen# cu "u#o!ic>i"re
es#e 8$nu# su' pre:u! s(u norm"! e esf"cere cu "m(nun#u!* consum"#ori!or c"re <!
so!ici#(.
Premii Gconcursuri* !o#erii 1i #om'o!e* ;ocuriH
An c"3u! #om'o!ei* se "cor( pe '"3" 1"nsei un premiu c$#or8" perso"ne in#re ce!e
c"re <nep!inesc coni:ii!e e in#r"re. Coni:i" e in#r"re po"#e fi eBpeiere" e e#ic>e#e*
c"p"ce s"u por:iuni ecup"#e e pe "m'"!";e T "ic( "c>i3i:ion"re" unei c"n#i#(:i m"i
m"ri e "r#ico!e.
Tom'o!e!e sun# fo!osi#e <n#ruc$# "u o pu#ere m"re e "#r"0ere " "#en:iei pu'!icu!ui
1i e 0ener"re " emo:iei <n m"s(. An p!us* <n#ruc$# cump(r(#orii #re'uie s(/1i scrie nume!e
1i "res" o "#( cu #rimi#ere" e#ic>e#e!orLc"p"ce!or 1.". prouc(#orii <1i po# cons#i#ui '"3e
e "#e pe c"re !e fo!osesc fie pen#ru "n"!i3(* fie pen#ru 8ii#o"re c"mp"nii e m"rCe#in0
irec#.
An #imp ce #om'o!" e#ermin( c$1#i0(#oru! o"r pe '"3" 1"nsei* concursuri!e cu
premii so!ici#( in p"r#e" p"r#icip"n:i!or emons#r"re" "numi#or eprineri Gcompunere"
unui c"#ren* esen"re" unui !o0o s"u proiec#"re" unei "#ic>e#e* compunere" unui s!o0"n*
0(sire" unei iei #r(sni#e pen#ru fo!osire" prousu!ui 1.".H.
A8"n#";u! #om'o!ei es#e "ce!" c( "#r"0e m"i mu!:i p"r#icip"n:i ec$# concursuri!e
<n#ruc$# nu riic( '"riere e in#r"re m";ore.
Or0"ni3"re" unui "s#fe! e e8enimen# presupune efec#u"re" unor c>e!#uie!i
serio"se pen#ru "c>i3i:ion"re" unui premiu e 8"!o"re m"re* pen#ru popu!"ri3"re 1i pen#ru
o':inere" cooper(rii in#ermei"ri!or Gser8icii po1#"!e* e#"i!i1#iH. L" fin"!u! c"mp"niei*
premiu! #re'uie "cor"# c>i"r "c( re"c:i" "1#ep#"#( nu s/" riic"# !" ni8e!u! pro0no3"# e
or0"ni3"#ori i"r 8eni#uri!e sup!imen#"re 0ener"#e pe "ce"s#( c"!e nu "coper( cos#u!
premii!or. An "ce!"1i #imp* <ns(* #o# c" e3"8"n#"; se cons#i#uie f"p#u! c( num(ru!
p"r#icip"n:i!or nec(1#i0(#ori es#e fo"r#e m"re 1i s/"r pu#e" c" "ce1#i" s( "i'( resen#imen#e
1i s( se orien#e3e spre "!#e m(rci.
Pro0r"me!e e con#inui#"#e 1i recompense pen#ru fie!i#"#e
Cu ";u#oru! "ces#ui #ip e promo8"re se sus:ine 1i se recompense"3( !oi"!i"#e"
c!ien:i!or c"re "!#fe! "r osci!" e !" o m"rc( !" "!#". An c"ru! !or se "cor( reuceri e pre:
s"u premii ce!or c"re ep(1esc un "numi# pr"0 minim "! cup(r(#uri!or <n#r/un in#er8"! e
#imp. Un eBemp!u e "s#fe! e #e>nic( es#e Pfre\uen# f!OerQ pr"c#ic"#( e comp"nii!e
19
P>i!ip Eo#!er* Managementul Maretingului* Ei:i" "/III/"* Ei#ur" Teor"* 2==2* p"0. 99).
&)
"eriene. O "!#( #e>nic( es#e repre3en#"#( e c"ruri!e e fie!i#"#e c"re sun# comp!e#"#e
propor#:ion"! cu 8"!o"re" cump(r(#uri!or efec#u"#e.
Pe !$n0( "8"n#";u! fie!i3(rii c!ien:i!or* "ces#e pro0r"me permi# cu!e0ere" e
inform":ii 1i cons#ruire" e '"3e e "#e prin in#ermeiu! c(ror" se po# efec#u" "n"!i3e 1i
pro0no3e 'ine fun"men#"#e pri8in compor#"men#u! cump(r(#ori!or 1i re"c:ii!e !" i8er1i
s#imu!i promo:ion"!i.
E1"n#ionu! 0r"#ui# Gs"mp!in0H
5"mp!in0u! es#e me#o" prin c"re prousu! es#e pus irec# <n m$n"
consum"#ori!or* ofer( posi'i!i#"#e" <ncerc(rii prousu!ui f(r( "sum"re" nici unui risc
fin"nci"r. E1"n#ionu! es#e percepu# c" fiin un c"ou in p"r#e" prouc(#oru!ui * mo#i8
pen#ru c"re 0enere"3( o "#i#uine po3i#i8( pe #ermen !un0.
5"mp!in0u! es#e o me#o( fo"r#e u3i#"#( c"re e#ermin( <ncerc"re" imei"#( "
prousu!ui* <n#r/un ori3on# fo"r#e scur# e #imp* cu o r"#( e con8er#ire " c!ien:i!or c(#re
m"rc( suficien# e m"re c>i"r "c( #re'uiesc supor#"#e cos#uri m"ri e f"'ric":ie "
"r#ico!e!or oferi#e 0r"#is* cos#uri e "m'"!"re speci"!e precum 1i cos#uri e is#ri'uire.
5"mp!in0u! "re ce! m"i m"re succes <n c"3u! <n c"re 'r"nu! "re un punc# e
iferen iere emons#r"'i! s"u un "8"n#"; f" ( e 'r"nuri!e concuren ei* "ic( <n
momen#u! #es#(rii eoe8e #e 'eneficii ne# superio"re.
12

5copu! c"mp"nii!or e s"mp!in0 sun#@
s( e#ermine o"menii in pi":" :in#( s( <ncerce un prous "'so!u# nouJ
s( <ncur";e3e u#i!i3"re" prousu!ui <n#r/un "numi# mo s"u
s( "#r"0( cump(r(#ori "i m(rci!or concuren#e.
E1"n#io"ne!e po# fi is#ri'ui#e "pe!(n !" m"i mu!#e #e>nici* in#re c"re "min#esc@
prin in#ermeiu! ser8icii!or po1#"!eJ
is#ri'uire" irec#(* in u1( <n u1( G prin in#ermeiu! firme!or speci"!i3"#eHJ
is#ri'uire" <n#r/un punc# fiB G<nso:i#( e o emons#r":ie <n c"re se
s#imu!e"3( 1i imp!ic( consum"#oru!H T m"0"3in* pe s#r"( s"u o ins#i#u:ie
une eBis#( un #r"fic m"re e perso"ne c"re f"c p"r#e in se0men#u! :in#(J
"#"1"re" e1"n#ionu!ui !" o re8is#( s"u un 3i"rJ
"#"1"# !" un "!# prous "! "ce!ei"1i firme 1i oferi# rep# c"ouJ
!i8r"#e !" cerere" consum"#oru!ui G e eBemp!u* prouse!e sof#N"re oferi#e
<n 8"ri"n#e PemoQH.
C" <nc"r"re <n #imp* c"mp"nii!e e s"mp!in0 sun# eru!"#e !" <ncepu#u!
perio"e!or cu cerere m"re.
Pro0r"me!e Pro/C"us"
Aces#e pro0r"me cons#"u <n comunic"re" c(#re c!ien:ii in pi":" :in#( " f"p#u!ui c(
o p"r#e in sum" p!(#i#( e ei !" cump(r"re" unui prous 8" fi <nep!ini#( <n sus:inere"
unei c"u3e no'i!e* sum" sponsori3"#( fiin propor:ion"!( cu 8$n3(ri!e re"!i3"#e <n c"ru!
pro0r"mu!ui. Ace"s#( #e>nic( <m'in( "8"n#";e!e re!":ii!or pu'!ice cu "8"n#";e!e
12
5c>u!#3* Don* Esen i"!u! espre promo ii* Ei#ur" Br"n'ui!ers* Bucure #i* 2==5* p"0. 1%)
&5
promo8(rii 8$n3(ri!or 0ener$n o opinie f"8or"'i!( pe #ermen !un0 1i "mp!ific$n
8"!o"re" !i8r"#( pe #ermen scur#.
Pro0r"me!e Pro T C"us" pre3in#( une!e p"r#icu!"ri#(:i@
se fo!osesc <n eose'i <n c"3u! prouse!or pen#ru c"re nu eBis#( o
iferen:iere semnific"#i8( <n#re m(rci i"r c!ien:ii "u un compor#"men#
f!uc#u"n#J
c"u3" sus:inu#( prin pro0r"m #re'uie s( fie re!e8"n#( pen#ru perso"ne!e in
se0men#u! :in#( pen#ru " "8e" imp"c# m"re "supr" "ces#or"J
ins#i#u:i" non/profi# c"re urme"3( s( fie sponsori3"#( #re'uie "!e"s( cu
m"re 0ri;( "s#fe! <nc$# s( nu fi 0ener"# <n #recu# con#ro8erse pri8in
"c#i8i#"#e" eru!"#( s"u mou! cum 1i/" 0es#ion"# fonuri!e
2=
.
+"r"n:ii "supr" prousu!ui concre#i3"#e <n promisiuni imp!ici#e 1i eBp!ici#e "!e
8$n3(#ori!or c( prousu! es#e 8" func:ion" conform specific":ii!or s"u c( 8$n3(#oru! <! 8"
rep"r" s"u <i 8" re#urn" '"nii c!ien#u!ui <n#r/o perio"( specific"#(.
Ac:iuni promo:ion"!e con;u0"#e
Dou( s"u m"i mu!#e 'r"nuri s"u comp"nii ofer( <mpreun( cupo"ne* econ#(ri 1i
concursuri c" s(/1i "p!ifice for:" e "#r"0ere " cererii. ?or:e!e e 8$n3"re mu!#ip!e <mpin0
"ces#e "c:iuni promo:ion"!e !" ni8e!u! e#"i!i1#i!or* ";u#(nu/!e s( o':in( sp":iu
sup!imen#"r e eBpunere 1i pu'!ici#"r.
