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II
1
HALLEY'S COMET
A comet is an object that travels around the sun leaving a bright trail
behind. or more than t!o thousand "ears# the return o$ Halle"'s Comet has
been observed and recorded on Earth ever" %& "ears. 'ts ()*& visit# ho!ever#
!as the $irst time that humans too+ a close loo+ at its nucleus. One s,acecra$t
!ent !ithin a $e! hundred +ilometres o$ the nucleus. T!o Soviet cra$t# -ega
( and -ega .# came !ithin (/#/// +m o$ the nucleus on March &th and March
)th0 and the Euro,ean S,ace Agenc"'s 1iotto s,ace ,robe ,assed !ithin &//
+m o$ Halle"'s Comet on March (2th. 3ioneer -enus Orbiter $ound that the
cloud o$ gases and dust !hich ma+e u, the tail s,read over a region about
./#///#/// +m across# (4 times larger than the Sun. Scientists also discovered
that the comet !as losing about ten metres o$ material $rom its sur$ace ever"
orbit# suggesting a li$etime o$ about onl" (#/// orbits 5 in about (//#/// "ears
it !ill disa,,ear.
A. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. Halley's Comet was first seen more than !!! years a"o.
1. #n 1$%&' two of the s(a)e)raft whi)h o*ser+ed Halley's Comet were from the
,o+iet -nion.
. The sun measures !'!!!'!!! km a)ross.
.. Halley's Comet has a lifetime of a*out 1!!'!!! years left *e)ause it is
losin" material from its surfa)e e+ery or*it.
/.
1. How often )an Halley's Comet *e o*ser+ed from 0arth1
. What is the tail of Halley's Comet made u( of1
1
2
HIGH-RISE
'n October ()*(# ne!s,a,ers in the 6SA and the 67 re,orted ,lans
$or a (&)5store" building in Chicago. '$ this is built# it !ill be almost
t!ice as tall as the 8*25metre Em,ire State 9uilding in :e! Yor+.
4 Since the earl" da"s o$ civilised man# buildings have been getting
higher all the time. Toda"# all large cities have tall buildings# either $or
use as o$$ices or as $lats. These are called high5rise buildings. The tallest
o$ all in $act# are not used $or o$$ices or $or living# but are s,ecial
structures $or radio and television. or instance#;arsa! <adio
(/ Mast in 3oland# !hich is &2& metres tall# is the tallest o$ such structures.
The !orld's tallest o$$ice building is the Sears To!er in Chicago. This
has ((/ store"s# and reaches a height o$ 228 metres. (&#%// ,eo,le
!or+ inside the building# and there are more than one hundred li$ts $or
their use.
(4 9ut !h" do !e have high buildings= 's there an" real advantage=
The most common reason given is that in man" cities there is a lac+ o$
s,ace.
The island o$ Manhattan# :e! Yor+ Cit"# is a good e>am,le o$ this.
Here# o$$ice s,ace is ver" e>,ensive. There is no more land.
./ 9uildings have to go u,. The same reason is given $or high o$$ice
buildings in To+"o# London and other large cities o$ the !orld.
9ut !hat about ,eo,le= 's it reall" necessar" to build high buildings
$or ,eo,le to live in=
Toda"# there are man" !ho believe high buildings actuall" damage
.4 ,eo,le's minds and $eelings. These ,eo,le believe high5rise buildings?
5have no advantages# e>ce,t $or their o!ners and $or ban+s
5are not chea, to build
5do not hel, create o,en s,ace
5destro" the landsca,e
8/ 5cause crime
5are not good $or children
5are e>,ensive to loo+ a$ter
High5rise buildings lo!er the @ualit" o$ li$e. The $ollo!ing re,orts
sho! this.
84 <e,ort $rom England# ()&%? The higher ,eo,le live o$$ the ground#
the more li+el" the" are to su$$er $rom mental illnesses. ;omen#
because the" s,end most time at home# su$$er most.
2
2. The re(ort from 3enmark .
a) shows more (eo(le li+e in hi"h4rise *uildin"s in 3enmark than in other
)ountries
*) states the disad+anta"es of hi"h4rise *uildin"s for )hildren
)) shows how women li+in" in hi"h4rise *uildin"s suffer
d) says that )rime rate is hi"her in hi"h4rise *uildin"s in 3enmark than in other
)ountries
.. Whi)h of the followin" is not true1
a) The tallest *uildin"s in the world are s(e)ial stru)tures used as offi)es.
*) When (eo(le li+e in hi"h4rise *uildin"s' they are )ut off from real life.
)) Hi"h4rise *uildin"s are still *uilt althou"h they ha+e many disad+anta"es.
d) Mental illnesses in)rease es(e)ially amon" women who li+e in hi"h4rise
*uildin"s.
3
ATOMS A(B
Atoms are the smallest ,articles o$ matter that have the ,ro,erties o$
the chemical elements 5 h"drogen# o>"gen# iron# and so on. The" are so
small that it is im,ossible to see them even !ith a high5,o!ered
microsco,e. Ever"thing on Earth is made u, o$ atoms in di$$erent
4 chemical combinations. ;ater# $or instance# is a com,ound o$ t!o
elements# t!o atoms o$ h"drogen and one atom o$ o>"gen. Ho!ever#
some elements# such as gold and diamonds e>ist uncombined.
:inet"5t!o elements occur naturall". The" range $rom the lightest#
h"drogen# to the heaviest# uranium. Each o$ the elements has been
(/ assigned a number 5 ( $or h"drogen# * $or o>"gen# .) $or co,,er# ). $or
uranium. The" are usuall" arranged on a chart called the ,eriodic table#
!hich ,uts elements !ith the same chemical ,ro,erties in the same
column. Thus# all inert gases# such as helium# a,,ear in one column in
the ,eriodic table.
(4 The $ormulation o$ the atomic theor" is one o$ the great
achievements o$ science. 't has enabled us to understand the ,ro,erties
o$ the elements# the basic building bloc+s o$ all matter# so that !e +no!
!hich elements can combine !ith each other. The science o$ chemistr"
is based on our understanding o$ atoms and their behaviour
./ in interacting !ith one another.
Another science called nuclear ,h"sics came into being to stud" the
structure o$ the atom itsel$. As scientists investigated the atom# it
became a,,arent that the atom !as not a solid ,iece o$ matter# but !as
made u, o$ even smaller ,articles. The $irst subatomic ,article that
.
.4 scientists identi$ied !as the electron# a tin" ,iece o$ matter !ith a
negative electric charge. The !eight o$ an electron !as ver" small
indeed 5 a,,ro>imatel" one eighteen5hundredth o$ the !eight o$ a
h"drogen atom# the lightest o$ all the elements. Scientists came to
believe that the electrons orbited the nucleus o$ the atom# in !hich
8/ almost all o$ the !eight o$ the atom !as concentrated. 't is no! +no!n
that electrons revolve around the nucleus at incredibl" $ast rates o$
s,eed.
or man" "ears scientists did man" di$$erent +inds o$ e>,eriments
and all had the same idea about the structure o$ atoms. Ho!ever# !hen
84 the" managed to obtain more evidence# the" had to modi$" the atomic
theor". There !as not just one +ind o$ ,article in the nucleus o$ an atom0
there !ere t!o. One o$ these has a ,ositive electric charge and is called
a ,roton. The other is neutral# that is# it has no electric charge. or this
reason# it !as called a neutron.
A. Com(lete the followin" senten)es.
1. Helium (line 12) is a(n) .
. 0lements (line 15) are .
2. An ele)tron (line 6) is a(n) .
.. #f somethin" is neutral (line 2%)' it .
/. What do.the followin" refer to1
1. They' (line %)7 0lements whi)h
. '#t' (line 1&)7
2. 'all' (line 2.)7 all
.. 'these' (line 25)7 these
C. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. The theory a*out the stru)ture of atoms has )han"ed throu"h years.
. An ele)tron is hea+ier than a hydro"en atom.
2. 0le)trons turn around the nu)leus at a low s(eed.
3.
1. #n what way are "old and diamonds different from other elements1
. What does nu)lear (hysi)s study1
0. Com(lete the followin" statement.
The (eriodi) ta*le arran"es elements a))ordin" to
4
4
M6S'C O< :O'SE=
-ibration is movement and sound that comes $rom objects !hich
vibrate. or e>am,le# guitar strings# !hen touched# vibrate and ma+e a
sound0 and drum s+ins# !hen hit# vibrate and ma+e a sound. -ibrations
are described in terms o$ am,litude and $re@uenc". 'n the
4 case o$ a guitar# the am,litude. or loudness# is the distance the string
moves0 and in the case o$ a drum# the s+in moves at a certain s,eed and
vibrates a certain number o$ times each second. '$ the s+in# or the string#
vibrates 22/ times ,er second# then !e sa" it has a $re@uenc" o$ 22/
HertC Aor 22/ HC $or shortB. '$ it moves $aster or slo!er# then it
(/ has a higher or lo!er $re@uenc".
The human ear cannot detect all sounds. Sounds must have a certain
am,litude# and a $re@uenc" bet!een 2/ HC and (&#/// HC. -ibrations
above or belo! these !ill not be detected b" the human ear even i$ the"
are e>tremel" loud. Man" animals have better hearing
(4 than us. Dogs# $or e>am,le# can hear higher $re@uencies0 and bats can
hear sounds !ith incredibl" high $re@uencies 5 u, to 2*#/// HC.
The vibrating object $irst causes the molecules in the air around it to
vibrate at the same $re@uenc" and am,litude. These molecules then
cause other molecules to vibrate and so it continues until molecules o$
./ air inside our ears vibrate. inall" our eardrums vibrate and cause
minute# i.e. ver" small# electrical signals to be sent to the brain.
All sounds come $rom vibrations. 9ut not all sounds are the same.
Some are ,leasant to hear# such as music. Others are un,leasant and
these !e call noise. ;hat's the di$$erence bet!een the t!o= This is a
.4 di$$icult @uestion to ans!er. 9ut the sounds o$ musical instruments#
!hich are usuall" good to hear# do have a s,ecial characteristic? musical
instruments# such as the guitar and the drum# vibrate at more than one
$re@uenc". Thus# !hen a guitar string ,roduces the note o$ A# the
vibration o$ greatest am,litude has a $re@uenc" o$ 22/ HC. 9ut.
8/ there are vibrations o$ other $re@uencies ,resent# too. The" have less
am,litude# and so !e do not consciousl" hear them. 9ut thev add to the
sound and $orm a ,attern o$ $re@uencies !hich is ,leasant to hear. This
is called harmonics. 't is harmonics !hich hel, us to identi$" the
musical instrument !e hear.
84 O$ course# there are other characteristics o$ music# too. One o$
these is rh"thm# the se@uence o$ sounds. <h"thm is not e>clusive to
musical sound0 but it is one o$ the $actors !hich hel, ma+e music
,leasant to hear.
&
5
THE AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINES
'Aborigines' are the $irst or original inhabitants o$ a countr". The Australian
Aborigines have lived in Australia $or over 2/#/// "ears. At one stage in their
histor"# there !ere ,ossibl" over a million Aborigines. Ho!ever# !hen the
$irst !hite settlers arrived in the (*th centur" and stole their land# man"
Aborigines died $ighting to ,rotect it. Toda"# onl" about (//#/// survive.
Although some still live a traditional li$e in remote desert areas o$ the
Australian outbac+# man" no! live in ,oor conditions in cities and to!ns.
The" have su$$ered $or t!o hundred "ears $rom !hite e>,loitation.
Ho!ever# the Australian government has recentl" given some land bac+ to
them including '6luru'. This huge roc+# in the centre o$ Australia# is o$ great
im,ortance to the Aborigines.
Although !inning bac+ this land is encouraging# the Aboriginal ,eo,le
+no! there is a long !a" to go be$ore the" !in bac+ the rest o$ their land.
1. When did A*ori"ines arri+e in Australia1
. Why is the (o(ulation of the Australian A*ori"ines smaller now1
2. Where do most of the Australian A*ori"ines li+e1
.. What is '-luru'1
*
6
AQUIFERS
The water on the earth is recc!e" constant! in a ,rocess +no!n as
the h"drologic cc!e# First$ the water in the oceans eva,orates. 't
changes into va,our and $orms clouds in the s+". ;ater accumulates in
clouds and returns to the sur$ace o$ the earth in some $orm o$
4 ,reci,itation# !hich can be either rain# sno!# or ice. ;hen the !ater
reaches the earth's sur$ace# it runs o$$ into streams# rivers# la+es# and at
last# into the oceans# !here the c"cle begins again. The !ater on the
sur$ace o$ the earth and in the atmos,here is +no!n as the h"dros,here.
:ot all ,reci,itation goes into rivers. Some o$ it see,s
(/ into the ground b" a ,rocess called in$iltration. This !ater collects
under the earth's sur$ace and is ground!ater.
1round!ater is im,ortant $or t!o reasons. irst# )4 ,er cent o$ the
earth's !ater is in the oceans. 't is salt" and useless $or ,lants# animals#
or humans. resh !ater# !hich ,eo,le can use $or drin+ing or $or
(4 agriculture# is either on the earth's sur$ace in la+es and rivers or
underground. Sur$ace !ater is ./4 ,er cent o$ the earth's !ater !hile
underground !ater is 2 ,er cent o$ the earth's !ater. Conse@uentl"#
ground!ater ,rovides )4 ,er cent o$ the available $resh !ater on the
earth. Second# ground!ater is im,ortant not onl" because o$ the siCe
./ o$ the su,,l"# but also because o$ its de,endabilit". 't is al!a"s
available since it does not de,end on seasonal ,reci,itation.
Toda"# there seems to be a ,roblem !ith ground!ater. 6ntil
recentl"# ground!ater !as clean. 't !as not necessar" to ,uri$" it be$ore
,eo,le dran+ it. Ho!ever# $or man" "ears# ,eo,le have been
.4 bur"ing garbage and ,oisonous !astes underground. These ,oisons
have ,olluted the ground!ater in man" ,laces. There$ore# it is unsa$e
$or human use unless the dirt" and harm$ul substances are removed
$irst.
A@ui$ers are geologic $ormations that allo! ground!ater to
8/ accumulate and move through them. Although the" are o$ten called
underground rivers# these $ormations are not li+e sur$ace rivers. The
!ater accumulates in one area underground. The amount o$ !ater an
a@ui$er contains is enough to be easil" ,um,ed out $or use.
3eo,le have been using ground!ater $or man" "ears. ;ith an
84 increasing ,o,ulation# the need $or !ater has also increased. Some
cities de,end onl" on ground!ater $or their !ater su,,l". The" are
using underground !ater ver" @uic+l". 'n some ,laces the !ater su,,l"
ma" soon be used u,# and there !ill be no !ater $or a large ,o,ulation.
One e>am,le o$ this is Tucson# AriCona# !hich is located
)
2/ in the Sonora desert in south!estern 6nited States. 't is on a ver" large
a@ui$er !hich su,,lies !ater $or the area at the ,resent. The a@ui$er
,rovides !ater $or an increasing ,o,ulation in the cit" and $or
agriculture throughout southern AriCona. At the ,resent time# the cit" is
using ..4#/// acre $eet o$ !ater ,er "ear# %4#/// acre $eet are being
24 returned to the a@ui$er through the natural ,rocesses o$ the h"drologic
c"cle. There$ore# ,eo,le are using about three times more !ater than
nature is su,,l"ing. The !ater table# !hich is the level o$ the !ater in
the a@ui$er# is dro,,ing lo!er ever" "ear. Some !ells have alread"
gone dr" and have either been closed or drilled dee,er. Scientists
4/ ,redict that the su,,l" o$ !ater in the a@ui$er !ill run out in t!ent" to
eight" "ears.
A@ui$ers contain a generous su,,l" o$ !ater. The" are large# easil"
available# and mostl" clean. Still# ,eo,le !ho de,end onl" on a@ui$ers
$or their !ater su,,l" must use their !ater care$ull". Their lives and
&/ their children's lives de,end on conserving the !ater the" have.
A. What do the followin" mean1
1. 'infiltration' (line 1!)7 the (ro)ess *y whi)h
. '"roundwater' (line 11)7
2. to (urify (line 2)7 to
.. to (ro+ide (line .)7 to
6. ')onser+in"' (line &!)7
/. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. 8re)i(itation )an *e in +arious forms.
. 9roundwater e:ists whether there is (re)i(itation or not.
2. ;)eans )ontain $6 (er )ent of the fresh water on the earth.
.. As "roundwater is (olluted' (eo(le do not use it any more.
6. 9roundwater mo+es throu"h a<uifers.
&. #n surfa)e ri+ers the water a))umulates in one area.
5. Half of the water that (eo(le in Tu)son use returns to the a<uifer.
%. Tu)son is an a"ri)ultural area.
$. 'Water ta*le' is a term related to the le+el of water in a well.
C.
1. Write two sour)es of fresh water that are on the earth's surfa)e.
. How do (eo(le o*tain water from an a<uifer1
2. What ha((ens to a well that "oes dry1
(/
7
ED6CAT'O:AL STA:DA<DS
A$ter rising steadil" $or almost a centur"# standards o$ education in
the ,ublic schools o$ Euro,e and :orth America have come to a
standstill. 'n $act# in the o,inion o$ man" ,arents and em,lo"ers# the"
are actuall" $alling. More and more children are leaving school at an
4 earl" age. :aturall"# the" have ver" little +no!ledge o$ reading and
!riting. Thus# the number o$ illiterate ,eo,le is increasing# bringing
about a social ,roblem once again. ;ith dro,out rates o$ t!ent"5seven
,er cent in high schools and $i$t" ,er cent in colleges# the American
education s"stem is clearl" in trouble. 'n Euro,e# the number o$
(/ children !ho leave school is going u, too# though lo!er than that in the
6nited States.
There are various $actors that cause the decrease in educational
standards. Some ,eo,le sa" that overcro!ding and lac+ o$ disci,line are
major $actors. Others sa" that much im,ortance has been given to
(4 subjects li+e art and drama. Ho!ever# more ,ractical subjects have been
neglected. or man" teachers# on the other hand# the ,roblem is not o$
$alling standards but o$ rising e>,ectations o$ ,arents and em,lo"ers.
According to these teachers# the demands o$ ,arents and em,lo"ers are
getting higher and this is causing the ,roblem.
./ ;hether or not standards in ,ublic schools are actuall" $alling#
man" ,arents $eel that the onl" !a" to secure a good education $or their
children is to send them to ,rivate schools# !hich generall" have
smaller classes and stricter disci,line. The ,o,ularit" o$ such schools is
gro!ing steadil"# des,ite the high tuition. 'n the 6nited States# $or
.4 e>am,le# eleven ,er cent o$ all school children attend ,rivate schools0
in Euro,e# over si>teen ,er cent do so.
A. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine &' 'illiterate' means .
a) lea+in" s)hool at an early a"e
*) ha+in" +ery little knowled"e of readin" and writin"
)) *e)omin" an in)reasin" so)ial (ro*lem
. =ine 5' 'dro(out rates' are .
a) the num*er of illiterate (eo(le
*) a de)reasin" rate of s)hool lea+ers
)) the num*er of )hildren lea+in" s)hool
((
%
SCHOOL O< CHA:1E
E't demands "our total concentration# energ" and ca,abilities. 'n
return it gives "ou the best $riends "ou could ever !ish $or. More
im,ortant than this# "ou get the o,,ortunit" to discover "oursel$.E
According to Heidi Me"er# a $ormer student o$ Atlantic College# that
4 ma+es the college such a good ,lace $or education.
Atlantic College is the !orld's $irst residential si>th $orm college and
this !ee+ it is .4 "ears old. The college !as $ounded at St. Donats
Castle# in South ;ales# b" 7urt Hahn to ,romote ,eace and
international understanding through education.
(/ Atlantic College students are $rom %/ countries. The" stud" $or the
'nternational 9accalaureate di,loma. This course !as ,ioneered at the
college during the earl" ()%/'s and no!# it is o$$ered at more than 84/
colleges across the !orld. Si> subjects are studied and some 9ritish
e>,erts are considering it as a re,lacement $or A5levels.
(4 E't is rather li+e the ,ro,osed national curriculum#E said Fe$$ :euss#
the college's head o$ chemistr". EEver"one has to stud" his or her native
language# a modern $oreign language# a humanities subject# a science
and maths. As a result o$ this broad curriculum# all our students become
intellectual adults !hile stud"ing their o!n subjects.
./ Thus# !e have scientists !ho can !rite essa"s# and art s,ecialists !ho
are numerate and com,etent in science.E
Academic !or+ is onl" one ,art o$ the college. 't also !ants to be
,art o$ the communit". There$ore# it e>,ects students to underta+e
communit" services that include sea rescue and running its 4/5acre
.4 $arm. E;e !ere the $irst co5ordinated beach and inshore rescue service
in 9ritain and !e develo,ed the Atlantic class o$ inshore li$eboats no!
used as standard b" the <:L'#E said :euss. ';e are o$$iciall"
res,onsible $or sa$et" along a (45mile stretch o$ coastline. Our li$eboats
have saved (4/ lives.E
8/ Ever" summer# the students run courses $or ,h"sicall" and mentall"
handica,,ed "oung ,eo,le. The" visit London to teach English to
9angladeshi "oungsters and run a Youth Training Scheme course $or
local teenagers. And the students maintain their o!n college buildings
and classrooms.
84 Atlantic College o$$ers an unusuall" diverse educational
e>,erience# but ho! are students selected= EAcademic abilit" and school
recommendation are o$ course ta+en into consideration as in all
colleges. Ho!ever# a,,licants !ithout the ,ersonal @ualities o$ tolerance
and a !illingness to mi> !ith others can't ,ossibl" get into
(8
2/ our college#E said :euss.
The $ees are G&#2// a "ear# but scholarshi,s ensure there is no
discrimination on $inancial grounds. Some countries# such as :or!a"#
allocate $unds to allo! Ethio,ian re$ugees to attend.
The college gives its students a !ide ,ers,ective on !orld a$$airs#
24 said Monica Moreno# a 9raCilian? E'mmediatel" a$ter "ou arrive# a
learning ,rocess starts !hich ma+es "ou realise "our o!n roots and
carries an irresistible $orce $or change and understanding o$ others.E
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'it' (line 2)7
. 'that' (line .)7
2.'they'(line 21)7 ..
'others' (line .5)7 other
/.
1. A))ordin" to Heidi Meyer' why is Atlanti) Colle"e a "ood (la)e for edu)ation1
. What was the (ur(ose of >urt Hahn in startin" the )olle"e1
2. What do students re)ei+e when they "raduate from Atlanti) Colle"e1
.. For the students of the )olle"e' what is the *enefit of takin" so many )ourses1
6. Write two kinds of so)ial work that the students do durin" summer. aB *)
?&. What are the ne)essary <ualities to *e)ome a student at Atlanti) Colle"e1
(2
&
THE OLYM3'C 1AMES
;hen the ne>t Ol"m,ic 1ames begin# satellites !ill carr" T- ,ictures o$
the o,ening ceremon" to millions o$ ,eo,le thousands o$ miles a!a". rom
their armchairs these ,eo,le !ill be able to see their countr"'s athletes
com,eting in events and ma"be !inning a bronCe# silver or even gold medal.
;hen !e consider the siCe# the s,ectacle and the commercialism o$ the
modem Ol"m,ic 1ames# it is di$$icult to remember that the" started in
Ol"m,ia in 1reece in %%& 9C !ith onl" one race# a s,rint# $or !hich the ,riCe
$or the !inner !as an olive !reath.
The idea o$ an international Ol"m,ic 1ames !as conceived b" a
renchman# 9aron 3ierre de Coubertin# and# a,,ro,riatel"# the $irst modern
Ol"m,ic 1ames o,ened in Athens in (*)&. :o!ada"s# major cities com,ete
to host the Ol"m,ic 1ames# not just $or the honour the 1ames bring# but $or
the vast amount o$ ,ro$it a host countr" can ma+e.
The games have also become ,oliticall" im,ortant. The" can no! be seen
b" nearl" ever" countr" in the !orld and are# there$ore# an ideal ,lat$orm $or
,olitical statements. ;hen Soviet troo,s invaded A$ghanistan in ()*/# man"
countries in the ;est# including 9ritain and the 6nited States# bo"cotted the
Mosco! 1ames. 'n ()*2 some countries decided not to send teams to the Los
Angeles 1ames because the" $elt there !as not enough securit" .
'n circumstances li+e these# the Ol"m,ic ideal and s,irit comes into
@uestion. And $or athletes# there is less value in !inning a gold medal i$ the
best o$ the !orld's athletes are not com,eting. The @uestion is 5 ho! much
longer !ill the 1ames survive i$ nations continue to use them as a ,olitical
,lat$orm=
1. What makes it (ossi*le to wat)h ;lym(i) 9ames on T@1
. What medals )an athletes win1
2. What was the only ra)e in the first ;lym(i) 9ames1
.. What was the (riAe "i+en to a winner in the first ;lym(i) 9ames1
(4
6. Who does the idea of #nternational ;lym(i) 9ames *elon" to1
&. Where were the first modern ;lym(i) 9ames held1
5. Where do ;lym(i) 9ames take (la)e now1
%. When was Af"hanistan in+aded1
$. Whi)h )ountries *oy)otted the Mos)ow 9ames1
1!. Why didn't some )ountries take (art in =os An"eles 9ames1
1'
T<A-EL A:D TO6<'SM
A re,ort recentl" ,re,ared $or a large international travel service and
ban+ing com,an" $ound out that travel and tourism accounted $or almost
H . trillion o$ the sales in ()*%# ma+ing it the largest source o$
em,lo"ment in the !orld. 3ersonal travel constituted about t!o thirds
4 o$ this# leaving the rest $or business and government travel. The
biggest s,enders on ,ersonal travel !ere the 6S# Fa,an# 1erman"#
9ritain and rance0 and in most o$ these develo,ed countries it !as
the third largest item o$ household s,ending a$ter housing and $ood.
Tour o,erators sa" the industr" is e>,eriencing Ea second
(/ revolutionE. 'n the $irst# Euro,e revolutionised travel !ith the chea,
,ac+age holida" !ithin the continent# !hich trans$ormed man"
Mediterranean economies. More recentl"# tourists have begun to travel
$urther a!a". 6ntil the mid5()*/'s# the mar+et !as limited to the rich on
the one hand and the bac+,ac+ers on the other.
(4 <ising incomes and e>,ectations have changed all that. Travellers
!ho are tired o$ the Mediterranean or those !ho can a$$ord second
holida"s in the !inter e>,ect the ,ac+age holida" conce,t to be
e>tended to intercontinental destinations. 9" chartering 4//5seat jumbo
jets and boo+ing hotels and a,artments in lorida and the
./ Caribbean# tour o,erators have made $ormerl" lu>ur" tourist s,ots
available to a lo!er5income mar+et.
(&
Although this ,oses ris+s !hich develo,ing countries have not $aced
be$ore# the bene$its are more immediatel" a,,arent. The Caribbean Tourist
Association estimates that the industr" no! .4 ,rovides jobs directl" or
indirectl" $or 88/#/// ,eo,le in the region. Others ,ut the $igure higher.
Some estimates ,ut Third ;orld em,lo"ment in travel and tourism at more
than 4/ million.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'thisB (line 6)7
. 'if (line 5)7
2. 'those' (line 1&)7
.. 'the re"ion' (line 6)7
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. To a))ount for (line ) is to .
a) (re(are *) find out )) )onstitute
. =ine 1.' '*a)k(a)kers' are .
a) (eo(le who tra+el lon" distan)es
*) tra+ellers who are not ri)h
)) tourists from the Mediterranean
C. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. #n de+elo(ed )ountries' more money is s(ent on (ersonal tra+el than on
*usiness and "o+ernment tra+el.
. #n most of the de+elo(ed )ountries housin" and food are the two lar"est
items of household s(endin".
C. The )hea( )ontinental (a)ka"e holiday is the re+olution that is *ein"
e:(erien)ed now.
.. ,in)e the mid41$%!'s' only the ri)h ha+e *een tra+ellin" to inter)ontinental
destinations.
6. ,ome tourists do not want to tra+el to the Mediterranean any more.
3.
1. How did the )hea( (a)ka"e holiday affe)t Mediterranean )ountries1
(%
. What ha+e tour o(erators done to make it (ossi*le for the lower4in)ome "rou( to
tra+el to lu:ury s(ots1
aB ?
*) '
2. What is the *enefit of tra+el and tourism for de+elo(in" )ountries1
11
HA<<ODS? A D'E<E:T ;O<LD
;elcome to Harrods 5 a di$$erent !orld $or a million reasons.
Harrods is the largest store in Euro,e !ith goods dis,la"ed in &/
!indo!s and 4.4 hectares o$ selling s,ace. 'n one "ear over (2 million
,urchases are made in the .(2 de,artments !here "ou can bu"
4 an"thing $rom a ,in to an ele,hant 5 i$ "ou can convince the manager o$
the 3et De,artment that "ou are a suitable ele,hant o!ner# that isI
Harrods stoc+s a !ide and e>citing range o$ merchandise in ever"
de,artment. 't is because o$ this ,olic" that Harrods can give the
customer a choice o$ goods !hich is uni@ue in its variet" and !hich
(/ no other store can match? Harrods stoc+s (// di$$erent !his+ies#
including 4% single malts# 24/ di$$erent cheeses# *#/// dresses# 4//
t",es o$ shirts and )#/// ties to go !ith them. Moreover# it has a sta$$ o$
2#///# rising to &#/// at Christmas time.
Harrods has a !orld5!ide re,utation due to several reasons in
(4 addition to those mentioned above. 't o$$ers a number o$ s,ecial
services to its customers. These include a ban+# an insurance
de,artment# a travel agenc" and a theatre tic+et agenc". Another reason
is the range o$ e>,orted goods. G2/ million !orth o$ goods are e>,orted
annuall" $rom Harrods and the E>,ort De,artment can deal
./ !ith an" customer ,urchase or order and !ill ,ac+ and send goods to
an" address in the !orld. <ecentl"# $or e>am,le# si> bread rolls !ere
sent to :e! Yor+# a hand+erchie$ to Los Angeles# and a G4#/// chess
set to Australia. 't is this $irst5class service that has made Harrods so
$amous.
.4 Harrods sells 4 million di$$erent ,roducts# not all o$ !hich are
actuall" +e,t in stoc+ in the store itsel$. To handle this enormous range#
a ne! com,uterised !arehouse is being built. 't !ill be the largest
;arehouse in 9ritain and the second largest in Euro,e and !ill deal
!ith a !ider range o$ goods than an" other distribution centre in
(*
8/ the !orld. Than+s to its modern technolog"# a customer !ill be able to
order an" ,roduct A$or e>am,le# a dining table or a dish!asherB $rom
an" assistant in the store. The assistant !ill be able to chec+ its
availabilit" immediatel" on a com,uter screen# decide !ith the
customer on a suitable deliver" date and time and then ,ass the order
84 directl" to the !arehouse through the com,uter. The time o$ deliver"
!ill be guaranteed to !ithin one hour.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1.'them'(line 1)7
. 'its modern te)hnolo"y' (line 2!)7 the modern te)hnolo"y of
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine 5' 'mer)handise' is another name for . a)
stores *) "oods )) )ustomers
. =ine 1.' to ha+e a 're(utation' is to .
a) deal with )ustomers
*) *e well4known
)) offer s(e)ial ser+i)es
1. What is Harrods' (oli)y
5
. What kind of a )han"e takes (la)e at Harrods at Christmas1
2. Why is the warehouse *ein" *uilt1
.. Write down the sta"es that take (la)e *etween the order and the deli+ery of a
(rodu)t.
a) .
*) i
)) 7
()
12
(OR) *ATTERS
Debbie Mason, 24, is a stewardess with Virgin Atlantic. She told Sue
Wheeler about her life on Richard Branson's airline and what it taes
to get on in this high!fl"ing #ob.
Some time ago# ' !as !or+ing in an o$$ice !hen ' sa! a ,icture o$
4 <ichard 9ranson and read about him starting a ne! airline# -irgin. '
sent him a letter sa"ing ' !as interested in !or+ing $or him. A$ter a
success$ul intervie!# ' began their $our5!ee+ training course. The
,ersonnel o$$icers sa" it's usuall" obvious at the start !hether somebod"
has the right @ualities or not. 3ersonalit" is ver" im,ortant.
(/ You have to be $le>ible# attractive# and able to smile !hen dut" calls
5even i$ "ou don't $eel li+e it. Obviousl" "ou don't need airline
e>,erience# but nursing# or other !or+ !ith ,eo,le# is use$ul.
The training course is reall" common sense although the ,ractical
side includes things li+e li$e5boat sessions in a s!imming ,ool# $ire
(4 $ighting in a smo+e5$illed room and learning ho! to deliver a bab". 'n
realit"# though# "ou end u, dealing mainl" !ith travel sic+ness. The
,oint is "ou have to be ,re,ared $or ever"thing.
' !or+ on $lights $rom 1at!ic+ to :e! Yor+ or Miami. Onl" (/J o$
m" !or+ involves serving ,eo,le. The em,hasis is on sa$et" and
./ that's !hat !e're here $or. 9e$ore ever" $light there's a brie$ing !here
the cre! are as+ed @uestions on $irst5aid and sa$et".
Those !ho claim that !or+ing in such a job ma+es "ou loo+ much
older than "ou reall" are have a ,oint. ' also thin+ this job ages "ou. On
$lights to :e! Yor+ ''m on board $rom .?(4 in the a$ternoon until
.4 nearl" midnight our time. ' have to drin+ eight ,ints o$ !ater ,er $light
to ,revent m" bod" $rom deh"drating# but it is nearl" im,ossible to
consume that much. So m" s+in is ,robabl" su$$ering. 9ut ' thin+ these
are minor disadvantages. ;hen !e get to :e! Yor+ it's onl" &?44 ,m
American time and !e usuall" go out and have a ,art"I
8/ ' $l" about $our or $ive times in .* da"s# !hich means ' !or+ hard
$or t!o or three da"s# then ta+e time o$$. ' get at least eight da"s o$$
ever" month# so it doesn't $eel li+e most other $ulltime jobs. ' get $our
!ee+s holida" a "ear# three o$ !hich have to be in the !inter. 9ut as
one o$ the advantages o$ this job is being able to $l" !ith an" airline
84 $or (/J o$ the normal cost# ' can a$$ord to go to $ar a!a" ,laces in
search o$ !inter sun.
't's a sociable job on board and o$$. There are onl" ../ cre!
members in total so there is a close relationshi, among us. This means
20
things are ver" $riendl" and ' thin+ it's obvious to the ,assengers that 2/ !e're
having a good time# !hich hel,s them rela>. ;hen ,eo,le leave -irgin to
!or+ $or other airlines the" o$ten miss the intimac" o$ a small com,an" and
come bac+. 9ut although the social li$e !ith -irgin is $abulous# outside it is
non5e>istent. riends and $amil" +no! m" time o$$ is ,recious# but even at
home ''m sometimes on standb". 24 The job ,uts a strain on an" romance.
Ha,,il"# m" bo"$riend !or+s $or -irgin too# and !e choose to !or+ a
'married roster' !hich means !e $l" together all the time. 't's either this or
ta+ing the chance o$ bum,ing into each other once in a !hile.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'that mu)h' (line 5)7
. 'it' (line .2)7
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. #f somethin" 'a"es' (line 2) you' it .
a) makes you look older
*) takes most of your time
)) affe)ts your a"e
. 3ehydrate (line &) is to .
a) feel ill while flyin"
*) lose too mu)h water
)) drink a lot of li<uid
2. =ine .1' 'intima)y' is .
a) makin" somethin" o*+ious
*) workin" 'or a small )om(any
)) ha+in" a )lose relationshi(
.. /um( into (line .%) means .
a) work to"ether
*) meet *y )han)e
)) find roman)e
6. The main aim of the trainin" )ourse is to .
a) train the (ersonnel to fi"ht a fire
*) tea)h the (ersonnel how to deal with tra+el si)kness
)) "i+e an idea a*out all res)ue te)hni<ues
d) (re(are the (ersonnel for une:(e)ted thin"s
21
&. Whi)h of the followin" is not )orre)t1
a) 3e**ie's Do* is different from many full4time Do*s.
*) ,he )an "et a holiday of two weeks in the summer.
)) ,he used to work in an offi)e *efore she "ot her (resent Do*.
d) ,he is attra)ti+e' fle:i*le and )an smile when ne)essary.
C. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. A (erson )an work for @ir"in Atlanti) only if sEhe is e:(erien)ed.
. 3e**ie )an fly )hea(ly on any airline.
1+
LAY':1 ':SOM:'A TO <EST
B" Susan $ilbert
;hen the tas+ at hand is to get a good night's slee,# tr"ing hard is
not the !a" to succeed. T!isting and turning in search o$ a com$ortable
,osition in bed ma+es "our bod" do the o,,osite o$ !hat it is su,,osed
to do at night. 'nstead o$ slo!ing do!n# "our heartbeat
4 races. 'nstead o$ rela>ing# "our muscles t!itch. You !atch the cloc+
and !onder !hat "ou're doing !rong.
Ten million ,eo,le in the 6nited States alone are see+ing medical
hel, $or chronic insomnia 5 di$$icult" in $alling aslee, or sta"ing aslee,.
or "ears it has been called a s"m,tom o$ a number o$
(/ ,s"chological ,roblems# such as de,ression# that someho! alter the
bod"'s slee, ,attern. Slee, s,ecialists agree that ,s"chological
,roblems are a cause o$ insomnia# but also sa" bad habits can have the
same e$$ect. These include too little da"time activit" and# ironicall"# its
o,,osite# too much e>ercise.
(4 E'nsomniacs usuall" begin losing slee, over some ,roblem# such as
a serious illness in the $amil"#E sa"s ,s"chiatrist <obert ;atson. E9ut
unli+e other ,eo,le#E he adds# Ethe" continue to have trouble slee,ing 5
$or months# even "ears.E According to Fo"ce and 7ales# t!o
,s"chiatrists at 3enn State 6niversit" in 3enns"lvania# insomniacs
./ ,resent a consistent ,ersonalit" ,ro$ile. The" ta+e things hard# $eel the"
haven't lived Ethe right +ind o$ li$e#E and are nervous and tense.
3s"chiatrists sa" insomniacs share another trait. Thomas Coates o$
the 6niversit" o$ Cali$ornia sa"s# Eanother characteristic common to
insomniacs is that the" s,end an e>cessive amount o$ time thin+ing
.4 about slee,.E Contrar" to the image o$ bad slee,ers as !or+aholics#
Coates's stud" indicates that insomniacs s,end more time rela>ing

than others do. He thin+s their relative inactivit" during the da" ma"
alter the bod"'s Ecloc+.E 'nstead o$ signalling the brain to slo! do!n at
night# the cloc+ calls $or more activit".
