Sunteți pe pagina 1din 46

Guest Lecture to CityU (8 July 2009)

Course on Green Building, Architecture and People

Course on Green Building, Architecture and People Building Environmental Assessment Dr. Sam C M Hui
Course on Green Building, Architecture and People Building Environmental Assessment Dr. Sam C M Hui

Building Environmental Assessment

Course on Green Building, Architecture and People Building Environmental Assessment Dr. Sam C M Hui
Course on Green Building, Architecture and People Building Environmental Assessment Dr. Sam C M Hui

Dr. Sam C M Hui

Department of Mechanical Engineering The University of Hong Kong E-mail: cmhui@hku.hk

Jul 2009

Contents • Basic Principles • Assessment Criteria • Assessment M e th o d s

Contents

Contents • Basic Principles • Assessment Criteria • Assessment M e th o d s •

Basic Principles

Assessment Criteria

Assessment Methods

Current Tools

Contents • Basic Principles • Assessment Criteria • Assessment M e th o d s •
Contents • Basic Principles • Assessment Criteria • Assessment M e th o d s •
Basic Principles • Building environmental assessment • Identify & evaluate the environmental effects of bu

Basic Principles

Basic Principles • Building environmental assessment • Identify & evaluate the environmental effects of bu

Building environmental assessment

Identify & evaluate the environmental effects of

building development or operation

Inform decision making and promote sustainable

design & management

An objective assessment is a useful starting point from which to make design and building improvements

Basic Principles • Why environmental assessment? • Provide a common set of criteria & targets

Basic Principles

Basic Principles • Why environmental assessment? • Provide a common set of criteria & targets •

Why environmental assessment?

Provide a common set of criteria & targets

Guide design decisions & choices

Raise awareness of environmental issues/standards

Recognise & encourage good practices

Stimulate the market for sustainable construction

Allow a verifiable method & framework

Enable policies & regulation (e.g. certificate/label)

Improve management & prioritization (incentives)

Building Activities
Building Activities

Issues

Criteria

Environmental Assessment Assessment Methods Assessment Tools
Environmental
Assessment
Assessment
Methods
Assessment
Tools
Planning Development Design Construction Operation
Planning
Development
Design
Construction
Operation

Good practices

Guidelines

Environmental Performance Benchmarks Goals Ratings
Environmental
Performance
Benchmarks
Goals
Ratings
Basic Principles • Scop e/Scale of the evaluation • Building products • Bu ildi ng

Basic Principles

Basic Principles • Scop e/Scale of the evaluation • Building products • Bu ildi ng processes

Scope/Scale of the evaluation

Building products

Building processes

Structural members/elements

Building systems

Single buildings

Groups of buildings

District, urban, regional & city

New, existing & refurbished buildings

Assessment Criteria • A broad ran g e of criteria • Qualitative issues • Q

Assessment Criteria

Assessment Criteria • A broad ran g e of criteria • Qualitative issues • Q uan

A broad range of criteria

Qualitative issues

Quantitative issues

Types of criteria

Ecological vs health-related

Direct impacts vs indirect impacts

Immediate vs long-term implications

Global vs local

- site selection - urban design - landscape planning
- site selection
- urban design
- landscape planning
- CO 2 emissions - ac id ra n i - ozone depletion - rainforest
- CO 2 emissions
- ac
id
ra n
i
- ozone depletion
- rainforest de letion
p

- energy performance

- renewable energy

- water conservation

performance - renewa bl e ener gy - water conservation Environmental Criteria & F a c

Environmental Criteria & Factors

- material selection - recyc ng o li f mater a s i l -
- material selection
- recyc ng o
li
f
mater a s
i
l
-
waste management
-
di
sposa
l & r
euse
- environmental policy - transport strategy - u b ildi ng ma n i t
- environmental policy
- transport strategy
- u
b ildi
ng ma n
i t enance
- air q ualit y - thermal comfort - lighting & noise - hazardous materials
- air
q
ualit
y
- thermal comfort
- lighting & noise
- hazardous materials
Assessment Criteria • Assessment process • Examine the performance of a building or its sub-