Ac:iuni promo:ion"!e <ncruci1"#e
U#i!i3"re" unei m(rci pen#ru " f"ce rec!"m( "!#ei"* cu c"re nu es#e <n concuren:(.
Ar"n;"men#e e eBpunere 1i emons#r":ii pr"c#ice !" punc#u! e 8$n3"re
Ar"n;"men#e!e e eBpunere Ge#"!";e!e* inic"#o"re 1i "fi1eH 1i emons#r":ii!e
pr"c#ice "u !oc !" punc#u! e 8$n3"re s"u e cump(r"reJ sun# cre"#e e prouc(#ori 1i po#
cons#i#ui un f"c#or m";or e succes "! 'r"nu!ui. Aces#e "r"n;"men#e sun# con;u0"#e e
prouc(#ori cu mes";e T. 1i <n pres" scris( i"r ins#"!"re" !or se f"ce prin merc>"nisin0
propriu.
&. A!e0ere" ins#rumen#e!or e promo8"re pen#ru is#ri'ui#ori
5pre eose'ire e prouc(#ori* comerci"n:i!or nu !e p"s( ce m"rc( "!e0
cump(r(#orii "#$#" #imp c$# m"r;e!e e ""os comerci"! "p!ic"#e sun# "propi"#e e !" un
'r"n !" "!#u!. Din "ces# mo#i8* ei nu sun# ispu1i s( coopere3e <n "p!ic"re" pr"c#ici!or e
merc>"nisin0 1i promo8"re !" !ocu! e 8$n3"re.
Prouc(#orii c>e!#uiesc cu promo8"re" comerci"!( mu!# m"i mu!# ec$# 1i/"r ori.
Pu#ere" cresc$n( " m"ri!or e#"i!i1#i " e#ermin"# cre1#ere" c"p"ci#(:ii "ces#or" e " !e
pre#ine prouc(#ori!or promo8"re comerci"!( <n e#rimen#u! promo8(rii pen#ru
consum"#ori 1i "! pu'!ici#(:ii.
Cu #o"#e "ces#e"* <ns(* prouc(#orii <n#$mpin( ificu!#(:i <n 0es#ion"re" "c:iuni!or
e promo8"re comerci"!( "#ori#( 0reu#(:ii e 8erific"re " e#"i!i1#i!or 1i !ips" o8e3i!or
e eBecu:ie <n"in#e" "cor(rii 'onific":ii!or* "#ori#( pr"c#ici!or e#"i!i1#i!or e
"c>i3i:ion"re <n "8"ns pen#ru " in#r" <n posesi" 'onific":ii!or / m(rin "s#fe! cos#uri!e e
2=
Corne!ui Mun#e"nu* Curs de !eclama &i 'romovarea ()n*+rilor" 2==2.
&4
f"'ric":ie "!e prouc(#orui!ui 1i "#ori#( pr"c#icii re#urn(ri!or GeBpeiere" surp!usu!ui e
m"rf( c(#re m"0"3ine!e in "!#e re0iuni une prouc(#oru! nu "cor( f"ci!i#(:iH.
Prouc(#orii "!oc( fonuri promo8(rii comerci"!e in p"#ru mo#i8e@
/ pen#ru "/! con8in0e pe e#"i!is# s"u "n0rosis# s( comerci"!i3e3e 'r"nu!J
/ pen#ru "/! con8in0e pe e#"i!is# s"u "n0rosis# s( prei" m"i mu!#e uni#(#i ec$# <n
mo o'i1niu# oferin 'onific":ii !" 8o!umu! e prouse "c>i3i:ion"#eJ
/ pen#ru "/i s#imu!" pe e#"i!i1#i s( promo8e3e m"rc" prin e8ien:iere* eBpunere 1i
reuceri e pre: oferinu/!e 'onific":ii pe '"3" Po8e3ii eBecu:ieiQJ
/ pen#ru "/i s#imu!" pe e#"i!i1#i 1i pe person"!u! !or e 8$n3"re s( <mpim0( <n f":(
prousu! oferinu/!e '"ni* ";u#or e 8$n3"re* pro0r"me e recuno"1#ere* sup!imen#e 1i
concursuri e 8$n3"re.
). Princip"!e!e ins#rumen#e e promo8"re es#in"#e is#ri'ui#ori!or
Reucere promo:ion"!( e pre: G!" pre:u! e c"#"!o0 s"u e f"c#ur(H pen#ru fiec"re
cu#ieL!"( cump(r"#( pe p"rcursu! unei perio"e e #imp e#ermin"#e <ncur";$n
is#ri'ui#orii s( cumpere o "numi#( c"n#i#"#e s"u s( prei" un "r#ico! nou* pe c"re <n mo
norm"! s/"r pu#e" s( nu/! cumpere. Bonific":i" "s#fe! o':inu#( po"#e fi fo!osi#( e
is#ri'ui#or pen#ru profi# imei"#* pu'!ici#"#e s"u "p!ic"re" unor reuceri e pre:.
Bonific":i" e"#e o sum( oferi#( <n sc>im'u! "coru!ui e#"i!is#u!ui e " e8ien:i"
prouse!e f"'ric"n#u!ui <n#r/un "numi# mo. Bonific":i" e pu'!ici#"#e <i compense"3(
e#"i!is#u!ui efor#u! e " f"ce pu'!ici#"#e prousu!ui* 'onofic":i" e eBpunere <!
compense"3( pen#ru "ccep#"re" unui "r"n;"men# speci"! e eBpunere " prousu!ui.
Bunuri 0r"#ui#e concre#i3"#e <n c"n#i#(:i sup!imen#"re e m"rf( oferi#e
in#ermei"ri!or c"re cump(r( o "numi#( c"n#i#"#e s"u c"re "ccep#( s( e8ien:ie3e un
"numi# sor#imen# e prous s"u o "numi#( #ipoimensiune. Prouc(#orii ofer( uneori
e#"i!i1#i!or sume e '"ni pen#ru "ccep#"re" c"n#i#(:i!or m"ri e m"rf( Gcomosion e
8o!umH s"u o'iec#e e pu'!ici#"#e speci"!( inscrip:ion"#e cu nume!e comp"niei.
5. A!e0ere" ins#rumen#e!or e promo8"re pen#ru c!ien:ii or0"ni3":ion"!i 1i for:" e
8$n3"re
Aces#e ins#rumen#e sun# fo!osi#e pen#ru ien#ific"re" p"r#eneri!or e "f"ceri
po#en:i"!i* pen#ru sensi'i!i3"re" 1i recompens"re" c!ien:i!or 1i pen#ru mo#i8"re" for:ei e
8$n3"re s(/1i in#ensifice efor#uri!e.
4. Princip"!e!e ins#rumen#e e promo8"re pen#ru c!ien:ii or0"ni3":ion"!i 1i for:" e
8$n3"re
EBpo3i:ii 1i #$r0uri comerci"!e 1i <n#runiri Gconferin:e* con8en:iiH
Asoci":ii!e firme!or c"re "c#i8e"3( <n "cee"1i r"mur( or0"ni3e"3( eBpo3i:ii
comerci"!e 1i <n#runiri "nu"!e prin cump(r"re" e sp":iu eBpo3i:ion"! 1i or0"ni3"re" e
s#"nuri pen#ru pre3en#"re" ofer#e!or.
P"r#icip"n:ii !" "semene" #$r0uri 1i eBpo3i:ii ien#ific( noi c!ien:i po#en:i"!i*
men:in con#"c#u! cu c!ien:ii eBis#en:i* pre3in#( prouse noi* <i con8in0 pe c!ien:ii curen:i
s( cumpere m"i mu!# 1i <i euc( pe c!ien:i cu pu'!ic":ii* m"#eri"!e 8ieo 1i "!#e m"#eri"!e
"uio8i3u"!e.
&%
Concursuri e 8$n3"re c"re "u rep# scop s#imu!"re" for:ei e 8$n3"re s"u "
is#ri'ui#ori!or s(/1i spore"sc( re3u!#"#e!e e 8(n3"re pe p"rcursu! unei perio"e "#e*
premii!e GeBcursii p!(#i#e e firm(* premii <n '"ni* c"ouri s"u punc#e pe c"re c$1#i0(#oru!
!e po"#e #r"nsform" <n#r/o 8"rie#"#e e premiiH ";un0$n !" cei c"re reu1esc.
5#imu!en#e!e "uc ce!e m"i 'une re3u!#"#e "#unci c$n sun# !e0"#e e o'iec#i8e
cu"n#ific"'i!e 1i re"!i3"'i!e Gcum "r fi num(ru! e c!ien:i noi cu c"re s/"u <nc>ei"#
con#r"c#e s"u num(ru! e c!ien:i m"i 8ec>i con8in1i s(/1i re<nnoi"sc( con#r"c#e!eH* c$n
"n0";":ii consier( c( "u 1"nse e0"!e s( c$1#i0e.
Pu'!ici#"#e" speci"!( Ge pro#oco!H cons#( <n mici o'iec#e u#i!e 1i nu fo"r#e scumpe*
inscrip:ion"#e cu nume!e 1i "res" firmei Ge8en#u"! 1i un scur# mes"; pu'!ici#"rH* pe c"re
repre3en#"n:ii e 8$n3"re !e ofer( c!ien:i!or curen:i 1i po#en:i"!i GpiBuri* c"!en"re*
"0eneH.
&.).2. E!"'or"re" pro0r"mu!ui
An p!"nific"re" pro0r"me!or e promo8"re " 8$n3(ri!or* m"rCe#erii <ncep in ce <n
ce m"i es s( com'ine m"i mu!#e mi;!o"ce iferi#e* <n c"ru! unui concep# uni#"r e
c"mp"nie #o#"!(. A#unci c$n eci "!e0ere" unui s#imu!en# "nume* "ce1#i" #re'uie s( :in(
se"m" e m"i mu!:i f"c#ori* 1i "nume@
m(rime" s#imu!en#u!ui T pen#ru succesu! promo8(rii* #re'uie s( "si0ure un
ni8e! minim "! "ces#ui inic"#orJ
coni:ii!e e p"r#icip"re T se po# oferi s#imu!en#e #u#uror "m"#ori!or s"u
num"i "numi#or 0rupuri Gc"re o8eesc "c>i3i:ion"re" prousu!ui* cu
si0i!ii speci"! "p!ic"#e pe "m'"!"; s"u couri e '"reHJ
ur"#" promo8(rii T "c( perio"" es#e pre" scur#(* mu!:i c!ien:i po#en:i"!i
nu 8or pu#e" s( 'eneficie3e e ofer#(* i"r "c( perio"" es#e pre" !un0(* <1i
8" piere in for:" e <nemn. Po#ri8i# unui cerce#(#or* frec8en:" op#im( se
si#ue"3( in ;uru! " #rei s(p#(m$ni pe semes#ru* i"r ur"#" op#im( es#e ce" "
cic!u!ui meiu e cump(r"re.