8/ Slee,ing late on !ee+ends can also disru,t "our bod"'s cloc+. This
is a bad habit <obert ;atson ma+es ,atients change at the Slee,
Disorders Centre. He tells them to rise at the same time each da"# even
a$ter a night o$ ,oor slee,. EA$ter a !hile#E he sa"s# Eslee, im,roves.E
Even though it tires "ou out# e>ercise !on't guarantee a sound
84 slee,. '$ it is too strenuous# es,eciall" just be$ore bedtime# it can drive
"our ,ulse too high# causing a restless night. Fo"ce and 7ales use
moderate a$ternoon e>ercise# along !ith methods such as
,s"chothera," to treat severe insomniacs.
;hat is the best tiling to do on occasional slee,less nights= orget
2/ slee,ing ,ills. The" can actuall" cause insomnia a$ter three da"s# b"
altering the brain's chemistr". ;atson recommends drin+ing mil+ or
eating cheese or tuna# because the" are rich in natural slee,5,roducing
aids.
EThere's something to the old5$ashioned remed" o$ drin+ing !arm
24 mil+ be$ore bedtime#E ;atson sa"s. ;arming it !on't ma+e an"
di$$erence# but it !ill hel, "ou rela>.
A. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine ' 'trait' means .
a) diffi)ulty *) )hara)teristi) )) ima"e
. =ine 26' 'strenuous' means .
a) tirin" *) restless )) hi"h
2. A))ordin" to Ro*ert Watson' is a *ad ha*it of insomnia)s.
a) the *ody )lo)k whi)h is disru(ted
*) "oin" to *ed late on weekends
)) slee(in" lon"er than usual on weekends
d) "ettin" u( at the same time e+ery mornin"
.. 0:(erts do not re)ommend slee(in" (ills as they .
a) are not natural
*) )an )han"e the )hemistry of the *rain
)) don't )ontain slee( (rodu)in" aids
d) /oth (a) and (*).
23
14
ACUPUNCTURE
Acu,uncture# the method o$ treating diseases b" using needles# is
based on the Chinese model o$ health and disease. 'n this model# there
are three main s"stems in the bod". The $irst t!o o$ these are the
circulator" and nervous s"stems as in the !estern vie! but#
additionall"# there is a sort o$ energ" movement.
4 The Chinese believe that all $orms o$ li$e are controlled b" t!o
basic movements o$ energ". One is out!ard moving and the other is
in!ard moving. ;hen an out!ard movement reaches its limit# it
changes direction and starts to move in!ards. Similarl"# !hen an
in!ard movement reaches its limit# K changes direction and starts to
7B move out!ards. The o,eration is li+e a ,um,# and this constant
,um,ing movement ma" be seen in almost ever" $orm o$ li$e 5 the
human heart# $or e>am,le.
6nderstanding this idea o$ energ" movement is im,ortant !hen
loo+ing at the theor" behind Chinese Acu,uncture. 'n this theor".
(4 there is a li$e $orce !hich consists o$ in!ard and out!ard moving
energ" in each ,erson. 'n!ard moving energ" tends to increase activit"
and the other ,roduces calm. The health o$ the bod" de,ends on the
balance bet!een the t!o. '$ this balance is disturbed# diseases occur.
./ The Chinese also discovered that this movement ta+es ,lace around
the bod" along .& channels called meridians. Each one o$ these is
connected to a di$$erent ,art o$ the bod" and has a di$$erent $unction.
Diseases also occur !hen a meridian is bloc+ed. To hel, unbloc+
energ" channels# doctors ,lace needles in di$$erent ,arts o$ the bod"#
.4 but to cure the disease the needles have to be ,laced in the right ,lace
and have the right de,th.
The earliest acu,uncture needles !ere made o$ stone. These !ould
have been used !hen the $irst boo+s !ere !ritten about acu,uncture
2#4// "ears ago. The Chinese later used needles made o$ bone and
8/ then o$ di$$erent metals such as iron and silver. Toda"# the" are made o$
steel.
The Chinese $irst believed that the needle itsel$ cured the disease.
Ho!ever# this !as be$ore it !as discovered that there are certain ,oints
along the meridians !hich are connected to various ,arts o$ the
84 bod"# such as the stomach and the heart.
There are over *// di$$erent needle ,oints in the bod". The doctor
e>amines the ,atient and decides !hich ,art o$ his or her bod" are over5
active or under5active0 in other !ords# the doctor $inds out !here
.4
there is too much or too little energ". ;hen the acu,uncture ,oints 2/
have been $ound# needles are ,laced in the s+in at various de,ths.
The" are then le$t there $or di$$erent ,eriods o$ time# !hich might be
as short as a $e! seconds.
A major recent develo,ment has been the use o$ acu,uncture in
medical o,erations. 'n such cases# it is used instead o$ anaesthetics# in
24 order to ta+e a!a" the ,ain $elt b" the ,atient. 'n China toda"# this use
o$ acu,uncture is e>tremel" common in both major and minor
o,erations# even o,erations on the heart.
'n the East there are nearl" three million doctors !ho regularl" use
acu,uncture. 't is taught in several <ussian universities. And even in
4/ Euro,e and America there are thousands o$ doctors !ho have no!
learnt ho! to use acu,uncture. The ;est# ho!ever# uses onl" one ,art
o$ the techni@ue intensivel"0 that is# the use o$ needles to relieve ,ain
during o,erations.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'these' (line 2)7
. 'other' (line &)7
2. 'if (line $)7
.. 'this theory' (line 1.)7
6. 'the other' (line 15)7
&. 'these' (line 1)7
5. These' (line 5)7
%. 'there' (line .1)7
$. 'whi)h' (line .1)7
1!. 'su)h )ases' (line ..)7
/. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. A))ordin" to the Chinese' the ener"y mo+ement in the *ody )an *e
o*ser+ed in the workin" of the human heart.
. >nowin" a*out the ener"y mo+ement in the *ody is ne)essary to
understand how a)u(un)ture works.
2. The life for)e in the theory of a)u(un)ture refers to the *alan)ed
mo+ement of ener"y in the human *ody.
.. The outward mo+in" ener"y in the human *ody makes a (erson +ery
a)ti+e.
1. 0ner"y )hannels in the *ody are )alled meridians when they are *lo)ked.
.&
15
*AISIE,S A*A-ING *ENAGERIE
An ambulance and the <S3CA !ere both called to the home o$
Maisie MacDonald "esterda" in the centre o$ 1lasgo!. A doctor
visiting the house in ans!er to an emergenc" call discovered the most
biCarre collection o$ animals !ho share the house !ith Maisie. ;hile
4 the ambulance !as s,eeding to the local hos,ital !ith *85"ear5old
Maisie# a team o$ <S3CA vets and Edinburgh Coo5+ee,ers !ere tr"ing
to solve the ,roblem o$ !ho !ould loo+ a$ter Maisie's ,ets during her
sta" in hos,ital.
Fohn Mclnnes# the Head 7ee,er at Edinburgh Loo# had this to sa"?
(/ '' have never seen so man" di$$erent +inds o$ animals in an"bod"'s
home. ' am staggered that an"one could loo+ a$ter so man" creatures#
es,eciall" at the age o$ *8I Maisie has done a !onder$ul job and none
o$ the animals has been neglected in an" !a".'
Alan Marsh# 8.# an assistant +ee,er# said# 'She has close to t!o
(4 doCen cats in there and $our $airl" big dogs# but the"'re not interested in
$ighting. 't's unusual to $ind such ,lacid animals as these. The" live
mainl" on the ground $loor. The rest o$ the house is huge. There seems
to be something di$$erent in ever" room.'
<S3CA 'ns,ector# 9ill Miles# told our re,orter# E;e are ma+ing
./ ever" e$$ort to +ee, Maisie's ,ets alive and !ell until she is released
$rom hos,ital. ' thin+ !e !ill have to consider the ,ossibilit" o$
$ostering man" o$ them !ith $amilies around 1lasgo!I The others can
be ta+en to the Coo.E
So !hat e>actl" did the" $ind in Maisie's house= There !ere cages
.4 o$ birds o$ all sha,es and colour going u, the three Mlights o$ stairs. A
goat and several $amilies o$ rabbits shared a room on the $irst $loor. The
bathroom had been ta+en over b" a ,air o$ mallard duc+s and a Canada
goose# a giant $ish tan+ in another bedroom housed a collection o$
terra,ins and salamanders. Yet another $ish tan+ held a
8/ ,air o$ bab" alligators. 9ut the to, $loor !as the most sur,rising o$ all.
A $ull" gro!n tiger !as living in the atticI Ho!ever# the Coo5+ee,ers
re,orted that it !as as tame as a +itten and the" had no trouble
,ersuading it to get into the van to go to the Coo.
rom her hos,ital bed Maisie# su$$ering $rom a bro+en hi,# said#
84 EM" animals are m" !hole li$e. ' !as cleaning out <ajah the tiger's
room this morning !hen he got too ,la"$ul and +noc+ed me do!n. '
managed to drag m"sel$ out and called one o$ the dogs. ' o$ten send
him to the ,ost o$$ice !ith a note to get things $or me# so this time '
sent him !ith a note as+ing $or hel,. Ever"one has been so +ind# but
2/ ''m terribl" !orried about m" ,ets.E
.*
16
MA<1A<ET MEE
Artist# adventurer# e>,lorer# botanist and rain $orest conservationist
are some !a"s o$ describing Margaret Mee# a remar+able !oman !ho
s,ent the last 8& "ears ,ainting the AmaCon $lora.
'n ()4&# at the age o$ 2%# the alread" accom,lished artist made her
4 $irst AmaCon e>,edition to observe# collect and ,aint the $lo!ers o$ the
region. Thus began a series o$ (4 e>,editions# the last o$ !hich !as in
Ma" o$ ()**# success$ull" to $ul$ill her dream to ,aint the $lo!ers o$
the rare moon$lo!er cactus that gro!s along the <io :egro and $lo!ers
$or onl" one night a "ear.
(/ 't !as an ins,iring sight to !atch this $rail5loo+ing !oman setting
out on an e>,edition in a dugout canoe !ith onl" one 'ndian guide. She
e>,erienced man" hardshi,s and de,rivations on e>,editions but
al!a"s returned $ull o$ enthusiasm and !ith man" noteboo+s and
s+etches# as !ell as ,lant s,ecimens to gro! care$ull" in her home in
(4 <io de Faneiro until thev ,roduced $lo!ers to ,aint.
She !as one o$ the greatest !omen e>,lorers o$ this centur". She
became +no!n be"ond the botanical communit" and 9raCil !hen# in
()&*# she ,ublished a beauti$ul $olio boo+ o$ her ,aintings entitled
'lo!ers o$ the 9raCilian orests' to be $ollo!ed b" another in ()*/#
./ 'lo!ers o$ the AmaCon'. Her ,aintings are distributed around the !orld in
botanical institutions# ,rivate and ,ublic collections.
She $ell in love !ith the AmaCon ecos"stem as she studied and
,ainted its $lora. Ho!ever# the ,eriod during !hich she !or+ed
coincided !ith the time !hen the AmaCon rain $orest !as being
.4 destro"ed. Conse@uentl"# Margaret Mee became ont o$ the leading
de$enders o$ rain $orests and her recent lectures al!a"s had a strong
conservation message# born out o$ a dee, understanding o$ the com,le>
ecos"stem.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'the already a))om(lished artist' (line .)7
. 'they' (line 16)7
2. 'another' (line 1$)7 another
30
/. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. Mar"aret Mee is .5 years old.
1. The (ur(ose of Mee's last e:(edition to the AmaAon was to (rote)t the
nature.
. Mee didn't ha+e any diffi)ulties on e:(editions.
1. Why is it so diffi)ult to (aint the flowers of the rare moonflower )a)tus1
. Why did Mar"aret Mee )olle)t (lant s(e)imens1
2. What was ha((enin" to the rain forests while Ma r"aret Mee was workin" in the
AmaAon1
17
YO6< HEL3':1 HA:D CA:
T6<: DES3A'< ':TO HO3E
't is di$$icult $or ,eo,le living in a ,ros,erous countr" to imagine
!hat it is li+e to gro! u, in one o$ the ,oor countries in A$rica# Latin
America and Asia.
'n man" develo,ing countries# millions o$ children die $rom
4 malnutrition and disease be$ore the" even reach adulthood. or those
!ho survive# li$e is cruell" hard. The" live in the most basic +ind o$
hut. Their !ater $or drin+ing# !ashing and coo+ing comes $rom the
local river or stream. The" have to !or+ $rom da!n till dus+# almost
$rom the time the" can !al+. And $or much o$ the "ear the" go
(/ hungr". An average $amil" income is H (/ to (4 a month. ;orse still#
the" lac+ the o,,ortunit" to im,rove their lives because there is no
education or training in ,ractical s+ills. This is !hat !e in ';orld
amil"' are !or+ing to change 5 and !e need "our hel, to succeed.
8(
(hat (e Are .oin/
(4 'n .4 countries o$ A$rica# Asia# Central and South America !e are
giving ,oor ,eo,le a chance to im,rove their o!n lives through setting
u, small5scale develo,ment ,rojects. ;e are hel,ing to build schools#
dig !ells# ,rovide medicines and 5 most im,ortant o$ a!! 5teach the
s+ills the ,eo,le need. To give just one e>am,le# in the
./ Embu area o$ 7en"a !e are hel,ing to e@ui, and run a mobile clinic to
im,rove child care0 ,roviding te>tboo+s $or the local school0 hel,ing to
build tan+s to conserve rain!ater0 and training local ,eo,le in
agricultural and income generating s+ills.
;e +no! that !e cannot reall" hel, the !orld's ,oor b" giving
.4 them handouts. :or can !e im,ose ,reconceived ;estern solutions on
them since the solutions !hich are $orced u,on ,eo,le turn out to be
useless in man" cases. Our a,,roach is to hel, ,eo,le solve their
,roblems in their o!n !a".
(hat 0o1 Can .o To He!2
8/ Toda" !e are as+ing "ou to join our !orld!ide $amil" and to hold
out a hel,ing hand to a child !ho urgentl" needs it. You can do it no!#
b" agreeing to s,onsor a child. Your s,onsorshi, can give them the
chance to go to school or ,rovide some o$ the other things that man" o$
us ta+e $or granted. That is# !e never @uestion the availabilit"
84 o$ these things because !e have no doubts about their e>istence. 'n
addition to this# it can give their $amilies the chance to learn basic
h"giene and health care. And it can start their communities on the long
and gradual ,rocess o$ raising their living standards.
9ecause "ou are s,onsoring one ,articular "oungster# "ou'll have
2/ the jo" o$ seeing the di$$erence that "our hel, ma+es. You'll see the
child gro!ing u, 5 learning# develo,ing and gaining in strength and
con$idence over the "ears 5 through letters# ,hotogra,hs and regular
,rogress re,orts.
You can ,la" a vital role in our !or+. As a s,onsor# the hel, that
24 "ou give !ill go to!ards ,ractical develo,ment !or+ to bene$it a !hole
$amil" and communit". That's because !e realise that !e cannot
im,rove the li$e o$ an individual child !ithout su,,orting and
strengthening the $amil"# and raising the living standards o$ the
communit" as a !hole.
32
EA<THN6A7ES
Earth@ua+es are ,robabl" one o$ the most $rightening and
destructive ha,,enings o$ nature that man e>,eriences. The e$$ects o$
an earth@ua+e are o$ten terrible. Earth@ua+es have caused the death o$
man" human beings# much su$$ering# and great damage. Toda"# the
4 stud" o$ earth@ua+es has gro!n greatl" as scientists all over the !orld
stud" the causes o$ earth@ua+es. Scientists ho,e that their studies !ill
im,rove the !a"s o$ ,redicting earth@ua+es and also develo, !a"s to
reduce their destructive e$$ects.
The scienti$ic stud" o$ earth@ua+es is some!hat ne!. 6ntil the
(/ (*th centur"# $e! $actual descri,tions o$ earth@ua+es !ere recorded. 'n
general# ,eo,le did not understand the cause o$ earth@ua+es. Man"
believed that the" !ere a ,unishment $rom 1od. One earl" theor" !as
that earth@ua+es !ere caused b" air rushing out o$ caverns dee, in the
interior o$ the earth.
(4 On :ovember (# (%44# a serious earth@ua+e occurred near Lisbon#
3ortugal. Shoc+s $rom the @ua+e !ere $elt in man" ,arts o$ the !orld.
A$ter the @ua+e# 3ortuguese ,riests !ere as+ed to observe the e$$ects
and to ma+e !ritten records. These records !ere the $irst scienti$ic
ste,s to !rite do!n the e$$ects o$ an earth@ua+e. Since that time#
./ detailed records have been +e,t o$ almost ever" major earth@ua+e.
Most earth@ua+es occur in areas around the 3aci$ic Ocean. This belt
o$ areas is called the 'ring o$ $ire' and includes the 3aci$ic coasts o$
:orth and South America# the Aleutian 'slands# Fa,an# Southeast Asia#
and Australia. Hal$ a million ,eo,le !ithin the 'ring o$ $ire' have
.4 died because o$ earth@ua+es and much valuable ,ro,ert" has been
severel" damaged or destro"ed.
An earth@ua+e is the oscillator"# sometimes violent# movement o$
the earth's sur$ace that comes a$ter a release o$ energ" in the crust o$
the earth. Most destructive @ua+es are caused b" the dislocation o$ the
8/ crust. orces $rom beneath the sur$ace o$ the earth cause the crust to
bend and then brea+ and the roc+s on the sur$ace move into a ne!
,osition. The brea+ing o$ the roc+s causes vibrations called 'seismic
!aves'. These vibrations travel $rom the source o$ the earth@ua+e to
distant ,laces along the sur$ace o$ the earth. The seismic !aves cause
84 the entire ,lanet to tremble or ring li+e a bell.
The vibrations ,roduced b" earth@ua+es are discovered# recorded#
and measured b" instruments called seismogra,hs. -ibrations are o$
t!o general t",es? sur$ace !aves and bod" !aves. Sur$ace !aves travel
along the earth's sur$ace and bod" !aves travel through the
34
2/ earth. Sur$ace !aves usuall" have the strongest vibrations and ,robabl"
cause most o$ the damage done b" earth@ua+es.
Currentl"# scientists are ma+ing studies to ,redict earth@ua+es. At
the ,resent time# scientists do not have the +no!ledge re@uired to
,redict the time and siCe o$ earth@ua+es. Ho!ever# a large grou, o$
24 scientists at the :ational Centre $or Earth@ua+e <esearch in Cali$ornia#
has been able to ,redict the areas !here earth@ua+es might occur.
<esearch at the centre about the ,h"sical and chemical nature o$ roc+s
and their behaviour under the $orce o$ an earth@ua+e !ill hel, engineers
to design and build structure $or areas that o$ten su$$er $rom
4/ earth@ua+es.
A. Com(lete the followin" senten)es.
1. =ine .%' 'their *eha+iour' refers to the *eha+iour of .
. The 'rin" of fireB is the *elt of areas around the 8a)ifi) ;)ean where
2. ,eismo"ra(hs the +i*rations )aused *y
earth<uakes.
. ;ne )hara)teristi) of surfa)e wa+es' whi)h )ause most of the dama"e done *y
earth<uakes' is that they .
/. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. ,)ientists ho(e to redu)e the harmful effe)ts of earth<uakes *y studyin" the
nature.
. ,)ientists at the Fational Centre for 0arth<uake Resear)h in California )an
(redi)t the time and siAe of earth<uakes.
C. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine 12' ')a+erns' are (ro*a*ly .
a) earth<uakes o))urrin" in the interior of the earth *)4
stron" winds )aused *y earth<uakes
)) ri+ers and lakes in maDor earth<uake areas
d) dee( holes under the "round
84
1&
3ITA*INS
'n the earl" da"s o$ sea travel# seamen on long vo"ages lived
e>clusivel" on salted meat and biscuits. Man" o$ them died o$ scurv"# a
disease o$ the blood !hich harms the teeth and causes !hite s,ots on
the s+in and general e>haustion. On one occasion# in (484# an English
4 shi, arrived in :e!$oundland !ith its sailors des,eratel" ill. The men
!ere saved b" 'ro@uois 'ndians !ho gave them vegetable leaves to eat.
1raduall" it !as realiCed that scurv" !as caused b" some lac+ in the
sailors' diet although nothing !as +no!n about vitamins at that time
and Ca,tain Coo+# on his long vo"ages o$ discover" to Australia
(/ and :e! Lealand# established the $act that scurv" could be !arded o$$
b" ma+ing the sailors eat $resh $ruit and vegetables.
:o!ada"s# it is understood that a diet !hich contains nothing
harm$ul ma" result in serious diseases i$ certain im,ortant elements are
missing. These elements are called 'vitamins'. Nuite a number o$
(4 such substances are +no!n and the" are given letters to identi$" them0
A# 9# C# D# and so on. Di$$erent diseases are associated !ith lac+ o$
,articular vitamins. Even a slight lac+ o$ vitamin C# $or e>am,le# the
vitamin most ,lenti$ul in $resh $ruit and vegetables# is thought to
increase signi$icantl" the ,ossibilit" o$ catching cold easil".
./ The vitamins necessar" $or a health" bod" are normall" su,,lied b"
a good mi>ed diet including a variet" o$ $ruit and green vegetables.
Ho!ever# !hen ,eo,le tr" to live on a ver" restricted diet# $or e>am,le#
during long ,eriods o$ religious $asting# i.e. !hen ,eo,le sto, eating $or
religious ,ur,oses# or !hen tr"ing to lose !eight# it is
.4 necessar" to ma+e s,ecial e$$orts to su,,l" the missing vitamins.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'them' (line &)7 G G G
. 'su)h su*stan)es' (line 16)7
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine ' 'e:)lusi+ely' means .
a) e:(ensi+ely *) only )) lu:uriously d) rarely
. =ine 1!' 'warded off' means .
a) en)oura"ed *) o*ser+ed )) su((lied d) a+oided
37
20
LIFE IN S4A5E
;e haven't con@uered s,ace. :ot "et. ;e have sent some ./ men on
cam,ing tri,s to the moon# and the 6SA and the Soviet 6nion have
sent ,eo,le to s,end restricted lives orbiting Earth. Several tri,s have
been made into s,ace to sho! that ordinar" Anon5 astronautB scientists
4 can live and !or+ in s,ace 5 $or a $e! da"s onl". All these are
marvellous technical and human achievements# but none o$ them
involves living inde,endentl" in s,ace. The <ussians need $ood and
even o>"gen sent u, $rom Earth. 't is onl" in $iction# and in s,ace
movies# that ,eo,le s,end long ,eriods living more or less normall"
(/ dee, in s,ace.
9ut in about a decade 5 sa"# b" the "ear ./(/ 5 this ma" have
changed. There could be settlements in s,ace !here adventurers !ould
lead normal lives. The idea o$ a s,ace settlement seems li+e science
$iction 5 but it is not. 't is based on ,lans ,roduced b" e$$icient
(4 ,eo,le? engineers and scientists# headed b" 1erard O':eill o$ 3rinceton
6niversit". These ,eo,le are +een on s,ace research# o$ course# but
the" are not dreamers.
The settlement is a large !heel# a tube more than 2// $t in diameter
bent into a ring. The !heel s,ins gentl" once a minute. 't is this gentle
./ circular movement that ma+es this settlement di$$erent $rom the s,ace
shuttles# because the s,in ,roduces a $orce that $eels li+e gravit". Ever"
s,ace tri, has sho!n that the human bod" needs gravit" i$ it is to
continue $unctioning normall". :obod" !ould !ant to live $or long in
a s,ace settlement !here ever"thing 5 ,eo,le and e@ui,ment and
.4 the eggs the" !ere tr"ing to $r" 5 moved !eightlessl" around.
;ith gravit"# li$e in s,ace can be based on our e>,erience on Earth.
;e can have $arming and $actories and houses and meeting 5 ,laces
that are not designed b" guess!or+. The need $or gravit" is one o$ the
reasons $or building a s,ace colon"# rather than sending settlers to an
8/ e>isting location such as the moon or the ,lanets. The moon is
inhos,itable0 its gravit" is tin" 5 and an" one ,lace on the moon has (2
da"s o$ sunlight $ollo!ed b" (2 o$ night# !hich ma+es agriculture
im,ossible and means solar energ" cannot be used.
'n the settlement# !hich $loats in ,ermanent sunlight# the
84 da"5length is controlled b" a huge mirror about a mile in diameter. This
mirror $loats !eightlessl" above the ring o$ the settlement. The sunlight
is constant during the 'da"time'# so $arming is $ar more ,roductive than
it can be on Earth. The aim is to ,rovide a diet similar to that on Earth#
but !ith less '$resh meat. The $arms !ill be arranged
8)
2/ in la"ers !ith $ish ,onds and rice ,addies on the to, la"er0 !heat
belo!0 vegetables# so"a# and maiCe on the lo!er la"ers.
The ,o,ulation o$ the settlement is $i>ed at about (/#/// ,eo,le. 'n
this !a"# $arm out,ut can be accuratel" ,lanned? about &2 s@uare
metres o$ vegetables# $ruits and grains !ill be needed $or each ,erson#
24 and just over $ive s@uare metres o$ grass land. The ,lace !here the
,eo,le live !on't loo+ ver" di$$erent $rom modern small to!ns on
Earth# and this is deliberate. Science $iction $ilms sho! onl" huge glass
to!er bloc+s# but real5li$e s,ace settlers !on't !ant these. Throughout
histor"# settlers have tried to ,ut u, buildings li+e the
4/ ones the" le$t behind# because these are $amiliar. S,ace settlers !ill do
the same.
And !here !ould the settlement be= EAt L4# o$ course#E sa" the
e>,erts. This re$erence describes a ,oint on the moon's orbit around
Earth# e@uidistant $rom the moon and Earth# !here the gravitational
44 $orces o$ the t!o bodies balance. AThe L stands $or Lagrange# a rench
mathematician !ho listed a number o$ 'balance' ,oints.B Those !ho
intend to settle in s,ace have $ormed an L4 societ". And the members
are not at all im,ractical eccentrics.
A. =ine 66' 'the two *odies' refers to .
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. To s(in (line 1$) means to .
a) li+e in a wheel of o+er .!! ft in diameter
*) turn around a )entral (oint
)) *e different from other s(a)e shuttles
d) (rodu)e a for)e similar to "ra+ity
. =ines 2!421' The moon is inhos(ita*le' means it is .
a) an ideal (la)e for settlers
*) a lo)ation that already e:ists
)) unsuita*le for a settlement
d) not easy to find its lo)ation
2. =ine .2' 'farm out(ut' is .
a) what is (rodu)ed on a farm
*) an a"ri)ultural settlement area
)) a))urate (lannin" on a farm
d) the amount of "rass land for ea)h (erson
40
61
S4A5E TOURIS*
Fa,an's ShimiCu Cor,oration is ma+ing ,lans $or the da" that there
are regular $lights into s,ace# not b" astronauts# but b" tourists and
sightseers. ShimiCu's s,ace ,roject o$$ice ,re,ared the ,lan $or a H.*
billion s,ace hotel !ith the technical guidance o$ 9ell O Trotti o$ the
4 6nited States. 't is not the $irst ,ro,osal o$ its +ind. Since the $irst da"s
o$ s,ace e>,loration# ,eo,le have s,eculated about the ,ossibilit" o$
cosmic ,leasure tri,s. 'n ()&%# the $ounder o$ the Hilton hotel chain#
9arron Hilton# told the American Astronautical Societ" that he ho,ed to
see the $irst orbital Hilton in his li$etime.
(/ 'n s,ite o$ the advances in technolog"# Fa,an's :ational S,ace
Develo,ment Agenc" is doubt$ul about the $uture o$ s,ace travel.
ShimiCu# ho!ever# is o,timistic and is even ,lanning to ,ut a ne!
generation o$ s,ace ,lanes into o,eration around the "ear ./(/ to start
commercial s,ace travel and tourism.
(4 S,ace ,lanes !ill re,lace the current generation o$ s,acecra$t. :ot
onl" !ill the" be able to ta+e o$$ and land li+e jets# but the" !ill also
have the ,o!er to leave the atmos,here altogether. The 6nited States#
rance# 9ritain# 1erman"# Fa,an and the Soviet 6nion are all ,lanning
h",ersonic s,ace ,lanes.
./ There are common $eatures to the designs o$ s,ace ,lanes0 the" !ill
use a single booster stage to reach their orbit. The" !ill be totall" re5
usable and !ill be ,ro,elled to h",ersonic s,eeds b" revolutionar"
engines that can ta+e in o>"gen $rom the atmos,here or on5board
su,,lies. Current generation s,acecra$t are limited b" the vast amount
.4 o$ $uel. 't ta+es about $ive tonnes o$ $uel to ,ut a s,acecra$t into orbit.
9ut b" using a roc+et motor that can ta+e in o>"gen $rom the
atmos,here# the burden o$ li@uid o>"gen can be cut do!n to the amount
that is re@uired !hen the air becomes too rare .
A cost e$$ective and sa$e aero5s,ace,lane !ill mar+ a major turning
8/ ,oint $or the s,ace industr" and the birth o$ s,ace5tourism. Then the
$irst destination $or the rich# the $ashionable and the adventurous !ill be
the s,ace hotel# a s,ace station in lo! earth orbit. As the aero5
s,ace,lane closes in on To+"o Orbital 'nternational# ,assengers !ill
!itness a hotel that loo+s @uite unli+e an" on Earth because the
84 need to build it ,iece b" ,iece 5 b" assembling a series o$ ,re$abricated
modules 5 ma+es it an odd5sha,ed structure.
S,ace tourism !ill not be chea, 5 estimates o$ the cost range $rom
tens o$ thousands to millions o$ dollars# de,ending on the tri,# timescale
and available technolog". or instance# technical consultant
42
2/ David Ash$ord and Dr. 3atric+ Collins o$ 'm,erial College estimate
that the cost ,er seat could $all $rom H2 million in the s,ace shuttle to H
(/#/// in a 's,acebus'.
As $or !hether s,ace5tourism !ill occur at all# !e can dra! $rom
the e>am,le o$ air travel. 'n the ,ast &/ "ears# the number o$ ,eo,le
24 !ho crossed the Atlantic has gro!n $rom a hand$ul o$ ,eo,le to some
.4 million. Once the ne! generation o$ s,ace vehicles under
develo,ment ta+e to the s+ies# the ,ros,ect o$ commercial s,ace $lights
!ithin the ne>t &/ "ears seems inevitable.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1.'they' (line 1&)7
.'any' (line 2.)7
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. ,himiAu Cor(oration .
a) is the first to (ro(ose a hotel in s(a)e
a) is more o(timisti) a*out s(a)e tra+el than the Ca(anese Fational ,(a)e
3e+elo(ment A"en)y
*) is a*le to (lan a s(a)e hotel without assistan)e
)) *elie+es that )osmi) (leasure tri(s will *e (ossi*le in this )entury
. The new "eneration of s(a)e)raft will .
a) ha+e to stay within the earth's atmos(here
*) *e desi"ned *y many )ountries workin" to"ether
)) ha+e to )arry lar"e amounts of fuel
d) *e a*le to "et o:y"en from the atmos(here
C. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. The s(a)e hotel will look odd sin)e it will ha+e to *e made u( of a series of
(refa*ri)ated modules.
. ;ne of the fa)tors whi)h will determine the )ost of s(a)e tourism will *e the
a+aila*le te)hnolo"y.
2. #t will *e )hea(er to tra+el *y s(a)e*us than *y s(a)e shuttle.
.. Within the ne:t &! years 6 million (eo(le will ha+e made s(a)e fli"hts.
-:-, ##
43
22
A.3ERTISING
As a mar+eting term# ',romotion' is a com,an"'s e$$orts to in$luence
customers to bu". A com,an" ma" have a $ine ,roduct or service to
o$$er and it ma" be ,riced correctl"# but these !on't mean much unless
it reaches its target mar+et. 3romotion# !hich aims to
4 reach the customers in that mar+et and ,ersuade them to bu"# includes
the elements o$ giving in$ormation and in$luencing customer
behaviour. 'n other !ords# it includes all selling activities. The most
im,ortant o$ these activities are ,ersonal selling# sales ,romotion#
,ublic relations and advertising. Most com,anies combine these
(/ activities to communicate !ith their customers# but more mone" is
s,ent on advertising than on other t",es o$ ,romotion.
All o$ us have been in$luenced to bu" certain ,roducts because o$
some $orm o$ advertising. 't is universall" acce,ted that advertising
conve"s selling messages better than other techni@ues in certain
(4 situations.
As a tool o$ mar+eting# advertising generall" serves the $ollo!ing
,ur,oses? to ,ersuade ,resent customers to increase their bu"ing# to
slo! do!n the $lo! o$ ,resent customers a!a" $rom the ,roduct and to
increase the $lo! o$ customers to!ard the advertised ,roduct. 9ut
./ the overall ,ur,ose o$ advertising is to in$luence the level o$ ,roduct
sales and# as a result# to increase the manu$acturer's ,ro$its.
To determine the e$$ectiveness o$ advertising# its results should be
evaluated. A ,ractical !a" to measure its e$$ectiveness is through
increased sales volume. Sales $or a ,eriod o$ time $ollo!ing an
.4 advertising cam,aign can be com,ared !ith those $or a ,revious
,eriod.
Advertising can be classi$ied into certain t",es# de,ending on its use
and ,ur,ose. The $irst t",e is ,roduct advertising# !hich is designed to
sell a de$inite and identi$ied ,roduct. 't usuall" describes
8/ the ,roduct's $eatures and good @ualities and it ma" even em,hasiCe its
,rice. 3roduct advertising is used to sell both consumer and industrial
goods# !hich have di$$erent mar+eting characteristics. The second t",e
is institutional advertising. This t",e tries to create a $avourable
attitude to!ard the com,an" o$$ering to sell a ,roduct.
84 This t",e o$ advertising ma" not in$luence immediate sales but it tries
to increase the sales in the long5run. or e>am,le# a manu$acturer ma"
run an institutional advertisement to tell the ,ublic about the com,an"'s
e$$orts to reduce air ,ollution. 9ig com,anies can a$$ord to s,end
mone" on institutional advertising. Another t",e o$ advertising
44
2/ is national advertising# !hich is used to sell nationall" distributed
,roducts b" using a medium or nation!ide circulation. 't is generall"
associated !ith advertising b" the manu$acturer rather than b" a retailer
or local advertiser. The $ourth t",e is local advertising. 't is ,laced b" a
local merchant and di$$ers $rom national advertising b"
24 being more s,eci$ic in terms o$ ,rice# @ualit" and @uantit". 'n national
advertising# the ,ur,ose is to build a general demand $or a ,roduct that
ma" be sold in man" stores. 'n local advertising# the stress is on the
store !here the ,roduct is sold. inall"# there is corrective advertising#
!hich ta+es ,lace to correct s,eci$ic $alse or misleading claims that
4/ might have been made in ,revious advertising. These corrective
advertisements are generall" ordered b" courts to recti$" earlier
misleading advertisements.
or an advertising message to reach its audience# some t",e o$
carrier must be chosen. 'n the $ield o$ advertising# these carriers are
44 called 'media'. The success o$ advertising de,ends both on the message
and the medium selected. The media most commonl" used $or
advertising ,ur,oses are ne!s,a,ers# magaCines# direct mail# radio and
television. Television is a ver" ,o,ular medium because it has the
advantage o$ combining sight# sound# motion and demonstration. And
&/ $or most vie!ers# it does all this in colour# !hich is a uni@ue
combination $or advertisirm. Another advantage o$ T- is that it a,,eals
to all age grou,s. On the other hand# its message is short5lived and
,roduction costs are high. E>,enditures $or T- advertising are the
second largest a$ter the ne!s,a,er# !hich is the leading medium.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'those' (line 6)7
. ''$ Aline .)B?
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. To )on+ey (line 1.) means to .
a) )han"e *) influen)e )) )ommuni)ate d) )om*ine
. To re)tify (line 61) means to .
a) make a false )laim *) )orre)t )) ad+ertise d) distri*ute
2. 8romotion
a) is ha+in" a fine and )orre)tly (ri)ed (rodu)t or ser+i)e
*) in)ludes all sellin" a)ti+ities
)) is a +ery (o(ular ty(e of ad+ertisin"
d) is the most im(ortant a)ti+ity of )om(anies
.6
;':DS
Li+e all gases# air constantl" moves. Masses o$ air# !arm or cool#
!et or dr"# move across land and sea and bring about !eather changes.
During this ,rocess# one air mass re,laces another.
;hen air is heated# it e>,ands. Hot air is less dense than cold air.
or this reason# it rises and leaves behind an area o$ lo! ,ressure.
6nli+e hot air# cold air has a large densit". 'nstead o$ rising# it ,resses
heavil" on the earth's sur$ace. There$ore# it ,roduces an area o$ high
,ressure. Since gases al!a"s tr" to move $rom high to lo! ,ressure#
!inds are caused b" the $lo! o$ cold air !hich tries to re,lace the
rising hot air.
;h" is there such a di$$erence in the tem,erature o$ the air at
various ,laces on earth= There are t!o major global air ,atterns on
Earth. One is $rom the ,oles to!ards the e@uator and the other is $rom
the e@uator to!ards the ,oles. On the earth's sur$ace# the ,oles are
al!a"s cold and the e@uator hot. Cold air comes do!n $rom the ,olar
regions. Since the distance $rom the ,oles to the e@uator is so great# the
cold air $rom the ,oles !arms u, on the !a". Similarl"# the hot
e@uatorial air becomes cooler on its !a" to the ,oles and this is !hat
causes the di$$erence in tem,erature. These !inds do not blo! in the
north5south direction# but the" are diverted. The rotation o$ the earth is
the cause o$ this change in direction. These t!o major global air
,atterns cover thousands o$ +ilometres.
9esides these air ,atterns# there are smaller c"cles !hich cover
hundreds o$ +ilometres. These smaller air ,atterns $orm because o$
smaller changes in tem,erature. or e>am,le# the air above the ground
is heated b" the ground !hereas the air above the sea is colder. As a
result# the cool air moves $rom the sea to the land# $orming a 'sea
breeCe'. During the night# the land is cooler than the sea Asince !ater
heats u, and cools do!n more slo!l"B and the breeCe blo!s $rom the
land to the sea. This !ind is called a 'land breeCe'.
;inds that blo! ver" ,o!er$ull" can develo, into storms# !hich
can turn into hurricanes. Actuall"# no one +no!s !h" some o$ the
storms become hurricanes and others do not. A hurricane $orms over
tro,ical seas# it moves# and !hen it reaches the land or a colder ,art o$
the sea# it slo!l" diminishes# dies out. A hurricane can be (///
+ilometres in diameter. The centre o$ the hurricane is called the 'e"e'.
The s,eed o$ the !ind in a hurricane can range $rom (4/ +,h.
A+ilometres ,er hourB to 8// +,h. All hurricanes originate close to the
e@uator. Hurricanes in the 3aci$ic and 'ndian Oceans are +no!n as
47
2/ 't",hoons'.
Sometimes storms can also develo, into tornadoes. These resemble
hurricanes but $orm over land. Tornadoes can occur an"!here on Earth
but are mostl" observed over the central 6nited States. A tornado# li+e a
hurricane# is a strong !ind s,inning and turning around
24 a core. 6nli+e a hurricane# it contains a ,artial vacuum.