Assessment Criteria

Assessment Criteria • Assessment process • Examine the performance of a building or its sub- system

Assessment process

Examine the performance of a building or its sub-

system against a declared set of criteria

Usually voluntary (aim to stimulate the market)

Scale of performance

Measure & assess relative performance

Assign ‘points’ or ‘score’ to various aspects

Quantitative criteria: relative to a baseline

Qualitative criteria: presence/absence of such features

Assessment Criteria • Assessing multiple criteria • Indicate the ‘best’ overall performance • Methodology •

Assessment Criteria

Assessment Criteria • Assessing multiple criteria • Indicate the ‘best’ overall performance • Methodology •

Assessing multiple criteria

Indicate the ‘best’ overall performance

Methodology

Cost (or monetary value $)

Equivalence method (e.g. air/water pollution index)

EcoCost (in common Gaia scale 0-1)

EcoPoint or EcoProfile

Weighting system

To indicate relative importance, scale and urgency

Process

Longevity

Contextual factors

4

3 2 1 0
3
2
1
0
Process Longevity Contextual factors 4 3 2 1 0 Indoor environmental quality Resource consumption Ecological loadings

Indoor environmental quality

Resource consumption

Ecological loadings

Radar chart for assessing multiple criteria

“Ecopoint” concept in th e ENVEST ( env i ronmen tal impact estimating) tool (UK

“Ecopoint” concept in the ENVEST (environmental impact estimating) tool (UK BRE)

One “ eco point ” is equivalent to: - 320 kWh electricity - 83 m
One “ eco point ” is equivalent to:
-
320 kWh electricity
-
83 m 2 Water: enough to fill 1,000 baths

- 65 miles by articulated truck

- landfilling 1.3 tonnes of waste

- manufacturing 3/4 tonnes brick (250 bricks)

- 540 tonne kms by sea freight

- 1.38 tonnes mineral extraction

- 300 miles of urban driving in new petrol car

freight - 1.38 tonnes mineral extraction - 300 m il es o f ur b an

(Source: UK BRE)

Assessment Methods • Common a pproaches • Checklists or forms • C ompu ter-b ase

Assessment Methods

Assessment Methods • Common a pproaches • Checklists or forms • C ompu ter-b ase d

Common approaches

Checklists or forms

Computer-based methods

Spreadsheet or computer programs

Models used

Environment model

Product model

Life cycle model

Data required: from simple to very detailed

Assessment Methods • Exam p les • Europe: • BREEAM -UK • ECO-PRO (Germany) •

Assessment Methods

Assessment Methods • Exam p les • Europe: • BREEAM -UK • ECO-PRO (Germany) • E

Examples

Europe:

BREEAM-UK

ECO-PRO (Germany)

EcoProP & PIMWAQ (Finland)

EQUER (France)

ECO QUANTUM (Netherlands)

Canada & USA:

BREEAM-Canada & BEPAC-Canada

LEED (USA)

BEES (USA) (for building products)

Assessment Methods • Examples (cont ’d) • Asian countries: • Japan Green Buildin g Guide

Assessment Methods

Assessment Methods • Examples (cont ’d) • Asian countries: • Japan Green Buildin g Guide &

Examples (cont’d)

Asian countries:

Japan Green Building Guide & CASBEE

Korea Green Building Rating System

Taiwan Green Building Label

HK-BEAM

CEPAS (HK)

International reference model

GBTool (Green Building Challenge)

Current Tools • BREEAM - UK • B uilding R esearch E stablishment E nvironmental
Current Tools • BREEAM - UK • B uilding R esearch E stablishment E nvironmental

Current Tools

Current Tools • BREEAM - UK • B uilding R esearch E stablishment E nvironmental A

BREEAM - UK

B uilding Research E stablishment E nvironmental Assessment Method

Types of buildings

Offices

Homes (known as EcoHomes)