8e>ico!u! e is#ri'u:ie po"#e fi cuponu! e reucere in#rous <n "m'"!";*
<mp(r:i# <n m"0"3in* #rimis prin po1#( s"u inser"# <n rec!"me T fiec"re
me#o( e is#ri'u:ie presupune "!# ni8e! e "uien:(* e cos# 1i e imp"c#.
pro0r"me"re" <n #imp " promo8(rii prin fiB"re" e "#e c"!en"ris#ice
pen#ru "c#i8i#(:i!e "nu"!e e promo8"re* "#e c"re s( fie u#i!i3"#e e
ep"r#"men#u! prouc:ie* 8(n3"re 1i is#ri'u:ie.
'u0e#u! #o#"! pen#ru promo8"re" 8$n3(ri!or #re'uie e!"'or"# pornin e !"
3ero* c$n m"rCe#eru! "!e0e "c:iuni promo:ion"!e is#inc#e 1i !e es#ime"3(
cos#u! #o#"!. Cos#u! unei "c:iuni promo:ion"!e es#e "!c(#ui# in cos#uri
"minis#r"#i8e G#ip(rire* eBpeiere prin po1#( 1i promo8"re " f"ci!i#(:i!or
oferi#eH 1i cos#uri cu s#imu!en#e!e Gcos#u! c"ouri!or s"u "! reuceri!or e
pre: "cor"#e* inc!usi8 c>e!#uie!i!e e presc>im'"re " cupo"ne!orH*
<nmu!:i#e cu num(ru! e prouse pre8i3ion"#e s( se 8$n( <n c"ru!
"c:iunii promo:ion"!e.
&.).&. Tes#"re" pre!imin"r( " pro0r"mu!ui
Tes#"re" es#e neces"r( pen#ru " 8erific" "c( ins#rumen#e!e sun# po#ri8i#e * "c(
s#imu!en#u! "re m(rime" op#im( 1i "c( me#o" e pre3en#"re es#e eficien#(. 5#r"n0
&9
sus:ine c(* e o'icei* "c:iuni!e promo:ion"!e po# fi #es#"#e r"pi 1i ief#in 1i c( firme!e m"ri
"r #re'ui s( #es#e3e s#r"#e0ii "!#ern"#i8e pe pie:e speci"! "!ese * pen#ru fiec"re "c:iune
promo:ion"!( !" ni8e! n":ion"!.
&.).). Imp!emen#"re" 1i urm(rire" pro0r"mu!ui
M"n"0erii e m"rCe#in0 #re'uie s( e!"'ore3e pro0r"me e imp!emen#"re 1i con#ro!
pen#ru fiec"re "c:iune promo:ion"!( ini8iu"!(. P!"nific"re" imp!emen#(rii #re'uie s(
"copere "#$# perio"" e pre0(#ire* c$# 1i perio"e e 8$n3"re <n coni:ii promo:ion"!e.
Timpu! e pre0(#ire repre3in#( perio"" neces"r( pre0(#irii pro0r"mu!ui <n"in#e e
!"ns"re@ p!"nific"re" ini:i"!(* proiec#"re" 1i "pro'"re" moific(ri!or "use ofer#ei e
prous s"u " m"#eri"!u!ui ce urme"3( " fi #rimis prin po1#( ori is#ri'ui#J pre0(#ire"
m"#eri"!e!or pu'!ici#"re 1i e eBpunere !" punc#u! e 8$n3"reJ <n1#iin:"re" for:ei e
8$n3"re e pe #erenJ s#"'i!ire" c"n#i#(:i!or e m"rf( "!oc"#e fiec(rui is#ri'ui#orJ
"c>i3i:ion"re" 1i inscrip:ion"re" sup!imen#e!or speci"!e s"u " m"#eri"!e!or e "m'"!"reJ
proucere" <n "8"ns " m(rfuri!or* <n pre0(#ire" !"ns(rii !" o "numi#( "#(J 1i is#ri'uire"
c(#re e#"i!i1#i.
21
Timpu! e 8$n3"re <n coni:ii promo:ion"!e <ncepe <n momen#u! !"ns(rii "c:iunii 1i
se #ermin( "#unci c$n "proBim"#i8 25F in m"rf( se "f!( <n m$ini!e consum"#ori!or.
&.).5. E8"!u"re" re3u!#"#e!or
Prouc(#orii po# u#i!i3" #rei me#oe pen#ru " e8"!u" efic"ci#"#e" promo8(rii
8$n3(ri!or@
An"!i3" "#e!or e 8$n3"re / presupune u#i!i3"re" "#e!or o':inu#e prin ci#ire"
e!ec#ronic( " couri!or e '"re e pe prouse!e 8$nu#e* furni3"#e e firme speci"!i3"#e.
M"rCe#erii po# "n"!i3" #ipuri!e e o"meni c"re "u profi#"# e ofer#" promo:ion"!( 1i cum s/
"u compor#"# consum"#orii up( "cee" f":( e 'r"n 1i f":( e "!#e 'r"nuri. An 0ener"!*
"c:iuni!e e promo8"re " 8$n3(ri!or "u efic"ci#"#e m"Bim( "#unci c$n <i e#ermin( pe
c!ien:ii concuren:i!or s( <ncerce un prous superior 1i s(/! "op#e efini#i8.
5on";e!e <n r$nu! consum"#ori!or se po# re"!i3" pen#ru " "f!" c$:i <1i "min#esc e
"c:iune" promo:ion"!(* ce cre espre e"* c$:i "u profi#"# e e" 1i <n ce mo se po"#e
spune c( " inf!uen:"# "ce"s#" compor#"men#u! !or u!#erior e "!e0ere " unei m(rci.
EBperimen#e!e <n c"ru! c(ror" sun# moific":i "numi:i p"r"me#ri* cum "r fi
8"!o"re" s#imu!en#u!ui* mi;!o"ce!e e is#ri'u:ie 1i ur"#".
Dinco!o e cos#u! "c:iuni!or e promo8"re specifice* conucere" m"n"0eri"!(
#re'uie s( :in( con# 1i e posi'i!e!e cos#uri sup!imen#"re@
"c:iuni!e promo:ion"!e "r pu#e" iminu" fie!i#"#e" pe #ermen !un0 f":( e
'r"n* e#ermin$n m"i mu!:i consum"#ori s( se "r"#e sensi'i!i !"
promo8"re ec$# !" pu'!ici#"#eJ
"c:iuni!e promo:ion"!e po# fi m"i cos#isi#o"re ec$# p"r !" prim" 8eere*
une!e* ine8i#"'i!* ";un0 !" consum"#ori nepo#ri8i:iJ eBis#( cos#uri "feren#e
!o#uri!or e prouc:ie speci"!e* efor#u!ui epus e for:" e 8$n3"re 1i
oper":iuni!or e 0es#ion"re " pro0r"mu!uiJ "numi#e "c:iuni promo:ion"!e <i
iri#( pe e#"i!i1#i* c"re s/"r pu#e" s( ce"r( 'onific":ii sup!imen#"re s"u s(
refu3e* pur 1i simp!u* s( coopere3e.
21
Eur# D. 5c>"ffir 1i D. +eor0e Tren#en* Mareting ,nformation System GNeN XorC@ Am"com* 12%&H* p"0.
91.
&2
Capitolul IV. REBRANDING MARCA DELACO
4.1. Istoria firmei Delaco Distribution SA
De!"co es#e unu! in#re princip"!ii furni3ori e prouse !"c#"#e pen#ru m"ri!e
re e!e e m"0"3ine i "i comer#u!ui #r"i ion"!. Comp"ni" De!"co es#e si#u"#( <n Co!e"*
!" c$ i8" Cm e Br" o8* <n cen#ru! (rii* !" 1%= Cm nor f" ( e Bucure #i.
De!"co es#e o "f"cere e f"mi!ie c"re " porni# <n "nu! 1224 cu & "n0";" i* cu
prouc i" e prouse !"c#"#e pro"spe#e. Ancep"n cu "nu! 2=== s/"u concen#r"# pe
)=
is#ri'u i" e 'r$n3e#uri i "u cre"# un sis#em c"re !e/" permis s( cre"sc( f(r( !imi#(ri!e
prouc iei. Au e38o!#"# o f"ci!i#"#e e por# ion"reL"m'"!"reL e#ic>e#"re. ?irm" es#e
cer#ific"#( I5O 22=== e c(#re o firm( e!8e i"n(. An pre3en# !ucre"3( cu o ec>ip( e &%=
e o"meni.
22
An 2==% De!"co " e8eni# is#ri'ui#oru! eBc!usi8 <n Rom"ni" "! prouse!or 6o##*
unu! in#re cei m"i m"ri prouc(#ori in +erm"ni"* cu o #r"i ie e pes#e 95 "ni. Aces#
p"r#eneri"# i/" ";u#"# s(/ i <m'o0( e"sc( su's#"n i"! 0"m" e !"c#"#e is#ri'ui#e@
'r$n3e#uri!e #r"i ion"!e rom$ne #i in por#ofo!iu! !or "u fos# comp!e#"#e cu i"ur#uri*
eser#uri pe '"3( e !"p#e* e!icio"se speci"!i#( i e 'r$n3(* !"p#e pen#ru c"fe"* un# i
mu!#e "!#e!e.
To# in 2==% De!"co " pre!u"#* <n eBc!usi8i#"#e* is#ri'u i" 'r$n3e#uri!or speci"!e
Ber0"er. 5ocie#"#e" Ber0"er Pri8"#C"serei +m'D es#e unu! in#re cei m"i m"ri
prouc(#ori pri8" i e 'r$n3e#uri in +erm"ni"* <nfiin "#( <n 12=2 i speci"!i3"#( <n
prouc i" e 'r$n3e#uri cu muce0"i no'i!.