The !ind s,eed o$ a tornado is about 8// +,h.# but sometimes it can
reach *// +,h. Scientists do not +no! e>actl" ho! tornadoes $orm. 't is
thought that !hen !arm moist air meets the cold air $rom the north# it
causes clouds to $orm and storms to develo,. This brings
4/ about an u,rush o$ !arm air# !hich is +no!n as a tornado. ;hen a
tornado ,asses over a house# $or e>am,le# the lo! ,ressure at the centre
causes the air in the house to e>,and suddenl" and# as a result# the
building e>,lodes.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1.'it' (line 6)7
.These' (line .1)7
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine !' 'di+erted' (ro*a*ly means .
a) dire)ted
*))han"ed
)) *lown
d) rotated
. Hot air rises *e)ause it .
a) lea+es *ehind an area of low (ressure
*) is not as dense as )old air
)) (rodu)es areas of hi"h (ressure
d) has a lar"e density
2. Winds form due to the .
a) flow of )old air into a low (ressure area
*) fa)t that hot air (resses on the earth's surfa)e
)) flow of hot air into a hi"h (ressure area
d) fa)t that air is a "as
.%
24
.0NA*ITE
The use o$ d"namite has become as much an art as a science. Si>t" "ears
ago# d"namiters ,laced e>,losives around a building !hich the" !anted to
demolish# or destro". ;hen the" ble! it u,# the environment !as covered
!ith ,ieces o$ bric+s and roc+s. This doesn't
4 ha,,en an"more. Toda" !e can control e>,losions because scienti$ic
blasting techni@ues Ane! methods o$ causing an e>,losionB have been
develo,ed in recent "ears. :o!ada"s# holes are made in the base o$ a
building and these are $illed !ith enough d"namite to +noc+ out 5destro" 5
the building's su,,orts and ma+e it $all do!n. D"namite has
(/ become the most e$$icientl" controlled source o$ releasable energ" available.
There$ore# it is the most o$ten used e>,losive. More than a billion ,ounds o$
d"namite is e>,loded b" blasting e>,erts annuall" in the 6nited States# most
o$ it in mines and @uarries# i.e. ,laces !here stone $or building ,ur,oses
is ta+en $rom the ground. Other
(4 increasingl" im,ortant areas in !hich this e>,losive is used are construction
!or+ Aroads# bridges# buildings# etc.B# gas and oil5!ell drilling# recovering
iron $rom sun+en shi,s# and $ire5$ighting.
Controlled e>,losions are mostl" used in areas o$ dense ,o,ulation. or
e>am,le# sub!a" construction cre!s in :e! Yor+ o$ten use
./ d"namite underground !ithout the ,eo,le above being a!are o$ it.
'n an e>,losion# the solid ,articles inside a d"namite stic+ are
immediatel" trans$ormed into hot e>,anding gases# !hich $orce and
,o!er$ull" ,ush aside roc+s# steel or an"thing nearb".
One o$ the e>am,les o$ blasting !ith ,recision occurred in ()22#
.4 !hen engineers built a (85mile tunnel through a Colorado mountain.
Starting on o,,osite sides o$ the mountain# the" met in the middle !ith great
accurac" P onl" a one centimeter error at the ,oint !here the t!o ,arts o$
the tunnel joined. Another e>am,le is 1utCon 9orglum's use o$ d"namite
to $orm the $aces o$ ;ashington#
8/ Fe$$erson# Lincoln# and Theodore <oosevelt in the roc+s at Mount
<ushmore# in South Da+ota.
Man" d"namiters claim that ,recision blasting became an art in Ful" o$
()8/ at the Saguena" <iver 3o!er 3roject# Nuebec. A ,o!er station had
been built# but to ,rovide !ater $or it# the" needed to turn
84 the !ater $rom the river into another channel. Ordinar" methods had $ailed
so Sam <ussell# a blasting e>,ert# !as as+ed $or advice. He had a brilliant
idea. He built a cement bloc+ !eighing ((#/// tons. He said that he !as
going to dro, it into the river and thus bloc+# or sto,# the $lo!ing !ater.
Man" ,eo,le thought he !as mad# but <ussell calml"
50
2/ ,ut (#/// ,ounds o$ d"namite into holes under the cement bloc+. ;hen
the d"namite detonated# the bloc+ moved into the right ,lace !ith a
roar that could be heard miles a!a".
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'these' (line %)7
. 'they' (line &)7
2. 'it' (line 2%)7
/. What do the followin" mean1
1. '*lastin"' (line &)7
. '<uarries' (line 12)7
2. '(re)ision' (line .)7
C. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
=ine .' a 'roar' is (ro*a*ly a(n) .
a) ma)hine *) loud noise )) e:(losi+e material d) )ement *lo)k
3. Mark the statements as True (T)' False (F) or Fo #nformation (Fl).
1. When dynamite was first used' (eo(le did not (la)e the e:(losi+e in holes
in the *ase of a *uildin".
. The -nited ,tates uses more dynamite than any other )ountry.
2. Most of the dynamite that is *ein" )onsumed in the -nited ,tates is used in
)onstru)tion work.
.. Controlled e:(losions )an *e used under"round in )ities.
6. The use of dynamite in the o(enin" of the tunnel in Colorado was
unsu))essful *e)ause there was a maDor error in )al)ulation.
&. /or"ium used dynamite to )onstru)t a tunnel at Mount Rushmore.
5. When ,am Russell first e:(lained his (lan for *lo)kin" the water'
e+ery*ody thou"ht it was an e:)ellent idea.
0.
1. Why is dynamite the most often used e:(losi+e1
. What ha((ens inside a dynamite sti)k when it e:(lodes1
2. Why was it ne)essary to )han"e the dire)tion of the ,a"uenay Ri+er1
4(
25
A LA:D O 'MM'1<A:TS
The 6SA is a land o$ immigrants. 9et!een (*(4 and ()(2# the !orld
!itnessed the greatest ,eace$ul migration in its histor"? 84 million ,eo,le#
mostl" Euro,eans# le$t their homelands to start ne! lives in
( America. ;h" did these ,eo,le ris+ ever"thing b" leaving their homes
and $amilies to see !hat the :e! ;orld had to o$$er= Ho! had the Old
;orld disa,,ointed them=
irst# !hat $orced emigrants to ma+e the momentous decision to leave=
One major cause o$ the e>odus among Euro,ean ,eo,le !as the rise in
,o,ulation !hich led to 'land hunger'. Another !as ,olitics.
. :ationalism brought about increased ta>ation and the gro!th o$ armies#
and man" "oung men $led eastern Euro,e to avoid militar" service. Also#
the $ailure o$ the liberal revolutions in Euro,e caused the de,arture o$
hundreds o$ thousands o$ re$ugees.
3h"sical hunger ,rovided another ,ressing reason. 9et!een (*24 and
(*2*# the terrible ,otato $amine in 'reland ended in the deaths o$ one
million 'rish ,eo,le and the emigration o$ a $urther million !ho !ished
8 to esca,e starvation. ollo!ing the colla,se o$ the econom" o$ southern
'tal" in the (*&/s# hundreds o$ thousands decided to start a$resh in
America.
'n short# ,eo,le chose to leave their homes $or social# economic and
2 religious reasons. As a result# b" (*)/ among a total ,o,ulation o$ &8
million# there !ere about nine million $oreign5born Americans.
9ut !hat !ere the attractions= irst o$ all# there !as the ,romise o$
land !hich !as so scarce in Euro,e. :e>t# $actories !ere calling out $or
!or+ers# and ,a" and !or+ing conditions !ere much better than bac+
4 home. Men !ere needed to build the long railroads# and settlers !ere
needed to ,o,ulate ne! to!ns and develo, commerce. There !as the
s,ace $or religious communities to ,ractise their $aith in ,eace and
com,arative isolation.
This immigration meant that b" around the (*4/'s Americans o$ non5
English origin had started to outnumber those o$ English e>traction. As
!e +no!# there !ere losers. To start !ith# there !ere those
& immigrants !ho !ere brought to the land b" $orce# the slaves# to be used
as a source o$ chea, labour $or the tobacco ,lantations o$ the South. :or
should !e $orget the e@uall" a!$ul $ate o$ the American 'ndians. 9"
(*&/# there !ere .% million $ree !hites# $our million slaves and a mere
2**#/// $ree blac+s.
% :o!ada"s# the 6SA is still seen b" millions as the 3romised Land.
1one are the da"s !hen "ou could bu" 6S citiCenshi, $or one dollar.
52
Yet# even though entr" is strictl" limited# re$ugees continue to $ind %
$reedom and ,eo,le $rom ,oorer countries a better !a" o$ li$e. As al!a"s# it
remains a magnet to the ambitious and the energetic !ho are read" to commit
themselves to the land that gives them a second chance.
A. Find words or (hrases in the te:t whi)h mean the same as the followin".
. 1. "reat mi"ration of masses ((ara"ra(h )7
. im(ortant and ur"ent ((ara"ra(h 2)7
2. failure ((ara"ra(h 2)7 H
.. not mu)h or enou"h ((ara"ra(h 6)7
6. ori"in ((ara"ra(h &)7
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. The li+es of the 1$th )entury 0uro(ean (eo(le were diffi)ult *e)ause .
a) of the (ea)eful relationshi(s amon" the nations of 0uro(e
*) the (o(ulation was "oin" down "radually
)) there were too many of them' whi)h )aused a shorta"e of land
d) they had de)ided to lea+e their homelands for the -,A
. What is not "i+en as a reason for emi"ration in the te:t1
a) A+oidan)e of military ser+i)e.
*) 8oliti)s.
)) The sear)h for ad+enture.
d) 0)onomy.
2. A((ro:imately how mu)h of the Ameri)an (o(ulation was made u( of
forei"n4*orn Ameri)ans in 1%$!1
a) ;ne se+enth. *) ;ne third. )) A half. d) ;ne fifth.
.. Whi)h of the followin" is mentioned as an attra)tion of the -,A in the te:t1
a) There were o((ortunities to "et a "ood edu)ation.
*) Co*s were a+aila*le.
(
)) 8eo(le )ould lead a lon" and healthy life.
d) All of the a*o+e.
6. Whi)h of the followin" is not true1
a) The story of the Ameri)an #ndians is as sad as that of the sla+es.
*) 3es(ite the stri)tly limited entry' (eo(le still "o to the -,A ho(in" to find a
*etter life.
)) Reli"ious )ommunities'found (ea)e and isolation in the -,A.
d) Millions of (eo(le' most of whom were 0uro(eans' mi"rated to the -,A in the
1%th )entury.
48
c.
1. What were the results of the (otato famine that took (la)e in #reland *etween
(*24 and (*2*=
a) . I 7 I
*)
. Why were more men needed in the -,A1
a) *)
2. Why were the sla+es *rou"ht to the -,A1
66
TE<ES':A
%ro& a radio 'rogra&&e.
This !ee+'s ,rogramme o$ %acts and ('inions is about Teresina#
one o$ the most ra,idl" develo,ing cities in the southern hemis,here.
Teresina !as a small slee," cit" o$ just over 4//#/// ,eo,le until the
government discovered huge de,osits o$ bau>ite# tin and other mineral
4 reserves in the mountainous regions o$ the south5east. ;ithin months
this discover" had a tremendous e$$ect on the cit" and the li$e o$ its
inhabitants# !ho !ere soon having di$$icult" ada,ting themselves to the
so,histicated demands o$ the late t!entieth centur".
3eo,le used to call Teresina the 1arden o$ the. South because o$ its
(/ tree5lined avenues and 4/ ,ublic ,ar+s. An"one visiting the cit" toda"
!ill $ind it di$$icult to understand ho! it earned that name. :o!ada"s#
the cit" is ra,idl" becoming a mega,olis# not much di$$erent $rom
man" other great cities in the Third ;orld. Since the discoveries in the
south5east# thousands o$ ,eo,le $rom all over the countr" have
(4 $looded into the cit". The ,o,ulation# according to statistics released last
"ear# has @uadru,led in the last t!ent" "ears. Over hal$ o$ these ,eo,le
live in the shant" to!nsQ on the hills surrounding the cit" or in. the
s,reading suburbs# !ithout electricit" or a ,ro,er se!age s"stem. 9ut
there is also incredible !ealth in the cit". Lu>urious a,artment
./ bloc+s are s,ringing u, all over the cit"# as !ell as e>travagant houses
!ith s!imming ,ools.
6.
:o!here can the e$$ects o$ this sudden and ra,id change be better
seen than in the trans$ormation o$ the cit"'s o,en ,ublic ,laces.
:o!ada"s# onl" $ive o$ the ,ar+s and s@uares survive. 'n their ,lace
.4 eight5lane high!a"s# viaducts# tunnels and com,le> intersections have
no! invaded this $ormerl" tran@uil cit". And the green $orests around
the cit" that once !ere $ull o$ !ildli$e o$ all +inds no longer e>ist
e>ce,t !here a $e! small clum,s o$ trees remind us o$ !hat it used to
beli+e.
8/ Due to the dramatic increase in ,o,ulation# over %//#/// vehicles
are on the streets o$ Teresina toda". Accident rates are terri$"ing. The
;orld Tra$$ic Organisation A;TOB believes that the cit" has one o$ the
highest accident records in the !orld. The old ,eo,le o$ Teresina do
not !ant to thin+ o$ !hat has ha,,ened to their once beauti$ul cit"
84 but ,re$er to remember the da"s !hen there !ere ,lent" o$ $ish in the
rivers and streams# ,lent" o$ rice in the $ields# and herds o$ !ater5
bu$$aloes that graCed ,eace$ull" around.
Q Shant" to!ns arc areas !here ,oor ,eo,le live in d!ellings built $rom tin# cardboard# or
another materiaI !hich is not ver" strong.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'that name' (line 11)7
. 'in their (la)e' (line .)7 in the (la)e of
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine 5''inha*itants'are .
a) )ities where ra(id de+elo(ment takes (la)e
*) (eo(le who dis)o+er somethin"
)) (eo(le li+in" in a (la)e re"ularly
d) effe)ts that are diffi)ult to ada(t to
. To s(rin" u( (line !) means to .
a) release
*) a((ear
)) la)k
d) rent
2. A water4*uffalo (line 25) .
a) is a kind of animal
*) is somethin" that old (eo(le ha+e
)) (ollutes the ri+ers and streams
d) is a kind of ri)e
55
27
THE ;HALE
;hales belong to a grou, o$ mammals called catecea. 6nli+e $ish# the"
are mammals0 that is# the" are air5breathing# !arm5blooded animals !hich
nourish A$eedB their "oung !ith mil+. Their siCes var" $rom the small
,or,oise !hale 5 less than ( . 4 metres long 5 to the largest animal that has
ever lived on earth 5 the blue !hale. 't can e>ceed 8/ metres in length and
(4/ tonnes in !eight. '$ such a !hale accidentall" s!am ashore and !ere
unable to get bac+ to the sea# it !ould be crushed to death b" its o!n !eight.
The !hale loo+s li+e a $ish but there are im,ortant di$$erences in its
e>ternal structure. 'ts tail consists o$ a ,air o$ large# $lat# horiContal ,addles#
!hereas the tail o$ a $ish is vertical. ish breathe the o>"gen dissolved in
!ater through their gills. 1ills are $ound on both sides o$ the head and
contain blood vessels !hich ,ic+ u, o>"gen as !ater ,asses through them.
6nli+e $ish# !hales have lungs and# $or this reason# have to come to the
sur$ace to breathe in or release air. Most large !hales can sta" under!ater $or
u, to ./ minutes. The s,erm !hale# ho!ever# is an e>ce,tion. 't can dive to
8/// metres and sta" belo! $or more than an hour. 6nli+e $ish# !hales have
blo! holes# or nostrils# on to, o$ their large heads. A !hale breathes out
through this blo! hole. ;hen the breath is released# it condenses in the air
ma+ing a cloud o$ moisture or a s,out.
The !hale's s+in is almost hairless# smooth and shin" and it covers a thic+
la"er o$ $at called 'blubber'. This is u, to 8/ cm in thic+ness and serves to
conserve heat and bod" $luids. The e"es seem ver" small com,ared to its
huge bod". :evertheless# !hales have ver" good vision. The" have no
e>ternal ears# "et their hearing is e>cellent.
There are t!o main grou,s o$ !hale? toothed and toothless. The $ormer
includes the dol,hin# the ,or,oise# the +iller !hale and the s,erm !hale.
Some e>am,les o$ the latter are the gre"# the hum,bac+# the right and the
blue !hales. Toothed !hales have ro!s o$ carved teeth !hich the" use to
gras, their $ood. Some large toothed s,ecies# li+e the +iller# $eed on other
large mammals such as the ,or,oise !hile others5 e.g. the s,erm !hale 5 eat
smaller $orms o$ marine li$e li+e octo,uses and s@uids.
The toothless !hales# or 'baleen !hales'# have no $unctional teeth. 'nstead#
the" have brush" ,lates o$ !halebone called 'baleen' hanging $rom the u,,er
ja!. These strain small $ishes $rom the !ater. 'n other !ords# these !hales
$eed on marine animals that are caught b" a $iltering ,rocess. Their diet
consists mainl" o$ '+rill'# !hich can be $ound in masses in the oceans o$ the
!orld. ;hales live in oceans throughout the !orld# the" travel in schools5#
that is# in grou,s# and o$ten migrate thousands o$ miles.
4%
The !hale has been hunted b" man $or man" centuries mainl" $or its
blubber. This substance is used in cosmetics# the manu$acture o$ margarine
and the so$tening o$ leather. The !a>" substance called 's,ermaceti'# !hich is
$ound in the head o$ a s,erm !hale# $or instance# is used to ma+e soa,.
'Ambergris'# another !a>" substance $ound in ever" !hale's intestine# is used
in the manu$acture o$ ,er$ume# !here it serves to im,rove the scent.
The !hale has also been hunted $or its meat# !hich is eaten b" both
humans and animals. 'n $act# in Fa,an it has been a major source o$ ,rotein
$or man" centuries. The commercial value o$ the !hale has led to a serious
decrease in the !hale ,o,ulation and it is un$ortunate that in the near $uture#
e>tinction o$ some t",es o$ !hales seems inevitable.
A. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. The smallest whale is the (or(oise whale.
. Most whales )an stay underwater for more than an hour.
2. /lu**er is a layer of fat that )o+ers the skin of a whale.
.. 8or(oises eat s(erm whales' o)to(uses and s<uids.
6. The "rey whale is a mem*er of the *aleen "rou(.
&. '>rill' is (art of a whale's *ody.
5. Whales (refer to li+e alone.
%. ',(erma)eti' and 'am*er"ris' are wa:y su*stan)es found in all whales.
$. Whale meat is used in the (rodu)tion of animal food.
1!. All whales will soon *e)ome e:tin)t.
/. Fill in ea)h *o: with one word only.
3ifferen)es /etween the Fish and the Whale
Fish Whale
position of the tail
organs for breathing and nostrils
4*
C. -se words from the (assa"e to )om(lete the followin" )hart.
Mammals
Whales
the ri"ht whale
3. Fill ea)h *lank with a suita*le adDe)ti+e that des)ri*es ea)h item.
8hysi)al features of the whale7
s k i n:
eyes7'
+ision7
hearin"7
6$
28
.ISTRIBUTION OF NUTRIENTS IN 4LANTS
't is generall" believed b" scientists that millions o$ "ears ago ,lant
li$e originated in the !ater# and that ne! $orms o$ ,lant li$e that could
live on land develo,ed graduall". This !ould not have been ,ossible i$
an e$$ective trans,ort s"stem had not evolved inside the ,lant to
4 distribute $ood# !ater# and minerals. 3lants use both their leaves and
roots to obtain $ood. The leaves# $or e>am,le# ca,ture the energ" $rom
the sunlight and hold it $or $uture use in molecules o$ sugar. This sugar
is later trans,orted to the various other gro!ing ,arts 5 the "oung
branches# the gro!ing $ruit# the stem# and the roots. The roots#
(/ on the other hand# ,ic+ u, !ater and minerals $rom the soil. The sa,#
the li@uid in a ,lant# trans,orts them to the leaves and the other gro!ing
,arts. Since nutrients o$ten have to be distributed over long distances#
an e$$icient trans,ort s"stem is necessar". One o$ the best e>am,les o$
this trans,ort s"stem can be seen in the giant se@uoia tree#
(4 in Cali$ornia. This tree sends do!n to the ends o$ its roots sugars that
are made in the leaves hundreds o$ $eet u, in the air. And the ends o$
the roots ma" be a hundred $eet a!a" $rom the base o$ the tree. 3lants
have three s"stems that ma+e ,ossible the interchange o$ substances
among various ,arts o$ the ,lant bod". These are the $ood trans,ort
./ s"stem# the !ater trans,ort s"stem and the air trans,ort s"stem.
The $ood trans,ort s"stem is the most delicate o$ the three. 't can be
easil" damaged because it is alive. ;ounds# heat and e>,osure o$ the
,lant to to>ic chemicals all damage the s"stem that trans,orts $ood. '$
"ou cut a branch and ,ut it in !ater# it ma" seem alive $or man" da"s
.4 or even !ee+s0 "et the $ood trans,ort s"stem sto,s $unctioning soon
a$ter the branch is cut $rom the tree.
The !ater trans,ort s"stem is much less delicate than the $ood
trans,ort s"stem. ;ater trans,ort ta+es ,lace in long strong tubes called
ca,illaries. These consist o$ dead cells. A 1erman scientist once
8/ cut do!n a tree and then ,laced the base in a tub containing ,icric acid.
The "ello!# ,oisonous acid moved u, to the to, o$ the tree. There it
+illed the leaves# but the !ater trans,ort s"stem itsel$ !as not a$$ected
b" the ,oison.
;hen "ou cut through a tree trun+ or branch# "ou notice t!o
84 di$$erent tissues? the bar+ and the !ood. The $ood trans,ort s"stem
$lo!s through the bar+ and the !ater trans,ort s"stem through the
!ood. These trans,ort tissues !ear out as the tree gro!s# so the" are
continuall" re,laced. Ever" "ear ne! !ater5 trans,orting tubes a,,ear
in ne! bar+. The tissue res,onsible $or this rejuvenation is a ver" thin
&/
2/ la"er o$ cells. These cells $orm a tissue called the cambium. 9eing
convenientl" located bet!een the !ood and the bar+# the cambium can
easil" receive the !ater# minerals and $ood necessar" $or ,roducing
$resh bar+ and !ood tissue.
The air trans,ort s"stem consists o$ air s,aces bet!een cells.
24 6nli+e desert ,lants# marsh ,lants have es,eciall" !ell develo,ed air
trans,ort s"stems. This is mainl" because marsh ,lants live on so$t# !et
land. So their roots are not e>,osed to much o>"gen. The leaves o$
marsh ,lants can trans,ort o>"gen $rom the stomata# !hich are small
o,enings on the sur$ace o$ a lea$# through the stem to the roots.
4/ 't is because o$ these trans,ort s"stems that a ,lant can $unction as the
!hole organism that it is.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. Jif (line 5)7
. 'them' (line 11)7
2. 'these' (line $)7
.. 'there' (line 2)7
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine 1' 'deli)ate' (ro*a*ly means somethin" that .
a) )an *e easily dama"ed
*) is ali+e
)) is dama"ed
d) is to:i)
. =ine 2$' 'reDu+enation' (ro*a*ly means the .
a) (rodu)tion of new )ells
*) destru)tion of li+e )ells
)) trans(ortation of water
d) wearin" out of the *ark and wood tissue
2. The fun)tion of the trans(ort system is to .
a) e+ol+e inside the (lant
*) distri*ute food' water and minerals
)) de+elo( land (lants
d) o*tain su"ar from the "reen lea+es
&.
6&
6.S. 369L'C SCHOOLS
There are man" ,eo,le in the 6.S. toda" !ho are not satis$ied !ith
the education that their children are receiving in the ,ublic schools.
The" are ver" !orried about a number o$ develo,ments that are ta+ing
,lace there. Ho!ever# not all o$ these ,eo,le are
4 !orried about the same things. 'n $act# the" o$ten do not agree about
the ,roblems in ,ublic education.
One grou, o$ ,eo,le is concerned about the @ualit" o$ the
education !hich "oung ,eo,le are receiving. According to these
,arents# their children are not learning enough in school# and some
(/ researchers agree !ith them. or e>am,le# according to recent
studies# the number o$ high school students !ho cannot read is
increasing not decreasing. Also the number o$ students !ho have .
di$$icult" !ith sim,le mathematics is increasing. Even students !ho
graduate $rom high school and go to college sho! a
(4 de,ressing lac+ o$ +no!ledge. 'n a geogra,h" class at a large
universit"# 2/J o$ the students could not $ind London on a ma,#
2(J could not $ind Los Angeles# and almost )* could not $ind the
cit" !here the" !ere attending college.
There arc a number o$ ,ossible reasons $or the increase in the
./ number o$ students !ho are not receiving a good basic education.
irst# classes are sometimes too large. 'n some cit" schools# $or
e>am,le# there are o$ten bet!een $ort" and $i$t" students in a class.
Then# there are man" teachers !ho do not +no! enough about the
subjects that the" are teaching. The college ,rogrammes !hich
.4 train $uture teachers are not al!a"s good and do not al!a"s attract the
to, students. 9ut the ,roblems are not al!a"s the $ault o$ the teachers
or the education s"stem. O$ten students !ho do not !ant to learn
behave badl" and disturb the classes. As a result# the students !ho are
reall" interested in their school subjects cannot
8/ learn much in these classes. inall"# according to some ,eo,le#
television is also to blame $or the lac+ o$ success o$ the ,ublic
schools. Young ,eo,le o$ten !atch si> or more hours o$ television a
da". The" do not ta+e time $or their home!or+. The" gro! to
de,end on television $or entertainment and in$ormation# and#
84 there$ore# the" cannot see an" reason $or reading in this modern
!orld. All the entertainment and in$ormation the" !ant comes $rom
television# not $rom boo+s.
A second grou, o$ ,eo,le is dissatis$ied !ith the ,ublic schools 2
$or ver" di$$erent reasons. These ,eo,le usuall" have ver"
&8
2/ conservative belie$s about li$e. The" do not li+e the changes !hich the"
see ever" da" in American societ"# and the" disagree !ith man" o$ the
ideas !hich their children hear and read about in school. or e>am,le#
the" are against the se> education classes that 2 some schools give.
or them# se> education is not a suitable subject
24 $or schools. The" also object to schoolboo+s that describe the lives
o$ mothers !ho !or+ outside the home or o$ ,arents !ho are
divorced. The" do not li+e histor" boo+s !hich criticiCe the 6.S. $or
mista+es made in the ,ast. The" are even against dictionaries that
de$ine one or t!o dirt" !ords.
4/ There are# ho!ever# man" other ,eo,le !ho com,letel" disagree
!ith the ideas and actions o$ these conservatives. EThe" are tr"ing to
limit our $reedom. ;e must ,rotect our children's right to learn about
man" di$$erent ideas#E these ,arents sa". Thus# in the 6.S. toda" there is
a lot o$ discussion about ver" im,ortant @uestions in
44 education. ;ho !ill decide school ,rogrammes and boo+s= Does
the government have the right to decide= Do the school
administrators have the right to decide= Can teachers decide= Do
onl" ,arents have the right to decide the things that their children
learn in school= ;atch television and read ne!s magaCines0 "ou !ill
hear a lot o$ di$$erent ans!ers to these @uestions.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'there' (line .)7
. 'them' (line 1!)7
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. Whi)h of the followin" does re)ent edu)ational resear)h show1
a) The num*er of hi"h s)hool students who )annot read is de)reasin".
*) The num*er of hi"h s)hool students who )annot read is in)reasin".
)) ,tudents who "raduate from hi"h s)hool are "ood at all su*De)ts.
d) ,tudents at a lar"e uni+ersity are es(e)ially "ood in "eo"ra(hy )lasses.
. What is the main idea of the se)ond (ara"ra(h1
a) #n the -.,. there is a "eneral dissatisfa)tion with (u*li) s)hool edu)ation.
*) A))ordin" to some (eo(le' students are not learnin" enou"h in the (u*li)
s)hools.
)) There is a lot of dis)ussion a*out the (u*li) s)hools in the -.,. today.
d) There are se+eral reasons for the failure of the (u*li) s)hools.
&2
30
6:T'TLED
'+,'''+ ' '
Com,anies can increase the mone" !ith !hich the" run their
business in a number o$ !a"s. 9esides borro!ing mone" and bu"ing on
credit# the" can use some other ,rocesses o$ $inancing. T!o !a"s o$
increasing mone" are described here. irst# the" ma" ,rovide
4 bonds. 9onds are a s,ecial +ind o$ ,romissor" note# a !ritten ,romise
to ,a" bac+ the mone" o!ed. The" can be in various currencies# or
$orms o$ mone" used in di$$erent countries# such as the ,ound in
England or the mar+ in 1erman". These bonds can easil" be resold to
other ,eo,le or to other countries. The com,an" that uses bonds
(/ guarantees to ,a" a ,articular amount o$ mone" as interest regularl" $or
a certain ,eriod o$ time. This continues until the time !hen the
com,an" has to ,a" bac+ the mone" o!ed. 3a"ments o$ interest must
be made on time0 it doesn't matter !hether the com,an" is ma+ing
earnings or losing mone". Another ,rocess com,anies ma" use is to
(4 ,rovide other $orms o$ ,romissor" notes called stoc+s. 9onds and
stoc+s are o,,osite methods o$ ,roviding mone" $or a com,an". The
,eo,le !ho bu" stoc+s ,rovide ca,ital !hich is invested in the
business. The" have a share in the ,ro$its and in ma+ing decisions# but
the" must also share the losses. The ,eo,le !ho o!n stoc+s receive
./ dividends# that is# ,eriodic ,a"ments o$ the earnings o$ a com,an". On
the other hand# according to the la!# the ,eo,le !ho o!n bonds have
no control over the decisions o$ the com,an".
A. =ine .' 'they' refers to .
/. What do the followin" mean in the te:t1
1. ')urren)ies' (line &)7
. 'di+idends' (line !)7
C. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. 8eo(le who *uy sto)ks )annot take (art in de)idin" how the )om(any will
mana"e its *usiness.
. Com(anies ha+e to (ay interest only if they ha+e *een earnin" money.
2. /onds and sto)ks are two of the ways of in)reasin" money.
&&
+1
.ISASTER AT SEA
Along the coast o$ the 6nited States# the 6.S. Coast 1uard hel,s
shi,s that get into di$$icult" at sea. The Coast 1uard# li+e the :av"# is
controlled b" the 6.S. government. 't receives the mone" that it needs
$rom the government0 there$ore# its shi,s# ,lanes# and helico,ters are
4 ver" modern.
'n 1reat 9ritain the s"stem is ver" di$$erent. There are a small
number o$ men# called li$eboatmen# !ho go out to hel, shi,s in trouble.
These brave men o$ten ris+ their lives# but the" receive no mone" $or
their !or+. The" live in small to!ns on the coast# and most
(/ have other jobs. The s,ecial li$eboats that the" need are ,rovided b"
the <o"al :ational Li$eboat 'nstitution A<.:.L.'.B# a ,rivate grou,
!hich de,ends com,letel" on mone" $rom ,rivate ,eo,le. The <.:.L.'.
does not acce,t an" mone" $rom the government. As a result# it cannot
al!a"s bu" the best and most modem li$eboats. or e>am,le#
(4 ten "ears ago# 9ritish researchers began to criticiCe the li$eboats !hich
!ere in use at that time. According to their studies# the li$eboats never
san+# but the" turned over in certain sea conditions and sta"ed u,side
do!n in the !ater. Ho!ever# there !as a ne! +ind o$ li$eboat that did
not turn over. The <.:.L.'# began to bu" this sa$er +ind o$ boat# but it
./ could onl" bu" one ever" "ear.
Some "ears ago# on the south!estern coast o$ England# a li$eboat
station that did not have the ne! t",e o$ li$eboat received a radio call
$rom a small shi, that !as sin+ing. The call came in the middle o$ the
!orst storm in $ort" "ears. The sea !as ver" rough# but the li$eboat
.4 !ent out to tr" to save the men on the sin+ing shi,. T!o hours later# the
radio o$ the li$eboat sto,,ed# and nothing more !as heard $rom them.
One da" later a helico,ter $ound the li$eboat. 't !as l"ing u,side do!n
in the sea. 3robabl" a large !ave hit it and turned it over. Ever"one in
the li$eboat had died. :o one had survived.
8/ The ne!s o$ the disaster shoc+ed the ,eo,le o$ 1reat 9ritain. A
number o$ ,eo,le began# to criticiCe the li$eboat s"stem. 'n their
o,inion# the 6.S. s"stem is better. E;e cannot send brave men out in
boats !hich aren't sa$e#E the" said. EThe" need the best boats !hich
mone" can bu". The government must control the li$eboat s"stem.E
84 Toda"# ho!ever# the s"stem remains the same.
&*
HO( TO USE THE READER'S GUIDE
The Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature is a s178ect an" a1thor
list o$ man" Abut not allB magaCine articles ,ublished in the 6.S. This
list# called an inde># is sent to 6.S. libraries ever" t!o !ee+s so that
interested ,eo,le can $ind out @uic+l" !hat current in$ormation is
4 available. or universit" or college students !ho must $re@uentl" do
research# this list o$ subjects !ritten about in magaCines o$ general
interest can be valuable. Learning to use -he Reader's $uide is#
there$ore# im,ortant to all universit" students in the 6.S.
The content o$ -he Reader's $uide consists o$ subject and author
(/ entries to ,eriodicals0 that is# magaCines ,ublished regularl". This
in$ormation is listed al,habeticall". A$ter the subject or author's name#
in$ormation is given !hich tells the student !here to $ind the magaCine
article. or e>am,le# i$ "ou !ant to loo+ u, the subject 'Education'# "ou
should loo+ u, the letter 'E' and then $ind the !ord
(4 'Education'. '$ "ou !ant to loo+ u, an author !hose last name is
'<odri@ueC'# "ou should loo+ u, the letter '<' and then $ind the !ord
'<odri@ueC'. 6nder the subject or the author listing# "ou !ill $ind
articles listed# in al,habetical order# about that subject or b" that author.
Each article is listed b" the $irst !ord in the title o$ the article
./ e>ce,t $or the !ords 'a'# 'an'# and 'the'0 these initial !ords are not
considered in the al,habetiCing o$ articles.
-he Reader's $uide also has t!o +inds o$ cross5re$erences0 that is#
in$ormation about other ,laces to loo+ in -he Reader's $uide $or more
articles about a subject. A$ter a heading# "ou might $ind the !ord 'see'
.4 !hich is $ollo!ed b" other subject headings also $ound in the inde>.
or e>am,le# 'Higher Education' isn't a subject heading in -he Reader's
$uide. i$ "ou loo+ u, 'Higher Education' "ou !ill $ind? Esee
6niversities and CollegesE. Then "ou !ill loo+ under '6' $or
universities. The other +ind o$ cross5re$erence is 'see also'. or
8/ instance# i$ "ou loo+ $or 'Education'# -he Reader's $uide !ill list
articles about education# but it also sa"s? Esee also? Adult Education#
Elementar" Education# S,ecial EducationE. '$ "ou are interested in an"
o$ those headings# "ou can loo+ them u, in -he Reader's $uide.
70
3ALEO1EO1<A3HY
To ans!er @uestions about the ancient geogra,h" o$ the earth in
order to ma+e com,arisons !ith the ,resent da" geogra,h"# it is
necessar" to ma+e ma,s o$ the lands and seas that e>isted during ,ast
ages. This ,rocess o$ reconstructing ancient geogra,h" is called
4 ,aleogeogra,h" A$rom the 1ree+ !ord ,alaious# meaning ancientB.
Li+e a modern da" detective# the geologist must search $or clues
about the nature o$ the ancient geogra,h" among the roc+s. The clues
are o$ t!o main +inds? the t",es o$ $ossils ,reserved in roc+s and the
,ro,erties o$ the roc+s themselves. 9" stud"ing these clues# the
(/ geologist gains direct +no!ledge about the distribution o$ the lands and
seas and also the natural environment o$ the area# such as climate# the
tem,erature and salinit"# i.e. the salt content# o$ the !ater# and the
do!nhill direction o$ slo,es on the earth's sur$ace. The last item is ver"
im,ortant in hel,ing the geologist to guess !here the mountains
(4 and basins !ere located in the geologic ,ast.
The distribution o$ $ossils As+eletons# shells# lea$ im,ressions#
$oot,rints# and dinosaur eggsB in roc+s can ,rovide in$ormation about
the ancient distribution o$ lands and seas. or e>am,le# the remains o$
corals and clamshells Asea animalsB in ver" old limestone de,osits
./ indicate that the area !as once ,art o$ a shallo! sea. Similarl"# !hen
the remains o$ ancient animals# such as horses and camels# are $ound# it
can be assumed that the area !as dr"land or that land !as nearb".
ossils can also sho! the de,th and tem,erature o$ ancient !aters.
or e>am,le# certain +inds o$ shelled sea animals live in shallo!
.4 !ater# others in dee, !ater. Certain +inds o$ ,resent da" coral need
!arm and shallo! tro,ical salt !aters to be able to live. ;hen similar
t",es o$ coral are $ound in ancient limestone# it can be surmised that
the area at one time had a !arm# tro,ical climate.
The ,ro,erties o$ roc+s are also im,ortant clues about the ancient
8/ ,ast and are used as guides to reconstruct ,aleogeogra,h". 'n (*&8# the
$amous naturalist# Louis AgassiC# hel,ed to solve a m"ster" about the
origin o$ certain +inds o$ roc+s# containing a mi>ture o$ sand# silt and
cla". Some e>,erts thought the roc+s originated during the 9iblical
$lood# but others suggested that the" !ere caused b"
84 sediment# i.e.# an"thing le$t behind $rom melting icebergs.
A$ter a summer in the S!iss Al,s stud"ing glaciers and glacial
de,osits# AgassiC discovered that the roc+s $ound# $or e>am,le# in
much o$ Euro,e had been s,read b" large continental glaciers.
Much o$ !hat AgassiC sa! could be e>,lained onl" b" glacial
72
2/ action. 9ecause a glacier is a solid mass o$ ice# it moves slo!l"# and as
it moves# it ,ic+s u, all siCes o$ debris? in other !ords# the scattered
remains o$ bro+en ,articles# ranging $rom huge roc+s to silt and cla".
As the ice melts# all the debris is le$t behind in the $orm o$ a la"er or
material o$ man" +inds.
24 6sing these t!o im,ortant clues 5 $ossils and roc+s 5 ,lus other
in$ormation# geologists are able to reconstruct ancient geogra,h" to
ma+e com,arisons !ith the earth's ,resent geogra,h". 9" com,aring
these# geologists +no! that the a,,earance o$ the earth's continents has
been constantl" changing over the centuries. And this changing o$
4/ the earth's sur$ace is still going on toda"# but Rt is so gradual that ,eo,le
are a!are o$ the change onl" occasionall". Earth@ua+es and the
$ormation o$ ne! volcanoes are t!o s,ectacular actions used b" nature
to change the $ace o$ continents. Trul"# !e live in a changing !orld.