Industrial units

Retail units

(known as EcoHomes) • Industrial units • Retail units • Used as a reference in many

Used as a reference in many countries

Website: www.breeam.org/

Current Tools • BREEAM - UK • Credits awarded for a set of performance criteria
Current Tools • BREEAM - UK • Credits awarded for a set of performance criteria

Current Tools

Current Tools • BREEAM - UK • Credits awarded for a set of performance criteria •

BREEAM - UK

Credits awarded for a set of performance criteria

Energy, water, pollution, materials, transport, ecology and land use, health and well being

Construction & building operational management

A weighting system is applied to determine final rating

Stages of building development

Design & procurement

Management & operation

Post construction review

Current Tools • LEED Green Buildin g Ratin g Sy stem • L eadership in

Current Tools

Current Tools • LEED Green Buildin g Ratin g Sy stem • L eadership in E

LEED Green Building Rating System

Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design

By US Green Building Council

Current LEED standards:

New construction & major renovation (LEED-NC)

Existing building: operations&maintenance (LEED-EB)

Commercial interiors (LEED-CI)

Core and shell (LEED-CS)

Schools, healthcare, retail

Homes (LEED-H)

Neighborhood development (LEED-ND) (in pilot)

Current Tools • LEED Green Building Rating System • Evaluates and recognizes performance in accepted

Current Tools

Current Tools • LEED Green Building Rating System • Evaluates and recognizes performance in accepted green

LEED Green Building Rating System

Evaluates and recognizes performance in accepted green design categories, including:

Sustainable sites

Water efficiency

Energy and atmosphere

Materials and resources

Indoor environmental quality

Innovation credits

Website: www.leedbuilding.org

Current Tools • LEED Green Buildin g Ratin g Sy stem • Whole-building approach encourages

Current Tools

Current Tools • LEED Green Buildin g Ratin g Sy stem • Whole-building approach encourages &

LEED Green Building Rating System

Whole-building approach encourages & guides a collaborative, integrated design & construction process

Optimizes environmental and economic factors

Four levels of certification (up to version 2.2)

LEED Certified

Silver Level

Gold Level

Platinum Level 52+ points (69 possible)

26 - 32 points 33 - 38 points 39 - 51 points

LEED Accredited Professional (LEED AP)

LEED Point Distribution

Indoor

Environmental Quality

Indoor Environmental Quality Sustainable 23% Sites 22% Materials & r R esou ces Water 20% Efficiency
Sustainable 23% Sites 22% Materials & r R esou ces Water 20% Efficiency
Sustainable
23%
Sites
22%
Materials &
r
R
esou ces
Water
20%
Efficiency

Energy &

8%

Atmosphere

27%

(Source: USGBC)

Phillip Merrill Environmental Center Headquarters Annapolis, Maryland

Environmental Center Headquarters A nnapo li s, Maryland LEED™ 1.0 Certification: PLATINUM Notes from the Project

LEED™ 1.0 Certification:

PLATINUM

Notes from the Project Team: LEED TM was instrumental in conveying the importance of the
Notes from the Project Team: LEED TM was instrumental in
conveying the importance of the sustainable elements of the
design to CBF’s Board of Trustees.
 Sustainable Sites
• Site Selection: Erected in Smart Growth Funding Area on footprint of
existing structure. 26.6 acres remain undisturbed in Land Trust.
• Educational Model: Interpretive trails & demonstrations for public
visitors
• Storm/Waste Water: All Composting Toilets & Bioretention/Wetland
• Resource Protection: Woodland, Wetland, & Tidal Water Restoration
 Water Efficiency
Owner: Chesapeake Bay Foundation Project Team: Architect: SmithGroup, Inc. Engineer: SmithGroup, Inc. P.Manager:
Owner:
Chesapeake Bay Foundation
Project Team:
Architect: SmithGroup, Inc.
Engineer: SmithGroup, Inc.
P.Manager: Synthesis, Inc.
Contractor: Clark Construction Group
Consultant: Janet Harrison ,
Architect
Building Statistics:
Completion Date:
Cost:
Size:
Footprint:
Construction Type:
Use Group:
Lot Size:
Annual Energy Use:
Occupancy:
November, 2000
$6.36 M
30,600 gross square feet
12,000 square feet
3B, Two Stories over Open Parking
Business(B), Assembly(A-3), Storage(S-2)
33 acres
23 kBtu/sf/year
90 Staff

