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Chemistry Cheat Sheet. 6.022X1023 atoms in 1 mol.

Ester – an organic compound responsible for the aromas and flavors of


fruits. An excess reactant is not completely used up in a chemical reaction; some will be left over after the reaction is
complete. A limiting reactant is used up first and limits the amount of other reactants that can participate in a chemical
reaction. To figure out which is limiting reactant: figure out how many moles of each reactant are present, figure out
how much of each reactant is needed for the other reactant. If you need more than what’s already given, it’s the limiting
reactant. To get theoretical yield, use the limiting reactant to find the amount of product. Percent yield: actual
yield/theoretical. 1 mol at STP = 22.4 L Heat is measured in Joules. Heat (thermal energy) is total random kinetic energy of
its atoms. Atoms move faster at high temp. No negative temperatures on Kelvin scale (can’t have negative motion). Heat
capacity (C)- thermal energy needed to raise an object’s temperature by 1K. q = nC T [[q=heat needed, n=moles]]
Enthalpy(H) - the heat, or thermal energy, of a substance. Change in enthalpy H can be measured when a substance is
heat/cooled. All elements under standard conditions have molar enthalpy of 0. Enthalpy- energy that’s “INSIDE” an object
or substance. Entropy(S)- measures the AMOUNT OF DISORDER of material present. Enthalpy and Entropy are extensive
properties, which depend on how much material is present. Extensive properties: mass, volume, heat capacity, enthalpy,
entropy. Intensive: density, pressure, temp, concentration. H = nC T/n. Under standard conditions: H°= sum of H°
products – sum of H° reactants. S° = sum of products – sum of reactants. Molar heat capacity measured in
Joules/K*mol. If G is negative, then process is SPONTANEOUS/ EXOTHERMIC. If it’s POSITIVE, it’s not
spontaneous/ENDOTHERMIC. The effect of changes in H & S on change in free energy:
Negative H (exo) Positive S(disordering) Negative G Spontaneous at all temp
G = H-
T S Negative H (exo) Negative S (ordering) Negative/Positive G Low temperature G = - spon
Positive H (endo) Positive S Neg/Pos G High temperature G= + non-
Positive H Negative S Positive Never spontaneous spon
Hess’ law says that any two processes that start with the reactants in the same condition and finish with the products in
the same condition will have the same enthalpy change. Kinetic Molecular Theory-explains behavior of gases at molecular
level. The temperature of a gas determines the average kinetic energy of its particles. Standard Temperature and
Pressure (STP) for a gas is 0° and 1 atm. Greenhouse effect- increase in temp. of earth caused by reflected solar
radiation that is trapped in the atmosphere. Ultraviolet Radiation is a mutagen because it can cause mutation. Free
radical- atom or molecule that has one or more unpaired electrons and is therefore very reactive. P= pressure exerted by
particles. V= volume occupied. T= temp in Kelvins. n= number of moles. Volume is inversely proportional to pressure.
Pressure of gas increase, volume decrease. Boyle’s Law – volume of a given amount of gas at constant temp. is inversely
proportional to pressure: P1V1=P2V2 Partial pressure- the pressure of an individual gas in a gas mixture that contributes to
the total pressure of the mixture. DALTON’S LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURE- total pressure is sum of partial. Ptotal= PA+PB+PC
Mole Fraction- # of moles of one component compared with total # of moles expressed in ratio. Mol Fraction = MolA/MolA
+B+C. Heating gas will make it expand. CHARLES’ LAW – the volume of a sample of gas at constant pressure is directly
proportional to absolute temp. V1/T1 = V2/T2 Gas pressure INCREASE, temperature INCREASE. Avogadro’s Law – equal
volumes of different gases under the same conditions of temp and pressure have the same # of molecules. STP =
101.3kPa, 1 atm, 0°C, 273K, 760mmHg. DIFFUSION- process by which particles mix by dispersing from regions of higher
concentration to regions of lower concentration. Colloid – a mixture in which small particles are suspended throughout a
solvent. MOLARITY = MOL / L. Electrolyte – a substance, that when dissolved in a solvent, increases that solvent’s
conductivity. Hydronium ion: H3O+. Colligative Properties depend only on the concentration of the solute particles (boiling-
point elevation and freezing-point depression). Le Chatelier’s Principle tells how a system at equilibrium reacts to an
applied stress (change temp or pressure of the system or change in concentration of a component). Keq =
products/reactants. The coefficients would be exponents and H2O isn’t counted. Solubility-product constant is the
equilibrium constant for a slightly soluble ionic solid with its ions in a saturated solution. Ksp = [products in aqueous]. A
strong acid ionizes completely; a weak acid is a weak electrolyte. Strong acids: HClO3, HCl, HNO3, H2SO4. Weak acids:
CH3COOH, H3PO4, H2SO3. Carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains the carboxyl functional group. –C- O- with
double bond to O on top. A base that dissolves easily in water is called an ALKALI and the resulting solution is called
ALKALINE. Strong bases: Ba(OH)2, KOH, NaOH, Na3PO4. Weak bases: NH3, Na2CO3. Kw= 1X 10-14. Kw= [H3O+][OH-]. A
Brønsted-Lowry acid DONATES a proton to another species. A Brønsted-Lowry base RECEIVES a proton from another
species. Amphoteric is any molecule that can act as a base or an acid. KA is the acid-ionization constant or the equilibrium
constant for a reaction in which an acid donates a proton to water. pH = -log[H3O+]. IF ___ IS A STRONG ACID, THEN THE
HYDRONIUM ION CONCENTRATION EQUALS THE CONCENTRATION OF THE SOLUTION. pOH + pH = 14. When you
calculate the –log[H3O+], you get pH. But when you calculate –log[OH-], you get pOH. Equivalence point: the
point in a titration when the amount of added base/acid is equal to amount of acid/base originally in solution. Titration =
gradually adding one solution to another to reach equivalence point. REACTION RATE is the decrease in reactant
concentration or increase in product concentration per unit of time as a reaction proceeds. Rate can be noted from
disappearance of a reactant or the appearance of a product. The SLOWEST STEP in the mechanism of a reaction is
the rate-determining step. Intermediates (formed in one step but consumed in a later step) do not appear in a rate law
expression. Rate law: Rate = k[a]n Things that affect reaction rates: nature of reactants, surface area of solids,
concentration of reactants, temperature of reactants, && catalysts. OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS: chemical
changes that occur when electrons are transferred between reactants (also called “redox reactions”). NO REDUCTION, NO
OXIDATION. Oxidation is complete or partial LOSS of electrons or GAIN of oxygen. Reduction is complete or partial GAIN of
electrons or LOSS of oxygen. Reducing agent = donates electron. Oxidizing agent = accepts electron. If it’s oxidized, it’s
the reducing agent. If it’s reduced, it’s the oxidizing agent. Higher electronegativity gets reduced (increases up, and to the
right). Rules for assigning oxidation numbers: 1. Oxidation # of hydrogen is always +1 except in metal hydrides. 2.
Oxidation # of Oxygen is always -2 except in peroxides when it’s -1. The oxidation-number change method and the half
reaction method are based on the fact that the total number of electrons gained in reduction must equal the total # of
electrons lost in oxidation. Oxidation-number change method: a redox equation is balanced by comparing the increases
and decreases in oxidation numbers.