A. /elow' you will find some words from the (assa"e and their di)tionary
definitions. Mark the definition whi)h is the meanin" of the word in the te:t.
1. slo(e (line 12)
i. lie or to mo+e at an an"le from the horiAontal or +erti)al
ii. )ause to slo(e
iii. stret)h of "round that is not flat
i+. in a "ra(h (of a (oint of a (lane )ur+e) slo(e of the line that is tan"ent to a )ur+e
at a (oint
. surmise (line 5)
i. infer somethin" from little or no e+iden)eH "uess
ii. the idea or o(inion *ased on little e+iden)eH "uess
iii. a)t or (ro)ess of surmisin"
2. "uide (line 2!)
i. one who "uides' es(e)ially one who is em(loyed to lead or )ondu)t tours
ii. somethin" that dire)ts or influen)es
iii. show the way toH lead
i+. dire)t the )ourse or motion of
.. de(osit (lines 1$'25)
i. (ut money or +alua*les in a *ank for safe kee(in"
ii. set or lay down
iii. lea+e as a layer
i+. somethin" (ut in a (la)e for safe kee(in"
+. somethin" "i+en as (artial (ayment
+i. somethin" that has settled as a layer o+er a (eriod of time
73
34
A CASE O< SAETY
During the late /)01's about /,211 'edestrians, &ost of who& were
teenagers, were illed or badl" in#ured on the roads in Britain. B" the
/)31's, the figure had doubled.
-here was a debate about the relentless rise in these figures at the
4uro'ean Road Safet" 5ear 6onference in 7ondon, where 8arious 'eo'le
e9'ressed their o'inions on the to'ic:
ran+ ;est# Chairman o$ the 3edestrians' Association?
This +illing o$ ,edestrians# es,eciall" children# is a national disaster
but it is obscured b" the decline in road casualties as a !hole. Among
reasons $or that general decline are stronger cars# the !earing o$ seat
belts and less !al+ing. The result is that ,eo,le thin+ the roads are
sa$er# although $or ,edestrians the" are becoming more and more
dangerous. ;e +no! $rom the !or+ o$ 3ro$essor 'an Ho!arth at the
6niversit" o$ :ottingham that most casualties occur in residential
areas hardl" because children ignore drivers# but it is just the other
!a" round. ;e need to narro! the roads and use ,olicemen to slo!
do!n cars. ;e also !ant to see better ,olicing and im,roved driver
training as !ell. 'n :or!a"# "ou get a driving licence onl" a$ter
,assing t!o tests. You receive a tem,orar" licence a$ter the $irst but it
is made ,ermanent onl" a$ter ,assing another test# a "ear later.
Something similar should be introduced $or ne! drivers in 9ritain.
<educing casualties among the ten5 $ourteen5"ear5olds ,resents
s,ecial di$$iculties. Such children are beginning to e>,lore on their
o!n and tend to give u, the basic rules $or crossing roads taught at
school. The" begin to cross the roads b" co,"ing adults# learning the
dangerous and di$$icult tric+ o$ choosing a ga, in the tra$$ic# and
marching right into the road. ;hatever the case is# children can be
e>cused but not adults. ;e do not !ant to see another 8#///
,edestrians# es,eciall" "oung bo"s and girls# +illed or hurt in the
())/'s.
75
David Smith#
The De,artment o$ Trans,ort# Head o$ <oad Sa$et"?
;e are a!are that the decline in casualties among motorists seems
li+el" to leave ,edestrians the largest single road5user casualt" grou, in
the ())/'s. There$ore# an" re@uired action $or reducing casualties to the
minimum !ill be ta+en.
3eter 9ottomle"# Minister $or <oads?
;e advise to!n ,lanners and road sa$et" engineers to s!itch their
attention $rom vehicles to ,eo,le. A third o$ all journe"s are made
entirel" on $oot. Most other journe"s involve !al+ing to some degree.
That must ma+e ,edestrians the most im,ortant class o$ road users. Too
o$ten ,lanners and road sa$et" engineers seem to $orget that.
A. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. A))ordin" to Frank West'
a) most (edestrians' es(e)ially )hildren )ould a+oid a))idents *y walkin" less
*) /ritish roads are safer for (edestrians des(ite what (eo(le think
)) there would *e fewer )asualties if )hildren wore seat *elts
a) the "eneral de)rease in road )asualties o*s)ures the in)rease in deaths of
)hildren on the roads
. The reason for most a))idents in towns is .
a) )hildren not o*eyin" rules for )rossin" roads
*) dri+ers not (ayin" enou"h attention
)) )hildren i"norin" +ehi)les and dri+ers
d) dri+ers who ha+e a tem(orary dri+in" li)en)e
2. West refers to Forway *e)ause .
a) they know how to edu)ate )hildren a*out traffi)
*) fewer (eo(le are killed on the roads than /ritain
)) they ha+e a *etter dri+in" test system than /ritain
d) their (oli)e are more stri)t with dri+ers
%&
+5
CHA:1ES ': ;O<LD CL'MATE
Although the !eathermen's $orecasts $or a month ahead are onl" a
little better than guess!or+# the" are no! ma+ing long5term $orecasts
into the ne>t centur" !ith gro!ing con$idence. or the dominant trend
in the !orld's climate in the coming decades !ill# scientists sa"# be a
4 ,redictable result o$ man's activities.
At the start o$ the industrial revolution nearl" t!o centuries ago#
man innocentl" set o$$ a gigantic e>,eriment in ,lanetar" engineering.
6na!are o$ !hat he !as doing# he s,ared no thought $or the
conse@uences. Toda"# the ,ossible outcome is alarmingl" clear# but
(/ the e>,eriment is unsto,,able. ;ithin the li$etimes o$ man" o$ us# the
earth ma" become !armer than it has been $or a thousand "ears. 9" the
middle o$ the ne>t centur"# it ma" be !armer than it has been since
be$ore the last 'ce Age. And the centur" a$ter that ma" be hotter than
an" in the ,ast %/ million "ears.
(4 Su,er$iciall"# a !armer climate ma" seem !elcome. 9ut it could
bring man" haCards 5 disru,tion o$ cro,s in the !orld's main $ood5
,roducing regions# $amine# economic instabilit"# civil unrest and even
!ar.
'n the much longer term# melting o$ the great ice5ca,s o$ 1reenland
./ and Antartica could raise sea5levels throughout the !orld. The average
sea5level has alread" risen a $oot since the turn o$ the centur"# and i$ the
ice5ca,s disa,,ear entirel"# it !ould rise b" nearl" .// $eet. Com,lete
melting might ta+e man" centuries# but even a small increase in sea5
level !ould threaten lo!5l"ing ,arts o$ the !orld such
.4 as the :etherlands.
The man5made agent o$ climatic change is the carbon dio>ide that
has been ,ouring out o$ the !orld's chimne"s in ever5increasing
@uantities since the industrial revolution began. And in the ,ast $e!
"ears# scientists have begun to sus,ect that there is a second
8/ man5made source o$ carbon dio>ide !hich ma" be as im,ortant as the
burning o$ $ossil $uels# namel" the stead" destruction o$ the !orld's
great $orests. Trees and other vegetation re,resent a huge stoc+ o$
carbon removed $rom circulation li+e mone" in a ban+. As the vast
tro,ical $orests are cut do!n# most o$ the carbon the" contain $inds its
84 !a" bac+ into the atmos,here as carbon dio>ide.
The amount o$ CO. Acarbon dio>ideB in the atmos,here is still tin".
9ut it has climatic e$$ects out o$ all ,ro,ortion to its concentration. 't
acts rather li+e the glass in a greenhouse# letting through short5!ave
radiation $rom the sun# but tra,,ing the longer5!ave radiation b"
%*
2/ !hich the earth loses heat to outer s,ace.
Com,uter studies have suggested that i$ the concentration o$ carbon
dio>ide in the atmos,here !ere to be t!ice that o$ toda"'s# there !ould
be a rise o$ bet!een .SC and 8SC in average tem,erature.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
(. 'the"' Aline .B?
.. 'i t Q Aline (4B?
8. 'if (line )7
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine 1&' 'haAards' (ro*a*ly means . a) ad+anta"es
*) *enefits )) (ro*lems d) (re)autions
. =ine 2$' 'tra((in"' (ro*a*ly means .
a) not allowin" to (ass
*) makin" easier to (ass
)) lettin" throu"h a surfa)e
d) losin" heat
2. Whi)h of the followin" )annot *e one of the results of a warmer world )limate1
a) An in)rease in food (rodu)tion.
*) Wars *etween )ountries.
)) The death of millions of (eo(le from star+ation.
d) 0)onomi) insta*ility.
.. ,)ientists (redi)t that' in the lon" term' .
a) there will *e a Third World War
*) all )ountries will *e flooded
)) the sea4le+el will not rise noti)ea*ly
d) the (olar i)e4)a(s mi"ht melt )om(letely
6. Man has )han"ed the world's )limate *y .
a) *uildin" )himneys
*) usin" u( more )ar*on dio:ide
)) de)reasin" industrialisation
d) destroyin" forests and *urnin" fossil fuels
%)
&. #f the amount of C ; in the atmos(here in)reases )onsidera*ly'
a) the world will *e)ome warmer
*) we )an e:(e)t )older weather ?
)) (lants will tend to "row faster *'
d) we will ha+e to destroy more forests
. K ? .4 . .
5. Weathermen *elie+e that our future )limate will *e the dire)t result of
a) )le+er lon"4term fore)asts
*) s)ientifi) e:(eriments
)) (lanets' )han"in" )ourse
d) man's a)ti+ities
+6
-E:OM THE<A3Y
The stings o$ bees# !as,s# hornets and "ello! jac+ets can have li$e5
threatening# sometimes $atal# results in minutes 5 even in ,ersons !ho
have been stung ,reviousl" !ithout su$$ering more than ,ain# redness#
and s!elling. atal reactions ,robabl" are more common than
4 once thought. 't !as discovered# $or e>am,le# that some deaths caused
b" heart attac+s at tennis courts# gol$ courses# or ,ools !ere in $act the
result o$ insect stings.
ortunatel"# ,eo,le !ho have e>,erienced bad reactions need no
longer restrict their outdoor activities and live in $ear o$ 'ne>t time'. A
(/ reliable immuniCation treatment has been develo,ed0 it consists o$
increasing a ,erson's tolerance !ith a series o$ injections o$
increasingl" greater amounts o$ the venom 5 i.e. the ,oison ,roduced
b" an insect 5 to !hich an individual is sensitive. 'n just t!o or three
hours# a ,atient receives three injections o$ venom into his arm. ;hile
(4 the third might contain (// times the @uantit" o$ the $irst# it still !ould
be less than the amount in a single sting. A,,ro>imatel" once a !ee+
$or si> !ee+s the ,atient receives additional injections# building u, to
the e@uivalent o$ t!o stings. This maintenance dose is then given
monthl".
./ -enom thera," !ill cost about H.// to H8// ,er ,atient ,er "ear#
$or the venom itsel$# ,lus $ees $or ,h"sicians' services and $or
laborator" !or+. -enom thera," currentl" is considered a,,ro,riate
onl" $or ,eo,le !ho have e>,erienced generaliCed bod" reaction
a$$ecting the s+in# res,irator" or vascular s"stems. Others !ho do not
sho! an" sign o$ reaction should avoid this thera,".
80
37
A:T'SE3T'CS
An antise,tic is a substance !hich destro"s bacteria or +ee,s them
$rom increasing. Toda"# man" t",es o$ antise,tics such as alcohol#
iodine# iodo$orm and $ormalin are manu$actured and used @uite
commonl". 'n addition to these manu$actured antise,tics# the bod"
4 itsel$ has certain !a"s in !hich it de$ends itsel$ against bacteria or
germs. Tears# s!eat# saliva Athe $luid in the mouthB and blood contain
substances !hich resist common in$ections. The greatest o$ nature's
antise,tics are the !hite cor,uscles in the blood# !hich are called
,hagoc"tes. These have the im,ortant @ualit" o$ being able to
(/ consume harm$ul bacteria that enter the blood stream or in$ect a ,art o$
the bod". ;hen such bacteria are ,resent in the bod"# the ,hagoc"tes
rush to the in$ected s,ot and devour the invaders. The ,hagoc"tes are
usuall" strong enough to destro" the bacteria unless the latter increases
in number too @uic+l".
(4 'n the same !a" that bacteria attac+ human beings and cause
in$ections# so the" attac+ meat and vegetables and other $ood# ma+ing
them go bad. 9acteria need $avourable conditions to gro!. These
include moisture# and a $airl" !arm atmos,here. Thus# meat !hich has
to be +e,t $or a long time is $roCen# and this ma+es it too cold $or
./ bacteria to gro! until it is tha!ed out again.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'the latterB (line 1.)7
. 'they' (line 1&)7
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine 5' 'resist' (ro*a*ly means .
a) )ause *) fi"ht a"ainst )) defend d) in)rease
. =ine 1' 'de+our' (ro*a*ly means to .
a) enter *) infe)t )) )onsume d) rush
2. =ine 1' 'the in+aders' are (ro*a*ly the
a) (ha"o)ytes *) *a)teria )) infe)ted s(ots d) human *ein"s
.. =ine !' 'thawed out' is the o((osite of .
a) )old . *) moist )) fairly warm d) froAen
*8
+%
HO( TO BE A HA44IER *OTHER
All research agrees on loving care as an essential ingredient in
health" child develo,ment. 9ut there is increasing doubt that the .25
hour5a5da"# seven5da"5a5!ee+ mother is the best !a" to ,rovide it.
T!o recent studies have come u, !ith the same result? 2/ ,er cent o$
4 the mothers !ho sta" at home !ith children under $ive are de,ressed.
Doctor Michael <utter and Doctor Ste!ard 3rince# among others. have
sho!n that de,ressed mothers ,roduce de,ressed# neurotic and
bac+!ard children. There are man" other mothers !ho# !ithout being
de,ressed# are e>hausted and# there$ore# o,,ressed b" the unending
(/ re,etitive tas+ o$ caring $or a bab"# or b" the constant demands o$ a
"oung child# and so get less ,leasure $rom their children than the"
might. A $ull5time mother at home is ver" li+el" to $eel im,risoned and
de,ressed. A de,ressed mother can be ,s"chologicall" ver" damaging
to her child because she !ill certainl" not be able to give
(4 ,ro,er attention to it. There is good evidence that !ithdra!al o$
attention is more harm$ul to children than ,h"sical absence. There$ore#
a husband !ith common sense !ill certainl" agree to ma+e
arrangements so that the mother can ta+e some time o$$ to ,ursue her
o!n interests. He ma" choose to sta" at home and ta+e over the
./ res,onsibilit" or a bab" sitter ma" be em,lo"ed. An" arrangement !ill
do the mother good as long as it is regular and doesn't involve
renegotiation ever" time. or instance# once a !ee+# a com,letel" $ree
da" and evening during !hich the mother is relieved o$ all
res,onsibilit" is o,timal. She can visit $riends# go to a museum# or
.4 s,end all morning bu"ing a ,air o$ shoes and she needn't come bac+
until she $eels li+e it. The onl" rule is that she must go out# not sta" at
home doing house!or+. 't is actuall" best o$ all i$ arrangements are
made so that ,arents can regularl" s,end a night out together.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'if (line 2)7
. 'others' (line &)7 other
2. 'she' (line 1.)7
.. 'if (line 16)7.
6. 'He' (line 1$)7
&. 'if (line 1)7 [ '
5. 'whi)hB (line 2)7
*4
+&
TELESCO3E S'TES
Toda"# telesco,es are built at remote sites chosen $or the @ualit" o$ their
observing conditions. Such sites are ,re$erred because the s+" is dar+. :ear
big cities# the light $rom the cities causes light ,ollution# !hich inter$eres !ith
the observation o$ the s+". Higher altitudes are more suitable# since there the
humidit" is ver" lo! and the atmos,here is @uite calm.
A. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine 1' 'remote' means .
a) isolated
*) )rowded
)) !ell5lit
d) famous
. To interfere with (line .) means to .
a) im(ro+e
*) hel(
)) (rote)t a"ainst
d) )ause diffi)ulty in
2. =ine 6' 'there' refers to .
a) in humid areas
*) in the sky
)) in the atmos(here
d) at hi"her altitudes
/. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. Teles)o(es are *uilt near )ities to o*tain li"ht from )ities for a *etter
o*ser+ation of the sky.
. The hi"her the altitude' the hi"her the humidity.
87
40
FOO. FOR THE STAR3ING
The n197er o: ,eo,le who die as a result o$ starvation is increasing
ever" da"0 3eo,le don't al!a"s die just because the" don't eat0 the" die
because the" are so !ea+ened $rom lac+ o$ $ood that the" get ill ver"
easil". -er" $e! ,eo,le die o$ measles in 1reat 9ritain. Measles is
4 just a childhood disease that most o$ us e>,erience and sha+e o$$ in a
!ee+ or t!o. or those !hose bodies are !ea+ened b" starvation#
ho!ever# measles is a +iller. And so are hundreds o$ other diseases.
Last "ear about 8/#///#/// ,eo,le died o$ such minor diseases. That's
the e@uivalent o$ the majorit" o$ the ,o,ulation o$ 1reat 9ritain. There
(/ can be no doubt that i$ those ,eo,le had gotten ,ro,er $ood# man" o$
them !ould still be alive toda".
irms in this countr" are currentl" s,ending millions o$ ,ounds
manu$acturing meat. :ot meat $rom co!s but com,letel" s"nthetic#
arti$icial meat. The" are ma+ing it out o$ a certain +ind o$ $ungus and
(4 $rom other vegetable matter. 9" adding $lavour and other constituents#
this 'meat' is said to be indistinguishable $rom the meat ta+en $rom
animals. 't has the same ,rotein and other bene$icial elements that a
,ound o$ stea+ or chic+en contains and !e are assured that !ithin a $e!
"ears !e !ill be eating it as readil" as !e no! eat lamb or bee$.
./ A large number o$ us !ill be e>tremel" hesitant about this s"nthetic
$oodstu$$ and there$ore# the $irms involved !ill have to s,end man"
more millions on ,ersuading us# through advertising# that !e reall"
need the ne! $ood. So# b" the time the $irst vegetable sausage siCCles in
our $r"ing ,ans# millions o$ ,ounds !ill have been s,ent on the
.4 research# manu$acture and selling o$ the ne! ,roduct.
'$ it is true that such meat can be ,roduced# i$ it is true that it reall"
is as good as the real thing# and i$ it is going to be chea,# these ,roducts
should not be directed at those !ho alread" have enough $ood but at
those !ho have none. Let the major $irms $orget about
8/ s,ending millions tr"ing to ,ersuade us to eat it and use their
marvellous ne! invention to $eed the vast mass o$ the !orld's
,o,ulation !ho have never even seen meat. Hal$ a loa$ o$ bread is better
than none? s"nthetic meat is better than an occasional hand$ul o$ rice.
Ever" "ear the major agricultural countries o$ the !orld ,roduce
84 too much o$ certain ,roducts 5 the @uantit" is be"ond !hat is needed or
consumed. Mil+# vegetables and the li+e go o$$ @uic+l" as the" cannot
be e$$icientl" stored. Modern $ood technolog" has ,resented us !ith the
abilit" to $reeCe and to deh"drate Aor $reeCe5dr"B $ood. Could !e hot be
sensible and ma+e use o$ this sur,lus o$ ,roducts b"
**
2/ ,rocessing them to give them longer li$e and $l"ing them out to !here
the" are needed=
Those countries !hich sometimes have too much should ma+e their
sur,lus available in some $orm to those !hich have too little. Don't
tell me that it !ould cost too much mone". '$ a tenth o$ !hat is s,ent
24 on advertising# ,ac+aging# and distributing $ood is creamed o$$ and
s,ent on ,rocessing it $or the starving# !e !ould save a great man"
lives.
A. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. To shake off (line 6) means .
a) to re)o+er from *) to die of )) to ha+e d) to (rote)t a"ainst
. =ine 1.' 'fun"us' is (ro*a*ly a kind of .
a) meat *) +e"eta*le )) syntheti) fi*er d) fruit
2. =ine 5' 'the real thin"' (ro*a*ly refers to .
a) syntheti) meat
3
) artifi)ial food
) ) natural m e a t L D) manufa)tured (rodu)ts
.. =ines 2422' 'Half a loaf of *read is *etter' than none' (ro*a*ly means .
a) it is *etter to "i+e the star+in" (eo(le real meat rather than syntheti) meat
*) it is *etter to "i+e the star+in" (eo(le syntheti) food rather than no food at all
)) half a loaf of *read is *etter than a handful of ri)e
d) half a loaf of *read is *etter than half a (ound of syntheti) meat
6. =ine .2' 'those' refers to . a) )ountries *) sur(lus (rodu)ts
)) (oor (eo(le d) many li+es
&. Whi)h statement summarises the first (ara"ra(h1
a) @ery few (eo(le die of measles in the world today.
*) 2! million (eo(le died of measles last year.
)) More (eo(le would sur+i+e minor diseases with (ro(er food.
d) A few )hildren in 9reat /ritain die of measles *e)ause of (oor food.
5. Tne (rodu)ers of syntheti) meat will .
a) su((ly those who are star+in" with the sur(lus of (rodu)ts
*) ha+e to s(end millions on ad+ertisin"
)) find it diffi)ult to sell it to those who ha+e ne+er seen meat
d) *e hesitant a*out eatin" it
*)
%. Whi)h of the followin" states the main idea of the te:t1 .
a) The (eo(le in de+elo(ed )ountries are not keen on eatin" syntheti) foods.
*) More )ould *e done to hel( the star+in" (eo(le of the world.
a) ,yntheti) meat has "reater nutritional +alue than lam* or *eef.
? d) Modern food te)hnolo"y ena*les us to store food effi)iently.
/. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
r
1. #t would )ost less to sa+e the li+es of star+in" (eo(le than to (ersuade
(eo(le in the West to eat syntheti) meat.
. ;ne tenth of what is s(ent on ad+ertisin"' (a)ka"in" and distri*utin" is
s(ent on hel(in" the star+in" masses of the world.
1. ,ur(lus food )ould *e (ro)essed and sent to (oor )ountries.
. Modern food te)hnolo"y is *ein" used to make life easier for (oor (eo(le.
2. Today' the maDority of the star+in" (o(ulation eat dehydrated food
(rodu)ts.
;1
7EYS TO N6'C7E< LEA<:':1
At a dinner ,art" t!o men !ere discussing -he Right Stuff, a boo+
about the Mercur" s,ace ,rogramme. ;hile Ted !ent on and on about
the technical details he had ,ic+ed u, $rom the boo+# Dan o$$ered onl"
a $e! comments. ETed got so much more out o$ the reading than ' did.E
4 Dan later said E's he more intelligent than ' am=E
The t!o men had similar educational bac+grounds and intelligence
levels. 't !as later discovered that Ted just +ne! ho! to learn better
than Dan did. Ted had made his brain more absorbent b" using a $e!
sim,le s+ills.
(/ or "ears# e>,erts had believed that an individual's abilit" to learn
!as a $i>ed ca,acit". During the last t!o decades# ho!ever# leading
,s"chologists and educators have come to thin+ other!ise. E;e have
increasing ,roo$ that human intelligence is e>,andable#E sa"s Fac+
Lochhead# director o$ the Cognitive Develo,ment 3roject at the
(4 6niversit" o$ Massachusetts in Amherst. E;e +no! that !ith ,ro,er
s+ills ,eo,le can actuall" im,rove their learning abilit".E
Moreover# these s+ills are basic enough so that almost an"one can
master them !ith ,ractice. Here# gathered $rom the ideas o$ e>,erts
across the countr"# are several ,roven !a"s to boost "our learning
./ abilit".
)/
/. 7oo at the big 'icture first. ;hen reading ne!# un$amiliar
material# scan it $irst. S+im subheads# ,hotoca,tions and an" available
summaries. This ,revie!ing !ill hel, anchor in "our mind !hat "ou
then read.
.4 2. ;ractise &e&or"!enhancing techni<ues. These techni@ues# also
called mnemonics# trans$orm ne! in$ormation into more easil"
remembered $ormulations. or instance# to a student !ho cannot s,ell
the !ord arithmetic# a teacher can teach a sentence that remains loc+ed
in mind $or "ears? EA rat in Tom's house ma" eat Tom's ice
8/ cream.E The $irst letters o$ each !ord s,ell arithmetic. Although
mnemonics !ere once dismissed b" researchers# the" are no!
considered an e$$ective means o$ boosting memor" 5 doubling or even
tri,ling the amount o$ ne! material that test subjects can retain.
=. (rganise facts into categories. 'n studies at Stan$ord 6niversit"#
84 students !ere as+ed to memoriCe ((. !ords. These included names o$
animals# items o$ clothing# t",es o$ trans,ortation# and occu,ations. or
one grou,# the !ords !ere divided into these $our categories. or a
second grou,# the !ords !ere listed at random. Those !ho studied the
material in organised categories consistentl" out,er$ormed the
2/ others# recalling t!o to three times more !ords. or e>am,le# to
remember the names o$ all $ormer 6.S. ,residents in ,ro,er order#
cluster the leaders into grou,s 5 those be$ore the ;ar o$ (*(.# those
$rom (*(. until the Civil ;ar# those $rom the Civil ;ar to ;orld ;ar '#
and those a$ter ;orld ;ar '. 9" thus organising com,le> material into
24 logical categories# "ou create a ,ermanent storage techni@ue.
4. Disco8er "our own learning st"le. ;hat's "our st"le= Tr" some
sel$5anal"sis. ;hat# $or e>am,le# is "our a,,roach to ,utting together
an unassembled item= Do "ou concentrate better in the morning or in
the evening= 'n a nois" environment or a @uiet one= 'n a librar" or in
4/ "our o!n room= Ma+e a list o$ all the ,luses and minuses "ou can
identi$". Then use this list to create the learning environment best $or
"ou. ;hichever st"le !or+s $or "ou# the good ne!s is that "ou can
e>,and "our learning ca,acit". And this can ma+e "our li$e $uller and
more ,roductive.
A. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. JTed "ot so mu)h more out of the readin" than # didJ (line .) )an *e re(hrased as
a) JTed "ot more readin" materials than # did.J
*) JTed (refers to read outside *ut # don't.J
)) J# didn't read as mu)h as Ted did.J
d) JTed learned more a*out the material than # did.J
)(
42
THE D'SCO-E<Y O THE ELECT<O:
'n the mid5(*//'s scientists !anted to +no! !hether the atom !as
reall" indivisible. The" also !anted to +no! !h" atoms o$ di$$erent
elements had di$$erent ,ro,erties.
A major brea+through came !ith the invention o$ the Croo+es' tube.
4 or cathode5ra" tube. ;hat is a cathode5ra" tube and ho! does it !or+=
Ever"bod" +no!s that some substances conduct electric current0
that is# the" are conductors# !hile other substances do not. 9ut !ith
enough electrical ,o!er# a current can be driven through an"
substance 5 solid# li@uid# or gas. 'n the cathode!ra" tube, a high
(/ voltage electric current is driven through a vacuum. The tube contains
t!o ,ieces o$ metal# called electrodes. Each electrode is attached b" a
!ire to the source o$ an electric current. The source has t!o terminals#
,ositive and negative. The electrode attached to the ,ositive electric
terminal is called the anode. the electrode attached to the negative
(4 terminal is called the cathode. Croo+es sho!ed that !hen the current
!as turned on# a beam moved $rom the cathode to the anode0 in other
!ords# the beam moved $rom the negative to the ,ositive terminal.
There$ore# the beam had to be negative in nature.
The 1erman ,h"sicists in Croo+es's time $avoured the wa8e theor"
./ o$ cathode ra"s because the beam travelled in straight lines# li+e !ater
!aves. 9ut the English ,h"sicists $avoured the 'article theor". The"
said that the beam !as com,osed o$ tin" ,articles !hich moved ver"
@uic+l" 5 so @uic+l" that the" !ere hardl" in$luenced b" gravit". That
!as !h" the ,articles moved in a straight ,ath. :otice ho! an
.4 e>,erimental observation led to t!o di$$erent theories.
Croo+es ,ro,osed a method to solve the dilemma. '$ the beam !as
com,osed o$ negative ,articles# a magnet !ould de$lect them. 9ut i$
the beam !as a !ave# a magnet !ould cause almost no change in
direction. 3articles !ould also be more easil" de$lected b" an electric
8/ $ield. 'n (*)%# the English ,h"sicist F.F. Thomson used both these
techni@ues 5 magnetic and electric 5 to sho! that the ra"s !ere
com,osed o$ ,articles. Toda" !e call these ,articles electrons. AThe
term electron !as suggested b" the 'rish ,h"sicist 1eorge Stone"# in
(*)(# to re,resent the $undamental unit o$ electricit".B 'n ()((# a
84 "oung American ,h"sicist named <obert Milli+an determined the mass
o$ the electron? ).(( > (/5.* grams. ATo get an idea o$ ho! small this
is# notice that minus sign u, there in the e>,onent# and thin+ o$ all the
Ceros !e !ould have to ,ut be$ore the ) i$ !e !rote the entire number
as a decimal.B
)8
2/ :e>t# someone had to ,rove that the electrons !eren't coming $rom
the electricit"# but !ere being given o$$ b" the metal electrodes. 3roo$
that metals do give o$$ electrons came $rom the laboratories o$ 3hili,,
Lenard# a 1erman ,h"sicist. 'n ()/.# he sho!ed that ultraviolet light
directed onto a metal ma+es it send out# or emit# electrons. This e$$ect#
24 +no!n as the 'hotoelectric effect indicated that atoms contain electrons.
A. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. #f there is suffi)ient ele)tri)al (ower' e+en a solid or li<uid may )ondu)t
ele)tri)ity.
1. C.C. Thomson named the ele)tron.
2. #n the num*er $.11:1!4%' the 4% tells us how many Aeros to add *efore
the num*er.
.. 8hotoele)tri) effe)t has shown that all elements )ontain ele)trons.
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ines .46' JA maDor *reakthrou"h )ame with the in+ention of the CrookesJ tu*e'
or )athode4ray tu*e' )an *e re(hrased as
a) JThe in+ention of the Crookes' tu*e was a su))essful de+elo(ment.J
*) JThe in+ention of the Crookes' tu*e (re+ented (eo(le from learnin" more
a*out the )athode4ray tu*e.J
)) JThe )athode4ray tu*e was in+ented *y Crookes.J
d) J3es(ite the in+ention of the )athode4ray tu*e' a lot a*out atoms remained
unknown.J
. =ine 1$' 'fa+oured' means .
a) su((orted *) (ro+ed )) a)<uired d ) resisted
2. =ine &' 'dilemma' means .
a) the diffi)ulty of makin" an e:(erimental o*ser+ation
*) the *asis of most e:(eriments in (hysi)s
a) the (ro*lem of makin" a )hoi)e *etween two theories
d) the te)hni<ue used for mo+in" (arti)les in a strai"ht (ath
.. =ine 5' 'defle)t' means .
a) turn into iron )) ele)trify
*) )ause to )han"e dire)tion d) make (hotoele)tri)
)2
6. The fun)tion of this (assa"e is to .
a) des)ri*e how a )athode tu*e works
*) show how the ele)tron and its (ro(erties were dis)o+ered
)) show the reader the su(eriority of 9erman s)ientists
d) inform the reader a*out the )ontri*utions of Ro*ert Millikan
43
':LAT'O:
'n$lation has attracted more ,ublic interest than an" other as,ect o$
economics# $or the sim,le reason that ever"one $inds himsel$
immediatel" a$$ected b" it. The common belie$ is that in$lation is
necessaril" a negative occurrence but there are various reasons !h"
4 this might not be the case. Let us consider some o$ the arguments.
Sim,l" described# in$lation is the situation !here increased !age
demands result in higher ,rices o$ consumer goods# !hich causes
$urther increased !age demands. This is called an in$lation s,iral. The
$ollo!ing e>am,le !ill ma+e this ,oint clear. The !or+ers in the car
(/ industr" demand and receive a !age increase. This causes ,roducers to
increase the mar+et ,rice o$ cars in order to ma+e a ,ro$it. 3eo,le see
that the" cannot so easil" a$$ord to bu" cars and# as a result# the" as+ $or
higher !ages in order to maintain the same standard o$ living as be$ore.
These ne! !age increases result in rising ,rices $or goods
(4 and services in all sectors o$ the econom". Car industr" !or+ers no!
$ace higher ,rices so the" demand higher !ages. A side e$$ect o$ this
s,iral is that !or+ers in other industries ma" as+ $or similar increases
be$ore an" ,rice rises occur# sim,l" because the" $eel that the"# too#
should have more mone".
./ The general e$$ects o$ in$lation can be discussed according to
!hether the" are largel" ,ositive or largel" negative. The ,ositive
e$$ects !ill be considered $irst and ma" be divided into t!o main
grou,s? e$$ects on ,rices and !ages and e$$ects on loans. The consumer
discovers he has to ,a" more $or goods and services
.4 although he can $ind himsel$ better o$$ than other grou,s o$ !or+ers i$
his !ages increase $aster than theirs. 'n this !a"# income ga,s bet!een
lo!5,aid and high5,aid !or+ers can be narrowe" 7 a!!owin/ lo!5,aid
!or+ers to have a larger increase. Ever"bod" gets a rise# 71t some
receive more than others. Obviousl"# i$ all !ages are increased
8/ b" the same ,ercentage as ,rices in general# no change in standard o$
living ta+es ,lace.
The e$$ect o$ in$lation on loans is bene$icial to the borro!er. 'n other
!ords# loans reduce in value so that a borro!er onl" has to ,a"
)4
bac+ the nominal value o$ the loan and not its true# or real# value. This
bene$its the borro!er# as the $ollo!ing e>am,le sho!s. A student borro!s
G(/#/// to stud" medicine and become a doctor. This is the amount that a
@uali$ied doctor earns in ( ( T . "ears. ;hen the student ,a"s bac+ the loan
si> "ears later# G(/#/// is the e@uivalent o$ onl" nine months' salar". Even
i$ normal interest rates are added to the loan# this !ill not signi$icantl"
change the $inal result.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'they' (line 1%)7
. 'they' (line 1)7
2. 'he' (line 6)7
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. What is the fun)tion of this te:t1
a) To e:(lain the )auses and effe)ts of inflation.
*) To (ersuade the reader to do somethin" a*out inflation.
)) To inform how mu)h the workers in )ar industry suffer from inflation.
d) To e:(lain why inflation has only ne"ati+e effe)ts.
. #nflation attra)ts so mu)h interest *e)ause .
a) all (eo(le are affe)ted *y inflation at on)e
*) there is a )ommon *elief that inflation is a ne"ati+e o))urren)e
)) se+eral reasons )ontri*ute to the in)rease in inflation
d) hi"her (ri)es of )onsumer "oods are due to hi"h wa"e demands
2. Whi)h of the followin" is the main idea of the se)ond (ara"ra(h1
a) 8eo(le )annot easily afford to *uy )ars durin" times of inflation.
a) 3urin" a (eriod of inflation' workers in the )ar industry mi"ht demand a wa"e
in)rease.
*) The relationshi( *etween in)reasin" (ri)es and wa"es is an inflation s(iral.
*) Car manufa)turers ha+e to in)rease the (ri)e of their (rodu)t *e)ause of
inflation.
.. Whi)h of the followin" is em(hasiAed most in the fourth (ara"ra(h1
a) A do)tor earns 1!'!!! in 1 1E years.
*) #t is an ad+anta"e to *orrow in times of inflation.
)) #t )osts M1!'!!! to study to *e a do)tor.
d) Formal interest rates are added to *orrowed money.
)&
44
<ESH ;ATE<
Toda"# $inding a source o$ $resh !ater is becoming more and more
di$$icult. Man" o$ our streams# rivers and la+es have been contaminated
!ith se!age# and man" to!ns and cities obtain their drin+ing !ater
$rom these same streams# rivers and la+es. To ,revent
4 this constant contamination# se!age treatment ,lants are being built in
man" ,laces. These are ca,able o$ converting se!age into ,ure
drin+able !ater.
Another !a" to solve the ,roblem o$ $resh !ater is to ma+e use o$
the most abundant source o$ !ater !e have? the sea. '$ !e could learn
(/ to get ,otable !ater $rom sea !ater easil" and chea,l"# !e !ould solve
the ,roblem. Man cannot live on sea !ater directl" because o$ the high
,ro,ortion o$ minerals Amainl" saltB in it. More than 2* o$ salt in a
solution is dangerous $or the human bod". Sea !ater contains 8.4J o$
salt. Such a high @uantit" causes deh"dration in human bod"0
(4 that is# the bod" loses the li@uids necessar" $or li$e. Thus# it is necessar"
to reduce the ,ercentage o$ salt in sea !ater to an acce,table level
be$ore using it. A number o$ methods can be used to do this. The most
common method is distillation. Sea !ater is heated until the !ater
eva,orates and the salt is le$t behind. The steam then condenses
./ into ,ure !ater. Another method is $reeCing. ;hen this is done# the
!ater $reeCes $irst# leaving the salt behind. The ice is then removed and
,ure !ater is obtained. A third method is called reverse osmosis. 3ure
!ater molecules are se,arated $rom the salt molecules under great
,ressure.
.4 <ecentl" scientists have been !or+ing on a com,letel" ne! idea?
The idea o$ obtaining $resh !ater $rom the air. ;inds coming $rom the
sea carr" a lot o$ !ater va,our. This va,our condenses into !ater i$ it
stri+es something cold. '$ scientists can build a large condenser# then
the" can collect and store $resh !ater easil". 6n$ortunatel"# the main
8/ ,roblem !ith all o$ the mentioned methods is their high cost. That's
!h" scientists are loo+ing $or !a"s o$ reducing the cost.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. These' (line &)7
. 'it' (line 15)7
2. 'to do this' (line 15)7
)*
;5
M':E<ALS
Minerals are substances !hich are cr"stalline solids and !hich occur
naturall". There are more than t!ent" di$$erent minerals in the bod". Three o$
the most im,ortant minerals are calcium# ,hos,horus# and iron. Calcium and
,hos,horus !or+ together. The bon" s+eletons o$ vertebrate animals#
including man# are com,osed o$ calcium ,hos,hate. '$ ,eo,le have enough
calcium and ,hos,horus# their bones and teeth !ill be strong and hard. 'n
addition# their muscles# nerves# and heart !ill !or+ ,ro,erl". Calcium ma+es
u, about .J o$ the human bod". About ))J o$ that amount is contained in
the teeth and bones. Mil+ and hard cheeses are the best sources o$ calcium.
A$ter the age o$ ()# ,eo,le need onl" 2// to 4// milligrams o$ calcium a da".
3hos,horus# on the other hand# ma+es u, (.(J o$ the human bod". A number
o$ high5energ" com,ounds $ound in our bodies# such as adenosine
tri,hos,hate AAT3B# contain ,hos,horus. AT3 is ca,able o$ trans$erring as
!ell as storing energ" in living cells and is res,onsible $or energ" necessar"
$or ,h"sical activit".