An noiem'rie "ce!" i "n* De!"co " semn"# p"r#eneri"#u! cu Mon" N"#urprouC#e
+m'>* prouc(#or "us#ri"c e prouse in soi". De!"co e8ine "s#fe! unic is#ri'ui#or "!
'r"nu!ui UoO" pe pi" " rom$ne"sc(.
De!"co Dis#ri'u#ion " semn"# <n m"i 2==9 un con#r"c# e co!"'or"re cu DRE
Reiner# 5RL* fi!i"!" rom$n( " prouc(#oru!ui e me3e!uri omonim in +erm"ni"*
comp"nie cu pes#e %5 e "ni e eBperien ( <n prep"r"re" me3e!uri!or. Nou! p"r#eneri"#
!"r0es#e "ri" e "coperire " ser8icii!or e is#ri'u ie "si0ur"#e e c(#re De!"co* <n
coni ii!e <n c"re* p$n( <n "ces# momen#* comp"ni" " co!"'or"# o"r cu prouc(#ori
impor#"n i e pe pi" " in#ern" ion"!( e 'r$n3e#uri i prouse in soi".
Cu o cres#ere " cifrei e "f"ceri e 2=F in 2=11 f"#" e 2=1=* furni3oru! e
prouse !"c#"#e De!"co "re p!"nuri "m'i#io"se pen#ru 2=12. Princip"!u! o'iec#i8 es#e
conso!i"re" 'r"nu!ui De!"co in #o"#e punc#e!e e 8eere@ por#ofo!iu* is#ri'u#ie si
comunic"re. Comp"ni" 8i3e"3" si o cres#ere " num"ru!ui e punc#e e 8"n3"re in c"re
es#e pre3en#"* i"r in "ces# sens se iscu#" m"i mu!#e 8"ri"n#e e !ucru cu is#ri'ui#orii
!oc"!i. Prin "ces#e proiec#e* comp"ni" isi propune o cres#ere e 1=F " cifrei e "f"ceri in
2=12. In ce!e ce urme"3"* un in#er8iu cu Romu!us Dumi#ru* Direc#or Comerci"! "!
comp"niei De!"co Rom"ni".
2&
4.2. Brandurile distribuite de compania Delaco
?i0.).1. M"rci is#ri'ui#e e De!"co Dis#ri'u#ion
2)
22
5urs" NNN.e!"co.ro
2&
5urs" >##p@LLmoern'uOer.roLin#er8iuL9/in#er8iuL&14)/romu!us/umi#ru/e!"co/\c"/s"/iesim/in/;ocu!/
promo#ii!or/nu/pu#em/ec"#/s"/ino8"m\* in#er8iu m"r#ie 2=12
2)
5urs" NNN.e!"co.ro
)1
4.3. Evolu ia financiar a companiei Delaco
T"'e! ).1. E8o!u:ie cifr( "f"ceri De!"co Dis#ri'u#ion Tsurs" Minis#eru! e ?in"n:e
5urs"@ Minis#eru! e ?in"n#e
4.4. Produsele sub brand-ul Delaco
)2
mozzarella fresca
emmentaler
telemea
branza topita
Branzeturi
cascaval
Lapte pentru cafea
Miez de lapte
T"'e!.).2. T"'e! pri8in prouse!e m"rc" De!"co T surs"@ NNN.e!"co.ro
5urs"@ NNN.e!"co.ro
4.5. Nevoia de schimbare
Pen#ru " nu e8eni un 'r"n V'"#r$nQ
25
procesu! e re'r"nin0 " <ncepu# cu "nu!
2==9* "c#i8i#"#e" De!"co " #re'ui# s( se ""p#e3e !" cerin:e!e economiei e pi":(* cum "r fi
pro#e;"re" e inf!":ie " economii!or* simp!ific(ri 1i r":ion"!i3(ri "!e* orien#"re" spre
25
D"i0* M"##* M"ri esecuri "!e unor 'r"nuri renumi#e* Ei#ur" Br"n'ui!ers* Bucures#i*
2==5* p"0. 2=
)&
is#ri'u ie eficien#(* moerni3"re" 1i e38o!#"re" re:e!ei* re#e>no!o0i3"re" "p"r"#urii in
o#"re. Con#eB#u! eB#ern "! 'r"nu!ui er" "0r"8"# e necuno" #ere" 'r"nu!ui. Ace"s#(
!ips( " c!"ri#(ii <n po3i#ion"re i " unei coeren e <n eBprim"re "u us !" o ien#i#"#e e
'r"n fr"0men#"#( i confu3(* "s#fe! c( s/" >o#(r$# cre"re" e 'r"n "N"reness <n r$nu!
consum"#ori!or. As#fe! " "p(ru# c"mp"ni" PToni De!"co T N" u! Br$n3e#uri!orQ.
C"mp"ni" " fos# promo8"#( "#$# <n ATL* c$# i <n BTL pen#ru "#r"0ere" "#en iei
consum"#ori!or i pen#ru cre #ere" 0r"u!ui e "N"reness " 'r"nu!ui.
?i0.).4.EBecu ie mei" ou#/oor pen#ru c"mp"ni" N" u! Br$n3e#uri!or/Mo3"re!!"
5urs"@ "r>i8" person"!"
?i0.).%. EBecu ie ou#/oor pen#ru c"mp"ni" N" u! Br$n3e#uri!or/ Br$n3( #opi#(
))
5urs"@ "r>i8" person"!"
An cee" ce pri8e #e c"mp"nii!e e ATL* eBecu ii!e "u fos# numero"se i
incoeren#e* " " cum 8oi emons#r" <n p"0ini!e urm(#o"re. VN" u! 'r$n3e#uri!or #e <n8" (
s( m(n$nci s(n(#os.QEs#e #i#!u! pro0r"mu!ui e euc" ie "!imen#"r( semn"# Toni De!"co.
C"mp"ni" " promo8"# consumu! e mo33"re!" pro"sp(#( fiin con#inu"re" fire"sc( "
proiec#u!ui ini i"! cu c"mp"ni" sus inu#( e mes";u! VM$nc"#u! pros# i/" 0(si# n" u!Q.
De "ce"s#" "#( N" u! 'r$n3e#uri!or <ne"mn( p(rin ii i #o i scep#icii s( <ncerce
mo33"re!"* 'r$n3" pro"sp"#( i s(n(#o"s( e c"re mu! i "u "u3i#* "r pu ini "u i 0us#"#/
o. M$n" i e iei preconcepu#e cum c( mo33"re!" "r fi o 'r$n3( scump( i sim"nico"s(*
mu! i con" ion"!i s/"u pri8"# "s#fe! e 'ucuri" simp!( i s(n(#o"s( " unei s"!"#e C"prese*
e pi!(. VMo33"re!!" e eB"c# 'r$n3" i#"!i"nu!ui pe 0us#u! rom$nu!ui. Aic( o 'r$n3(
pro"sp(#(* u o"r( i fo"r#e s(n(#o"s(* eB"c# c" "cee" up" c"re mer0i speci"! !" pi" ".
Mo33"re!" se consum( cu ro ii* <n s"n8i uri* m$nc$ruri 0(#i#e s"u om!e#e*
comp!e#$nu/!e ce! pu in !" fe! e 'ine c" #e!eme"u" o'i nui#(. Anso i# c" e o'icei e
'oO0u"r3ii s(i* De!"co < i con#inu( "8en#ur" sc>im'(rii men#"!i#( ii consum"#ori!or
p(#run3$n <n for ( eB"c# <n s"nc#u"ru! 0ospo(riei e pre#u#ineni@ 'uc(#(ri". Aic" !ocu!
e une p!e"c( r((cini!e unei euc" ii "!imen#"re 0re i#e. Aco!o N" u! ofer( mo33"re!"
spre e0us#"re m"me!or i copii!or c"re "u ";uns s( #r(i"sc( <n i0nor"n " f" " e !ucruri!e
simp!e i s(n(#o"se* "#ori#( presiunii pro'!eme!or 3i!nice c"re i/"u f(cu# s( renun e !"
'une!e #r"i ii "!imen#"re i s( recur0( !" f"s# foo i sn"cCs/uri <n fiec"re 3i.
)5
?i0.).9. EBecu ii <n ATL pen#ru Toni De!"co* 2==2
5urs"@ >##p@LLNNN.Oou#u'e.comLN"#c>-8ZO8C]Prrns'X

?i0. ).1=. EBecu ie No''!er pen#ru Cor"* 2==2
)4
5urs"@ "r>i8" person"!"
?i0.).11. 5"mp!in0 or0"ni3"# <n Cor"* 2==2
5urs"@ "r>i8" person"!"
)%
De "semene"* "u m"i eBis#"# o seri" e rec!"me c"re "u ru!"# !" T. " c(ror
pro#"0oni #i "u fos# "semene" unor pre3en#"#ori e emisiuni.
Tonu! conescenen# "! pro#"0onis#u!ui in spo#uri* nume!e WAnreiW c"re "min#e"
e!oc su'#i! e in8i#"#u! cons#"n# pe !" iferi#e emisiuni i #e!e8i3iuni r. Cris#i"n Anrei
i mou! <n c"re 0(se" e! so!u ii!e !" #o"#e pro'!eme!e <n#r/un c"sc"8"! n/" pre" con#ri'ui#
!" <m'un(#( ire" comunic(rii De!"co. I"r up( spo#uri!e e 0enu! WRi #i i c$ #i0iW* s/"
"us norm"!i#"#e" 'r"nu!ui <n"poi* "r #ocm"i "s#" e pro'!em"@ De!"co n/"re nimic
neo'i nui#* nimic c"re s( rup( !ini"ri#"#e" c"#e0oriei.
?i0. ).12. Re!"m" De!"co / ine/! "pro"pe
5urs" >##p@LLNNN.Oou#u'e.comLN"#c>-8Zo^RUO4I+MN
An "ces#e coni#ii* <n 2=11 s/" !u"# eci3i" re<mprosp(#(rii im"0inii De!"co* prin
re"!i3"re" unui re'r"nin0. Pro'!eme specifice !" ni8e! e or0"ni3":ie 1i 'r"n@
/ Lips" unor 8"!ori c"p"'i!e s(/i repre3in#e pe "n0";":iJ
/ Lips" unei cu!#uri or0"ni3":ion"!eJ
/ Lips" e coeren:( <n im"0ine G!o0o* comunic"re" eB#ern(* si0n"!e#ic" e#cHJ
/ Iei!e preconcepu#e@ eBis#" pu ine oc"3ii e consumJ
/ Im"0ine" ne"#r(0(#o"re cree"#(.