(Source: USGBC)

Water: Rainwater Catchment & Reuse for Hand Washing & Irrigation

Energy and Atmosphere

Domestic Hot Water: Thermomax-Solar Technology

E

nergy:

E

xcee s

d

ASHRAE/IES St

an ar

d

d 90 1 1989 b

.

 

-

y

50%

HVAC: Natural Ventilation and Desiccant Dehumidification & Heat Recovery

Controls/Monitoring: Building Energy management System, “Green

Light” notifies staff to open windows when outside conditions comply Power Source: 30% Renewable with Geo-Exchange & Photovoltaics

Lighting: Daylight Harvesting and time clock lighting controls

Rapidly Renewable: Bamboo, cork and linoleum floorings

Recycled Content: Metal roofing and siding, acoustic ceiling, ceramic tile, and MDF cabinetry

Materials and Resources

Structure: Rapidly Renewable-Paralam Post, Beam, and Truss system

Envelope: Structural Insulated Panels (SIP) R-20 walls, R-30 roof

Indoor Environmental Quality

Indoor Environmental Quality: CO 2 and VOC monitors.

Furniture: Small, open offices allow for communal space. Systems furniture allows flexible layout to accommodate “churn”

Current Tools • LEED 2009 (or LEED v3) • Launched in April 2009 • LEED

Current Tools

Current Tools • LEED 2009 (or LEED v3) • Launched in April 2009 • LEED 2009

LEED 2009 (or LEED v3)

Launched in April 2009

LEED 2009 for New Construction and Major Renovations addresses 7 topics:

Sustainable Sites (SS)

Water Efficiency (WE)

Energy and Atmosphere (EA)

Materials and Resources (MR)

Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)

Innovation in Design (ID)

Regional Priority (RP)

Current Tools • LEED 2009 (or LEED v3) (cont’d) • LEED 2009 for New Construction

Current Tools

Current Tools • LEED 2009 (or LEED v3) (cont’d) • LEED 2009 for New Construction and

LEED 2009 (or LEED v3) (cont’d)

LEED 2009 for New Construction and Major Renovations certifications are awarded according to the following scale:

Certified 40–49 points

Silver 50–59 points

Gold 60–79 points

Platinum 80 points and above

Maximum possible points = 110

100 base points; 6 possible Innovation in Design and 4 Regional Priority points

Current Tools • LEED 2009 (or LEED v3) (cont’d) • LEED Green Associate (all rating

Current Tools

Current Tools • LEED 2009 (or LEED v3) (cont’d) • LEED Green Associate (all rating systems)

LEED 2009 (or LEED v3) (cont’d)

LEED Green Associate (all rating systems)

LEED Accredited Professional

Building Design + Construction (BD+C)

Interior Design + Construction (ID+C)

Homes

Operations + Maintenance (O+M)

Neighborhood Development (ND) (available in 2010)

Further information:

US Green Building Council, www.usgbc.org

Green Building Certification Institute, www.gbci.org

Current Tools • CASBEE (Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Effi ciency), Japan • Tool-0:

Current Tools

Current Tools • CASBEE (Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Effi ciency), Japan • Tool-0:

CASBEE (Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Efficiency), Japan

Tool-0: Pre-design Assessment Tool

Tool-1: DfE (Design for Environment) Tool

Tool-2: Eco-labeling Tool

Tool-3: Sustainable Operation and Renovation Tool

Website: www.ibec.or.jp/CASBEE/

CASBEE (Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Efficiency)

CASBEE (Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Efficiency) (Source: IBEC, Japan)

(Source: IBEC, Japan)

(Source: IBEC, Japan)

(Source: IBEC, Japan)

(Source: IBEC, Japan)
(Source: IBEC, Japan)

(Source: IBEC, Japan)

(Source: IBEC, Japan)

(Source: IBEC, Japan)

Korea’s Green Building Rating System Criteria (multi-residential building)

Section

Resource

 

Environ-

 

Quality of Indoor Environ.