'ron is a mineral !hich ma+es the blood loo+ red and !hich carries o>"gen
$or our normal ,h"sical activities. All lean meats 5 es,eciall" liver 5!hole
grains# nuts# some vegetables# and dried $ruits are good sources o$ this
mineral. 'ron de$icienc" results in a disease called anemia. Anemic ,eo,le do
not have enough iron in their blood# and this causes their hearts to beat $aster
so that their bodies can get more o>"gen. Such ,eo,le# there$ore# get tired
easil"# and their s+ins sometimes loo+ rather !hite.
A.
1. What two )riteria does a su*stan)e ha+e to fulfill in order to *e )alled a 'mineral'1
aB
*)
. What are the minerals a*solutely essential for our *odies1
2. What does defi)ien)y in )al)ium and (hos(horus )ause in a (erson's *ody1
aB *)
(//
.. Where does the *ody store most of the )al)ium1
6. What ty(e(s) of minerals do (eo(le need if they want to ha+e suffi)ient ener"y to
(lay tennis' for instan)e1
&. How mu)h )al)ium does a
a) fifteen4year4old (erson need1
*) thirty4year4old (erson need1
a)
*)
/. Com(lete the followin" a))ordin" to the information in the (assa"e.
1. #ron is essential in *lood *e)ause
. are food items ri)h in )al)ium.
2.Anemia is )aused
..An anemi) (erson may show )ertain sym(toms or si"ns. Two of these are7
a)
7<
;6
A M'S6:DE<STA:D':1
One o$ those misunderstandings !hich sometimes occurs !hen the
gasman comes to call has brought ,uCClement and ultimate good
$ortune into the domestic lives o$ t!o Esse> !omen. Mrs. Ma"
9radbroo+ and Mrs. 9renda 7err live in Alton 1ardens# ;estcli$$5on
4 5Sea. Mrs. 9radbroo+'s home is number 2/ and the 7err residence is
number (2. The di$$iculties began !hen Mrs. 9radbroo+ decided that
the time had come to ,urchase a ne! coo+er. She ,laced her order !ith
the :orth Thames 1as 9oard# but the o$$icial !ho too+ the details
misheard her address.
(/ 3a,er!or+ dul" !ent through $or the deliver" and installation o$ a
ne! gas coo+er at number (2# Alton 1ardens. ;hen the gasmen
arrived !ith it# there !as nobod" at home. The" !ere relieved#
ho!ever# to $ind a considerate note sa"ing# E7e" ne>t door.E Mrs.
(/(
7err !as e>,ecting a visit $rom the Eastern Electricit" 9oard that da"
(4 and had made arrangements $or a neighbour to let them in. ;hen the
gas board a,,eared instead# the neighbour assumed that she had
misunderstood Mrs. 7err and handed over the +e". The ne! coo+er
!as installed and Mrs. 7err's old one ta+en a!a".
Shortl" a$ter!ards# an aggrieved Mrs. 9radbroo+ tele,honed the
./ gas board sa"ing that she had !aited in all da" but the coo+er had not
come. 'n@uiries !ere started. Mean!hile# Mrs. 7err got home to $ind U
the une>,ected and gleaming a,,liance in her +itchen. Clearl"#
something !as amiss but be$ore Mrs. 7err could get do!n to deciding
ho! to sort it out# she had an urgent ,riorit". She had to coo+ her
.4 husband's tea. There !as no other a,,liance in the house# so she used
the ne! coo+er.
The board# having heard $rom Mrs. 9radbroo+ and contacted its
gasmen# !as s!i$t to realise the error. 't assured Mrs. 9radbroo+ that
there !ould be no $urther dela" in getting the coo+er to her. A$ter all#
8/ it had onl" to travel a short !a" u, the road.
9ut 5 Mrs. 9radbroo+ ,ointed out 5 it !as no longer the ne! coo+er
she had ordered# !as it= 't had been used. The gas board sa! her ,oint
and $ound that it also had a ,roblem at number (2. 't had assured Mrs.
7err that her old coo+er !ould be returned ,ronto. 9ut it turned out
84 that the coo+er had been bro+en u, $or scra, immediatel" a$ter it !as
ta+en a!a".
9oth !omen had clearl" su$$ered 'some inconvenience#' as the
board ac+no!ledged. The u,shot o$ the a$$air is that Mrs. 9radbroo+
no! has the coo+er originall" intended $or her# but at a ./ ,er cent
2/ discount o$ G8/. Mrs. 7err has been given a reconditioned Egood as
ne!E coo+er !orth an estimated G84/ to re,lace her scra,,ed one.
And the :orth Thames 1as 9oard is some G8*/ out o$ ,oc+et.
A. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine 1$' 'a""rie+ed' means
a) u(set *) )onfident )) ta)tful d) timed
. =ine %' 'swift' means .
.
a) in<uisiti+e *) "entle )) <ui)k d) insensiti+e
2. /oth Mrs. /rad*rook and Mrs. >err li+e in Alton 9ardens and a mi:4u( o))urred
*e)ause .
a) Mrs. /rad*rook "a+e the wron" address to a "as *oard offi)ial
*) Mrs. >err (la)ed an order for a new "as )ooker
)) someone at the "as *oard took the wron" messa"e
d) Mrs. /rad*rook went out to work lea+in" a messa"e ne:t door for the
"asmen
(/.
47
.O(NTO(N FIRE SUR3I3OR
..5"ear5old Angela Medeiros !as one o$ the luc+" ones. She
survived the blaCing in$erno that ravaged the $ort"5store" Torres
building in do!nto!n Sao 3aolo "esterda". At least thirt" ,eo,le are
+no!n to have lost their lives in the $ire that raged $or over t!elve
4 hours. The $inal count is e>,ected to be $ar higher as des,erate relatives
tr" to locate missing members o$ their $amilies.
Angela !as indeed luc+" to survive. She !or+ed on the t!entieth
$loor# just three $loors above !here the $ire is believed to have started as
a result o$ an electrical $ault in an air5conditioner.
(/ Her $irst im,ression that something !as !rong !as !hen she sa! a
column o$ thic+ blac+ smo+e rising ,ast the !indo! o$ her o$$ice.
EThere !as no sound o$ an alarm or an"thing#E she said. EFust the cries
o$ ,eo,le screaming and running all over the ,lace. 't !as terrible. M"
$irst thought !as to cover m"sel$ !ith !ater# and ' rushed to the
(4 bathroom. 't !as a ver" strange reaction. ;hen ' came out there !as no
one in the o$$ice0 ' !as the onl" one there.E
;hat $ollo!ed !as a nightmare. She tried to get to the emergenc"
staircase# but b" this time the smo+e !as too thic+ and she +ne! that
she could either sta" !here she !as or ma+e an attem,t to reach the
./ roo$# t!ent" $loors above# !here there !as a helico,ter landing5,ad.
She decided to sta" !here she !as and managed to o,en a !indo! and
struggle out onto a ledge. 't !as then that she realised that she !as
,robabl" sa$e. The $ire had ,assed through her $loor and although
$lames !ere ever"!here# she could at least breathe. Her instinct told
.4 her to sta" !here she !as and !ait $or rescue. ESome!here ' had read
that the ne! ladders on the $ire engines could be e>tended to reach the
t!entieth $loor#E she e>,lained. E' ho,ed it !as trueIE
;hat ha,,ened over the ne>t seven hours de$ies descri,tion. She
!itnessed ,eo,le des,eratel" thro!ing themselves out o$ the !indo!s
8/ o$ the $loors above her. She admits that she !as tem,ted to do the same.
She !as a$raid that no one !ould see her and that she !ould not be able
to hold on. E' just ,ra"ed# and thought o$ m" mother and $ather and the
$amil"# and about the holida" !e !ere going to have in t!o !ee+s'
time.E
84 She !as rescued a$ter someone in the cro!d belo! alerted $iremen
to the small $igure huddled against a ledge in a corner o$ the t!entieth
store". E' sa! the ladder moving u, to!ards me#E said Angela# Ebut '
must have lost consciousness# because that's the last thing ' remember.
The ne>t thing ' recall !as !a+ing u, in the ambulance.E
(/2
;AS 'T SOMETH':1 THEY ATE=
3ir++o Mononen's $ather# aged 4)# died o$ a heart attac+. He !as
one o$ nine children $rom a $arming $amil"0 seven o$ them died the
same !a". 3ir++o's husband# Hei++i# +no!s ho! she $eels. His $ather
and mother had heart trouble and $or both o$ them the third attac+ !as
4 $atal.
Their case is not unusual $or 3ir++o and Hei++i# aged 2& and 2%.
The" live in inland# !here the death rate $rom heart disease used to be
the highest in the !orld. :ot an" more# though# as Scotland and
:orthern 'reland have ta+en over the lead.
(/ The Mononens too+ ,art in a novel e>,eriment. Their blood
cholesterol levels !ere measured. The" and .) other $amilies in their
village then s!a,,ed their diet $or the $resh vegetables and lo!
saturated $at inta+e o$ an 'talian communit" in the south o$ :a,les.
The e>,eriment changed their eating habits. 't !as ,art o$ a
(4 long5term state ,rogramme bac+ed b" the ;orld Health Organisation.
'n ()%(# M3s ,resented a ,etition $rom local ,eo,le begging the
government to do something about the alarming number o$ middle
5aged men d"ing ,rematurel" $rom heart attac+s. At the start o$ the
,roject# there !ere about .4/ $atal attac+s in the area each "ear.
./ Toda"# that number has been reduced b" about (//. An initial surve"
had sho!ed smo+ing and diet to be the +e" $actors. Sour and salt"
$lavours !ere ,o,ular# meals !ere large# and mil+ !as drun+ at the
table instead o$ !ater# !ine or beer.
The inland5'tal" e>,eriment caught ,eo,le's imagination. 3ir++o
.4 laughs !hen she con$esses the" ate no s,aghetti over the si>5!ee+ trial.
E' ,re,ared all +inds o$ innish traditional dishes# but ' used vegetable
$at instead o$ lard.E The cou,le !on a $ree tri, to 3olice# the village
chosen $or the other hal$ o$ the e>,eriment# and sa! a big di$$erence.
The 'talians used the $at on meat to ma+e soa, instead o$
8/ eating it as the" do here#E said Hei++i. His cholesterol level almost
halved during the trial. :o!# the" have s!itched to lo!5$at mil+ 5 in
s,ite o$ +ee,ing a herd o$ dair" co!s 5 and gro! their o!n vegetables.
'n the last ten "ears# ,eo,le have been cleverl" ,ersuaded not to
eat high5$at $ood. House!ives !ere taught ne! methods o$
84 $ood ,re,aration and s,ecial 'Long Li$e 3arties' !ere organised !here
$amilies !ould eat together. 9et!een ()&) and ()%)# deaths among
middle5aged men in the area $ell b" .%J.
(/&
;&
TO;A<DS A ;O<7':1 <E:A'SSA:CE
'n historical times# man" societies o,erated a t!o5tier Aa tier is a
level in a s"stem or organisationB s"stem made u, o$ ,eo,le !ho
controlled and those !ho !or+ed and !ere controlled. ;or+ !as not an
activit" to be enjo"ed. Ho!ever# another grou, o$ ,eo,le emerged
4 alongside this s"stem. The" !ere the merchants and artisans. Merchants
!or+ed $or ,ro$it# and artisans A,eo,le s+illed in arts and cra$tsB !or+ed
$or !ages. These !ere the ,eo,le !ho $irst gave us the idea o$ !or+ as
,aid em,lo"ment.
Toda"# ,eo,le need to !or+ in the same !a" the" need to eat and
(/ drin+. This is !hat !e call the '!or+ ethic'. AAn ethic is an idea or moral
belie$ that in$luences the behaviour# attitudes and ,hiloso,h" o$ li$e o$ a
grou, o$ ,eo,le.B 3eo,le !or+ $or the mone" the" need in order to live
!ell# but there is another reason be"ond this basic motivation !hich
ma+es ,eo,le !ant to !or+. ;or+ gives ,eo,le a
(4 $eeling o$ being use$ul.
'n a ,re5industrial societ"# the !or+ ethic did not e>ist. ;or+ and
leisure !ent together and onl" ,art o$ Sunda" !as ta+en as time o$$. 'n
this societ"# singing# tal+ing# drin+ing and gossi,ing !ent together !ith
!or+. ;ith the emergence o$ the !or+ ethic# leisure and holida"s
./ !ere se,arated $rom !or+# thus changing the $ormer ordinar" social
s"stem o$ interaction. During the 'ndustrial <evolution# $or most ,eo,le#
!or+ !as so un,leasant that leisure !as considered as a +ind o$
$reedom. Yet# in s,ite o$ the $act that li$e !as hard and !or+ !as tiring#
,eo,le slo!l" changed $rom having to !or+ to !anting to
.4 !or+. Toda"# the !or+ ethic is so strong that ,eo,le $eel it is their right
to !or+.
The @uestions !e should ,erha,s be as+ing ourselves are# $irstl"#
!hether !e reall" li+e our jobs and secondl"# even i$ !e li+e them#
!hether the" are reall" necessar". Man" +inds o$ !or+ are
8/ disa,,earing as natural resources are used u, and ne! technologies
a,,ear. or e>am,le# com,uters are alread" re,lacing ,eo,le in order to
do boring# re,etitive jobs and to im,rove e$$icienc". To a large e>tent#
the ,rice o$ labour# as com,ared !ith the cost o$ the ne! e@ui,ment#
determines !hich jobs !ill be re,laced. Ho!ever# the ne!
84 technologies !ill create ne! jobs both in the com,uter $ield and in the
leisure industr".
't has been ,redicted that ne! technolog" could result in a ,eriod o$
gro!th and ,ros,erit". This# ho!ever# does not mean that the ever5
gro!ing number o$ unem,lo"ed ,eo,le !ill dro,. ;hat it means
(/*
2/ is that $inance and resources !ill become available to im,rove social
services# education and the health service. The @ualit" o$ li$e can be
im,roved !ith better $acilities and a signi$icant increase in the
!or+$orce behind the services.
't has ta+en more than a hundred "ears to reduce the !or+ing !ee+
24 $rom &/ to 44 hours# then 2*# 22 and no! 2/. The ne>t ste, !ill be a
reduction to 84 and then# ,erha,s# to 8. hours. The current $ive5da"
!or+ing !ee+ !ill become a $our5da" or even a three5da" event. 'n
order to achieve this shortened !or+ing s,an# ,aid holida"s !ill
,robabl" be increased and the age o$ retirement !ill be lo!ered.
4/ Ho!ever# attitudes to !or+ must change as !ell. Communit" li$e ought
to become more im,ortant and the leisure industr" needs to be
e>,anded to cater $or the needs o$ both "oung and old ,eo,le# all o$
!hom !ill have more s,are time. 'n Euro,e# onl" rance has ta+en this
,roblem seriousl" enough to a,,oint a government o$$icial
44 res,onsible $or '$ree5time'.
Ma+ing changes in the education s"stem could solve a lot o$
,roblems. 'n $act# creativit" and sensibilit" could start a totall" ne!
,eriod# ,erha,s a ne! ';or+ing <enaissance'.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'this so)iety' (line 1%)7
. 'they' (line $)7
2. 'all of whomJ (lines 6462)7
/. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. The two4tier system )onsisted of workin" (eo(le and another "rou( who
)ontrolled them.
. Today' (eo(le work only *e)ause they need to eat and drink.
2. #m(ro+ements in te)hnolo"y )ause many kinds of work to disa((ear.
.. =eisure industry will *e)ome more im(ortant if the workin" hours are
redu)ed and the retirement a"e is lowered.
C. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. To emer"e (line .) means to .
a) work
*) )ontrol
)) *e"in to a((ear
d) enDoy an a)ti+ity
(/)
C<'MES
Ever" communit" in the !orld recognises certain activities as crimes.
9ecause o$ this# each has develo,ed its o!n !a" o$ dealing !ith crimes
( and has chosen a number o$ di$$erent ,unishments to match them. So#
societ" identi$ies crimes# administers justice# and then im,oses suitable
,unishments.
't is sur,rising# ho!ever# ho! much the various societies o$ the !orld
di$$er in the areas o$ crime# justice and ,unishment. ;hat ma" be a crime
in one countr" is o$ten ,er$ectl" acce,table in another. or e>am,le# as "ou
ma" +no!# ja"!al+ing# that is# not crossing the road at the ,ro,er
. crossing ,lace# is illegal in areas o$ the !orld such as :orth America#
but in other areas# @uite legal. As !ell as deciding !hat is legal and !hat
is illegal# societies must also decide !hether a crime is ,ett" or serious.
or e>am,le# carr"ing a gun is a ver" serious o$$ence in some countries#
but a ver" ,ett" one in others.
Similarl"# the !a"s o$ administering justice di$$er $rom countr" to
countr". 'n some countries a ,erson is considered innocent until he is
,roved guilt"# but in others the o,,osite is true. 'n other !ords# in the
8 $ormer it is the job o$ the authorities to ,rove that the ,erson has
committed a crime !hereas in the latter it is the individual's tas+ to ,rove
his innocence.
Crimes var"# s"stems o$ justice var"# but the greatest variation bet!een
countries is in the methods o$ ,unishment that the" use. or e>am,le# a
,erson convicted o$ the$t in some ,arts o$ the Middle East might $ace a
severe ,enalt"# !hereas the same crime !ould receive a
2 relativel" lenient ,unishment in some Scandinavian countries. Denmar+
,rovides a good e>am,le o$ the more lenient a,,roach to crime and
,unishment. About hal$ the ,eo,le sent to ,rison there go to !hat is
called an 'o,en ,rison'. 'n these ,risons# the inmates are allo!ed to !ear
their o!n clothes# ,rovide their o!n $ood# bring in their o!n $urniture
and have their o!n radios or television in the cell.
The" are not loc+ed in their cells at night# although each ,risoner is
given a +e" to his o!n cell and can loc+ the door at night i$ he !ishes.
4 Most o,en ,risons in Denmar+ also have s,ecial rooms !here ,risoners
can entertain $riends# husbands or !ives unsu,ervised# in ,rivac" and
com$ort# $or at least an hour a !ee+.
A$ter $our !ee+s in a Danish o,en ,rison# a ,risoner is normall"
entitled to a 'holida"' outside the ,rison. 6suall" he is allo!ed out o$
& ,rison $or one !ee+end ever" three !ee+s. O$ course# ,risoners do not
have to leave the ,rison ever" three !ee+s 5 the" can save u, their
(((
!ee+ends a!a" and ta+e a brea+ o$ u, to eight da"s i$ the" ,re$er. 3risoners
in o,en ,risons in Denmar+ are also allo!ed out $or a !hole & range o$
activities such as bu"ing clothes# visiting the doctor or sim,l" going $or a
!al+ !ith their visitors. '$ a ,risoner needs to leave the ,rison $or educational
,ur,oses 5 attending a course or receiving technical training 5 then# in certain
circumstances# he ma" be allo!ed to s,end the night outside the ,rison.
A. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. 0+ery so)iety has a different way of dealin" with )rimes.
. An indi+idual has to (ro+e his inno)en)e where+er he li+es.
2. The method of (unishment is the *i""est differen)e *etween )ountries.
.. Theft is se+erely (unished in ,)andina+ia.
6. Fearly half of 3enmark's (o(ulation li+es in o(en (risons.
&. #n some 3anish (risons uniforms are not re<uired.
5. 8risoners in 3enmark )an s(end the ni"ht outside (rison any time they want
to.
/. Find words or (hrases in the te:t that mean the same as the followin".
1. not )rossin" the road at the (ro(er (la)e ((ara"ra(h )7
. )rime ((ara"ra(h )7
2. not "uilty ((ara"ra(h 2)7
.. (unishment ((ara"ra(h .)7
6. (risoners ((ara"ra(h .)7
&. ha+in" the ri"ht to do somethin" ((ara"ra(h &)7 *ein"
C.
1.#n what way does 3enmark differ from some Middle 0astern )ountries1
.How lon" does a 3anish (risoner ha+e to s(end in (rison *efore he )an "o out
for the first time1
2. Write two kinds of a)ti+ities that 3anish (risoners )an "o out for.
112
51
A: O9SESS'O: ;'TH <E3T'LES
( Fohn Cheetham's magni$icent obsession !ith re,tiles began !hen he !as
a schoolbo" in his hometo!n o$ Oldham# Lancashire.
A glim,se $rom the to, o$ a bus o$ alligators bas+ing in the sun at
Manchester's $amous 9elle -ue Loo set his imagination racing. He too+
ever" o,,ortunit" o$ visiting the Coo# and the more he sa! o$ the creatures
that seemed to have ste,,ed out o$ the remote ,ast# the more his
$ascination gre!# until it embraced all re,tiles. ;hen he !as ((# he bought
a bab" alligator $rom a local ,et sho,. 't !as the $irst ste, to
. becoming the onl" ,rivate collector o$ giant re,tiles in 9ritain. 't !as also
to lead to Fohn's a,,earing !ith his o!n alligators and ,"thons in $ilms and
on television. And that same ,et alligator is still !ith Fohn# although he's
gro!n a little during the .% "ears the"'ve been together. 9ig 9o"# a
magni$icent s,ecimen o$ Alligator Mississi,,iansis# $ound in the southern
states o$ :orth America# is no! (/ $t. long and !eighs () stone. 9ig 9o"
and Fohn have a,,eared !ith <oger Moore in 7i8e and 7et Die and
Moonraer. 9ig 9o" has also $eatured in 6lash of the -itans and
. on T- advertisements. Fames 9ond $ans have seen @uite a bit o$ Fohn
!ithout realising it. 't !as his legs that did the s,ectacular dash to sa$et"
over the bac+s o$ alligators in 7i8e and 7et Die.
Among Fohn's other ,et re,tiles to star in $ilms are Aristotle# a (25$t5
long reticulated ,"thon aged si># and 3"thagoras# a (25$t 'ndian
2 ,"thon !ho# at eighteen# is the grand old man among the sna+es. Aristotle
and 3"thagoras both $eatured in the under!ater !restling scene in
Moonraer !ith Fohn in a $riendl" tussle# although the eventual result on
$ilm loo+s deadl" serious.
Fohn's collection also includes a giant tortoise# sna,,ing turtles# the
4 largest legless liCards or slo!!orms $ound in the !orld# and :ile
crocodiles. Most o$ the giant re,tiles in Fohn's collection are housed at
9eaver ;ater ;orld# Tats$ield# !hich is o!ned b" Fe$$ ;heeler# his $riend
and ,artner.
Collecting giant re,tiles might seem a strange hobb" $or Fohn# a teacher
at Dorton House School $or the 9lind at Seal# near Sevenoa+s.
& 9ut Fohn o$ten introduces ,u,ils to his ,et sna+es# letting them touch and
hold them. Fohn lets blind children and an"one else handle the ,"thons
!ithout an" $ear that the" !ill attac+. The" are benign creatures. EAll the"
!ant is a @uiet li$e#E he said.
((8
9EYO:D D<61S
Below is the true stor" of Sue >sisin, who suffers fro& e'ile's", a
brain condition which causes a 'erson suddenl" to lose consciousness and
so&eti&es to ha8e 8iolent fits.
Sue 6sis+in !as in a cro!ded Chinese restaurant !ith her
4 $amil" !hen she had an e,ile,tic $it. Her husband Andre! hel,ed her into
a sa$e and com$ortable ,osition on the $loor# held her hand !hile the $it
lasted and# !hile she la" there recovering# he and the children started their
meal. Then the" settled her in a chair and carried on eating. EAt $irst#
ever"one in the restaurant !as
(/ absolutel" horri$ied#E laughs Sue. EThen# as !e !ere leaving# a !oman
rushed over to congratulate Andre! on ho! naturall" he had handled it all.
She had realised that it must ha,,en a lot.E 6n$ortunatel" $or Sue# it does
ha,,en a lot. She is one o$ the ./J o$ su$$erers $rom e,ile,s" !hose
$its cannot be com,letel"
(4 controlled b" drugs. She su$$ers at least three a month.
She is an ins,iring e>am,le o$ someone !ho has not let e,ile,s" control
her li$e. She has shared that ins,iration in a ne! boo+#
7i8ing With 4'ile's", co5!ritten !ith Dr. David Chad!ic+#
consultant neurologist at ;alton Hos,ital# Liver,ool.
./ The indignit" o$# as she ,uts it# Ecolla,sing on the ground in a
nois" jer+ing hea,E has long since ceased to !orr" her# although naturall"
it is never ,leasant# but she has vivid memories o$ ho!# as a teenager#
$riends ran screaming $rom her !hen she had a $it in the ,la"ground at
school. That she didn't lose all her sel$5con$idence at
.4 that time is all due# she believes# to her ,arents. EThe" never tried to
limit m" activities because o$ !hat ,eo,le might thin+ i$ ' had a $it and
ho! it might a$$ect me. On the contrar"# ' !as encouraged to ma+e an
e>tra e$$ort to overcome m" di$$iculties and not allo! them to become
an e>cuse $or doing less#E she sa"s.
8/ E' tell ,eo,le ' am li+el" to see regularl" that ' su$$er $rom
e,ile,s"# and e>,lain !hat the" should do i$ ' have a $it. ' sa"# i$ '
suddenl" get u, and lie on the ground# ma+e sure ' am a!a" $rom an"thing
' could hurt m"sel$ against# then sta" !ith me and hold m" hand. That
ma+es them much more con$ident and com$ortable.E
84 She is adamant that children should be hel,ed to understand
!hat is going on and ho! to hel, right $rom the time the" can cra!l.
Erom a ver" earl" age# mine !ere used to seeing Andre! +neeling do!n
!ith me# sho!ing concern and ,rotection. He al!a"s included them 5 he
!ould encourage them to stro+e m"
((4
2/ $ace. The" soon +ne! !hat to do and the" could do it right# i$ tear$ull".E
Her son# Oliver# is no! (4 and Anna (.. EThe" are at the sel$5
conscious stage and m" $its must be an embarrassment to them. The"
have both gone through ,hases o$ being tense and
24 an>ious. 9ut !e have su,,orted their $eelings# !hatever the" are#
and the $act that the" are not $rightened to voice them must be
good.E
She has al!a"s been ver" ,ractical in her a,,roach to co,ing.
;hen the children !ere babies# she !ould never change them on
4/ the bed $rom !here the" might $all i$ she had a $it# or bath them i$
she !ere alone in the house !ith them. She uses casserole5st"le
sauce,ans rather than long5handled ones !hich are easier to +noc+ over.
She chooses not to s!im or ride or ta+e escalators because she
,ersonall" isn't com$ortable about the ris+s. 9ut she has never
44 avoided going out $or $ear o$ !hat might ha,,en.
Her o!n and her children's courage in that res,ect have been
enormous. Once# !hen Oliver !as t!o# she !as dragged out o$ a ta>i
b" the driver# !ho thought she !as drun+# and !as le$t to have a $it in
the street in the ,ouring rain. On another occasion# she
&/ crum,led to the $loor just inside a building societ" and the sta$$ re$used
to come out and hel, because the" thought she !as a '$ront' $or a hold5
u,.
The children# !hen "oung# o$ten had to tr" to dissuade onloo+ers
in the street or sho,s $rom calling an ambulance# and Sue
&4 hersel$ has o$ten had to su$$er having s,oons thrust bet!een her teeth to
sto, her biting her tongue Aincorrect? onl" something so$t# li+e the
bunched edge o$ a to!el# is suitableB.
She is not bitter about such e>,eriences# e>ce,t !here her
children su$$ered# and loo+s bac+ on man" !ith humour. EThis is
%/ m" li$e and ''ve +no!n no other $or so long. ' just get on and live
it.E 9ut she is ver" +een to combat all the ignorance and ,rejudice.
Once someone said to her that she must be ver" grate$ul to Andre! $or
marr"ing her and that shoc+ed her. Conversel"# she $eels that doctors
o$ten over5estimate the @ualit" o$ li$e that someone in her
%4 ,osition can achieve. She regularl" gives tal+s to medical students
and 13 trainees to give them a truer ,icture o$ e,ile,s".
E''m still terri$ied ever" time ' have a $it#E she sa"s. E't is @uite
something to lose all control $or three or $our minutes. 9elieve me#
it is a long time and ' sometimes go unconscious a$ter. 't doesn't
*/ get easier. A$ter a $it# it's li+e having a reall" heav" hang5over $or the
ne>t t!o or three da"s. 9ut there are ,ositives# too. ;hen "ou +no!
!hat the rougher side o$ li$e can deal "ou# trivial things don't !orr" "ou
at all. ' never get u,set i$ the !ashing machine brea+s do!n.E
((&
6. How did ,ue's friends at s)hool rea)t when she had a fit1
&. What hel(ed ,ue maintain her self4)onfiden)e1
5. How does ,ue think that her fits affe)t her )hildren now1
%. What were the thin"s she a+oided doin" when her )hildren were *a*ies1
$. What should *e done to sto( e(ile(ti)s *itin" their ton"ues durin" a fit1
1!. How lon" does an e(ile(ti) fit last1
53
DO69LE 1LAL':1
%ro& -he (bser8er.
'$ "ou are considering double glaCing# "ou must alread" have
insulated "our roo$ and !alls. 'n an 'ordinar"' home "ou lose .4 ,er
cent o$ heat through the roo$ and 84 ,er cent through the !alls# so
the" must be "our ,riorities# unless "our house is made o$ !indo!s.
4 :e! buildings no! have to meet ne! standards o$ insulation
and are o$ten $itted !ith double glaCing !hen built. 6suall" this .
$actor"5made double glaCing does not just add to the com$ort# but is
ver" !ell designed and actuall" loo+s @uite good.
Still# it's a di$$icult decision to double glaCe an e>isting home#. (/
since "ou're going to have to s,end a lot o$ mone" on !hat !ill 8 save
"ou about (/ ,er cent o$ the heating bill in an ordinar" small house.
O$ course# there are other bene$its besides the $inancial one. The
room !ill be much more com$ortable. You !on't get a chill"
(4 $eeling !hen sitting near the !indo! and draughts !ill be $e!er. 2
So# on the !hole# i$ "ou have mone"# double glaCing is not a
$oolish investment# though even good double glaCing !on't be as
((*
e$$ective as a bric+ !allI
Double glaCing is not just 'Double 1laCing'. There are several
./ !a"s o$ achieving it. You can install 're,lacement !indo!s' !ith
t!o sheets o$ single glass. Or "ou can have 'secondar" !indo!s'#
either $i>ed to the e>isting !indo! or sealed to it. Secondar"
!indo!s are chea,er# can o$ten be installed b" the o!ner# but are
not li+el" to be so e$$icient as re,lacement !indo!s.
.4 '$ "ou !ant to do the job "oursel$# the sim,lest $orm o$ double
glaCing is the a,,lied $rame method# !hich means $i>ing a second
,ane o$ glass directl" onto the original $rame using beading or
s,ecial $rame sections. The most im,ortant thing is that an" o,ening
in the second lea$ should be com,letel" bloc+ed !ith a
8/ long5lasting material. 3oints to chec+ are ? that condensation !ill
not occur bet!een the t!o ,anes0 that "ou !ill be able to o,en
'o,enable' !indo!s# Aor that "ou're ,re,ared to give u, that lu>ur"B0
that "ou !ill be able to clean the !indo! and that "ou have some
other !a" o$ letting $resh air in.
84 '$ "ou thin+ that b" double glaCing "ou automaticall" insulate
against sound too 5 thin+ again. To have a noise insulating e$$ect#
the t!o leaves !ill need a ga, o$ ((/ mm or .// mm0 so double
glaCing !ith noise insulation needs to be s,eciall" made. 't is more
di$$icult to ma+e it loo+ nice and to $it it into the e>isting !indo!
2/ o,enings. Moreover# !ith this ga, it !on't !or+ as !ell $or heat
insulation. So# i$ "ou don't live directl" under Concorde's $light
,ath# it !ill hardl" be !orth insulating $or sound.
A. Whi)h (ara"ra(h fo)uses on ea)h of these ideas as the main idea1 Write the
num*er of the (ara"ra(h in the *lank.
1. 3ou*le "laAin" is e:(ensi+e.
. Nou )an do your own dou*le "laAin" if you are )areful enou"h.
2. There are mainly two ways of dou*le "laAin".
.. #n a house' mainly the roof and the walls should *e insulated.
6. 3ou*le "laAin" is useful.
&. A s(e)ial kind of dou*le "laAin" is re<uired for noise insulation.
/. What do the followin" refer to1
1.'one' (line 12)7
.'it' (line )7
2.that lu:ury'(lines 2422)7
(()
5;
4ARA5HUTING
Over the ,ast .4 "ears or so# there has been a shar, increase in the
,o,ularit" o$ ,arachuting as a s,ort. 3arachuting can be learnt at a
,arachute club. The training is e>tremel" strict. The instructor ma+es
sure that the beginner has learnt and understood ever"thing be$ore the
4 $irst jum,s is made.
Li+e all ,arachutists# the beginner must !ear t!o ,arachutes 5 a
main one on the bac+ and a slightl" smaller reserve one on the $ront.
Trainee ,arachutists do not o,en their ,arachutes themselves. 9" la!#
the" have to ma+e their $irst si> descents using a ,arachute o,ened
(/ automaticall" b" a (45$oot n"lon static line $i>ed to the aero,lane. 't
ta+es about ..% seconds $or the jum,er's !eight to ,ull on the line# and
thus o,en the ,arachute.
Trainees are taught ho! to 's,readeagle' 5 to lie stomach do!n and
stretch their arms and legs out to slo! do!n their $all. 'n this !a"
(4 the" descend at about (./ miles ,er hour be$ore the ,arachute o,ens#
!hereas an e>,erienced s+"5diver# descending head$irst# can travel at
over .// m,h. :ovices jum, $rom a height o$ about .#4// $eet# !hile
e>,erienced $ree$allers ma" jum, $rom !ell over %#/// $eet# !aiting
until the" are !ithin .#/// $eet o$$ the ground be$ore ,ulling the
./ ri,cord to o,en their ,arachutes.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'one' (line 5)7
. 'they' (line $)7 G
G
2. '#n this wayJ (line 1.)7
.. 'their (ara)hutes' (line !)7 the (ara)hutes of
/. What do the followin" mean1
1.'des)ents' (line $)7
.'Fo+i)es' (line 15)7
(.(
55
FO': $R44?;4A64 TODAYI
The natural !orld is under violent assault $rom man. The seas and
rivers are being ,oisoned b" radioactive !astes# b" chemical discharges
( and b" the dum,ing o$ dangerous to>ins and ra! se!age. The air !e
breathe is ,olluted b" smo+e and $umes $rom $actories and motor
vehicles0 even the rain is ,oisoned.
. 't's little !onder $orests and la+es are being destro"ed and ever"!here
!ildli$e is disa,,earing. Yet# the destruction continues.
1overnments and industries throughout the !orld are intensi$"ing
8 their e$$orts to e>tract the earth's mineral riches and to ,lunder its living
resources.
The great rain5$orests and the $roCen continents are seriousl"
threatened in the same !a". Des,ite the !arnings o$ the scienti$ic
2 communit" and the dee, concern o$ millions o$ ordinar" ,eo,le#
governments and industries don't even consider changing their ,olicies.
The threat is there in s,ite o$ the $act that !e can create
environmentall"5clean industries# harness the ,o!er o$ the sun# !ind and
4 !aves $or our energ" needs and manage the $inite resources o$ the earth
in a !a" that !ill sa$eguard our $uture and ,rotect all the rich variet" o$
li$e5$orms !hich share this ,lanet !ith us.
& 9ut there is still ho,e. The $orces o$ destruction are being challenged
across the globe 5 and at the s,earhead o$ this challenge is $reen'eace.
;herever the environment is in danger# $reen'eace has made a
% stand. 'ts scienti$ic ,resentations and ,eace$ul direct actions at sea and on
land have shoc+ed governments and industries into an a!areness that
$reen'eace !ill not allo! the natural !orld to be destro"ed. Those
actions have also !on the admiration and su,,ort o$ millions.
* :o! "ou can strengthen the thin green line0 "ou can ma+e "our voice
heard in de$ence o$ the living !orld b" joining $reen'eace toda".
A. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. Whi)h of these statements is not mentioned in the te:t1
a) 3rinkin" water is (olluted.
*) Radioa)ti+e waste (oisons the sea.
)) ,ewa"e isn't (ro)essed.
d) Cars and fa)tories (oison the air.
(.8
56
9AC7 TO :AT6<E
or centuries to!n and countr" have been regarded as being in
o,,osition to each other. 't has been suggested that the su,er$icial
di$$erences bet!een the t!o 5 !ide o,en s,aces contrasting !ith bric+
and concrete 5 are less im,ortant than the contrasting attitudes o$ to!n
4 and countr".
' am a cit" ,erson !ho al!a"s sa"s that# given the choice# ' !ould
,re$er to live in the countr" a!a" $rom the dirt and noise o$ a large cit".
' tell others that i$ it !eren't $or m" job# ' !ould immediatel" head out
$or the o,en s,aces and go bac+ to nature in a village buried
(/ in the countr". 9ut do ' ,erceive the countr" as it reall" is=
Cities can be $rightening ,laces. The majorit" o$ the ,o,ulation live
in massive to!er bloc+s# nois"# s@ualid and im,ersonal. The sense o$
belonging to a communit" tends to disa,,ear !hen "ou live $i$teen
$loors u,. All "ou can see $rom "our !indo! is the s+"# or other
(4 bloc+s o$ $lats. Children become aggressive and nervous 5 coo,ed u, at
home all da"# !ith no!here to ,la"0 their mothers $eel isolated $rom the
rest o$ the !orld. Strangel" enough# !hereas in the ,ast the inhabitants
o$ one street all +ne! each other# no!ada"s ,eo,le on the same $loor in
to!er bloc+s don't even sa" hello to each other.
./ Countr" li$e# on the other hand# di$$ers $rom this +ind o$ isolated
e>istence in that a sense o$ communit" generall" binds the inhabitants
o$ small villages together. 3eo,le have the advantage o$ +no!ing that
there is al!a"s someone !ho !ill hel, them. 9ut countr" li$e has
disadvantages# too. ;hile it is true that "ou ma" be among $riends in a
.4village# it is also true that "ou are cut o$$ $rom the e>citing and im,ortant
events that ta+e ,lace in cities. There is little ,ossibilit" o$ going to a
ne! sho! or the latest movie. Sho,,ing becomes a major ,roblem# and
$or an"thing unusual "ou have to go to the nearest large to!n. The cit"5
d!eller !ho leaves $or the countr" is o$ten de,ressed b"
8/the stillness and @uietness.
;hich# then# is better to live in# the countr" or the cit"= The latter
causes stress and a $eeling o$ isolation 5 constant noise damages the
senses. 9ut one o$ its main advantages is that "ou are at the centre o$
things# and that li$e doesn't $inish at hal$5,ast nine at night. The $ormer
84 has the advantage o$ ,eace and @uiet# but su$$ers $rom the disadvantage
o$ being cut o$$. Some ,eo,le have $ound Aor rather boughtB a
com,romise bet!een the t!o0 the" have moved to villages not too $ar
$rom large urban centres. These ,eo,le generall" have nearl" as much
sensitivit" as the ,lastic $lo!ers the" leave behind 5
(.4
2/ the" are ,olluted !ith strange ideas about change and im,rovement
!hich the" $orce on to the un!illing original inhabitants o$ the
villages.