Au fos# "op#"#e ) "Be e sc>im'"re pen#ru un ori3on# e &/5 "ni@
Por#ofo!iu e prouseJ
Comunic"re" eB#ern(J
Re e"u" e is#ri'ui#oriJ
Cre #ere" 0r"u!ui e en0"0emen# cu consum"#orii i posi'i!ii consum"#ori.
24
24
5urs" >##p@LLNNN.f"n'r"n3".roLsi0nup
)9
WEc>ip" De!"co " cre"# "ces# nou c"1c"8"! cu 0$nu! !" 3i!e!e p!ine* !" p(rin:ii 0r"'i:i*
!" copiii pre#en:io1i 1i !" 'unicii 0ri;u!ii. De5en8i1 se #"ie r"pi* se "sor#e"3( u1or cu
!e0ume* cu un pic e crem( e 'r$n3(* cu un pic e c(rni:(... Din 2/& mi1c(ri "i 0"#" ce8"
'un* 1i <:i r(m$ne 1i #imp pen#ru iscu:ii!e e !" e0"! !" e0"! <n f"mi!ie. L" urm" urmei*
"s#" es#e ce" m"i m"re pro8oc"re <n 3i!e!e no"s#re/ s( ne f"cem #imp s( ne <n:e!e0em unii
pe "!:ii.W " ec!"r"# D"ni Dumi#r"1cu* M"rCe#in0 M"n"0er De!"co Rom$ni".
2%

As#fe! "u fos# se!ec#"#e* <n urm" unui pi#c> or0"ni3"# <n 2=11 T <ncepu#u! !ui 2=12*
ou( "0en ii e pu'!ici#"#e@ CAP pen#ru s#r"#e0ie e 'r"n i Mu!#imei" Es# pen#ru
prouc i" rec!"me!or e !" T.. Proiec#u! e re'r"nin0 " em"r"# <n 2=11 i con#inu( i
<n "ces# "n* <ns( re3u!#"#e!e s/"u 8(3u# <nc( e "#unci prin inic"#orii e 8$n3(ri* e
profi#"'i!i#"#e* "r i prin cei e 'r"n.
4.6. Procesul de rebranding
An"!i3" 5[OT
Punc#e #"ri@
Br"n cunoscu#
.ec>ime" pe pi"#" e !"c#"#e
Punc#e s!"'e@
Pr"fuire" 'r"nu!ui
Concuren#" "cer'" pe pi"#" e
!"c#"#e
Opor#uni#"#i@
Re'r"nin0
Amenin#"ri@
In#eresu! sc"3u# "! cump"r"#ori!or
Compe#i#i8i#"#e" si in8es#i#i" in
'r"n " ce!or!"!#or ;uc"#ori
C$1#i0"#o"re" concursu!ui pen#ru re"!i3"re" s#r"#e0iei e 'r"n* "0en i" CAP* s/"
ocup"# e "ui#"re i po3i ion"re 1i " !ucr"# cu ec>ip" De!"co #imp un "n* re"!i3$n
ref"cere" ien#i#( ii e comunic"re " 'r"nu!ui* p!"#form( e comunic"re eB#ern(* esi0n
Ne'si#e i pro0r"me e 'r"n en0"0emen#. An"!i3" ini i"!( " re!e8"# c( un" in c"u3e!e
ero(rii po3i iei De!"co <n u!#imii "ni " fos# i f"p#u! c( i/" refu3"# proprii!e prouse* i"r
prin "ce"s#" propri" ien#i#"#e* i"r un nou 'r"n #re'ui" s( re"uc( !" !umin( "ce"s#(
uri" ( 8"!o"re "scuns(.
Nou" ien#i#"#e p(#rune <n min#e" cump(r(#oru!ui i se '"3e"3( pe oferie" unor
iei pen#ru m"i mu!#e posi'i!i#( i e consum. Un eBemp!u po#ri8i# es#e 'r$n3" L"p#e e
P"s(re pen#ru c"re s/" cree"# o oc"3ie e consum.
Comunic"re" 'r"nu!ui fo!ose #e in punc# e 8eere 8i3u"! "ce!e" i #r(s(#uri* "u
fos# sc>im'"#e o"r 8"!ori!e 'r"nu!ui i #"r0e#u! c"re <nce"rc( s( "c"p"re3e pe #o i
mem'rii unei f"mi!ii.
2%
Dumi#r" cu* D"ni* M"rCe#in0 M"n"0er De!"co Rom$ni"* pen#ru >##p@LLNNN.e8".roLc"s"/si/
f"mi!ieLs>oppin0Le!"co/esen8is/m"i/mu!#/#imp/pen#ru/f"mi!i"/#"/"r#ico!/)1=92.>#m!
)2
?"mi!i" Br$n3oi es#e o f"mi!ie pu in m"i "!#fe!. Ei* Br$n3oii* <mp(r#( esc "cee" i
p"siune prees#in"#( f" ( e 'r$n3e#uri* c>i"r "c( fiec"re "re mo#i8e iferi#e. Unu! 8re"
s( fie mereu <n cen#ru! "#en iei* "!#u! s( fie !(s"# <n p"ce <n co! i oru! !ui. i #o#u i se
comp!e#e"3( perfec#_ Cee" ce <i une #e es#e orin " e "/ i urm" p"siuni!e pe c"re !e "u_
I"r "ces#e" nu se re3um( !" 'r$n3(... Ce! m"i impor#"n# pen#ru fiec"re in#re ei es#e s( < i
#r(i"sc( 8i" " "s#fe! <nc$# s(/ i re"!i3e3e 8ise!e. P$n( i Puf" Gpisic" f"mi!ieiH urm(re #e
"#en#( u!#ime!e #iri* o"r o"r se 8" in8en#" fri0ieru! cu esc>iere !" mieun"#. De i
po"#e p(re" surprin3(#or* O!0" es#e c"pu! f"mi!iei i e" es#e ce" c"re " ini i"# "ces# proiec#
prin c"re oricine po"#e f"ce p"r#e in f"mi!ie. 5in0ure!e ou( coni ii sun#@ s( nu#re"sc( o
p"siune serio"s( pen#ru un #ip e 'r$n3e#uri i s( "i'( pe !is#" priori#( i!or un 8is e
<mp!ini#.
To#u! " <ncepu# cu perio"" <n c"re Be'e Br$n3oi "8e" 5 "ni i s#(#e" !" 'unicii !ui
!" "r(* <n s"#u! Bune #i* ;ue u! Br" o8. Aco!o* #u u i m" " Gcum !e 3ice" e! 'unici!orH
"8e"u o mic( ferm( cu 5 8"ci* c"re (e"u fiec"re c"m 2= e !i#ri e !"p#e pe 3i. ?iinc(
m";ori#"#e" ce!or in s"# "8e"u ce! pu in c$#e o 8"c( s"u ou(* nu pre" pu#e"u 8ine !"p#e*
" " c( s/"u speci"!i3"# <n f(cu#u! 'r$n3ei.
Au #es#"# i8erse re e#e i me#oe e " f"ce 'r$n3(* p$n( "u ";uns !" un" "nume*
"preci"#( <n #o"#e s"#e!e in 3on(. A " e 'un( er"* c( 8ene"u (r"ni 0ospo(ri i e !" 4
s"#e ep(r#"re s( cumpere e !" Ne" Cos#e!. A3i " "* m$ine " "* s#$n pe !$n0( 'unici*
Be'e* c"re "8e" i un nume e f"mi!ie prees#in"# T Br$n3oi Gco"( e pisoiH* " <n8( "# o
mu! ime e !ucruri espre 'r$n3e#uri i nu er" 3i <n c"re s( nu !e ron (ie cu p!(cere <n
!ocu! !ui prefer"# Gsu' uu! in f" " c"seiH.
T"n#i +e#" G'un" !ui Be'eH "8e" c>i"r o 8or'(@ P(/i copi!u!ui 'r$n3( i !"s(/! s(
"!er0e i s( c"(* 8" "8e" o"se pu#ernice i suf!u 'unQ. A!#eori 3ice"@ Vm"n$nc( 'r$n3( <n
fiec"re 3i i n/o s( "i ne8oie e oc#oriiQ. A " Be'e Br"n3oi " ";uns s( iu'e"sc( 'r$n3"...
Timpu! #rece pen#ru #o"#( !ume"* i"r copi!u! e "#unci s/" f(cu# m"re i s/" us !"
f"cu!#"#e* "r " r(m"s cu oru! <n suf!e#* pen#ru 0us#u! in#ens e !"p#e pro"sp(# "! 'r$n3ei
f(cu#( e 'unicii !ui. A " c( " #o# c(u#"#. M"i <n#$i pe !" prie#eni* "poi !" m"0"3ine... A
0us#"# e #o"#e "r nu " 0(si# ce c(u#"...
An#r/o 3i* f(c$nu/ i cump(r(#uri!e !" superm"rCe#* s/" <nrep#"# spre r"ionu! e
!"c#"#e <n "ce!" i #imp cu o f"#( fo"r#e frumo"s(. O sin0ur( "iere e p"rfum i s/" sim i#
e!ec#ri3"#. Be'e* "8$n <ncreere c( nimic nu es#e <n#$mp!(#or* m"i "!es fiinc( se "f!"u <n
f" " r"f#uri!or cu 'r$n3e#uri* i/" 3$m'i# i i/" opri# co u! e cump(r(#uri spun$nu/i@
VBun"* Br$n3oi es#e nume!e meu e f"mi!ie. Cum i s/"r p(re" s( #e c>eme i pe #ine !"
fe!-Q. E" " fos# fo"r#e "mu3"#( e "ce"s#( iee i " "ccep#"# o in8i#" ie !" res#"ur"n# <n
"cee" i se"r(. A " " <ncepu# frumo"s" !or po8es#e e iu'ire.
5/"u c(s(#ori# !" Br" o8 T or" u! e suf!e# "! O!0(i. L" 8reun "n e !" n" #ere"
Miei T primu! !or copi! T Be'e " mers !" cump(r(#uri cu n(3r(8"n". L" r"f# " !(s"#/o pe
e" s( "!e0" c" c"8"!u! pen#ru s(p#(m$n" ce #ocm"i <ncepe". C$n " ";uns "c"s( i "
0us#"# in primu! sen8i * " <ncepu# s( op(ie i s( r$( c" ne'unu! prin #o"#( c"s".