 

Longevity

 

Process

Contextual

Consump-

mental

     

Factors

tion

Loadings

 

Criteria

- energy (8)

-

airborne

-

air quality

-

adapt-

-

design &

-

location &

(Number)

- land (3)

emissions

(10)

ability (5)

construction

trans-

- water (2)

(17)

-

thermal

-

mainten-

process (6)

portation (1)

- materials

-

solid waste

quality (4)

ance of

-

building

-

loadings on

(7)

(4)

-visual

perform-

operations planning (7)

immediate surroundings

-

liquid

quality (7)

ance (6)

 

waste (4)

-

noise &

 

(4)

-

other

acoustics (3)

loadin s (2)

g

-

controll-

ability of

system (2)

Total(102)

20

 

27

 

26

 

11

 

13

 

5

* Source: Green Building Council of Korea (www.gbc-korea.co.kr)

Current Tools • Taiwan Green Buildin g Label • Nine sets of assessment criteria/indicators: •

Current Tools

Current Tools • Taiwan Green Buildin g Label • Nine sets of assessment criteria/indicators: • 1

Taiwan Green Building Label

Nine sets of assessment criteria/indicators:

1. Biodiversity

2. Greenery

3. Water retention

4. Energy efficiency

5. Carbon dioxide reduction

6. Waste reduction

7. Indoor environment

8. Water resources

9. Wastewater and garbage

e re d uct ion • 6. Waste reduction • 7. Indoor environment • 8. Water
Current Tools • Taiwan Green Building Material • General • Healthy • Recycling • High-performance

Current Tools

Current Tools • Taiwan Green Building Material • General • Healthy • Recycling • High-performance •

Taiwan Green Building Material

General

Healthy

Recycling

High-performance

Ecological

• General • Healthy • Recycling • High-performance • Ecological • Website: www .cabc. org .

Website: www.cabc.org.tw/gbm

Current Tools • HK -BEAM • Previous versions: • Version 1/96R - for new office

Current Tools

Current Tools • HK -BEAM • Previous versions: • Version 1/96R - for new office designs

HK-BEAM

Current Tools • HK -BEAM • Previous versions: • Version 1/96R - for new office designs

Previous versions:

Version 1/96R - for new office designs

Version 2/96R - for existing office buildings

Version 3/99 - for new residential buildings

Hotel Building Environmental Assessment Scheme (HBEAS)

Issues covered:

Global issues & use of resources

Local issues

Indoor issues

Current Tools • HK -BEAM • New versions 2004: • HK- BEAM 4/04 New Buildings

Current Tools

Current Tools • HK -BEAM • New versions 2004: • HK- BEAM 4/04 New Buildings •

HK-BEAM

Current Tools • HK -BEAM • New versions 2004: • HK- BEAM 4/04 New Buildings •

New versions 2004:

HK-BEAM 4/04 New Buildings

HK-BEAM 5/04 Existing Building

Approach

Site aspects

Materials aspects

Energy use

Water use

Indoor environmental quality (IEQ)

Innovation & performance enhancements

Current Tools • HK -BEAM • Weighting system to reflect • Relative importance of criteria

Current Tools

Current Tools • HK -BEAM • Weighting system to reflect • Relative importance of criteria •

HK-BEAM

Current Tools • HK -BEAM • Weighting system to reflect • Relative importance of criteria •