;hat# then# o$ m" dreams o$ having a small cottage in the countr"=
''m +een on the idea# but "ou see there is m" cat# Tob". ''m not at all
24 sure that he !ould li+e all that $resh air and e>ercise in the long grass.
:o# he !ould rather have the electric imitation coal $ire an" da".
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. The latterB (line 21)7
. The formerB (line 2.)7
2. 'the two' (line 25)7
.. These (eo(le' (line 2%)7
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine ' 'su(erfi)ial' means . a) natural *) im(ortant )) only on
the surfa)e d) related to inner <uality
. =ine 1!' '(er)ei+e' means . a) see
*) satisfy )) a"ree d) stimulate
2. =ine 6' ')ut off from' means .
a) (re+ented from *) led to )) )om(ensated *y d) de(ri+ed of
.. =ine 25' ')om(romise' means .
a) (romise of )om(any )) +aried )on)e(t
*) intermediate solution d) isolated answer
6. The writer says that in the )ountry you are .
a) )ut off from anyone who will hel( you
*) una*le to see shows' films and maDor e+ents
)) ne+er a*le to find stillness and <uietness
d) made to li+e in an isolated way
&. Most )ity (eo(le who mo+e to the )ountry .
a) try to )han"e the +illa"e (eo(le with their ideas
*) want to take their (lasti) flowers with them
)) li+e far away from the )ities they work in
d) *rin" the )ity noise and dirt (ollution with them
(.&
57
EA<THN6A7E 3<ED'CT'O:
Can earth@ua+es be ,redicted= Scientists are !or+ing on ,rograms to
,redict !here and !hen an earth@ua+e !ill occur. The" ho,e to
develo, an earl" !arning s"stem to save lives. Scientists !ho do this
!or+ are called seismologists.
4 Earth@ua+es are the most dangerous and deadl" o$ all natural
events. The" occur in man" ,arts o$ the !orld. 1iant earth@ua+es have
been recorded in 'ran# China# 1uatemala# Chile# 'ndia# and Alas+a. T!o
o$ the biggest earth@ua+es that !ere ever recorded too+ ,lace in China
and Alas+a. These earth@ua+es measured about *.4 on the
(/ <ichter Scale. The <ichter Scale !as devised b" Charles <ichter in
()84 and is used $or com,aring the energ" level o$ earth@ua+es. An
earth@ua+e that measures . on the scale can be $elt# but causes little
damage. One that measures 2.4 on the scale can cause slight damage#
and an earth@ua+e that has a reading o$ over % can cause major
(4 damage.
Ho! do earth@ua+es occur= Earth@ua+es are caused b" the
movement o$ roc+s along crac+s# or $aults# in the earth's sur$ace. The
$ault is ,roduced !hen roc+s near each other are ,ulled in di$$erent
directions. The best5+no!n $ault in :orth America is the San Andreas
./ $ault in the state o$ Cali$ornia in the 6nited States.
The nations that are activel" involved in earth@ua+e ,rediction
,rograms include Fa,an# China# <ussia# and the 6nited States. These
countries have set u, stations in areas o$ their countries !here
earth@ua+es are +no!n to occur. These stations are read" $or !arning
.4 signs that sho! the !ea+ening o$ roc+ la"ers be$ore an earth@ua+e.
Man" +inds o$ seismic instruments are used b" these ,laces to !atch
the movements o$ the earth's sur$ace. One o$ the instruments is a
seismogra,h. 't can $ollo! vibrations in roc+ la"ers thousands o$
+ilometers a!a". Tiltmeters are used to record sur$ace movement
8/ along $ault lines. Seismologists use gravimeters to measure and record
changes in local gravit". The scientists also chec+ !ater in dee, !ells.
The" !atch $or changes in the !ater level and tem,erature# !hich are
signs o$ movement along $aults.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1.'one' (line 12)7
.'whi)h' (line 2)7
(.*
58
MA<7ET':1
Mar+eting# !hich is sometimes called distribution# includes all the
business activities connected !ith the movement o$ goods and services $rom
,roducers to consumers. Mar+eting consists o$ both ,h"sical activities such
as trans,orting# storing and selling goods# and a series o$ decisions related to
an" ,art o$ the ,rocess o$ moving goods $rom the ,roducer to the consumer.
Mar+eting o,erations include ,roduct ,lanning# bu"ing# storage# ,ricing#
,romotion# selling# credit# and mar+eting research.
The abilit" to recognise $uture trends is as im,ortant as +no!ing the
,resent conditions in mar+eting. 3roducers must +no! !h" consumers bu"#
!here and $or !hat ,ur,ose. Through mar+et research# the ,roducer tries to
,redict !hat the customer !ill !ant and# through advertising# attem,ts to
in$luence !hat the customer !ill bu".
'n most countries# manu$acturers obviousl" s,end a lot o$ mone" on
advertising their goods. ;e cannot !al+ do!n the street# !atch television or
read a ne!s,a,er !ithout being 'attac+ed' b" advertisements. Doubtless#
man" ,eo,le thin+ that too much mone" is s,ent on advertising. E;ouldn't it
be better#E the" sa"# Eto s,end all this advertising mone" on im,roving the
,roduct or service# or on ,rojects to hel, ,oor ,eo,le=E Advertising#
ho!ever# is essential $or a manu$acturer's survival. 't is vital to +ee, the
name o$ the ,roduct in $ront o$ the ,ublic. Other!ise# sales !ill $all. Another
manu$acturer o$ the same +ind o$ ,roduct ma" continue advertising and his
name !ill be the one that ,eo,le remember !hen the" go sho,,ing. And his
sales !ill increase.
Some ,eo,le !ill then almost certainl" sa"# E9ut !h" should t!o or more
com,anies ,roduce the same things= Surel"# it is more economical $or each
com,an" to ,roduce a di$$erent ,roduct. Then# there !ould be little or no
need $or an" advertising.E 9ut there is a sensible economic ans!er to this
argument as !ell. Com,etition bet!een com,anies is vital because it hel,s
to im,rove the @ualit" o$ the ,roduct and to +ee, ,rices do!n. The result is a
better and chea,er ,roduct $or the ,ublic. Since com,etition is essential#
advertising is vital.
A. 3efine marketin".
Marketin" is a (ro)ess
5&
3O36LAT'O: 1<O;TH
't is !idel" believed that the !orld's ,o,ulation has e>,loded because o$
the im,rovements in medical science# !hich has naturall" led to im,roved
standards o$ ,ublic health. 'n$ant mortalit" has.been greatl" reduced and the
average length o$ li$e has been e>tended on a great scale.
Demogra,hers# or ,o,ulation statisticians# are less alarmed b" the absolute
rise in the !orld ,o,ulation $igures than b" the increase in the rate o$ gro!th.
The" estimate that it !ill ta+e onl" about 8/ "ears $or the !orld ,o,ulation to
double. 3essimists e>,ect this soaring gro!th to continue until the limits o$
$ood# s,ace and natural resources are $orced.
't is not eas" to $ind solutions to ,roblems caused b" ,o,ulation gro!th. 'n
$act# e$$ective action is lac+ing because o$ our inabilit" to decide e>actl"
!here the ,roblems lie. or e>am,le# man" millions o$ ,eo,le do not have
enough to eat# but at the same time !e could argue that the !orld is not over5
,o,ulated in relation to its $ood su,,l" at the ,resent time. The total cultivable
land is more than (4 billion acres. 6sing modem agricultural methods# !e
could ,roduce more than enough $ood $or the ,resent ,o,ulation o$ about 4
billion.
't a,,ears# then# that the !orld's ,o,ulation could be almost three times as
large be$ore there is a serious shortage o$ $ood. 9ut it is unli+el" that all the
cultivable land !ould be used $or $ood ,roduction. '$ this !ere done# there
!ould not be an" land le$t to meet man's increasing demand $or houses#
$actories# air,orts# roads and other $acilities.
A. Find words or (hrases in the te:t whi)h mean the same as the followin".
1. death in infan)y ((ara"ra(h 1)7
. (o(ulation statisti)ians ((ara"ra(h )7
2. e:tremely ra(id in)rease ((ara"ra(h )7
.. suita*le for a"ri)ulture ((ara"ra(h 2)7
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. Whi)h of the followin" is not a )onse<uen)e of the im(ro+ements in medi)al
s)ien)e1
a) Fewer deaths in infan)y.
*) =on"er len"th of life.
)) 3e)rease in (o(ulation.
d) Hi"her (u*li) health standards.
. 3emo"ra(hers are alarmed more *y .
a) the rise in the num*er of (eo(le in the world
*) the in)rease in the rate of (o(ulation "rowth
)) the solutions to the (ro*lem )aused *y (o(ulation "rowth
d) the (eo(le who ar"ue that the world is not o+er4(o(ulated
2. We )an say that the world is not o+er4(o(ulated if we )onsider
a) its (resent food su((ly
*) the in)reasin" demand for housin"
)) the serious shorta"e of food
d) the (ro*lems )aused *y (o(ulation "rowth
.. #f all the )ulti+a*le land were used for food (rodu)tion'
a) there would *e a serious shorta"e of food
*) the (o(ulation "rowth would *e )ontrolled
)) no land would *e left for housin" and other fa)ilities
d) (art of the world (o(ulation would not ha+e enou"h to eat
6'
LASE<S ': MED'C':E
A laser is a ver" strong beam o$ light !hich is ver" di$$erent $rom
ordinar" light. Toda"# doctors use lasers in some e"e o,erations. The"
use them !hen o,erating on a ,atient !ho has a detached Ai.e.
se,aratedB retina. The retina is the inner bac+ ,art o$ the e"e# the ,art
4 that senses light. Light $rom an object must stri+e the retina $or seeing
to occur.
'n the ,ast# a detached retina caused blindness in the e"e. :o!# the
laser ma+es delicate e"e o,erations ,ossible# and a detached retina no
longer means the loss o$ sight. 9" care$ull" directing this su,er light
(/ beam# the doctor can !eld the retina to the rest o$ the e"e again. The
!elding o$ the retina ta+es less than a thousandth o$ a second and is
done !ithout anesthesia. AnesthetiCing the ,atient is not necessar"#
because the ,atient $eels no ,ain.
Doctors also !ant to use lasers in o,erations on ,eo,le !ho have
(4 heart diseases. 'n the 6nited States and Canada alone# more than (.4
million ,eo,le su$$er $rom heart diseases ever" "ear. Most o$ these are
related to the $lo! o$ blood through the coronar" arteries# !hich
su,,l" the majorit" o$ the blood to the heart. 3eo,le !ho have a heart
disease have a high amount o$ cholesterol in their blood. Cholesterol
./ builds u, $att" de,osits called ',la@ues' on the inner !alls o$ the
122
arteries. As the ,la@ues get bigger# the o,ening o$ the arter" gets
smaller. ;hen it is com,letel" closed# blood sto,s $lo!ing and the
heart attac+ occurs.
Some doctors are ,lanning to use lasers to destro" these $att"
.4 de,osits in the near $uture. More studies are needed# but some doctors
$eel this ,lan !ill be bene$icial $or heart ,atients. At ,resent# though#
lasers have man" other uses in hos,itals0 the" are used in steriliCing
instruments# sto,,ing bleeding and removing birthmar+s.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'them' (line 2)7
. 'these' (line 1&)7
2. 'this (lan' (line &)7
/. ,)an the te:t and find the definitions of the followin".
1. retina7
. (la<ues7
C.
1. What are the (resent uses of lasers in hos(itals1
a)
*)
))
d)
. How are do)tors (lannin" to use lasers in the future1
2. How )an do)tors weld the retina to the eye a"ain1
.. When do heart atta)ks o))ur1
3. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. #n the (ast' it was im(ossi*le to a+oid *lindness )aused *y a deta)hed
retina.
. The weldin" of the retina still re<uires a lon" and diffi)ult o(eration.
2. Medi)ine is "i+en to the (atient to redu)e (ain in eye o(erations with laser.
.. Most *lood rea)hes the heart throu"h the )oronary arteries.
6. Cholesterol )an lea+e fatty de(osits in the arteries.
(82
61
E:1':EE<':1 ': CHA<1E
Do "ou realise that ever" time "ou ta+e a ste,# the bones in "our hi,
are subjected to $orces bet!een $our and $ive times "our bod" !eight=
;hen "ou are running# this $orce is increased $urther still. ;hat
ha,,ens i$# through disease# a hi,5joint ceases to be able to
4 resist such $orces= Li+e all $antasies# the 9ionic Man has an element o$
realit" in it and $or man" "ears# hi,5joints and other bod" joints have
been re,laceable ,artiall" or com,letel". 't is# a$ter all# a sim,le ball
and soc+et joint0 it has certain loads im,osed on it0 it needs reliabilit"
over a de$ined li$e# and it must contain materials com,atible
(/ !ith the !or+ing environment. An" engineer !ill recognise these as
characteristic o$ a t",ical engineering ,roblem# !hich doctors and
engineers have !or+ed together to solve in order to bring a $resh lease
o$ li$e to ,eo,le !ho !ould other!ise be inca,acitated.
This t",i$ies the !a" in !hich engineers !or+ to hel, ,eo,le and
(4 create a better @ualit" o$ li$e. The $act that this countr" has the most
e$$icient agricultural industr" in the !orld is another ,rime e>am,le.
Mechanical engineers have !or+ed !ith $armers# horticulturalists and
biologists to ,roduce $ertilisers# machiner" and harvesting s"stems.
The ,aintings o$ 9rueghel sho! $armers in the si>teenth centur"
./ !ading through shoulder5high cereal cro,s. This team e$$ort has no!
,roduced cro,s uni$orml" !aist5high or less so that the" are more
suitable $or mechanical harvesting. Similar advances !ith other cro,s
have released ,eo,le $rom hard and boring jobs $or more creative
!or+# !hile machines harvest cro,s more e$$icientl" !ith less !aste.
.4 3roviding more $ood $or the ra,idl" increasing ,o,ulation is "et
another role $or the mechanical engineer.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'su)h for)es' (line 6)7
. 'if (line &)7
2. J#f (line 5)7
.. 'another (rime e:am(le' (line 1&)7 another (rime e:am(le of
6. 'this team effort' (line !)7 the team effort of
(84
/. What are the four )hara)teristi)s whi)h make the re(la)ement of a hi(4Doint to
*e )onsidered as a ty(i)al en"ineerin" (ro*lem1
aB
*)
))
'd) '
66
OOD O< THE ;O<LD
9" the "ear .///# the !orld ,o,ulation is e>,ected to be about
%#/// million. This great increase in the !orld ,o,ulation# or
'demogra,hic e>,losion' as it has been called# !ill cause man"
,roblems? shortage o$ housing# shortage o$ $acilities and ,s"chological
4 stress. 9ut the biggest ,roblem o$ all !ill be the shortage o$ $ood. 'n
()%8# in ;est and Central A$rica# there !ere serious de$iciencies o$
basic $oods such as corn# rice# mil+ and meat. This !as ,artl" because
o$ natural disasters such as drought Anot enough rainB and $loods# that
is# too much rain# but basicall" it !as because o$ a real shortage o$
(/ these $oods. Ever"!here in the !orld# the ,rices o$ basic $oods rose
and it became im,ossible $or man" ,eo,le to bu" enough o$ them.
:utritional e>,erts estimated that hal$ the !orld's ,o,ulation !as
under5nourished and that millions !ere near starvation. And in ()%8#
the ,o,ulation o$ the !orld !as onl" hal$ o$ !hat 6 ma" be in the "ear
(4 .///I
Agricultural e>,erts are tr"ing to increase the out,ut o$ $ood in the
!orld !ithout great increase in ,rice. The" are !or+ing on ,rojects $or
breeding ,lants and animals !hich are bigger# gro! $aster and are
resistant to diseases. 'n 'ndia# $or e>am,le# ne! strains o$ rice have
./ been develo,ed# !hich has greatl" increased "ields. 'n Me>ico#
e>cellent ne! varieties o$ !heat have been ,roduced b" Dr. :orman E.
9orlaug# !ho !as a!arded the :obel 3eace 3riCe in ()%/ $or his !or+.
Ho!ever# increasing "ields in this !a" ma" be e>,ensive# and ma"
.4 re@uire large @uantities o$ $ertiliser to '$eed' the land. '$ the ,o,ulation
continues to gro!# more and more agricultural land !ill be needed $or
housing. or man" "ears no!# e>,erts have been e>,erimenting !ith
techni@ues o$ cultivating ,lants b" using mi>tures o$ chemical
com,ounds and !ater onl". This is called 'h"dro,onics'# and i$ it
8/ becomes economical# vegetables and $ruit could be ,roduced in
(8&
$actories instead o$ $ields. 'n addition# agricultural scientists have been
cross5breeding livestoc+ 5 cattle# ,igs# chic+ens# etc. 5 to ,roduce
better animals.
Mechanisation is another !a" o$ ,roducing more $ood. Machines 84
can do !or+ $aster# more e$$icientl" and more chea,l" than man and
the" are being used in industrialised countries to do almost all $arming
jobs.
One o$ the best ho,es scientists have $or solving the $ood crisis is
to $ind ne! sources o$ $ood# es,eciall" ,rotein. E>,erimental $ood is
2/ no! being ,roduced $rom ,etroleum# $rom sea!eed and $rom
other
sur,rising ra! materials.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1.This' (line 5)7
.them' (line 11)7 .
2.'if (line 1.)7
..'they' (line 2&)7
/. What do the followin" mean1
1. 'drou"ht' (line %)7
. 'li+esto)k' (line 2)7
C.
1. Why were there serious defi)ien)ies of food in Afri)a1
. What will the world (o(ulation (ro*a*ly *e in the year !!!1
2. Where ha+e new strains of ri)e *een de+elo(ed1
.. What did /orlau" (rodu)e1
6. What is e:(erimental food *ein" (rodu)ed from1
&. What are the *asi) foods mentioned in the (assa"e1
(8%
5. What is Jdemo"ra(hi) e:(losion'1
%. What (ro*lems will arise due to the demo"ra(hi) e:(losion1
a)
7<
cB
d)
$. How are a"ri)ultural e:(erts tryin" to in)rease the out(ut of food in the world1
aB
7<
cB
d)
1!. What is 'hydro(oni)s'1
6+
C<6DE O'L
Man" "ears ago# !hen most ,eo,le got their !ater directl" $rom
!ells under the ground# the" !ere sometimes anno"ed b" a dar+ li@uid
!hich came out o$ the ground and contaminated the !ater. 't smelled
bad and !as e>tremel" dirt". Some ,eo,le discovered that it !as good
4 $or caul+ing boats 5 it ,revented !ater $rom getting in through the
crac+s in the !ood. Others $ound it !as a good medicine $or the
stomach. Ho!ever# most ,eo,le didn't li+e it. Toda"# !e have a rather
di$$erent o,inion on this substance +no!n as crude oil.
'n (*44# a "oung teacher at Yale 6niversit"# 9enjamin Silliman#
(/ became interested in crude oil. He soon $ound that it could be used as a
$uel $or heating and lighting. A$ter the $irst oil !ell started ,roduction#
the age o$ oil !as just around the corner. Toda"# '3. 1ett" and Ho!ard
Hughes# t!o o$ the richest men in the !orld# both have $ortunes based
on oil 5 the $ormer on the Standard Oil Co. and the
(4 latter on a highl" e$$icient oil5drilling bit.
The $irst oil $rom the sea !as ,roduced some decades ago b" the
o$$5shore drilling rigs in Maracaiba 9a"# -eneCuela. There# the !ater
12%
is shallo! and the oil is ver" near the sur$ace. The tro,ical $orest
comes right do!n to the !ater's edge# and toda" it seems to continue ./
into the sea. The oil is @uite eas" to get out in this area# but men are
no! also drilling in more di$$icult areas li+e the cold# dee, :orth Sea
bet!een 1reat 9ritain and :or!a".
The ,etroleum !hich comes out o$ the ground cannot reall" be used
$or an"thing. 't must $irst be re$ined. <e$ineries are huge '$actories' .4
!here crude oil is se,arated into '$ractions'# !hich are commonl"
+no!n as gasoline# +erosene# diesel oil# lubricating oil and $uel oil.
Then# these $ractions must be distributed b" ,i,eline or tan+er to the
$inal distributors# such as ,etrol stations# !hich sell them to the users.
Ever" ,erson in industrial societies de,ends on crude oil. 'ts 8/
$ractions ,rovide $uel $or electricit" generators# ,o!er $or vehicles#
heat $or homes and materials $or clothing. 'n the $uture# !e ma" use
some o$ its $ractions to ,roduce $ood.
The @uestion is? ho! long !ill the !orld's reserves o$ crude oil
last= ;e use more and more oil ever" "ear. Crude oil is a
84 non5rene!able resource and one da" it !ill ,robabl" run out. Man"
things !ill be di$$erent !hen this ha,,ens# but the most interesting
and im,ortant @uestion is !hat alternative sources o$ energ" !ill be
success$ull" develo,ed.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. Jif (line &)7
. '*oth' (line 12)7
2. There' (line 15)7
.. 'this' (line 2&)7
/. What do the followin" mean1
1. ')aulkin"' (line 6)7
. ')rude oilB (line 6)7
C.
1. Why were (eo(le annoyed *y the dark li<uid in their wells1
. What was )rude oil used for *efore 1%661
(8)
6;
A FA*ILIAR STOR0
The voice on the other end o$ the line !as insistent. E;e need that
contract and !e need it badl". You +no! ho! bad our $inancial situation is
at the moment 5 this contract could be the di$$erence bet!een li$e and death
$or us. ' don't care ho! "ou do it# but "ou must get that contract.E Ton"
Adamson ,ut do!n the ,hone and sighed. He $elt that his boss in London
just did not understand ho! di$$icult things !ere $or him in Lalesia. He
+ne! that in realit" his com,an" had ver" little chance o$ getting the
contract# !hich !as to su,,l" a large amount o$ $urniture and other
e@ui,ment to the ne! 6niversit" o$ Lalesia. There !ere too man" other
com,anies interested 5 bigger com,anies that he +ne! !ould be able to o$$er
e@ual @ualit"# and ,robabl" a much better ,rice.
Adamson's onl" ho,e !as that he might be able to get the contract
through a ,ersonal contact that he had inside the Ministr". During his three
"ears as Edu@ui,'s Mar+eting Manager in the area# he had develo,ed a
strong ,ersonal $riendshi, !ith Elua Tahi# an o$$icial in the Ministr" !ho
Adamson +ne! !as on the committee that !as dealing !ith the 6niversit"
,roject. 't !asn't unusual $or contracts in Lalesia to be given because o$
$riendshi, rather than ,rice. Ma"be# Adamson thought# he had more chance
than he thought.
The ne>t da"# Adamson !ent to see Tahi in his o$$ice. or the $irst hal$
hour the" chatted about ,ersonal to,ics# and then Adamson introduced the
subject o$ the contract. EThis contract is im,ortant to "ou# isn't it=E said Tahi.
Adamson nodded. EYes# and !e need "our su,,ort on the committee. You've
bought e@ui,ment $rom Edu@ui, be$ore# $or the Lalesian schools. You +no!
our @ualit" is good# and our deliver" dates are reliable. ;h" change to a
su,,lier "ou don't +no!# !ho might cause "ou ,roblems=E EYes#E said Tahi.
E;ell# ''ll see !hat ' can do. 9ut there are a lot o$ other com,anies interested
too# o$ course. Oh# b" the !a"# !hile "ou're here# there's a $avour that '
!anted to as+ "ou.E ESure#E said Adamson. EAn"thing ' can do.E EM" !i$e
has to have an o,eration# and she !ants to have it in England. Obviousl" it's
going to be e>,ensive# and "ou +no! our government's rules about ta+ing
mone" out o$ the countr". She reall" needs H./// !aiting $or her !hen she
arrives in England. There's no !a" it could be organised# ' su,,ose=E
or a moment Adamson !as too sur,rised to s,ea+. Tahi !as clearl"
as+ing $or a bribe. There !as reall" no reason $or him to be sur,rised 5 he
+ne! that briber" !as normal business ,ractice in Lalesia# even though
there !ere strict la!s against it. An" com,an" re,resentative caught o$$ering
bribes to government o$$icials ris+ed u, to $ive "ears'
141
im,risonment. 9ut he had al!a"s ,reviousl" thought that Tahi !as di$$erent
$rom the majorit" o$ Lalesian o$$icials 5 that !as !h" he had become so
$riendl" !ith him. So $ar in Lalesia# Adamson had managed never to do
an"thing that could be considered more than a small $avour in order to !in a
contract. He did not believe in briber"# and certainl" had no !ish to s,end
an" time in a Lalesian jail.
Tahi obviousl" noticed Adamson's con$usion. EDon't !orr"#E he said. E'$
it's a ,roblem $or "ou# there are others ' can as+.E His meaning !as clear. '$
Edu@ui, didn't ,a" the bribe# another com,an" !ould.
A. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. Tahi (ro*a*ly works at the Ministry of 0du)ation.
. Ha+in" a (ersonal )onta)t doesn't (lay a role in "ettin" a )ontra)t in
Oalesia.
2. #f you li+e in Oalesia' you )an take a "reat sum of money out of the
)ountry.
.. #f a )om(any re(resentati+e is )au"ht "ettin" a *ri*e' he is sent to (rison.
6. Tony was sure Tahi would ask for a *ri*e.
&. Tony doesn't a((ro+e of *ri*ery.
5. 0:)e(t for some small fa+ours' Tony had done nothin" until then to win a
)ontra)t.
%. Tahi im(lied that the )om(any that (aid the *ri*e would "et the )ontra)t.
/.
1. What does the )om(any Tony works for (rodu)e1
. Why was the )ontra)t so im(ortant for the )om(any1
2. Why was it less (ossi*le for Tony's )om(any to "et the )ontra)t than the *i""er
)om(anies who were interested1
.. What reasons did Tony "i+e while tryin" to (ersuade Tahi to hel( them "et the
)ontra)t1
6. #n what way did Tony think Tahi was different from other Oalesian offi)ials1
142
65
THE C':EMA
The $irst moving ,ictures !ere develo,ed in the (*)/'s b" ;.7.L.
Dic+son# an Englishman !or+ing in the 6SA. He called his s"stem
the 7inetosco,e. 't !asn't the cinema as !e +no! it at all. The
,ictures !ere ver" small and onl" one ,erson at a time could !atch.
4 The earliest 7inetosco,e used sound se,aratel" recorded on a
,honogra,h Aan ancestor o$ the gramo,hone and record ,la"erB. 9ut
there !ere man" ,roblems involved in getting the ,icture and sound
together# that is# s"nchronising. As a result# the 7inetosco,e !as
,o,ularised in its silent $orm. The same ,rinci,le !as develo,ed b"
(/ the renchmen# Auguste and Louis Lumiere. The" called their s"stem
the Cinematogra,he and# bet!een (*)4 and ()//# succeeded in
e>,orting it to other ,arts o$ Euro,e# to 'ndia# Australia and Fa,an.
The Cinematogra,he used a large screen# but the $ilms !ere still ver"
short 5 onl" about a minute long. Li+e the ,o,ularised 7inetosco,e# it
(4 !as a silent s"stem.
The earl" $ilms !ere all made !ith $i>ed cameras. This greatl"
limited !hat could be achieved and made these earl" $ilms more li+e
the theatre than the modern cinema. So# an im,ortant im,rovement
!as the use o$ a moving camera# !hich could turn $rom side to side
./ and also move about to $ollo! the action. -he $reat -rain Robber"
!as the $irst im,ortant e>,eriment in the use o$ a moving camera. 't
!as made in ()/8 b" Ed!in 3orter# an American# and lasted eight
minutes. 'n the $ollo!ing "ears# $ilms became much longer and the
screens larger. Other changes !ere introduced too# but it !as not until
.4 the earl" ()./'s that an e$$ective sound s"stem !as develo,ed. Lee de
orest# another American# $ound a !a" o$ ,hotogra,hing the sound
!aves !hich accom,anied the action. This solved the major ,roblem
o$ sound5,icture s"nchronisation. A strange conse@uence o$ having
sound !as that# $or a $e! "ears# the cameras !ere once again made a
8/ ,art o$ a com,le> device and this sound5,roo$ing s"stem !as so large
that it could not be moved about easil".
The last major change in the cinema !as the develo,ment o$
colour. Coloured ,hotogra,h" had been ,ossible $rom the (*&/'s# but
earl" $ilms !ere normall" blac+ and !hite and an" colouring !as
84 ,ainted on b" hand 5 an e>,ensive# slo! and not ver" e$$ective
techni@ue. 'n ()..# the $irst real colour $ilms !ere ,roduced# using a
t!o5colour s"stem called Technicolor. 'n this s"stem# the" $ilmed
!hole se@uences in one colour but the attem,ts to mi> colours to get
realistic e$$ects !ere not ver" success$ul. 'n ()8.# Technicolor !as
143
2/ im,roved b" the use o$ three main colours and the same s"stem is used
toda". Colour too+ longer to be generall" acce,ted than sound. 't !as
e>,ensive and ,eo,le o$ten $elt that it !as less realistic than blac+ and
!hite. This !as ,artl"# o$ course# because the @ualit" !as not al!a"s
ver" high and so the ,ictures could loo+ ver" strange. Since
24 the ()8/'s# there have been man" im,rovements in the techni@ues o$ the
cinema# and the st"le o$ acting has changed a good deal. 9ut a$ter $i$t"
"ears# the basics 5 moving ,ictures# colour and sound 5 are still the
same.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. '#t' (line 1)7
. ThisB (line 5)7
2. 'it' (line 21)7
.. 'the same system' (line .!)7
/.
1. #n what ways were the >inetos)o(e and the Cinemato"ra(he similar and
different1 (9i+e one e:am(le for ea)h.)
. Why were the early films more like the theatre than the modern )inema1
2. What are the two im(ro+ements in the te)hni<ues of the )inema mentioned in
the se)ond (ara"ra(h1
a) 7
*)
.. Why was the a)hie+ement of =ee de Forest im(ortant1
6. What was the disad+anta"e of usin" the Forest's system1
&. How were *la)k and white mo+ies made )oloured1
5. What was the (ur(ose of mi:in" )olours in the Te)hni)olor system1
%. 3id (eo(le a))e(t )olour films immediately1 Why E Why not1
1;;
66
THE GORILLA
The gorilla is something o$ a ,arado> in the A$rican scene. One
thin+s one +no!s him ver" !ell. or a hundred "ears or more# he has
been +illed# ca,tured# and im,risoned in Coos. His bones have been
mounted in natural histor" museums ever"!here# and he has al!a"s
4 e>erted a strong $ascination u,on scientists and romantics ali+e. He is
the stereot",ed monster o$ the horror $ilms and the adventure boo+s#
and an obvious Athough not ,erha,s strictl" scienti$icB lin+ !ith our
ancestral ,ast.
Yet# the $act is !e +no! ver" little about gorillas. :o reall"
(/ satis$actor" ,hotogra,h has ever been ta+en o$ one in a !ild state# no
Coologist# ho!ever intre,id# has been able to +ee, the animal under
close and constant observation in the dar+ jungles in !hich he lives.
Carl A+ele"# the American naturalist# led t!o e>,editions in the
()./'s# and no! lies buried among the animals he loved so much. 9ut
(4 even he !as unable to discover ho! long the gorilla lives# or ho! or
!h" it dies0 nor !as he able to de$ine the e>act social ,attern o$ the
$amil" grou,s# or indicate the $inal e>tent o$ their intelligence. All this
and man" other things remain almost as much a m"ster" as the" !ere
!hen the rench e>,lorer Du Chaillu $irst described the animal to the
./ civilised !orld a centur" ago. The Abominable Sno!man# !ho haunts
the imagination o$ climbers in the Himala"as# is hardl" more elusive.
A. What do the followin" mean1
1. ')a(tured' (line 2)7
. 'mounted' (line .)7
2. 'stereoty(ed' (line &)7
.. 'link' (line 5)7
6.'intre(id' (line 11)7
&. ')onstant' (line 1)7 .
5. 'indi)ate' (line 15)7
%. 'e:tent' (line 15)7
$. 'elusive' Aline .(B?
(24
/.
1. Why is the "orilla somethin" of a (arado: in the Afri)an s)ene1
. What are the three *asi) fa)ts a*out the "orilla whi)h Carl Akeley' the Ameri)an
naturalist' failed to find out1
aB
*)
))
6=
S3ACE T<A-EL
3eo,le have al!a"s !anted to +no! more about the other ,lanets in
our universe. Long ago# the" $ound out that our earth is not $lat but
round# and that the moon goes round the sun. Telesco,es !ere built to
see ,lanets $ar a!a" in s,ace better. 9ut# o$ course# this !as never
4 enough. Men have al!a"s thought about visits to other ,lanets and
man" ,eo,le have !ritten stories about journe"s in s,ace and !hat men
ho,ed to $ind there. O$ten the ideas in these stories are strange and
!rong. ;e +no! that no! because real men have visited s,ace and can
tell us !hat li$e there is li+e.
(/ The !or+ o$ scientists in the last t!ent" "ears has sho!n the !orld
that men can travel outside the earth's atmos,here in s,aceshi,s. These
scientists all !or+ed on the same idea? s,ace travel. 9ut it is sad that
the" did not !or+ together. There !ere t!o teams !ho !or+ed
se,aratel"# one in the 6SS< and one in the 6SA. Man" o$ them !ere
(4 1ermans !ho le$t their countr" in ()24 a$ter the Second ;orld ;ar.
;ernher -on 9raun# !ho !or+ed $or the 6SA# !as the most $amous
one. The" all tried to build roc+ets to go into s,ace. Each o$ these
countries !anted to be the $irst in s,ace. So a race into s,ace !as
started.
./ 'n ()4%# the !orld outside the 6SS< learned a ne! !ord? 's,utni+'.
This is the <ussian !ord $or a satellite# a ,lanet !hich goes round and
round another ,lanet. A real satellite Ali+e the moon# !hich is the earth's
satelliteB ma+es a circle round its ,lanet# called an orbit. S,utni+ '#
!hich !as a small satellite# !ent into the earth's orbit and
.4 sent bac+ radio signals. Then# a$ter a month# S,utni+ . $ollo!ed. And
this time# Lai+a# a dog# !as aboard.
(2&
Then the 6SA came into the race. The $irst satellite the" tried to
send into s,ace caught $ire. The second# E>,lorer '# !ent into orbit
!ithout an" ,roblems and sent bac+ a lot o$ interesting in$ormation
8/ about the earth's atmos,here.
or a journe" to the moon# scientists had to build ne! s,aceshi,s.
These ne! s,aceshi,s# called ',robes'# could move in s,ace $reel".
Again the Americans tried several times# but could not launch their
$irst moon ,robe. The Soviets also had ,roblems !ith their ,robes#
84 called Luni+s. At last# Luni+ 8 reached the moon and !ent into orbit
round it. or the $irst time ,eo,le on earth sa! ,ictures o$ the other
side o$ the moon.
'n ()&(# the Soviets !ere read" to ta+e a ris+. Yuri 1agarin $le!
into s,ace. This .%5"ear5old Soviet !as the $irst real s,aceman. His
2/ s,aceshi, made one orbit o$ the earth# and then landed sa$el". A $e!
!ee+s later# the $irst American astronaut# Alan She,ard# $ollo!ed him
into s,ace. Soon more Americans and more Soviets sa! the !orld
$rom s,ace. The" said it !as ver" beauti$ul. lights continued and men
sta"ed in s,ace longer and longer.
24 inall"# in ()&)# a$ter long ,re,arations# the 6SA !as read" $or the
longest s,ace journe" in all those "ears. A,ollo (( !as sent to the
moon !ith three astronauts. The" brought bac+ roc+ ,ieces and moon
dust $or the scientists to e>amine.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'there' (line 5)7
.'one' (line 15)7
2. This' (line 1)7
..'himB (line .1)7
6. 'if (line .2)7
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine .' 'this' refers to .
a) (lanets far away in s(a)e
*) teles)o(es
)) seein" (lanets *etter
d) learnin" a*out the earth
. =ine %' 'that' refers to
a) the ideas in the stories
*) the stran"e stories
)) what the men ho(ed
d) that the ideas are wron"
(2%
6%
E>4LORATION FOR OIL
3etroleum# or oil# is the !orld's most im,ortant source o$ energ". 't is
,roduced in more than si>t" countries throughout the !orld# but there are
mainl" si> im,ortant ,etroleum ,roducing regions in the !orld. The ,roblem
is? ho! can !e determine the ,ossible regions $or oil= Drilling a !ell is a
di$$icult and e>,ensive o,eration. There$ore# an oil com,an" $irst loo+s $or
good indications# or signs# o$ oil in an area. The aim o$ this e>,loration is to
discover the best areas $or drilling.
There are $our stages in the ,rocess o$ e>,loration? aerial surve"s# a
geological surve"# a geo,h"sical surve" and e>,loration drilling.
'n an aerial surve"# a surve" o$ the area is made $rom an aero,lane. There
are t!o di$$erent t",es o$ aerial surve"? the ,hotogra,hic and the magnetic.
During the $ormer# ,hotogra,hs are ta+en $rom an aero,lane# sho!ing the
most im,ortant geological $eatures on the earth's sur$ace. Ma,s are made
$rom these ,hotogra,hs. During the magnetic surve"# the earth's magnetism is
recorded. <oc+ $ormations under the earth's sur$ace di$$er $rom ,lace to
,lace. As a result# the intensit" o$ the earth's magnetism and the thic+ness o$
the roc+s are not the same ever"!here. The measurements are anal"sed and
in this !a" in$ormation is obtained about the roc+ $ormations. The geologists
then loo+ $or signs o$ oil in these $ormations. '$ the indications are good#
e>,loration continues.
A geological surve" is the ne>t stage. Certain roc+ $ormations are visited.
9" e>amining these structures# geologists learn about the sha,e and direction
o$ the roc+ $ormations under the sur$ace. Sam,les o$ roc+ are ta+en to the
laborator" and anal"sed. '$ the sam,les contain $ossils# these !ill indicate the
age o$ the roc+. ossils o$ marine animals sho! that there ma" be oil in the
area.
1eo,h"sical surve"s are used to con$irm the results o$ geological surve"s.
During a geo,h"sical surve"# an e>,losion is made on the earth's sur$ace. The
roc+s under the earth vibrate. These vibrations# called seismic !aves# travel
do!n into the earth. Some o$ them# ho!ever# are re$lected b" roc+ la"ers
under the sur$ace and 'heard' b" s,ecial e@ui,ment. The !aves are recorded
on a seismogram. Anal"sis o$ this in$ormation sho!s the de,th and t",e o$
roc+ $ormations.
All these surve"s can hel, to locate structures under the earth's sur$ace.