Lucru e m"re mir"re* pen#ru c( omnu! Br"n3oi nu er" u or e scos in "!e s"!e. Acum
<ns( ip" <n#r/un"@ VAs#" e_ As#" e_ 7s#" e 0us#u!_Q. +(sise <n sf$r i# un c" c"8"! cu
"ce!" i 0us# e !"p#e pro"sp(#* cum num"i 'unicii !ui #i"u s( f"c(. Mi" " fos# "1""r
m$nu " c"re " "us <n c"s" f"mi!iei Br$n3oi c" c"8"!u! 5ofi"...
De "#unci* #o#u! es#e is#orie. ?"mi!i" Br"n3oi " crescu#* "u 8eni# pe !ume i cei oi
'(ie i... mu!#e s/"u sc>im'"#* "r nu i con8in0ere" f"mi!iei c" fiec"re om #re'uie s( < i
5=
p(s#re3e "prins( curio3i#"#e"* s( < i urme3e p"siuni!e i ne"p(r"# s( m(n$nce 'r$n3( <n
fiec"re 3i.
As#" m"i "!es e c$n "u "f!"# e !" omnu! Miron Br$n3oi* m"re p"sion"# e
s#"#is#ici* c( in#re #o i europenii* rom$nii sun# co" i !" consumu! e 'r$n3( T i"r e "ici
o mu! ime e pro'!eme e s(n(#"#e.
Mem'rii "c#u"!ei f"mi!ii Br$n3oi sun#@ #"#(! Be'e* m"m" O!0"* copiii Mi"* Cos#i
i +us#i* 'unicu! Miron i ce!e 2 "nim"!e e comp"nie.
29
?i0. ).1&.Be'e T p"sion"# e Mie3 e !"p#e cu s"re ?i0.).1).O!0"/p"sion"#" e Ce8" ?in
?i0.).15. Mi"/p"sion"#" e Ce8" fin pufos ?i0.).14.Cos#i/p"sion"# e
C" c"8 esen8i
?i0.).19. Miron si +us#i Tp"sion" i
e Mie3 e L"p#e
29
NNN.f"n'r$n3(.roLf"mi!i"
51
Re!"ns"re" 'r"nu!ui s/" re"!i3"# prin fo!sire" miBu!ui e m"rCe#in0* prin in#ermeiu!
ce!or ) P@
Promo8"re@ re"!i3"#( prin meii!e e ATL* BTL i fo"r#e pu#ernic <n on/!ine
Prous@ re"!i3"# prin focusu! pu#ernic pe prouse!e su' 'r"nu! um're!( De!"co
Pre @ re!i3"# prin #e>nici!e e promo8"re "min#i#e <n c"pi#o!u! "n#erior
P!"cemen#Gis#ri'u ieH@ prin !(r0ire" re e!ei e is#ri'u ie !" ni8e! n" ion"!
1. Promo8"re"
Cri#eriu! e iferen iere <n#re pu'!ici#"#e" Pe"supr" !inieiQ GA'o8e #>e !ine T ATLH i
pu'!ici#"#e" Peesu'#u! !inieiQ GBe!oN #>e !ine T BTLH es#e <n principiu c"n"!u! e
comunic"re fo!osi# pen#ru ifu3"re" mes";e!or.
Comunic"re" ATL G<n 0ener"! prin m"ss/mei"H* c"re !"s( eci3i" e
"scu!#"reL8i3ion"re " mes";u!ui pu'!ici#"r !" !"#i#uine" pu'!icu!ui !"r0. Consum"#orii sun#
:in#" unei con8in0eri f(r( presiune irec#(. An "ce"s#( c"#e0orie in#r(@ pu'!ici#"#e" prin
in#ermeiu! prin#uri!or i0i#"!e/offse#* inoor 1i ou#oor.* pu'!ici#"#e" "uio / spo#uri
r"io* rec!"me 1i spo#uri T.* si#uri Ne' / promo8"re on!ine. Es#e ce! m"i fo!osi# mo e
promo8"re. Cos#uri!e sun# reuse* "'or"re" es#e #o#"! !ipsi#( e in#ru3iune i"r eficien:" e
ce!e m"i mu!#e ori es#e sc(3u#(. Prin "ces# mo e "'or"re " pu'!icu!ui nu se prime1#e
fee'"cC irec#* nu se po"#e con#ro!" momen#u! e recep:ie " mes";u!ui i"r e8"!u"re"
eficien:ei presupune cos#uri sup!imen"re.
Pen#ru "ces# #ip e comunic"re " fos# cre"#( o serie e 4 episo"e* une
pro#"0oni #ii sun# mem'rii f"mi!iei Br$n3oi. ?iec"re rec!"m( "r"#( oc"3i" e consum i
#"r0e#u! c(#re c"re es#e <nrep#"# prousu!.
52
?i0. ).12. C!ipuri f"mi!i" Br$n3oi
5urs"@ NNN.f"n'r"n3".ro
De "semene"* comunic"re" ATL es#e repre3en#"#( i e meiu! on!ine. An "ces#
sens po# "min#i e si#e/u! speci"! cre"# pen#ru "ce"s#( c"mp"nie* c$# i e p"0in" e
?"ce'ooC pen#ru soci"! mei". Am'e!e meii e promo8"re se "rse"3( unui #"r0e# in
meiu! ur'"n* cu un ni8e! meiu i pes#e meiu e euc" ie* c"re "u "cces !" In#erne# i
#iu s( <! u#i!i3e3e. O "!#( men iune impor#"n#( es#e "cee" c( se <nce"rc( "s#fe! cree"re"
unei !e0"#uri cu consum"#oru!* c"re es#e <nscris cu "crou! s(u <n#r/o '"3( e "#e i 8"
primi neNs!e##ere i up"#e/uri impor#"n#e i perioice. P"0ini!e speci"!e cre"#e sun#
NNN.f"n'r"n3".ro i NNN.f"ce'ooC.comLf"n'r"n3".
Comunic"re" BTL GBe!oN/#>e/!ineH es#e comunic"re irec#( 1i in#er"c:iune f"ce #o
f"ce cu se0men#e specifice in #"r0e#. An "ce"s#( c"#e0orie in#r(@ irec# m"i!in0* promo:ii*
m"#eri"!e promo:ion"!e* e8enimen#e* #$r0uri 1i eBpo3i:ii Ace"s#( form( e promo8"re nu
5&
se !imi#e"3( !" ce!e enumer"#e m"i sus. O c"mp"nie BTL presupune mu!#( imp!ic"re*
cre"#i8i#"#e 1i cuno"1#e re3u!#"#e imei"#e. ?ie!i3"re" consum"#oru!ui prin in#er"c:iune"
irec#( 1i perm"nen#( "si0ur( un succes 0"r"n#"# "supr" in8es#i:iei <n promo8"re.
Pen#ru "ces# #ip e comunic"re "u fos# p!"nific"#e s#r"#e0ic sesiuni e s"mp!in0 <n
>Operm"rCe#/uri precum C"rrefour pen#ru " pune prousu! irec# <n !e0(#ur( cu
consum"#oru!. An p!us* s"mp!in0u! po"#e fi percepu# e c(#re unii consum"#ori i c" un
c"ou in p"r#e" prouc(#oru!ui* 0ener$on o "#u#iine po3i#i8( f" ( e 'r"n. L"c#"#e!e
nu sun# #ocm"i prouse!e pen#ru " fi escrise prin in#ermeiu! "8er#isin0u!ui* e "cee"
0us#"re" "ces#or" es#e fo!osi#( pen#ru c" 'eneficiu! e c"re ispune s( fie "preci"#.
?i0. ).2=. 5#"n De!"co <n C"rrefour* m"i 2=12
5urs"@ "r>i8" person"!"
Ac#i8i#"#e" in BTL " con#inu"# cu i#ri'uire" e f!Oere pen#ru prousu! Mie3 e
L"p#e* p!i"n# ce con ine me#oe e prep"r"re* <n func ie e #ipu! e prous. 5/" cre"#
"s#fe! o oc"3ie e consum i o s#r"#e0ie pen#ru "#r"0ere" po#en i"!i!or consum"#ori i
c!ien i.
?i0.).21. ?!Oer Mie3 e Lp"#e* is#ri'ui# <n C"rrefour* m"i 2=12
5)
5urs"@ "r>i8" person"!"
2. Prous
?ocusu! pu#ernic pe prouse!e su' 'r"nu! um're!( De!"co "re c" "8"n#";e c" #i0"re"
renume!ui i f"p#u! c" 8$n3"re" es#e f"cu#( e 'r"n. An "ce"s#( er( omin"#( e
mu!#imei"* confirm"re" 8er'"!( " unui prous es#e 0"r"n i" !ui i " c"!i#( ii. 5( !u"m un
eBemp!u in superm"rCe# s"u >Operm"rCe#. Consum"#oru! 8" "!e0e 'r"n/u! e c"re es#e
mu! umi#* pe '"3" unei eBperien e p!(cu#e "n#erio"re.
A8$n in 8eere "ces#e #r(s(#uri 8i#"!e pen#ru eBis#en " 'r"nu!ui* prouc(#oru! e
!"c#"#e De!"co i/" focus"# "c#i8i#"#e" <n "ces# sens i " m"Bimi3"# posi'i!e!e 'eneficii.
?i0.).22. Prouse su' m"rc" DELACO
5urs"@ NNN.f"n'r"n3".ro
55
&. Pre
Pro'"'i! c( re"c i" !" num(ru! m"re e promo ii pe '"3( e pre in m"i mu!#e
c"#e0orii e prouse* o serie e comp"nii c"re 8$n irec# consum"#ori!or "u <ncerc"#
form"#u! pre uri!or mici <n fiec"re 3iGEDLPH. Aces# #ip e po!i#ic( e s#"'i!ire " pre uri!or
ofer( pre uri c"re sun# cons#"n#e <n #imp.
5#r"#e0ii!e EDLP "u po#en i"!u! e " "#r"0e consum"#orii pen#ru c( po# mic or"
#impu! pe c"re "ce #i" <! pe#rec c(u#$n un pre mic. De!"co " "p!ic"# "ce"s#( #e>nic(
pen#ru c$#e8" in prouse!e in por#ofo!iu! comp"niei.
?i0.).2&. Reucere e pre pen#ru c" c"8"!u! De!"co* iunie 2=12
5urs" >##p@LLNNN.c"rrefour.roLpromo#ieLospeci"!eLc"sc"8"!/sofi"/25=/0/e!"co/2&=).>#m!