Weighting system to reflect

Relative importance of criteria

Relative areas of the spaces

Overall assessment grade (IEQ must meet min. %)

Platinum

Gold

Silver

Bronze

min. IEQ 65% min. IEQ 55% min. IEQ 50%

40% (Above average) min. IEQ 40%

55% (Good)

75% (Excellent)

65% (Very Good)

Website: www.hk-beam.org.hk

Current Tools • Com p rehensive Environmental Performance Assessment Scheme (CEPAS) for Buildings • A

Current Tools

Current Tools • Com p rehensive Environmental Performance Assessment Scheme (CEPAS) for Buildings • A consultancy

Comprehensive Environmental Performance Assessment Scheme (CEPAS) for Buildings

A consultancy study is commissioned by Buildings Department to develop this scheme

Currently under consultation and internal review

Building types:

Residential

Non-residential

Applications: new buildings, major addition & alternation, existing buildings

Building life cycle stages for CEPAS

Building life cycle stages for CEPAS (Source: Executive Summary for CEPAS)

(Source: Executive Summary for CEPAS)

Performance categories for CEPAS

Resource IEQ Use Building Building Loadings Amenities Site Site Impacts Amenities Context Neighborhood
Resource
IEQ
Use
Building
Building
Loadings
Amenities
Site
Site
Impacts
Amenities
Context
Neighborhood
Neighborhood
Impacts
Amenities
Physical
Human

(Source: Executive Summary for CEPAS)

Current Tools • GBTool • GBC (Green Building Challenge) for 19 countries • I ssues

Current Tools

Current Tools • GBTool • GBC (Green Building Challenge) for 19 countries • I ssues cons

GBTool

GBC (Green Building Challenge) for 19 countries

Issues considered

Resource consumption (R)

Environmental loadings (L)

Indoor environmental quality (Q)

Quality of service (S)

Economics (E)

Pre-operations management (M)

Architectural quality (? not included)

of service ( S ) • Economics ( E ) • Pre-operations management ( M )
Source: http://greenbuilding.ca/GBIC.htm

Source: http://greenbuilding.ca/GBIC.htm

Source: http://greenbuilding.ca/GBIC.htm

Source: http://greenbuilding.ca/GBIC.htm

Current Tools • Green Building Challenge (GBC) • An international process, initiated by Canada •

Current Tools

Current Tools • Green Building Challenge (GBC) • An international process, initiated by Canada • Examples

Green Building Challenge (GBC)

An international process, initiated by Canada

Examples of green buildings in the world

GBC 1998 (Vancouver, Canada)

GBC 2000 (Maastricht, the Netherlands)

GBC 2002 (Oslo, Norway)

See conference proceedings & GBC CD

• GBC 2000 (Maastricht, the Netherlands) • GBC 2002 (Oslo , Norway) • See conference proceedings
• GBC 2000 (Maastricht, the Netherlands) • GBC 2002 (Oslo , Norway) • See conference proceedings
• GBC 2000 (Maastricht, the Netherlands) • GBC 2002 (Oslo , Norway) • See conference proceedings
Current Tools • Building environmental assessment is evolving & attracting more and more attention •

Current Tools

Current Tools • Building environmental assessment is evolving & attracting more and more attention • The

Building environmental assessment is evolving & attracting more and more attention

The need to measure performance and set performance targets

Current issues:

Assessment at design stage (potential performance)

Actual operation and management of buildings

Green building labelling

Video Presentation • Pennsylvania ’ s First Green Building • Location: Pennsylvania, USA • Completion:

Video Presentation

Video Presentation • Pennsylvania ’ s First Green Building • Location: Pennsylvania, USA • Completion: 1999

Pennsylvanias First Green Building

Location: Pennsylvania, USA

Completion: 1999

Description: [videorecording, 27 min.]

http://www.gggc.state.pa.us/building/scrob.html

• Completion: 1999 • Description: [videorecordin g , 27 min.] • http://www.gggc.state.pa.us/building/scrob.html