9ut still there ma" be no oil. There is onl" one !a" to be sure# and that is to
drill a !ell. The $irst !ells are called e>,loration !ells or !ildcats. A !ildcat
!ithout an" oil is called a dr" hole. A discover" !ell is !ildcat !ith some
oil. ;hen oil is discovered# several more !ells are drilled in the same $ield.
These are +no!n as ,roduction !ells.
(2)
E>,loration $or oil is a long# di$$icult and e>,ensive ,rocess. Ho!ever# it
reduces drilling# !hich saves mone".
1. What is the third sta"e in the (ro)ess of e:(loration for oil1
. What is a dis)o+ery well1
2. What is the only one way to *e sure that there is oil under the earth's surfa)e1
.. Why are seismi) wa+es re)orded on a seismo"ram durin" the "eo(hysi)al
sur+ey1
6. Why are )ertain ro)k formations +isited durin" a "eolo"i)al sur+ey1
&. Why are the intensity of the earth's ma"netism and the thi)kness of the ro)ks not the
same e+erywhere1
6&
THE COM36TE<
;ith a tremendous roar $rom its roc+et engine# the satellite is sent u, into
the s+". Minutes later# at an altitude o$ 8// miles# this tin" electronic moon
begins to orbit the earth. 'ts radio begins to transmit a staggering amount o$
in$ormation about the satellite's orbital ,ath# the amount o$ radiation it
detects# and the ,resence o$ meteorites. 'n$ormation o$ all +inds races bac+ to
the earth. :o human being could ,ossibl" co," do!n all these $acts# much
less remember and organiCe them. 9ut an electronic com,uter can.
The marvel o$ the machine age# the electronic com,uter# has been in use
onl" since ()2&. 't can do sim,le com,utations 5 add# subtract# multi,l"# and
divide 5 !ith lightning s,eed and ,er$ect accurac". 't can multi,l" t!o (/5
digit numbers in (T(#/// second# a ,roblem that !ould ta+e an average ,erson
$ive minutes to do !ith ,encil and ,a,er. Some com,uters can !or+ 4//#///
times $aster than an" ,erson can.
(4/
Once it is given a ',rogram'0 that is# a care$ull" !or+ed5out set o$
instructions devised b" a technician trained in com,uter language# a
com,uter can gather a !ide range o$ in$ormation $or man" ,ur,oses. or the
scientist# it can get in$ormation $rom outer s,ace or $rom the de,ths o$ the
ocean. 'n business and industr"# the com,uter ,re,ares $actor" inventories#
+ee,s trac+ o$ sales trends and ,roduction needs# mails dividend chec+s# and
ma+es out com,an" ,a"rolls. 't can +ee, ban+ accounts u, to date and ma+e
out electric bills. '$ "ou are ,lanning a tri, b" ,lane# the com,uter !ill $ind
out !hat route to ta+e and !hat s,ace is available.
:ot onl" can the com,uter gather $acts# it can also store them as $ast as
the" are gathered and can ,our them out !henever the" are needed. The
com,uter is reall" a high5,ovTered 'memor"' machine that Ehas all the
ans!ersE 5 or almost all. ;hat is the most e$$icient s,eed $or driving a car
through the :e! Yor+5:e! Ferse" tunnels= ;hat brand o$ canned goods is
the most ,o,ular in a ,articular su,ermar+et= ;hat +ind o$ !eather !ill !e
have tomorro!= The com,uter !ill $lash out the ans!ers in a $raction o$ a
second.
9esides gathering and storing in$ormation# the com,uter can also solve
com,licated ,roblems that once too+ months $or ,eo,le to do. or e>am,le#
!ithin si>teen hours an electronic brain named CHEO3S A!hich stands $or
Chemical Engineering O,timiCation S"stemB solved a di$$icult design
,roblem. irst# it !as $ed all the in$ormation necessar" $or designing a
chemical ,lant. A$ter running through (&#/// ,ossible designs# it ,ic+ed out
the ,lan $or the ,lant that !ould ,roduce the most chemical at the lo!est
cost. Then# it issued a ,rinted set o$ e>act s,eci$ications. 9e$ore CHEO3S
solved this ,roblem# a team o$ engineers having the same in$ormation had
!or+ed $or a "ear to ,roduce onl" three designs# none o$ !hich !as as
e$$icient as the com,uter's.
At times com,uters seem almost human. The" can 'read' hand,rinted
letters# ,la" chess# com,ose music# !rite ,la"s# and even design other
com,uters. 's it an" !onder that the" are sometimes called 'thin+ing'
machines=
:ot even com,uters can ,redict the $uture# but the bene$its o$ com,uters
are becoming more obvious ever" da".
aB Com,uters are being used in s,ace travel. <oc+ets# satellites and
s,aceshi,s are guided b" com,uters.
bB Com,uters are being used in aviation. The" are used in the training o$
airline ,ilots. Com,uters also direct the $light o$ ,lanes $rom one cit" to
another# control their air s,eeds and altitudes# and even land them.
cB Com,uters are being used in medicine. The" are used in anal"Cing
blood sam,les# in diagnosing disease# and in ,rescribing medication. The"
also +ee, records o$ the tissue t",es o$ ,atients !aiting $or organ trans,lants.
Even though the" are ta+ing over some o$ the tas+s that !ere once
(4(
accom,lished b" our o!n brains# com,uters are not re,lacing us 5 at least not
"et. Our brain has more than (/ billion cells. A com,uter has onl" a $e!
hundred thousand ,arts. or some time to come# then# !e can sa$el" sa" that
our brains are at least (/#/// times more com,le> than a com,uter. Ho! !e
use them is $or us# not the com,uter# to decide.
1. What was the name of the ele)troni) *rain that desi"ned the )hemi)al (lant1
. How lon" did it take CH0;8, to work out the desi"n (ro*lem1
2. What kind of information was CH0;8, fed1
.. What (lan did it (i)k out1
6. How lon" had a team of en"ineers *een workin" on the same information1
&. What is "uided *y )om(uters1
5. What uses do )om(uters ha+e in a+iation1
%. How do )om(uters hel( do)tors1
$. How many )ells does the human *rain ha+e1
1!. How many times more )om(le: are our *rains than a )om(uter1
(4.
70
ELECT<O: THEO<Y
At one time# students used to be told? E;e don't +no! !hat
electricit" is# !e don't +no! ho! electricit" goes through a solid !ire#E
etc. The electron theor" e>,lains these things clearl" and sim,l". 'n
addition# it e>,lains the true meaning o$ voltage# resistance#
4 etc. There$ore# an understanding o$ the electron theor" is basic to the
understanding o$ the electrical and electronic theor".
Scientists no! agree that our universe is basicall" de,endent on t!o
$actors# one o$ !hich is matter# the other# energ". Matter is an"thing
that occu,ies s,ace and has !eight. 't can e>ist in an" o$ the
(/ three $orms? solid# li@uid or gas.
Matter is com,osed o$ ,rotons# neutrons and electrons. The ,roton
has a ,ositive charge. This com,onent has ver" little !eight. The
neutron has no charge# but it su,,lies almost all the !eight o$ matter.
The electron has a negative charge. 't also has ver" little !eight. '$ !e
(4 could loo+ at the structure o$ a ,iece o$ co,,er# !e !ould $ind that it
consists o$ a s,eci$ic number o$ ,rotons# neutrons# and electrons
arranged in some ,articular !a". 'n a ,iece o$ iron# a certain number o$
,rotons# neutrons# and electrons are arranged in a di$$erent !a". The
,roton o$ iron is identical to that o$ co,,er and other elements.
./ The" are all made u, o$ the same com,onents. 't is the arrangement o$
these com,onents that ma+es them di$$erent.
The electrons o$ an atom are arranged in shells around the nucleus.
The electrons in the last shell are called 'valence' electrons and the
electrical ,ro,erties o$ a material are de,endent on the number o$ such
.4 electrons. Atoms !ith less than $our valence electrons give u, one or
more electrons# and the $e!er the valence electrons# the easier this
becomes. Atoms !ith more than 2 electrons in their last shell ta+e one
or more additional electrons. The conduction o$ electricit" is made
,ossible b" the $ree electrons in the outer shell.
8/ Metals are good conductors o$ electricit" as the" have less than 2
valence electrons. These electrons aren't strongl" attached to the
nucleus# but the ones in the inner shell are. There$ore# in a metal# the"
can move easil" $rom one nucleus to another.
71
HYD<O3O:'CS
H"dro,onics is the techni@ue o$ gro!ing ,lants in !ater. 't is
generall" thought that ,lants need soil $or gro!ing. 'n $act# !hat the"
need is the nutrients Avitamins and mineralsB and moisture contained in
the soil and these can be su,,lied through !ater# as !ell as through
4 soil.
H"dro,onics is not a ne! ,rocess. As long ago as the (&)/'s# an
English ,h"sician tried gro!ing ,lants in !ater in a laborator"
e>,eriment. Ho!ever# it !as not until the (*//'s that 1erman
researchers used this method to develo, man" o$ the $ormulas $or
(/ ,lant nutrient solutions still in use toda".
About a generation ago# h"dro,onics moved out o$ the research
laborator" into ,ractical use. 'n the ,ast 2/ "ears# h"dro,onic $arming
has ,rogressed in a number o$ areas# es,eciall" in those !here !ater is
in short su,,l" and tem,eratures are too e>treme $or ordinar"
(4 agriculture. This is because h"dro,onic $arming is the onl" economical
solution in such desert areas.
Each "ear# more than ..% million +ilograms o$ vegetables and $ruit
arc ,roduced b" h"dro,onic $arming. These are mostl" tomatoes but
cucumbers# lettuce and melons are also gro!n. On h"dro,onic $arms#
./ each tomato ,lant ,roduces an average o$ & +ilograms o$ $ruit t!ice a
"ear 5 a total o$ (. +ilograms ever" "ear. An ordinar" soil5gro!n
,lant# on the other hand# ,roduces onl" a total o$ ) +ilograms ,er "ear.
'n h"dro,onic $arming# ,lants are gro!n in greenhouses. The
greenhouses measure * b" 8) metres and consist o$ steel $rames
.4 covered !ith strong trans,arent ,lastic that is resistant to !eather and
lets in a ma>imum amount o$ light. The ,lants are $ed b" inorganic
nutrients dissolved in !ater !hich is su,,lied b" a ,lastic ,i,eline. The
$eeding and !atering s"stem is automated. Electric sensing devices
AsensorsB determine !hen the ,lants are hungr" or thirst". The
8/ sensors send messages !hich automaticall" start the !ater and nutrient
deliver" s"stem. ;hen the sensors '+no!' that the ,lant have had
enough# the s"stem turns o$$ automaticall".
:othing is le$t to chance !ithin the greenhouses. Tem,erature#
humidit" and air circulation are care$ull" controlled. Air conditioning
84 and heating e@ui,ment +ee, the tem,erature at .)SC b" da" and (*SC
b" night.
'n recent "ears# h"dro,onic $arming has e>,anded to man" ,arts o$
the !orld. An a,,lication o$ the method has occurred in 'tal"# $or
e>am,le# !here the largest h"dro,onic installation 5 4/#/// s@uare
84 e>,ansion o$ such a bar# due to heating# ma" be used to o,erate
s!itches and valves.
'n a gas re$rigerator# there is a reservoir containing ammonia !ater.
;hen the lo!er gas $lame is burning# the ammonia !ater rises through
the tube to the 'generator'. The u,,er gas $lame drives o$$ the
2/ ammonia gas# !hich ,asses into the 'condenser'. The cold air around
the condenser ra,idl" brings do!n the tem,erature o$ the gas. Then the
cooled gas# no! condensed into a li@uid# ,asses into the 'eva,orator'#
!hich contains h"drogen. 'n the eva,orator# the ammonia e>,ands
ra,idl"# es,eciall" since its e>,ansion in h"drogen is greater
24 than it !ould be in air. This ra,id e>,ansion greatl" lo!ers its
tem,erature. 't is the cooling o$ the gas in the eva,orator !hich lo!ers
the tem,erature o$ the !hole re$rigerator and $reeCes the !ater in the
ice5cube tra"s.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'it' (line .)7
. 'they' (line 11)7
2. 'doin" so' (line 11)7
.. 'doQ Aline (8B?
6. 'one' (line 1%)7
&. 'Many' (line 1$)7 5 .
M @ (line 21)7
%. 'if (line 2)7
$. 'su)h a *arJ (line 26)7
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. #n sele)tin" a "ood refri"erant' we must )hoose one that .
a) e+a(orates <ui)kly
*) is )hea(
)) is not e:(losi+e
d) All of the a*o+e.
. When a su*stan)e in "aseous form is allowed to (ass throu"h a small hole'
a) unlike the mole)ules of e+a(oratin" li<uids' it a*sor*s heat ener"y from its
surroundin"s
*) like the mole)ules of e+a(oratin" li<uids' it a*sor*s heat ener"y from its
surroundin"s
)) it mi"ht a*sor* heat ener"y from its surroundin"s
d) it a*sor*s heat ener"y from the (um(
73
A:T'5<AD'AT'O: 3'LLS O< AM'L'ES
B" @enn" Ao'e
:earl" (#/// ,eo,le living near 9ritain's oldest nuclear ,o!er station are to be
given anti5nuclear ,ills. 't is the $irst time the tablets 5 ,otassium iodate 5 have been
issued $or emergenc" use to the ,ublic. The move has been ordered b"
1loucestershire Count" Council as ,art o$ a ,lan in case o$ an accident at the
9er+ele" 3o!er Station# !hich is ./ "ears old. The council thin+s such a sa$et"
im,rovement is necessar" be$ore the ,o!er station's o,erating licence can be
e>tended until the "ear .///.
The anti5radiation tablets sto, the th"roid gland $rom absorbing harm$ul
radioactive iodine b" $looding it !ith a harmless $orm o$ the chemical. The" have
onl" ever been ta+en once in 9ritain. That !as !hen the" !ere issued t!o "ears
ago to the !or+ers at Hin+le" 3oint 3o!er Station in Somerset during a lea+ o$
radioactive gas on the site. The tablets !ill be given to (// ,eo,le living and
!or+ing on .* $arms near the 9er+ele" 3o!er Station and %4/ ,eo,le !or+ing in
$actories in the industrial area near the reactor and !ill be ta+en onl" i$ there is a
lea+age in the ,lant.
3rivatel"# the council is !orried that distributing the tablets !ill cause
unnecessar" alarm among the ,o,ulation.
Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. Anti4radiation (ills are (otassium iodate ta*lets whi)h (re+ent (eo(le from
takin" in radioa)ti+e iodine.
. The ta*lets will *e distri*uted to workers em(loyed at the /erkeley 8ower
,tation.
2. Anti4radiation (ills are distri*uted only to *e used if there is an a))ident at
the (ower station.
.. The (ani) )aused *y the distri*ution of the ta*lets has *een (re+ented *y
the e:(lanations of the )oun)il.
6. #n /ritain' the ta*lets were first "i+en to the workers at Hinkley 8oint 8ower
,tation.
1
A
Q
74
C<OCOD'LES
Crocodiles are $ormidable enemies o$ man and most o$ the stories
about them arise $rom tragic real e>,eriences. At least & o$ the .8 s,ecies
( in the crocodile $amil" !ill attac+ and eat human beings i$ the" can# and
man" o$ the others are large enough to cause serious injur".
The !ell5+no!n :ile crocodile# $ound $rom Eg",t to the Ca,e o$ 1ood
Ho,e# has a length o$ 4 metres. 't is re,orted that crocodiles +ill u, to
(#/// ,eo,le ever" "ear along the ban+s o$ the <iver :ile. E@uall" large
and dangerous is the man5eating salt !ater crocodile# !hose habitat
. ranges $rom 'ndia and China to northern Australia. The largest o$ all is
the Madagascar crocodile# !hich ma" gro! to ) metres or longer# and the
most dangerous is the Estuarine crocodile# !hich ,robabl" +ills over
.#/// ,eo,le each "ear.
Crocodiles have narro!# ,ointed snouts and ro!s o$ teeth in the lo!er
ja!. The teeth can be seen even !hen the mouth is closed. The bod" is
8 ,rotected b" thic+ leather" ,lates and the animal has !ebbed $eet as !ell
as a ,o!er$ul# $lattened tail. 9ab" crocodiles are greenish gre" !ith blac+
crossbands !hereas most adults are olive coloured.
Se!age and garbage attract crocodiles b" ,roviding a rich diet !hich
un$ortunatel" in$lames their aggression. That's ,robabl" !h" there are
constant horror stories about the danger o$ crocodiles gro!ing in se!age
s"stems and !aste dum,s o$ big cities in A$rica. Ho!ever# this is
2 certainl" true $or the cit" o$ ManCini in S!aCiland# !here the health
o$$icials ca,tured man5eating crocodiles and ,ut them to !or+ in the cit"
se!ers and dum,s to gobble u, garbage. :o!# the job is done chea,l"
and e$$ectivel"I
Among the man" legends about crocodiles# there are those o$ living to
be a hundred "ears old. Ho!ever# most crocodiles live $or about $i$t"
"ears. The oldest o$$icial age recorded is that o$ a crocodile !hich !as
4 born in Dresden Loo in 1erman" in (**/ and !hich !as recorded as
being still alive in ()8%. 'n $act# it might have lived on much longer i$ the
Coo had not been com,letel" destro"ed in the Second ;orld ;ar.
Hatred has made the hunting o$ crocodiles so ,o,ular that the !orld
,o,ulation o$ them has been drasticall" reduced. Some (& s,ecies are
& no! almost e>tinct 5 among them the rare Cuban crocodile# !hich has
been reduced to a mere 8// individuals living in a ,rotected sanctuar" in
Cuba.
=5
CAT
( High on a hill in Mid5;ales near Mach"nlleth# a grou, o$ idealists
have sho!n that man can harmlessl" dra! energ" $rom nature.
'n the ,ast (8 "ears# this grou,# some 8/ adults !ith their children# has
. demonstrated the success o$ harnessing the energ" o$ the sun# the !ind
and the rain to generate su$$icient ,o!er $or their needs.
Although the" !ere not ta+en seriousl" b" locals as the 'hi,,ies in the
hills' !hen the" $irst moved to the disused mining site a $e! miles $rom
8 Mach"nlleth# their ,rojects and enthusiasm have !on them the su,,ort o$
the local ,eo,le# big business# and international res,ect.
O,,osed to the government's ,lans $or both nuclear ,o!er and coal# the
Centre $or Alternative Technolog" is striving $or a ,rogramme using
rene!able $uels !hich !ould ,rotect the ,lanet's $uture. EThe !a" the
2 !orld is going# !e could actuall" run out o$ +no!n $orms o$ energ"
be$ore !e actuall" blo! ourselves u,#E sa"s Tim 7irb"# an engineering
graduate and CAT's technical o$$icer.
The centre uses !indmills# !ater turbines and solar ,anels to heat and
4 e$$ectivel" ,rovide $or all its $acilities# and the grou, believes that there
is no reason !h" such technolog" should not ,o!er the entire 67.
The CAT ,eo,le live o$$ the land# on organicall"5gro!n $ruit and
vegetables and naturall"5bred animals. Some are vegetarian0 all believe
& in a lo! meat diet. Most members o$ sta$$ live on the site0 others choose
to emulate the li$est"le in the surrounding area.
;hile most o$ us !ere com,laining about the lac+ o$ sunshine this
summer# !ater ,i,es heated $rom solar ,anels at Mach"nlleth !ere red hot
a$ter just a cou,le o$ hours o$ autumnal sun. Ee! ,eo,le realise the
% ,o!er o$ the sun's ra"s.E sa"s Mr. 7irb". He claims that the o!ner o$ a
house !ith a !all o$ solar ,anels no! ,a"s around G%4 a "ear on $uel
bills as o,,osed to G4// $or the average house.
A. Find words in the te:t whi)h mean the same as the followin".
1.make a "reat effort to "et somethin" done ((ara"ra(h .)7
.imitate' )o(y ((ara"ra(h &)7
(&.
=6
MATHEMAT'CS
To meet the demands o$ industr"# technolog"# and other sciences#
mathematicians have had to invent ne! branches o$ mathematics and
e>,and the old ones. The" have built a su,erstructure o$ ne! ideas that
,eo,le !ho are trained in the classical branches o$ the subject
4 !ould hardl" recognise as mathematics at all.
A,,lied mathematicians have been dealing !ith the !orld's
,roblems success$ull"# !hile ,ure mathematicians seem almost to have
lost touch !ith the real !orld. To them# mathematics is an art and the"
don't care much !hether it !ill ever have an" ,ractical use.
(/ 9" a,,l"ing the conce,ts o$ mathematics to !orldl" ,roblems# the
a,,lied mathematician can o$ten brush a!a" the obscuring details and
reveal sim,le ,atterns. Celestial mechanics# $or e>am,le# enables
astronomers to calculate the ,ositions o$ the ,lanets at an" time in the
,ast or $uture. :o!# this ancient branch o$ mathematics has suddenl"
(4 become ver" ,ractical $or calculating the orbits o$ Earth satellites.
A,,lied mathematicians# !ho are interested in !orldl" ,roblems#
have learned to solve man" o$ them that !ere almost im,ossible to
solve ten or t!ent" "ears ago. The" have develo,ed ne! statistical
methods $or controlling @ualit" in high5s,eed industrial mass
./ ,roduction. The" have built the basis $or O,erations <esearch# !hich
businessmen use to ,lan ,roduction and distribution. The" have dealt
!ith the com,le>ities o$ human behaviour through 'game theor"'# !hich
a,,lies to militar" and business strateg". The" have anal"sed the design
o$ automatic controls $or such com,licated s"stems as
.4 $actor" ,roduction lines and su,ersonic aircra$t. :o! the" are read" to
tac+le man" ,roblems o$ s,ace travel.
Mathematicians have begun to turn their attention to the biological
and social sciences as these sciences have started to use mathematics.
The bond bet!een mathematics and li$e sciences has been
8/ strengthened b" a grou, o$ a,,lied mathematics s,ecialties# such as
biometrics# ,s"chometrics and econometrics.
:o! that the" have electronic com,uters# mathematicians are
solving ,roblems that the" could never solve a $e! "ears ago. 'n a $e!
minutes# the" can get an ans!er that ,reviousl" !ould have re@uired
84 months or even "ears o$ calculation. urthermore# in designing
com,uters and ,rogramming them to carr" out instructions#
mathematicians have had to develo, ne! techni@ues. Com,uters have
contributed ver" little to ,ure mathematical theor"# but the" have been
used to test certain relationshi,s among numbers.
164
ATOMS A.B
'n (*/4# the English chemist and ,h"sicist# Fohn Dalton# stated that
all matter consists o$ small ,articles !hich he called 'atoms'.
Dalton's theor"# !hich hel,ed to e>,lain man" di$$erent
observations that he and other scientists had made# has been su,,orted
4 and changed b" scientists since his time# but it is basic to an
understanding o$ chemistr" and biolog" toda".
The !ord 'atom' comes $rom a 1ree+ !ord !hich means
'indivisible'. Ho!ever# scientists in our centur" have $ound that atoms
are not indivisible. All atoms are made u, o$ di$$erent combinations o$
(/ three smaller ,articles? electrons# neutrons and ,rotons. Electrons are
the main units o$ electricit" and the" carr" a negative electrical charge
A5B. 3rotons carr" a ,ositive electrical charge AVB. :eutrons# as their
name suggests# are neutral. The" carr" no electrical charge.
Ho! are these ,articles arranged inside the atom= The ,rotons and
(4 neutrons together $orm the nucleus o$ the atom. The nucleus is in the
centre and occu,ies a ver" small amount o$ the total s,ace o$ the atom.
All the rest o$ the em,t" s,ace in the atom is used b" the ra,idl"
moving electrons. As a result o$ these ra,id movements o$ electrons# an
'electron cloud' is $ormed around the nucleus. The" seem to be
./ ever"!here at once. The number o$ electrons outside the nucleus
e@uals the number o$ ,rotons inside the nucleus. Thus# an atom is
electricalll" balanced# or neutral. All chemical reactions involve onl"
electrons# !hich travel around the nucleus in di$$erent orbits. These
electrons can interact !ith the electrons o$ another atom to $orm
.4 com,ounds. The nucleus o$ an atom is not changed in a chemical
reaction. 't is changed onl" in nuclear reactions# !hich occur# $or
e>am,le# in radioactive minerals and in atomic reactors.
Atoms o$ di$$erent elements di$$er $rom one another in the number
o$ ,rotons# neutrons and electrons. On the other hand# atoms o$ the58/
same element al!a"s have the same number o$ ,rotons and electrons#
although the" ma" di$$er in the number o$ neutrons. These are called
isoto,es. or e>am,le# over ))J o$ all the o>"gen atoms in nature are
made u, o$ * ,rotons# * neutrons and * electrons. This is +no!n as the
O>"gen5(& isoto,e. (& is the sum o$ the number o$ ,rotons and
84 neutrons. AThe number o$ electrons is not included in this number
because the number o$ electrons is the same as that o$ ,rotons.B
Ho!ever# there is also a small amount o$ the O>"gen5(* isoto,e# !hose
atoms contain * ,rotons and (/ neutrons.
'soto,es are im,ortant in biolog" because the" can be used in
(&&
2/ $ollo!ing man" ,rocesses in living cells. <adioactive isoto,es are the
most use$ul ones $or this ,ur,ose. The nuclei o$ radioactive isoto,es are
not stable. The" give o$$ radiation and $inall" come a,art. The radiation
can be detected !ith a 1eiger counter. or e>am,le# the radioactive
isoto,e o$ carbon# Carbon5(2# has hel,ed biologists to
24 $ollo! the ,ath o$ carbon in man" com,licated reactions inside living
cells.
Man" o$ the chemical elements !hich occur in nature are made u, o$
mi>tures o$ non5radioactive isoto,es !ith stable nuclei. Others are
com,osed o$ radioactive isoto,es. 'n addition# radioactive isoto,es o$
4/ all the chemical elements can be ,roduced arti$iciall". These are called
radioisoto,es.
The most im,ortant source o$ radioisoto,es is the atomic reactor#
!hich "ields large @uantities o$ some isoto,es $rom the $ission o$
uranium. Other radioisoto,es ma" be ,roduced b" the bombardment
44 o$ suitable elements b" neutrons in the reactor and some others b"
nuclear reactions.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'if (line 6)7
. 'these (arti)les' (line 1.)7
2. '#f (line &)7
.. 'they' (line 21)7
6. ';thers' (line .%)7 ;ther
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. Com(ounds are formed .
a) as a result of the ra(id mo+ements of the ele)trons
*) *e)ause ele)trons tra+el in different or*its around the nu)leus
)) when the nu)leus is )han"ed in nu)lear rea)tions
d) when the ele)trons of an atom intera)t with those of another atom
. A )hemi)al rea)tion .
a) hel(s to form an 'ele)tron )loud' around the nu)leus
*) )auses no )han"e in the nu)leus and it in+ol+es only ele)trons
)) )auses the ele)trons to mo+e in different or*its
d) )auses a )han"e in the arran"ement of all the (arti)les of an atom
2. Whi)h of the followin" statements is true1
a) The nu)lei of radioa)ti+e isoto(es "i+e off radiation and they are sta*le.
*) There are se+eral ways of (rodu)in" radioisoto(es artifi)ially.
a) The num*er of (rotons' neutrons and ele)trons are always the same in the
atoms of the same element.
)) /oth (a) and (*).
(&%
78
T<A:CE
The !ord 'h",nosis' comes $rom the 1ree+ !ord 'h",nos'# !hich
means 'slee,
(
. Although it is hard to de$ine h",nosis# because it has
man" as,ects and degrees# it might be said that h",nosis is a +ind o$
trance Aa slee,li+e conditionB in !hich the subject res,onds strongl" to
4 the suggestions o$ the h",notist. 't is di$$icult to +no! e>actl" !hat
changes h",notism ,roduces in the $unctioning o$ the nervous s"stem
or the ,ersonalit".
There are man" theories on h",nosis# but no single theor" is
acce,ted as com,letel" e>,laining all as,ects o$ h",nosis. One o$ the
(/ oldest theories regards h",nosis to be a $orm o$ slee,. This conce,t
originated in (%*2# and !as $urther develo,ed b" 'van 3avlov.
Ho!ever# this theor" is contradicted b" evidence !hich indicates that
the h",notiCed ,erson is not aslee,? the +nee re$le># !hich is absent in
slee,# is ,resent in the h",notic state# and recordings o$ brain !aves
(4 sho! the t",ical ,atterns o$ the state in !hich !e are a!a+e.
Methods o$ ,utting a subject into a trance have changed in recent
"ears. -er" $e! modern h",notists use the old method o$ staring into
the subject's e"es. 'nstead# the" use methods !hich em,hasiCe rela>ing
or even slee,. The subject sits in a com$ortable chair !hile
./ the h",notist tal+s @uietl"# giving the subject directions and
suggestions !hich lead him slo!l" into a trance. The h",notist
!atches $or signs $or this state. or e>am,le# man" subjects don't tal+
!hen the" are in a trance. 'nstead o$ tal+ing# the" nod or sha+e their
heads !hen the" have to ans!er the @uestions the h",notist as+s them.
.4 The h",notic trance ma" be classi$ied according to its degree#
!hich de,ends ,artl" on the h",notist and ,artl" on the subject.
'n a light trance# the e"es are closed# breathing becomes slo!er and
the subject is able to carr" out sim,le suggestions. The subject is
usuall" unable to o,en his e"es or move his arms i$ the h",notist tells
8/ him that he cannot.
'n a medium5dee, trance# the subject is able to e>,erience $eeling
o$ movement even though he is not moving. A$ter coming out o$ the
trance# the subject ma" not remember !hat ha,,ened during the time
he !as in a trance.
84 'n a dee, trance# the h",notist can ,roduce ver" unusual e$$ects.
or e>am,le# he ma" tell the subject that# !hen he comes out o$ the
trance# he !ill thin+ that he sees a cloc+ on the !all and that he !ill
loo+ at it and sa" it is midnight even though it's $our o'cloc+ in the
a$ternoon. ;hen he comes out o$ the trance# the subject !ill do !hat
(&*
2/ he is told to do# but he ma" not remember an"thing about !hat
ha,,ened in the trance.
'n contrast to man" ,eo,le !ho can be ,ut into a dee, trance @uite
easil"# there are others !ho are not a$$ected at all. The number o$ such
,eo,le constitutes about ./J o$ the ,o,ulation# but this ,ercentage
24 ma" be higher among ,eo,le !ho are 44 or older. Also# subjects !ho tr"
too hard to $all into a trance ma" actuall" be di$$icult to h",notiCe just
li+e those !ho are a$raid or sus,icious o$ h",nosis or the h",notist.
3eo,le !ho resist the ,rocess can't be h",notiCed either. Ho!ever# some
e>,erimenters have re,orted that it !as easier to
4/ h",notiCe ,eo,le !ho did not +no! the" !ere being h",notiCed. These
subjects !ere ,atients !ho needed treatment $or various +inds o$
nervous conditions. The" !ere sim,l" told that the doctor !ould teach
them ho! to rela>.
Contrar" to ,o,ular belie$# there is no ,ossibilit" o$ the subject not
44 a!a+ening as a result o$ an accident to the h",notist. 't is also not true
that a h",notiCed subject is com,letel" under the !ill or ,o!er o$ the
h",notist.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. This )on)e(t' (line 1!)7
. 'him' (line 1)7
2. 'he' (line 2&)7
.. 'su)h (eo(leB (lines .24..)7
6. These su*De)ts' (line 61)7
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. The theory whi)h re"ards hy(nosis as a form of slee( .
a) is still a))e(ted *y many s)ientists
*) was first esta*lished *y #+an 8a+lo+ in 15%.
)) )annot *e a))e(ted *e)ause of the e+iden)e whi)h (ro+es Dust the o((osite
d) /oth (*) and ()).
. #n modern methods of hy(noti) tran)e .
a) e+erythin" de(ends on the hy(notist
*) rela:in" (lays an im(ortant role
)) most hy(notists (refer to stare into the su*De)t's eyes
d) su*De)ts are asked not to talk while they are in a tran)e
(&)
2. Whi)h of the followin" statements is true1
a) There are theories whi)h e:(lain hy(nosis satisfa)torily.
*) #f somethin" ha((ens to the hy(notist after hy(notiAin" a su*De)t' the su*De)t
may not )ome out of the tran)e.
)) The hy(notist )an take e+ery su*De)t )om(letely under his (ower.
d) After )omin" out of medium4dee( or dee( tran)es' the su*De)ts may not
remem*er what ha((ened durin" the tran)e.
C. What kind of (eo(le are likely to *e diffi)ult or im(ossi*le to hy(notiAe1
a) 7
*)
=&
STAY':1 6:DE<;ATE<
6ntil man invented !a"s o$ sta"ing under!ater $or more than a $e!
minutes# the !onders o$ the !orld belo! the sea !ere almost
un+no!n. The main ,roblem# o$ course# !as air. Ho! could air be
su,,lied to s!immers belo! the sur$ace o$ the sea= 3ictures made
4 about .#)// "ears ago in Asia sho! men s!imming under the sur$ace
!ith air bags tied to their bodies. A ,i,e $rom the bag carried air into
the s!immer's mouth. Yet# little ,rogress !as made in the invention o$
diving devices until about (2)/# !hen the $amous 'talian ,ainter#
Leonardo da -inci# designed a com,lete diving suit.
(/ 'n (&*/# an 'talian ,ro$essor invented a large air bag !ith a glass
!indo! to be !orn over the diver's head. To 'clean' the air# a breathing
,i,e !ent $rom the air bag# through another bag to remove moisture#
and then again to the large air bag. The ,lan did not !or+# but it gave
later inventors the idea o$ moving air around in diving
(4 devices.
'n (*()# a 1erman# Augustus Siebe# develo,ed a !a" o$ $orcing air
into the head5covering b" a machine o,erated above the !ater. inall"#
in (*8% he invented the 'hard5hat suit'# !hich !as to be used $or almost
a centur". 't had a metal covering $or the head and an air
./ ,i,e attached to a machine above !ater. 't also had small o,enings to
remove un!anted air. 9ut there !ere t!o dangers to the diver inside
the hard5hat suit. One !as a sudden rise to the sur$ace# caused b" too
great a su,,l" o$ air. The other !as the crushing o$ the bod"# caused
b" a sudden dive into dee, !ater. The sudden rise to the sur$ace could
.4 +ill the diver0 a sudden dive could $orce his bod" u, into the head
covering# !hich could also result in death.
(%/
1raduall"# the hard5hat suit !as im,roved so that the diver could be
given a constant su,,l" o$ breathable air. The diver could then move
around under the ocean !ithout !orr"ing about his air su,,l".
8/ During the ()2/'s# diving under!ater !ithout a s,ecial suit became
,o,ular. 'nstead# divers used a breathing device and a $ace5mas+# i.e.# a
small covering !orn on the $ace made o$ rubber and glass. To increase
the s!immers' s,eed another ne! invention !as used 5rubber shoes
sha,ed li+e giant duc+ $eet called $li,,ers. The
84 manu$acture o$ snor+els# !hich are rubber breathing ,i,es# made it
,ossible $or the divers to $loat on the sur$ace o$ the !ater# observing the
marine li$e belo! them. A s,ecial rubber suit !hich ,revented heat loss
made diving com$ortable enough to collect sam,les o$ ,lant and
vegetable li$e even in ic" !aters.
2/ The most im,ortant advance# ho!ever# !as the invention o$ a
sel$5contained under!ater breathing a,,aratus# !hich is called a 'scuba'.
'nvented b" t!o renchmen# Fac@ues Yves Cousteau and Emile
1agnan# the scuba consists o$ a mouth,iece joined to one or t!o tan+s
24 o$ com,ressed air !hich are attached to the diver's bac+. The scuba
ma+es it ,ossible $or a diver5scientist to !or+ .// $eet under!ater 5 or
even dee,er 5 $or several hours. As a result# scientists can no! move
around $reel" at great de,ths# learning about the !onders o$ the sea.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. The otherB (line 2)7 The other
. 'them' (line 25)7
2. 'whi)h' (line .6)7
1. How was fresh air su((lied to the di+er inside the hard4hat suit1
. How was unwanted air remo+ed from the hard4hat suit1
2. What were the dan"ers to the di+er inside the hard4hat suit1
aB *)
(%(
%'
D'ST'LL':1 O'L
;hen ,lants and animals die# the" normall" deca"# hel,ed along b"
$ungi and bacteria in the environment. Once decom,osed# the" ,rovide
nutrients $or living organisms# and the res,iration o$ $ungi and bacteria
causing deca" releases carbon dio>ide into the atmos,here.
4 Over a ,eriod o$ several hundred million "ears# ho!ever# com,arativel"
small amounts o$ organic material have remained under la"ers o$ silt#
soil or volcanic roc+ and# as there is no o>"gen# have not $ull"
decom,osed. 'nstead# the" have $ormed de,osits o$ coal# natural gas
and oil# o$ten located $ar belo! the land sur$ace or the sea5bed.
(/ Oil is usuall" $ound in ,orous roc+ under a la"er o$ hard roc+
!hich ,revents it $rom esca,ing. 't can# then# onl" be reached b"
drilling. The initial rush o$ oil out o$ a drill ,i,e is caused b" the
,ressure o$ the gas com,ressed immediatel" above the oil de,osits. 'n
time# this ,ressure decreases and the oil has to be ,um,ed to the
(4 sur$ace.
<aising oil $rom belo! the sea5bed is an immensel" di$$icult and
dangerous o,eration. Although drilling engineers are e>,osed to high
!inds and heav" seas# the" have to ma+e test bores to see i$ it is !orth
e>,loring $urther. A$ter the" are satis$ied that the" have $ound an
./ oil$ield# the" set u, a ,lat$orm. The @ualit" o$ the oil !hich is ,i,ed u,
to the sur$ace varies# but it all has to be brought ashore. This is done
either b" ,um,ing it along ,i,elines or carr"ing it in tan+ers. 'n the
:orth Sea# as the" are constantl" threatened b" the !eather# the big oil
com,anies have# on the !hole# ,re$erred ,i,elines. 'n other
.4 locations# !here the" are $avoured b" better !eather conditions# the"
o$ten use tan+ers.
The crude oil raised directl" $rom !ells is not "et read" $or use. 't
has to be re$ined. The $irst stage in this ,rocess is $ractional distillation
in a $ractionating column. Those $ractions# such as ,etrol and
8/ +erosene# !hich are lighter and more volatile# move to!ards the to, o$
the column be$ore condensing. The heav" residual $uel at the base o$
the column is e>tremel" im,ure.
The $ractional distillation o$ crude oil results in the ,roduction o$
several use$ul substances# all o$ them normall" li@uids e>ce,t the gas
84 $rom the to, o$ the column and the solid residue at the base. Straight
,etrol# !hich va,oriCes bet!een 8/S and .//S Centigrade# is used
A!hen mi>ed !ith ,etrol ,roduced $rom +erosene and heav" gas oilB as
$uel $or motor cars. The gas# !hich boils bet!een ./S and (&2SC# also
has a use 5 man" households rel" on it $or heating and coo+ing.