Reuceri!e e pre "p!ic"#e e c(#re proic(#ori sco# <n e8ien ( prouse!e e pe
r"f#uri* "s#fe! <nc$# consum"#orii s( #ie c( primesc pe !oc un iscoun#. Un 'eneficiu
e8ien# "! reuceri!or e pre es#e oferire" unui f"c#or e iferen iere consum"#ori!or
"f!" i !" punc#u! e ">i3i ie. Consum"#orii sensi'i!i !" pre uri po# s( o'ser8e prousu!
m"rc"# e pe r"f# i s( eci( s( <! cumpere pe "ces#" i nu un prous "! concuren ei*
"#ori#( iscoun#u!ui oferi#. Prin urm"re iscoun#uri!e po# fi m"i eficien#e ec$# co'or$re"
pre u!ui prousu!ui* eo"rece m"rc";u! e pe prous po"#e s( "#r"0( "#en i" unor
consum"#ori c"re "!#fe! nu "r fi comp"r"# pre uri!e #u#uror prouse!or in c"#e0ori"
respec#i8(.
). P!"cemen#Gis#ri'u i"H
5un# !" ispo3i i" c!ien i!or 2) e ore in 2)* % 3i!e in %. Li8re"3( <n #o"#( "r" i "u
repre3en#"n i c"re "coper( #o"#e ;ue e!e. To"#e prouse!e in por#ofo!iu! !or necesi#(
#emper"#ur" con#ro!"#( e epo3i#"re i #r"nspor#. Pen#ru c" prouse!e !or s( ";un0( <n
coni ii op#ime !" es#in" ie "u cre"#@ propriu! p"rc "u#o e pes#e 4= e m" ini pen#ru
54
for " e 8$n3(ri i )= e m" ini fri0orifice cu c"p"ci#"#e" e 1.5# / 19#* un epo3i#
fri0orific moern* si#u"# <n Co!e"* cu c"p"ci#"#e" e epo3i#"re e )=== europ"!e iJ
"ces#" <nep!ine #e ce!e m"i eBi0en#e cerin e "!e Uniunii Europene* fiin cer#ific"# I5O
22=== e c(#re o firm( e!8e i"n(.
De "semene"* ispun e & cen#re !o0is#ice <n "r(* une eru!e"3( oper" iuni e cross/
ocCin0@ Bucure #i* B"c(u i Ar".
CONCLUZII I PROPUNERI
An socie#"#e" con#empor"n(* 'r"nu!* !" fe! c" #o"#e "spec#e!e 8ie ii* es#e "fec#"#
pu#enic e 0!o'"!i3"re. Br"nuri!e "u e8eni# e!emen#e in#ern" ion"!e* c"re con#ri'uie !"
procesu!ui 8i#"! e 0!o'"!i3"re. Mic>e!in " e8eni# un 'r"n !" scur# #imp e !" !"ns"re*
"r <n pes#e 1== e "ni. Ans( p$n( "cum 2= e "ni* Mic>e!in nu er" un 'r"n ec$# <n
5UA* <n Europ" Occien#"!( i "!#e c$#e8" (ri i3o!"#e. De "#unci* !ucruri!e s/"u sc>im'"#@
" p(#runs pu#ernic pe m";ori#"#e" pie e!or* <n p"r#e mu! umi#( procesu!ui e 0!o'"!i3"re*
e8enin un 'r"n 0!o'"!. Aces#" es#e o"r un eBemp!u.M";ori#"#e" 'r"nuri!or "u ";uns
<n u!#imii 2= e "ni <n ce!e m"i <nep(r#"#e co! uri "!e !umii* precum "0en i" rom$nesc(
e 'r"n Br"ien# c"re i/" esc>i e cur$n un 'irou <n Ini". Ans 'r"nin0u! es#e i
un promo#or "! 0!o'"!i3(rii. +!o'"!i3"re" es#e ce" c"re " ni8e!"# <n sus preferin e!e
consum"#ori!or. Iniferen# e c"#e0ori" soci"!( s"u e p"r#icu!"ri#( i!e cu!#ur"!e*
consum"#orii c"u#( prouse i ser8icii e c"!i#"#e* <ncur";$n comp"nii!e s( m(re"sc(
c>e!#uie!i!e e cerce#"re/e38o!#"re* pen#ru " ino8" i " o' ine "8"n#"; comp"r"#i8 <n f" "
concuren i!or. Cre #ere" concuren ei* prin s#imu!"re" ino8(rii* repre3in#( un mo#or "!
cre #erii c"!i#( ii prouse!or i ser8icii!or <n coni ii!e sc(erii pre uri!or. Concuren " "
<n0reun"# <ns( eci3i" e "c>i3i ie @ sun# m"i mu!#e posi'i!i#( i* m"i mu!#e riscuri. To#u!
ine e ni8e!u! e cuno #in e "! consum"#ori!or* c"re #ine s( cre"sc"* mu! umi#(
e38o!#(rii in#erne#u!ui i "!e me#oe!or e inform"re <n m"s(..ii#oru! 'r"nin0u!ui 8" fi
s#r$ns !e0"# e 0!o'"!i3"re 1i e e38o!#"re" ser8icii!or. An #imp* cre #ere" compe#i#i8i#( ii
0!o'"!e 8or e#ermin" comp"nii!e pre3en#e pe pi" " s!"' e38o!#e* s(/ i m(re"sc(
f!eBi'i!i#"#e"* pen#ru " f"ce f" " coni ii!or e concuren ( "cer'(. Aces#e comp"nii 8or
omin" pie:e!e !oc"!e* re0ion"!e 1i in#ern"#ion"!e* <ne#rimen#u! firme!or mici* c"re
"c:ione"3( !oc"!. Br"nu! i 'r"nin0u! "u e8eni# in seco!u! "! ^^/!e" e!emen#e e o
impor#"n " cruci"!( pen#ru orice omeniu e "c#i8i#"#e* ";un0$nu/se p"n" !" iee" e
'r"nin0 person"!.
De "semene"* comp!eBi#"#e" "c#e!or e comer " "#ins un mi8e! eB#rem e riic"#.
Din ce <n ce m"i mu!#e prouse s"u ser8icii po# fi "c>i3i ion"#e in confor#u!
c(minu!ui person"!* fo!osin in#erne#u!. Br"nin0u! " fos# ne8oi# s( se ""p#e3e i
"ces#ui fenomen* "p(r$n concep#u! e 'r"nin0 on/!ine. To# in#erne#u! es#e ce! c"re "
e#ermin"# o cre #ere " ni8e!u!ui e cunos#in e "!e consum"#ori!or espre
5%
prouse!e e pe pi" (. Consum"#ori i "u inform" ii comp!e#e espre prouse!e pe c"re
in#en ione"3( s( !e "c>i3i ione3e. An p!us* ei #iu c$n es#e momen#u! opor#un pen#ru "
f"ce o "c>i3i ie. De "cee"* comp"nii!e <nce"rc ( s(/ i reorien#e3e o'iec#i8e!e inspre
m"Bimi3"re" profi#u!ui c(#re o' inere" e8o#"men#u!ui consum"#ori!or* o' in$n o co#(
e pi" ( c$# m"i 'un(. Un "!# e!emen# c"re inf!uen e"3( 'r"nin0u! i c"re c" "8e" un ro!
cruci"! <n 8ii#oru!"ces#ui" es#e 0!o'"!i3"re" !im'ii en0!e3e. Din ce <n ce m"i mu!#e
'r"nuri "op#( rep# !im'( m"#ern( !im'" en0!e3(* i"r 'r"nuri!e c"re "u o !e0"#ur( m"i
mic( cu !im'" en0!e3( #in s( re<mprosp(#e3e* pen#ru " f"ce f" " pro8oc(ri!or 8ii#oru!ui.
An "ces# fe!* "p"re re'r"nin0u!. Re'r"nin0u! es#e un proces risc"n# pen#ru orice
comp"nie* <ns( es#e un Pr(u neces"rQ* pen#ru c( o comp"nie cu pre#en ii nu po"#e re3is#"
pe pi" ( <n coni ii!e <n c"re "re <n por#ofo!iu un 'r"n <n8ec>i#* c"re nu m"i ofer(
"#r"c ie consum"#ori!or. A ""r* pen#ru re"!i3"re" re'r"nin0u!ui es#e ne8oie e o
p!"nific"re fo"r#e "#en#(. Cic!u! e 8i":( "! 'r"nuri!or es#e un "!# e!emen# c"re e#ermin(
procesu! e re'r"nin0. Cic!u! e 8i" ( "! 'r"nu!ui es#e ien#ific"# e pi":" e consum@
up( !"ns"re* 'r"nuri!e cresc repee* ";un0 !" m"#uri#"#e* up( c"re urme"3( o perio"(
e p!"fon"reJ up( un #imp G8"ri"'i! <n func:ie e c"r"c#eris#ici!e pie:eiH* <ncepe un ec!in
c"re se "ccen#ue"3( r"pi* re3u!#"#u! <n0ri;or"#or fiin sc(ere" 8$n3(ri!or. Pen#ru
cre1#ere" "ces#or"* prousu! e re!"ns"# prin#r/o nou( c"mp"nie. Re'r"nin0u! c"p(#(
"mp!o"re <n u!#imii "ni* c" urm"re " ne8oii comp"nii!or e " <mprosp(#" im"0ine" 1i
8"!ori!e unui 'r"n* e "/! moerni3". As#fe!* nou! 'r"n 8" "8e" m"i mu!#e 1"nse e
reu1i#( pe pi":" moni"!(* c"r"c#eri3"#( prin#r/o cre1#ere con#inu( " perform"n:ei 1i "
f!eBi'i!i#(:ii.
Re'r"nin0/u! c"p(#( "mp!o"re i <n Rom$ni"* m"i "!es <n c"3u! firme!or cu
no#orie#"#e. Nu pu#em omi#e e "ici fenomene!e e re'r"nin0 <nre0is#r"#e e@
Di"!o0GOr"n0eH* RD5* C"rp"#in"* Rompe#ro!* BRD* ?!"nco s"u Cec B"nC.
An conc!u3ie* un 'r"n <! ien#ific( i pe 8$n3(#or* i prouc(#or T po"#e fi un
nume* o enumire comerci"!(* o em'!em( s"u un "!# sim'o!. Un 'r"n es#e promisiune
"unui 8$n3(#or e " !e furni3" cump(r(#ori!or* <n mo cons#"n#* un "numi# se# e "#ri'u#e
c"r"c#eris#ice* "8"n#";e 1i ser8icii. D"r un 'r"n es#e i "#" "men#u!* <ncreere"
consum"#oru!ui <n prousu! s"u ser8iciu! oferi# . An c"3u! <n c"re un 'r"n nu reu e #e s(
respec#e un" in ce!e 2 coni ii* es#e ne8oie e un 'r"n nou* e o re0$nire " "#ri'u#e!or*
" c"r"c#eris#ici!or* " 8"!ori!or i " im"0inii 'r"nu!ui.Or0"ni3":ii!e in8es#esc mi!io"ne e
o!"ri <n c"mp"nii e comunic"re "!e 'r"nu!ui* <ns( consum"#orii sun# cei c"re eci
"c( "ces#" se riic( !" ni8e!u! " #ep#(ri!or* "c" se po"#e "c>i#" e promisiune" pe c"re o
f"ce c!ien#u!ui.
Pre3en " !" r"f# <n !"n uri!e e >Operm"rCe#uri i superm"rCe#uri es#e s!"'(. 5pre
eose'ire e "! i prouc(#ori in inus#ri" e !"c#"#e c"re "u fri0iere person"!i3"#e i
sep"r"#e* 'r"nu! De!"co nu se iferen "3( <n "ce"s#( pri8in (.
A8"n#";e!e fri0iere!or person"!i3"#e es#e punere" !" un !oc " #u#uror prouse!or
m"rc" De!"co* consum"#oru! "8$n "s#fe! posi'i!i#"#e" e "!e0e in#r/o 0"m( 8"ri"#( e
prouse* po"#e espre c"re pen#ru une!e nu #i" e eBis#en " !or.
De "semene"* o "!#( propunere se refer( !" o con#inui#"#e <n comunic"re 1i
ien#i#"#e* <n "ces# momen# eBis#$n o confu3ie in c"u3" eficien:e!or e comunic"re 1i "
moific(ri!or mu!# pres ese pri8in crein:e!e 1i s#"#u#u! 'r"nu!ui.
Pe !$n0( f"p#u! c( es#e !e0"# in#rinsec e pi" " s" prin "#ri'u#e!e specifice* un
'r"n m"i epine i e su'iec#i8ismu! pu'!icu!ui in#(. Denumire" unui prous T cu "!#e
59
cu8in#e* un 'r"n T "re s"u nu re!e8"n ( i <n func ie e cri#erii emo0r"fice* 0eo0r"fice
s"u soci"!e.
Procesu! e cre"re " unui 'r"n <ncepe cu "ce" propunere unic( e 8$n3"re G8"!ue
proposi#ion s"u uni\ue se!!in0 proposi#ionH. O ofer#( pe c"re po#en:i"!ii c!ien:i s( o
perce"p( cu in#eres. Urm"#o"re" e#"p( cons#( <n "/i con8in0e s( <ncerce 'r"n/u!
respec#i8* e "cee" propun or0"ni3"re" e s"mp!in0uri <n mo frec8en#.
Prin "ce"s#( com'in":ie " comunic(rii consis#en#e 1i eBperien:ei p!(cu:e se
cons#ruie1#e 'r"n "N"renes/u! Gcon1#ien#i3"re" 'r"n/u!uiH* <ncreere" 1i 8"!o"re" 'r"n/
u!ui respec#i8 G'r"n e\ui#OH.
Bi'!io0r"fie@
1. Ue"n/ Noe! E"pferer* Strategic Brand Management:New Approches to Creating
and Evaluating Brand Equity GLonon@ Eo0"n P"0e* 1222H* p"0.&9 1i urm.J
Uennifer L. A"Cer* VDimensions of Br"n Person"!i#OQ* Journal of Mareting
!esearch" "u0us# 122%* p"0. &)%/54.
2. D"nciu* .ic#or* >##p@LLs#ore.ec#"p.roL"r#ico!eL1&).pf
&. D"8i A. A"Cer* Building Strong Brands GNeN XorC@ ?ree Press*1225. .e3i 1i
Ee8in L"ne Ee!!er* Strategic Brand Management: Building" Measuring" and
Managing Brand Equity GUpper 5"!e Ri8er* NU@Pre#ince D"!!* 1229H.
). M"rius Urs"c>e* Ce este re#randingul$" noiem'rie 2==&* NNN.m"rCmei".ro.
5. Dumi#r" cu* D"ni* M"rCe#in0 M"n"0er De!"co Rom$ni"* pen#ru
>##p@LLNNN.e8".roLc"s"/si/f"mi!ieLs>oppin0Le!"co/esen8is/m"i/mu!#/#imp/
pen#ru/f"mi!i"/#"/"r#ico!/)1=92.>#m!
4. er'u!escu* Lumini "* +$r"n D"nie! Ari"n* Bonre" Aure!i"n A.* +"n0u*
Pe#rone!"* Iu!i"n"* M"n"0emen#u! m(rcii i "! im"0inii e m"rc( * Ei#ur"
?un" iei Rom$ni" e M$ine* Bucure #i* 2==%* 11)
%. A. D"!O* D. Mo!oneO* M"n"0in0 Corpor"#e Re'r"nin0 <n Iris> M"rCe#in0
Re8ieN 8o!. %* nr 1 i 2* p.&1
9. L. Mu3e!!ec* Corpor"#e Re'r"nin0 T "n eBp!or"#orO re8ieN <n Iris> M"rCe#in0
Re8ieN
2. Bo0"n* Ane#"* Br"nin0 pe fron#u! e Es#* Ei#ur" Br"ien# Consu!#* Bucures#i*
2=11* p"0. 291
1=. Ro0er A. 5#r"n0* V5"!es Promo#ion T ?"s# +roN#>* ?"u!#O M"n"0emen#Q*
%arvard Business !eview" iu!ie/"u0us# 12%4* p"0. 114/12.
11. P>i!ip Eo#!er* Managementul Maretingului* Ei:i" "/III/"* Ei#ur" Teor"* 2==2*
p"0. 99).
12. In#er'r"n* T>e Br"n +!oss"rO* P"!0r"8e M"cmi!!"n* 2==4
1&. E"pferer* Ue"n Noe#* T>e neN s#r"#e0ic 'r"n m"n"0emen# "n "n sus#"inin0
'r"n e\ui#O !on0 #erm* Eo0"n P"0e* 2==9
1). 5c>u!#3* Don* Ro'inson* [i!!i"m A.* Pe#rison* Lis" A* Esen i"!u! espre
promo ii* Ei#ur" Br"n'ui!ers* Bucure #i* 2==5* p"0. 1%)
52
15. Corne!ui Mun#e"nu* Curs de !eclama &i 'romovarea ()n*+rilor" 2==2.
14. Eur# D. 5c>"ffir 1i D. +eor0e Tren#en* Mareting ,nformation System GNeN XorC@
Am"com* 12%&H* p"0. 91.
1%. D"i0* M"##* M"ri esecuri "!e unor 'r"nuri renumi#e* Ei#ur" Br"n'ui!ers*
Bucures#i* 2==5
19. O!ins* ["!!O* On 'r"n* T>"mes "n Duson* 2==&
12. O!ins ["!!O* T>e Br"n BooC* 5"ffron Br"n Consu!#"n#s in "ssoci"#ion Ni#>
T>"mes "n Duson* 2==9
2=. >##p@LLNNN.mfin"n#e.roLnumeCo.>#m!
21. >##p@LLNNN.Oou#u'e.comLN"#c>-8ZO8C]Prrns'X
22. >##p@LLNNN.Oou#u'e.comLN"#c>-8Z^.=0OAC2DNC
2&. >##p@LLNNN.Oou#u'e.comLN"#c>-8Zo^RUO4I+MN
2). >##p@LLNNN.f"n'r"n3".roLsi0nup
25. >##p@LLNNN.m"rCmei".roL"r#ic!eMs>oN.p>p-0MiZ2=9
24. >##p@LLNNN.scri#u'e.comLeconomieLConcep#u!/e/func#ie/"/
prousu21)1&1=&14.p>p
2%. >##p@LLm"re"8i#"mini3"re.roLprouseM"i#i8"/c"!cium//8i#/&M14
29. >##p@LLNNN.m"0"3inu!pro0resi8.roL"r#ico!L1199LL"p#eMRu!";eM'uneMpeMmoernM#
r"e.>#m!* "pri!ie 2=1=
22. >##p@LLNNN.m"0"3inu!pro0resi8.roL"r#ico!L&149LPen#ruMconsum"#oriMcri#erii!eMe
Mc"!i#"#eMprime"3"MinMf"#"Mpre#u!ui.>#m!* "pri!ie 2=12
&=. >##p@LLNNN.m"0"3inu!pro0resi8.roL"r#ico!L&149LPen#ruMconsum"#oriMcri#erii!eMe
Mc"!i#"#eMprime"3"MinMf"#"Mpre#u!ui.>#m!* "pri!ie 2=12
&1. >##p@LLm"0"3inu!pro0resi8.roL"r#ico!L&2))LCres#ere"Mfrec8en#eiMeMconsumMprinci
p"!"Mpro8oc"re.>#m!* m"i 2=12
&2. >##p@LLNNN.m"0"3inu!pro0resi8.roL"r#ico!L5&4LC"sc"8"!u!MinM#opu!Mce!orMm"iM8"
nu#eMprouseMinMcomer#u!Mmoern.>#m!* "n 2==2
&&. >##p@LLm"0"3inu!pro0resi8.roL"r#ico!L&2))LCres#ere"Mfrec8en#eiMeMconsumMprinci
p"!"Mpro8oc"re.>#m!* m"i 2=12
&). >##p@LLm"0"3inu!pro0resi8.roL"r#ico!L&2))LCres#ere"Mfrec8en#eiMeMconsumMprinci
p"!"Mpro8oc"re.>#m!* m"i 2=12
&5. >##p@LLmoern'uOer.roLin#er8iuL9/in#er8iuL&14)/romu!us/umi#ru/e!"co/\c"/s"/
iesim/in/;ocu!/promo#ii!or/nu/pu#em/ec"#/s"/ino8"m\* in#er8iu m"r#ie 2=12
&4. >##p@LLNNN.'r"nc>"nne!.comL>omeL
&%. >##p@LLNNN.#>em"rCe#er.co.uCL
4=