(%8
2/ 7erosene has# o$ course# become invaluable as the $uel consumed b" jet
,lanes. 't boils bet!een .//S and 8//SC# !hereas heav" gas oil and
$uel oil va,oriCe !ithin the range 8//SC. The $ormer is used to ,roduce
diesel $uel $or lorries# buses and some cars# and the latter is redistilled
to ,roduce other $ractions. The heavier $ractions# such as
24 ,etroleum jell" and ,ara$$in# the $ormer !ith a boiling ,oint over
84/SC and the latter !ith a melting ,oint bet!een 4.S and 4%SC# have
a variet" o$ uses. 3etroleum jell" is a use$ul lubricant and is used on
the s+in# and ,ara$$in is the main com,onent o$ !a> candles. The ,itch
and tar at the bottom o$ the column# !hich boil at over 28/SC#
4/ are used to ma+e as,halt. So# there is little !astage.
9ut distillation does not ,roduce enough high grade ,etrol to meet
toda"'s high demand. The ,etrol o$$ered $or sale to motorists is a
mi>ture o$ straight ,etrol and distilled ,etrol ,roduced b" chemical
modi$ication $rom certain other distillates.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'theyB (line )7
. 'this (ro)ess' (line %)7
2. 'the latter' (line .&)7
.. 'whi)h' (line .$)7
1. What (re+ents total de)om(osition of dead (lants and animals1
. Why )an oil only *e rea)hed *y drillin"1
2. How )an oil *e *rou"ht ashore from an oil (latform1
.. What determines the method used for *rin"in" oil ashore1
(%2
%1
3ATTE<:S O OCEA: L'E
A stri+ing e>am,le o$ ho! man can drasticall" alter the interde,endence
,atterns o$ ocean li$e has occurred o$$ the coasts o$ southern Cali$ornia. 'n
the nineteenth centur"# these !aters had a large ,o,ulation o$ that bus" little
animal called the sea otter# !hich ate sea
4 urchinsQ# !hich# in turn# $ed on large bro!n algae called +el,. Sea
otters almost totall" disa,,eared due to $ur traders !ho encouraged hunters to
+ill o$$ otters $or their valuable $urs. ;ith the disa,,earence o$ the otter# sea
urchins started to re,roduce in vast numbers# leading to a great increase in
their ,o,ulation. This caused sea urchins to
(/ almost entirel" e>haust +el, beds. At this ,oint# man had re,laced the
original balance o$ nature !ith a ne! ,attern? The sea urchins# !hich
,reviousl" had been the ,re" o$ the sea otter# had become the ,redatorQ and
the +el, had become the ne! ,re". As the +el, began to disa,,ear# sea
urchins began to starve. ;ith the reduction o$ the
(4 urchin ,o,ulation# the +el, managed to re,roduce and increase their numbers.
Yet# the sea urchins again increased and so on. A c"cle ta+ing $rom (/ to (.
"ears started to re,eat itsel$.
A $urther ste, came !hen se!age ,ollution caused an additional
destruction o$ +el, 5 not because se!age +ills +el, but because se!age
./ $eeds sea urchins# !hich once again increased in numbers !ith this ne!
source o$ $ood. '$ sea otters had been ,resent in su$$icient @uantities# the +el,
beds !ould still be abundant. 'n order to re5establish the ,ro,er balance in the
eco5s"stem# marine biologists have ,ut $or!ard a number o$ solutions. 'n
time and !ith the hel, o$ man# nature ma"
.4 regain its ,revious order.
Q sea urchin? a small ball5sha,ed sea animal !ith a hard shell and man" shar, ,oints
Q ,redator? an animal that lives b" +illing and eating other animals
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'these waters' (line 2)7
. 'this new sour)e of food' (lines !41)7
/. Find words in the te:t whi)h mean the same as the followin".
1.)han"e ((ara"ra(h 1)7
. )om(letely' totally ((ara"ra(h 1)7
2.use u( ((ara"ra(h 1)7
(%&
.. *ut ((ara"ra(h 1)7
6. more than enou"h ((ara"ra(h )7
&. (ro(ose' su""est ((ara"ra(h )7 C.
1.Why did the num*er of sea otters in California fall a*ru(tly1
.What was the )ause of the e:haustion of the kel( *eds1
1<O;':1 63
;hen !e are "oung# the house !here !e live is our !hole !orld.
Ever"thing is ,rovided $or us 5 $ood and shelter# !armth and love. ;e
obe" our ,arents !ithout @uestion# because i$ mumm" and dadd" sa"
it# it must be right. Ever" e>,erience !e have is classi$ied as good or
4 bad according to their reaction. ;e @uic+l" learn to do those things
!hich earn their ,raise# and to avoid doing those things !hich u,set
them and earn their disa,,roval.
As !e gro! older# !e are more and more e>,osed to outside
in$luences 5 school# $riends and other adults. ;e soon start to realise
(/ that there are other values !hich are di$$erent $rom those our ,arents
hold. or e>am,le# "our ,arents have told "ou that some !ords# such
as 'blood"'# are s!ear !ords# and the" have $orbidden "ou to use them.
Ho!ever# in "our $riend's house# ever"one 5 children and gro!n5u,s
5sa"s things li+e '9lood" hellI' !hen the" are anno"ed and no5one
(4 seems to thin+ that there is an"thing !rong !ith it. You are con$used0
"ou !onder !hat the right thing to do is. You tr" to resolve the
con$lict o$ values bet!een t!o grou,s o$ ,eo,le 5 "our ,arents on the
one hand# and "our $riend's ,arents on the other 5 $or !hom "ou have
e@ual res,ect. Eventuall" !hat ha,,ens is that !e start to lead double
./ lives0 !e reserve some $orms o$ behaviour $or the home# and others
$or the !orld outside the home.
The real con$lict starts !hen !e reach adolescence. ;e begin to
@uestion ever"thing and ever"one# including our ,arents and their
values# because !e !ant to establish our o!n inde,endent values.
.4 6n$ortunatel"# as long as !e are living at home and are de,endent on
our ,arents# !e cannot lead our o!n lives according to our o!n vie!s
155
o$ right and !rong. The trouble is that i$ our ,arents give us more
$reedom# !e are bound to ma+e mista+es# and the" !ill !onder i$ the"
have given us too much $reedom. On the other hand# i$ ,arents allo!
8/ too little $reedom# their teenage children are li+el" to become resent$ul
and rebellious.
Some!here bet!een the t!o e>tremes# it ought to be ,ossible to $ind
a sort o$ 'democratic' alternative# !hich allo!s children the $reedom to
gro! u, and to ma+e their o!n decisions# including
84 mista+es# but !hich also o$$ers them hel, and ,rotection !hen the"
need it.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. JthoseJ (line 1!)7
. 'themJ (line 1)7
2. 'others' (line !)7 other
.. 'the two e:tremes' (line 2)7
/. Find words in the te:t whi)h mean the same as the followin".
1. do what you are told to do ((ara"ra(h 1)7
. adults ((ara"ra(h )7
2. a feelin" of a((ro+al and likin" ((ara"ra(h )7
.. state of disa"reement ((ara"ra(h 2)7
C. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. Children *elie+e that their (arents know the *est.
. ;utside influen)es affe)t )hildren more and more as they "row u(.
1. Puestionin" the (eo(le and the +alues around us starts durin"
adoles)en)e.
. Teena"ers *e"in to li+e a))ordin" to their own +alues as soon as they
determine them.
2. 8arents should ha+e total )ontrol o+er their )hildren's a)ts and de)isions.
3.
1. How do )hildren de)ide whether an e:(erien)e is "ood or *ad1
. How do we try to resol+e the )onfli)t of +alues1
2. When do (arents think that they ha+e "i+en their )hildren too mu)h freedom1
(%*
LO:EL':ESS
Loneliness is a curious thing. Most o$ us can remember $eeling most
lonel" !hen !e !ere not in $act lonel" at all# but !hen !e !ere
surrounded b" ,eo,le. Ever"one has e>,erienced# at some time# that
utter sense o$ isolation that comes over "ou !hen "ou are
4 at a ,art". 't suddenl" seems to "ou as i$ ever"bod" +no!s
ever"bod"0 ever"bod"# that is# e>ce,t "ou.
This $eeling o$ loneliness# !hich can overcome "ou !hen "ou are in
a cro!d# is ver" di$$icult to get rid o$. 3eo,le living alone are advised
to tac+le their loneliness b" joining a club or a societ"# b"
(/ going out and meeting ,eo,le. Does this reall" hel,=
There are no eas" solutions. Your $irst da" at !or+ or at a ne!
school is a t",ical situation in !hich "ou are li+el" to $eel lonel". You
$eel lonel" because "ou $eel le$t out o$ things. You $eel that ever"bod"
else is $ull o$ con$idence and +no!s !hat to do# but "ou
(4 are hel,less. The $act o$ the matter is that# in order to survive# !e
all ,ut on a sho! o$ sel$5con$idence to hide our uncertainties and
doubts. There$ore# it is !rong to assume that "ou are alone.
The trouble is that "ou ma" not be able to hide the $act that "ou are
lonel"# and the miserable loo+ on "our $ace might ,ut ,eo,le
./ o$$. Thus# tr"ing to loo+ reasonabl" cheer$ul is a good starting
,oint to combat loneliness.
The ne>t thing to avoid is $inding "oursel$ in a grou, !here "ou
are a stranger0 that is# "ou are in the sort o$ grou, !here all the
,eo,le alread" +no! each other. There is a natural tendenc" $or
.4 ,eo,le to stic+ together. You !ill do "oursel$ no good b" tr"ing to
establish "oursel$ in a grou, !hich has so $ar managed to do ver" !ell
!ithout "ou. 1rou,s generall" resent intrusion# not because the"
disli+e "ou ,ersonall"# but because the" have alread" had to !or+
@uite hard to turn the grou, into a $unctioning unit. To
8/ include "ou means having to go over a lot o$ ground again# so that
"ou can learn their 'language' and get involved in their conversation
at their level. 'n $act# the surest !a" o$ getting to +no! others is to
have an interest in common !ith them. There is no guarantee that
"ou !ill then li+e each other# but at least ,art o$ "our li$e !ill be
84 $illed !ith sharing e>,eriences !ith others. 't is much better than
$eeling alone. '$ all this seems to be a rather ,essimistic vie! o$
li$e# "ou have to acce,t the $act that !e are all actuall" alone and
that loneliness is sometimes unavoidable.
(%)
84
CHOOS':1 A CA<EE<
One o$ the $irst things !e tr" to $ind out about ,eo,le is !hat their job is. 't
hel,s us to de$ine their status. ;e can judge !here the" stand sociall"# and
estimate ho! much the" earn. Ho!ever# it is more interesting to +no! ho! a
man comes to choose his job than !hat he does.
The trouble is that !e o$ten choose a career $or the !rong reasons. Ta+e#
$or instance# those ,eo,le !ho '$ollo! in $ather's $ootste,s'# either entering the
same trade or ,ro$ession# or inheriting the $amil" business. Fohn decides to
become a doctor because his $ather !as a doctor. 'n $act# the !ord 'decides' is
too strong0 he ,robabl" never even thought about it. unnil" enough# some
,eo,le ma+e the o,,osite decision# namel" that !hatever else the" might do#
the" !ill certainl" not do !hat their $ather did. Our teachers are the $irst to
,ersuade us to choose a s,eci$ic career# ,robabl" because !e are to, students
in that subject. ;e ma" also be ,ersuaded b" ,eo,le !hom !e admire to
select a career $or !hich !e are unsuited.
The attitude o$ our ,arents to!ard our choice o$ career is interesting. The"
are @uite ,leased !hen !e announce our intention to stud" medicine#
disa,,ointed !hen !e s!itch to languages and overjo"ed !hen !e $inall"
start to stud" la!. Clearl"# the" have a de$inite idea o$ the bene$its di$$erent
jobs !ill bring. Even though the" a,,ear to leave the choice entirel" to their
children# the" +no! that their children !ill eventuall" res,ect their !ishes.
A,art $rom these ,ressures $rom ,arents# teachers and other ,eo,le# !e
ma" choose a career due to $actors such as the attractiveness o$ the ,ro$ession
or the ,ros,ect o$ earning a lot o$ mone" in a short time. 't ought to be eas" to
choose a career. ;e onl" have to do those things $or !hich !e have a natural
talent. 't is a ,it"# there$ore# that !e have to decide about our $uture at a stage
in our lives !hen !e can easil" be in$luenced b" $actors !hich have little or
nothing to do !ith the main issue.
A. Find words in the te:t whi)h mean the same as the followin".
1. )al)ulate a((ro:imately ((ara"ra(h 1)7
. a (arti)ular kind of work ((ara"ra(h )7
2. re)ei+in" money or (ro(erty from someone who has died ((ara"ra(h )7
.. the way someone thinks or feels a*out somethin" ((ara"ra(h 2)7
(*(
%5
3O;E<S O THE H6MA: 9ODY
The human bod" is made u, mainl" o$ bone# muscle and $at.
Some &8) di$$erent muscles ma+e u, about 24 ,er cent o$ the bod"
!eight. Each o$ these muscles has $our di$$erent and measurable
@ualities. 't can ,roduce $orce !hich can be Emeasured as strength o$
4 muscle. 't can also store energ" !hich ,ermits it to !or+ $or
e>tended ,eriods o$ time inde,endent o$ circulation. 'n addition# a
muscle can shorten or be stretched. The combination o$ these $our
@ualities o$ muscle is re$erred to as muscular ,o!er.
'$ muscles are to $unction e$$icientl"# the" must be continuall"
(/ su,,lied !ith energ" $uel. This is accom,lished b" blood# !hich
carries the energ" $uels $rom the lungs and digestive s"stem to the
muscles. The blood is $orced through the blood vessels b" the heart.
The combined ca,acit" to su,,l" energ" $uels to the !or+ing
muscles is called organic ,o!er.
(4 The ca,acit" and e$$icienc" !ith !hich "our bod" can $unction
de,end on the degree o$ develo,ment o$ both "our muscular and
organic ,o!ers through regular e>ercise. Ho!ever# the level to
!hich "ou can develo, these ,o!ers is in$luenced b" such $actors
as the t",e o$ bod" "ou have# the $ood "ou eat# ,resence or absence
./ o$ disease# rest and slee,. You are ,h"sicall" $it onl" !hen "ou
have develo,ed "our muscular and organic ,o!er.
1enetics and health determine the to, limits to !hich "our
,h"sical ca,acit" can be develo,ed. This is +no!n as "our ',otential
,h"sical ca,acit"'. This ,otential ca,acit" varies $rom
.4 individual to individual. Most o$ us# $or e>am,le# could train $or a
li$etime and never come close to running a $our5minute mile sim,l"
because !e !eren't built $or it. The to, level at !hich "ou can
,er$orm ,h"sicall" right no! is called "our 'ac@uired ca,acit"'
because it has been ac@uired or develo,ed through ,h"sical activit"
8/ in "our dail" routines.
You can avoid !astage o$ energ" b" ac@uiring a level o$ ,h"sical
ca,acit" !ell above the level re@uired to ,er$orm "our normal dail"
tas+s. This can be done b" su,,lementing "our dail" ,h"sical
activit" !ith a balanced e>ercise ,rogram ,er$ormed
84 regularl". Your ca,acit" increases as "ou ,rogressivel" increase the
load on "our muscular and organic s"stems.
(*8
%6
MED'C':E ': THE SE-E:T'ES
-he successes and failures of scientific &edicine ca&e shar'l" into focus.
?ew technolog" was a8ailable, but a &ore <uestioning attitude to drugs
e&erged.
On .4 Ful" ()%*# a girl called Louise 9ro!n became the !orld's $irst 'test5
tube bab"'. An egg $rom her mother's bod" had been success$ull" $ertiliCed in
a laborator". or childless cou,les# the techni@ue invo+ed ne! ho,e. ;as it
,ossible to mani,ulate human re,roduction even more dramaticall"=
Scientists develo,ed 'cloning' in the seventies. 't means re,roducing several
identical living things $rom a single original. 1ardeners have ,ractised it $or
centuries b" ta+ing cuttings $rom one ,lant to ,roduce others. Scientists
managed to clone $rogs# and ,eo,le suggested that it might be ,ossible to
clone humans# too. 'ra Levin e>amined the idea in his novel -he Bo"s fro&
BraBil. 'n it# cells $rom Hitler's bod" are im,lanted in !omen around the !orld
to create a !hole race o$ Hitlers. This !as a terrible $antas". 9ut des,ite its
,ossibilit"# most scientists rejected the idea that a com,le> organism such as
the human bod" could ever be cloned.
'n ()%)# Dr. 1eo$$re" Houns$ield !on the :obel 3riCe $or ,h"siolog" b"
develo,ing the bod" scanner. This revolutioniCed W5ra" techni@ues b"
scanning the bod" $rom all angles in three5dimensional sections. Drugs came
under care$ul scrutin". The morning sic+ness drug# Thalidomide# !as $ound
to ,roduce de$ormed children# and the drug com,an" !as $orced to ,a"
millions o$ ,ounds in com,ensation. Doubts also gre! about the
contrace,tive ,ill. ;omen over 84 !ho !ere heav" smo+ers !ere advised not
to use it because o$ its dangerous side e$$ects. 'n contrast# natural medicine
became hugel" ,o,ular# es,eciall" acu,uncture# an ancient Chinese method o$
anaesthetiCing ,atients b" stic+ing ,ins into ,oints in the nervous s"stem.
A. Find words in the te:t whi)h mean the same as the followin".
1.raisedH a)ti+ated ((ara"ra(h 1)7
.did not a))e(t ((ara"ra(h 1)7
2.made "reat )han"es in ((ara"ra(h )7
..o*ser+ationH e:amination ((ara"ra(h )7
(*4
%=
SHAR)S?
*AGNIFI5ENT AN. *ISUN.ERSTOO.
Dr. 4. 6lar is a fa&ous biologist and 'rofessor of Boolog" at the
>ni8ersit" of Mar"land. Cn this article, she has described her research on
shars.
M" earl" e>,eriments !ith shar+ behaviour at Ca,e HaCe
4 sur,rised a great man" scientists 5 including# ' must admit# m"sel$.
The e>,eriments sho!ed ho! easil" man" t",es o$ shar+s learned to
distinguish bet!een right and !rong targets# !hich is a s+ill the" develo,ed
as @uic+l" as laborator" !hile rats.
More recent studies o$ shar+s' brains# sensor" s"stems# and t",es
(/ o$ behaviour contradict ,o,ular misconce,tions o$ shar+s as stu,id#
un,redictable eating machines# !ith nothing more than ,rimitive brains and
a good sense o$ smell. 'n $act# shar+s are as ,redictable as an" animal 5 even
one's !i$e or husband 5 i$ one ta+es time to stud" and get to +no! them.
Those o$ us !ho have had an o,,ortunit" to dive $re@uentl" !ith shar+s
(4 do so# +no!ing that it is $ar sa$er to s!im !ith these animals than to drive
on an average cit" street or high!a".
The last $e! "ears have ,roduced e>citing ne! +no!ledge about shar+s.
9arel" a decade ago# there !ere onl" .4/ acce,ted s,ecies0
./ toda"# that number has climbed b" a hundred. Shar+s are a great deal more
so,histicated than !e once thought# and !e no! +no! that the" have a
higher sensitivit" to electric $ields than an" animal ever studied. The" have
also been sho!n to orient to EarthXs magnetic $ield. Shar+s can match
laborator" !hite rats in certain
.4 learning tests# and the" have a sur,risingl" long retention s,an. Thus#
the" are hardl" the ,rimitive and senseless creatures that man has
mista+en them $or.
or the most ,art# the normal shar+ diet consists o$ $ishes# mollus+s#
and crustaceans. e! shar+s actuall" hunt or $eed on
8/ marine mammals. :o shar+ normall" $eeds on man. Most shar+
attac+s on humans are bite5and5release or slashing t",es o$ actions that
suggest !arnings rather than attem,ts to +ill. ;e acce,t the $act that a dog
bites a stranger i$ the latter invades its territor". Are the rare shar+ attac+s
on humans caused b" the similar invasion o$
84 !hat the shar+ considers its territor"=
;hen !e consider the rarit" o$ shar+ attac+s among hundreds o$ 4
millions o$ s!immers each "ear# !e should as+ ourselves a moral
(*%
@uestion? 9ecause !e li+e to s!im and dive in an environment
unnatural to our s,ecies# is it right $or us to +ill o$$ tens o$ thousands
2/ o$ harmless inhabitants o$ that environment to ensure our ,eace o$
mind= ;e have invented man" s,orts that are more haCardous than
going into the sea. ;hen !e +ill ourselves at these# !e blame no one
else and sim,l" acce,t the ris+s. 9ut !hen it comes to sharing the sea#
!e insist that shar+s ta+e all the ris+s. ;ith $urther research
24 !e ma" one da" be able to ,redict shar+s' behaviour !ith great
accurac". ;hen that da" comes# ' $eel certain !e !ill recogniCe that
shar+s ,resent no threat to man+ind.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'a skill
1
(line 5)7
. 'them' (line 1.)7
2. 'do so' (line 16)7
.. 'our s(e)ies' (line 2$)7
6. 'that en+ironment' (line .!)7
&. 'these' (line .)7
/. Find +Eords in the te:t whi)h mean the o((osite of the followin".
1.(rimiti+e ((ara"ra(h 2)7
.safe ((ara"ra(h 6)7
C. Find words in the te:t whi)h mean the same as the followin".
1. the (eriod of time that somethin" learnt is ke(t in memory ((ara"ra(h 2) 7
. (ri+ate area ((ara"ra(h .)7
3. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. The e:(eriments in Ca(e HaAe showed that one )an train sharks.
. ,harks are animals whi)h ha+e (rimiti+e *rains with a "ood sense of smell.
2. Today' there are more than 2!! a))e(ted s(e)ies of sharks.
.. ,harks are sensiti+e to ele)tri) fields *ut not to 0arth's ma"neti) field.
6. ,harks eat mainly fish' some mammals and man in order to feed
themsel+es.
&. ,harks rarely atta)k swimmers.
5. The writer thinks that our (ea)e of mind is more im(ortant than sharks' ri"ht
to li+e.
(**
%%
ELECT<'C SHOC7S
Most o$ us $ear an electric shoc+# "et !e +no! little about !hat is
sa$e and vThat is not !hen !e handle electricit". or e>am,le# most o$
the time !e are cautious about handling electrical devices !hich seem
to be com,licated in structure# but do not !orr" about turning o$$ the
4 electricit" !ith a !et hand. Ma"be "ou don't mind ,lacing "our radio or
the hair drier on the !et sur$ace in the bathroom.
9od" $luids are not as good conductors as metals. Their resistance is
much higher. or e>am,le# a current o$ ./ microam,eres $lo!ing
directl" through the heart can bring about death. On the other hand# a
(/ current o$ (// to .// microam,eres through electrodes on the chest
triggers the regular beating o$ the heart# a$ter the heart has sto,,ed. The
reason $or such a big di$$erence in the e$$ects o$ the t!o values is that
the $irst current is sent directl" to the heart and the second has to ,ass
through the $luids o$ the bod"# !hich have a greater resistance.
(4 As "ou can see# in an electric shoc+# it is the current that matters# not
the voltage.
One thing about the injuries associated !ith electric shoc+s is that#
most o$ the time# the" arise $rom involuntar" bod" movements in
res,onse to the current. or e>am,le# the current ma" cause "ou to
./ lose "our balance and to $all o$$ a ladder. Sometimes# the victim $reeCes
!ith the current# ma"be because some muscles are ,aral"Ced $or a
moment# and he cannot let go o$ the thing he is holding. As he +ee,s
holding the object# there !ill be more current sent through the bod".
.4 One other thing about electric shoc+s is the burns the" cause. ;hen
the s+in burns# a lo! resistance ,ath is established $or the current and
no! the current can cause more damage.
Some electrical a,,liances re@uire earthing. ;ith these a,,liances# i$
the insulation becomes $ra"ed# the lea+age is carried to the ground#
8/ !ithout doing an" harm. Most o$ the time# ,eo,le use e>tension cables
!ithout the earthing or ma+e incorrect connections. 't is not sa$e to do
so. Al!a"s use the ,ro,er e>tensions and connections.
One other mista+e made b" most ,eo,le is to !ind thic+ !ires
around $uses# to ,revent the $use $rom blo!ing $re@uentl". The $uses
84 are there $or sa$et"# to ,revent the overloading o$ the current. '$ the" do
not blo!# then the e>cess current ma" cause damage to the electrical
a,,liances or even cause a $ire.
9rie$l"# it is not sa$e to ,la" !ith electricit". :ever $orget that "our
bod" resistance is lo!ered greatl" !hen it is !et. Al!a"s be care$ul
(*)
2/ !ith electricit"# but never ,anic. '$ "ou see someone caught u, in an
electric shoc+# be$ore "ou reach out to rescue him# go to the $use bo>
and shut o$$ the circuit at the main inlet.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'they' (line 6)7
. 'if (line 2$)7
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e. 1.
=ine 2' ')autious' means
a) i"norant *) )urious )) worried d) )areful
. =ine 11' 'tri""ers' means .
a) in)reases *) starts )) sto(s d) de)reases
2. =ine 1' 'freeAes' means .
a) *e)omes +ery )old )) holds on ti"htly
*) is una*le to mo+e d) *e)omes ele)trified
.. =ine $' 'frayed' means .
a) worn out *) harmful )) renewed d) o+erloaded
6. We don't usually worry a*out turnin" off the ele)tri)ity with a wet hand *e)ause
we .
a) know that it is safe to do so
*) don't mind handlin" sim(le ele)tri)al de+i)es
)) don't fear an ele)tri) sho)k
d) know a "reat deal a*out ele)tri)ity
&. #nDuries related to ele)tri) sho)ks are mostly due to the .
a) in+oluntary res(onse of the *ody to the sho)k
*) ty(e of a((lian)e in whi)h there was a leak
)) +olta"e of the ele)tri) sho)k
d) /oth (*) and ()).
5. =ines 2142' '#t is not safe to do so' means it is not safe to .
a) use e:tension )a*les without earthin"
*) )arry the leaka"e to the "round
)) make in)orre)t )onne)tions
d) /oth (a) and ()).
1$!
1. Why does a low +olta"e ele)tri) )urrent a((lied dire)tly throu"h the heart )ause
death while a hi"her one a((lied throu"h ele)trodes on the )hest does not1
. Why does *urnt skin ena*le the )urrent to )ause more dama"e1
2. What kind of misuse of ele)tri)ity may )ause fire1
%&
ST<ESS
Stress is considered to be a natural ,art o$ the contem,orar"
!orld. Ever"bod" is e>,osed to a certain amount o$ stress.
:onetheless# it should be made clear that stress doesn't occu," a
greater ,lace in our lives toda" than it did in the ,ast. Although
4 cavemen didn't have to !orr" about the stoc+ mar+et or the atomic
bomb# the" !orried about being eaten b" a bear !hile the" !ere (
aslee, or about d"ing o$ hunger 5 things that $e! ,eo,le !orr" much
about toda". 't's not that ,eo,le su$$er more stress toda"# it's just that
the" thin+ the" do. Ever"bod" thin+s that he or she is
(/ under the greatest stress. The truth is that ever"bod" actuall" is
under stress because i$ !e reall" managed to avoid stress
com,letel"# !e !ould be dead.
Stress is the res,onse o$ the bod" to an" demand. Stress is the
state "ou are in# not the agent that ,roduces it# !hich is called a
(4 stressor. Cold and heat are stressors. Ho!ever# having a highl"
develo,ed central nervous s"stem# man most $re@uentl" su$$ers $rom
stress due to emotional stressors. The thing $or the average .
,erson to remember is that all the demands that "ou ma+e 5 !hether on
"our brain or on "our liver or "our muscles or "our bones 5
./ cause stress. or e>am,le# stress can occur under dee, anesthesia#
!hen "our emotions are not engaged# or in animals that have no
nervous s"stem# or even in ,lants.
There are t!o !a"s o$ telling !hen someone is under stress. One#
not accessible to the ,ublic# is biochemical and neurological 5
.4 measuring blood ,ressure# hormone levels# the electric activit" o$ 8
the brain and so on. :evertheless# there are other indicators that an"one
can judge. :o t!o ,eo,le react the same !a"# but the usual
()(
res,onses are an increase in ,ulse rate and an increased tendenc" to
s!eat. You !ill also become more irritable and !ill sometimes 8
8/ su$$er insomnia# even long a$ter the stressor agent is gone. You !ill
usuall" become less ca,able o$ concentrating and "ou !ill have an
increased desire to move about.
There are various causes o$ stress. The" di$$er in various
civiliCations and historical time ,eriods. At certain times# disease
84 and hunger !ere the ,redominant causes. Another# no! and then# is 2
!ar$are or the $ear o$ !ar. At the moment# the most $re@uent causes o$
distress in man are ,s"chological# e.g.# lac+ o$ ada,tation or not having
a code o$ behaviour.
The secret code to co,ing !ith stress is not to avoid stress but 'to
2/ do "our o!n thing'. 't im,lies doing !hat "ou li+e to do and not
!hat "ou are $orced to do. 't is reall" a matter o$ learning ho! to 4
live# ho! to behave in various situations# to decide? EDo ' reall" !ant
to ta+e over m" $ather's business or !ant to be a musician=E '$ "ou
reall" !ant to be a musician# then be one.
A. Find words E (hrases in the te:t whi)h mean the same as the followin".
1. modern ((ara"ra(h 1)7
. )an *e seen' noti)ed *y ((ara"ra(h 2)7
2. si"ns ((ara"ra(h 2)7
.. main ((ara"ra(h .)7
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine 1.' 'if refers to .
a) a stressor
*) any demand
)) the a"ent that (rodu)es stress
d) the state you are in
. =ine .' ';ne' refers to .
a) a way
*) stress
)) someone
d) *lood (ressure
C. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. There was as mu)h stress in the (ast as there is today.
. A (erson )an suffer from stress e+en when he is un)ons)ious.
1$
2. All sym(toms of stress disa((ear as soon as the stressor a"ent
disa((ears.
.. The )auses of stress ha+e ne+er )han"ed throu"hout history.
1. Why are emotional stressors the most fre<uent )auses of stress in man1
. What does the author mean *y 'doin" your own thin"' in the fifth (ara"ra(h1
&'
9AD ;ATE<
e! things are as insidious as bad !ater. 't's dangerous $or "ou and
"our children# but "ou usuall" can't tell i$ "ou have it. And i$ "ou do#
"ou ma" not be able to $ind out !here the ,roblems are coming $rom.
;ater can carr" some o$ our most serious diseases 5
4 t",hoid# d"senter"# he,atitis 5 "et still loo+ clear in the glass. ;e
ma" do battle over ho! !e get our !ater and develo, it# but !e $ear
$or its @ualit".
This issue is being dealt !ith currentl". There is a necessit" to
,revent ,ollution b" ,assing la!s !hich !ill maintain sa$e
(/ drin+ing !ater. Ho!ever# this is di$$icult because it has become .
increasingl" a,,arent that the sources o$ ,ollution are not just
institutions that can be controlled b" s,eci$ic la!s. The burden o$
,ollution belongs to all o$ us.
;ater's nature itsel$ is a ,art o$ these com,lications. This sim,le
(4 structure o$ h"drogen and o>"gen has even been called the 8
universal solvent. 't ta+es into solution a vast number o$
substances# that is# dissolves them# but those it cannot dissolve are
sim,l" carried along.
Human beings have ,ut this characteristic to !or+ in thousands
./ o$ !a"s. ;e !ash !ith it0 !e $lush !ith it0 !e mi> it with chemicals to
s,ra" on our $ields. ;e use it to ma+e ,aint and ,lastic. ;e !ash our
!or+sho,# garage and $actor" !ith it. 9ut this 2
remar+able utilit" also means that it's ver" hard to ,ut an"thing out o$
!ater's reach. Conse@uentl"# a lot o$ things !e don't !ant in
.4 !ater get there an"!a". '$ "ou ,our ,oison on the ground# even in
the most barren desert# !ater !ill ,ic+ it u, molecule b" molecule#
()8
and because !ater is al!a"s going some!here# it !ill ta+e it a!a". 2
Technicall"# !ater ,ollution can be divided into t!o t",es? ,oint5
source ,ollution A!aste dum,ed b" $actories or se!age 4
8/ ,lantsB and non,oint5source ,ollution. 'n man" !a"s# the second is
the larger ,roblem.
:on,oint5source ,ollution is !hat ha,,ens !hen "ou s,ill oil on the
garage $loor# then !ash it do!n. 't ha,,ens !hen a so"bean $ield is
s,ra"ed !ith ,esticides and then it rains. 't ha,,ens !hen &
84 someone thro!s a dead batter" into a valle"# ;ater ,ic+s it all u,
and adds it to the s"stem. ;ater is in serious jeo,ard" because
!e're not ,a"ing much attention to an"thing e>ce,t ,ollution $rom
a ,i,e.
All this sho!s that a change is coming 5 a $undamental change
2/ in the !a" !e use and thin+ about !ater. 't's no use ,ointing
$ingers at industr". The onl" !a" to ma+e ,rogress is to have %
ever"one realiCe that non,oint5source ,ollution is the major cause o$
!ater ,ollution and to convince them that it is no longer ,ossible to
ignore $resh !ater.
A. Find words in the te:t whi)h mean the same as the followin".
1. un(leasant' de+elo(s without *ein" noti)ed ((ara"ra(h 1)7
. )lear' o*+ious ((ara"ra(h )7
2. infertile ((ara"ra(h .)7
.. dan"er ((ara"ra(h &)7
6. *asi) ((ara"ra(h 5)7
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine %' This issue' refers to .
a) how we o*tain our water
*) how we (ro)ess our water
)) how we are un)ertain a*out the <uality of our water
d) how dirty water affe)ts our )hildren's health ne"ati+ely
. =ines 42' 'this remarka*le utility' refers to .
a) the diffi)ulty of kee(in" water )lean
*) washin" with water
)) flushin" with water
d) the multi(le uses of water
1';
&1
-'DEOS O< 7'DS? 6: 54S 5 ACTS
54S 5 -'OLE:CE ?(
E;e are determined to ,rovide ,arents !ith the o,,ortunit" to
choose# @ualit" $amil" vie!ing instead o$ the crime and murder that
dominates so much o$ T- aimed at 'children. Our ne! Children's
Television de,artment d"namicall" $ul$ills that commitment#E sa"s 1il
4 1rosvenor $rom :ational 1eogra,hic Societ"# !hose $irst home5video
series $or children 5 Reall" Wild Ani&als ! is geared $or "oungsters
bet!een the ages o$ $ive and ten.
The series is hosted b" S,in# a cartoon globe5on5the5go !ho
introduces "oung vie!ers to the !a"s Earth's inhabitants live# use
(/ their environment# and care $or one another. or instance# children see
reno!ned scientist Fane 1oodall stud"ing the social structure o$ chim,s
and discover that these ,rimates# just li+e humans# com$ort their "oung.
Reall" Wild Ani&als begins !ith three video cassettes? Swinging
(4 Safari, Wonders Down >nder, and Dee' Sea Di8e. Si> more are
scheduled. The videos are entertaining and educational# and ,ac+ed
!ith animals 5 $rom A$rican lions to Australia's s,in" anteater.
S,in roams the !orld# s,ea+ing in the man" voices o$ actor Dudle"
Moore. S,in ,resents a soa, o,era about colobus mon+e"s# a ;estern
./ about sea horses# and a segment on li$est"les o$ the !eird and
little? about a $ish called a muds+i,,er# a marsu,ial called a @uoll# and a
mammal that $lies 5 the $ruit bat. Each video includes mini5
documentaries about animals. Original music accom,anies the stories.
Andre! ;il+# e>ecutive ,roducer and vice ,resident $or Children's
.4 Television# sa"s? E;e chose to start !ith a home5video series because
!e !anted involved vie!ers. ;hen +ids run -C<s themselves# the"
!atch !ith concentration instead o$ Ca,,ing $rom channel to channel.E
Children $our and under !ill soon have their o!n home5video
series in a $ormat designed to a,,eal to that age. Called 1eo Dids, the
8/ series !ill ,remier in the $all o$ ())*.
E;ith this major ne! commitment# !e ho,e to give children a
running start to!ard a $uture !here the" can connect !ith the e>citing#
living !orld in all its variet" and $ullness.E
()&
&6
M'DDLE EAST ;ATE<?
C<'T'CAL <ESO6<CE
B" ;riit @. Vesilind
resh !ater# li$e itsel$# has never come eas" in the Middle East. The
rain$all onl" comes in !inter#5 and drains @uic+l" through the semiarid
land# leaving the soil to ba+e and to thirst until ne>t :ovember.
The region's accelerating ,o,ulation# e>,anding
4 agriculture# industrialiCation# and higher living standards demand more
$resh !ater. Drought and ,ollution limit its availabilit". ;ar and
mismanagement s@uander it.
Scarcit" is onl" one element o$ the crisis. 'ne$$icienc" is another# as
is the reluctance o$ some !ater5,oor nations to change ,riorities $rom
(/ agriculture to less !ater5intensive enter,rises. Some e>,erts suggest
that i$ nations !ould share both !ater technolog" and resources# the"
could satis$" the region's ,o,ulation# currentl" (4) million. 9ut in this
,atch!or+ o$ ethnic and religious rivalries# !ater seldom stands alone
as an issue. 't is entangled in the ,olitics that +ee, ,eo,le $rom
(4 trusting and see+ing hel, $rom one another. Here# !here !ater# li+e
truth# is ,recious# each nation tends to $ind its o!n !ater and su,,l" its
o!n truth.
M" journe" starts in s,ring5time# high in the Anti5Taurus
Mountains o$ southern Tur+e". The generous sno!s o$ the Tur+ish
./ mountains have brought little !ealth to the semiarid ,lains o$ the
southeast. ;ithout irrigation# the" have "ielded onl" one cro, a "ear.
9ut no! Tur+e" has $inall" begun to harness its !aters. ' can see the
Eu,hrates s!elling !ith bac+u, $rom the great AtatKr+ Dam. Soon its
!aters !ill rush through the !orld's t!o largest irrigation tunnels 5 .4
.4 $eet in diameter 5 to revitaliCe the Harran 3lain 2/ miles a!a". The
AtatKr+' !ill also generate nine billion +ilo!att5hours o$ electricit" a
"ear. Eventuall"# .. dams !ill im,ound the !aters o$ the Eu,hrates
and the Tigris# !hich also rises in eastern Tur+e"# all ,art o$ an
ambitious and diverse develo,ment scheme called the Southeastern
8/ Anatolia 3roject.
On the Harran# no! lush !ith s,ring grass# the mood is o,timistic.
At a government e>,erimental $arm at 7oru+lu# agronomists test
,atches o$ ,eaches# ,ecans# nectarines# ,omegranates# and gra,es as
candidate cro,s $or the coming !aters. Local $armers attend irrigation
84 classes !ith antici,ation.
())
The massive 'AtatKr+' sits 2/ miles north o$ the cit" o$ 6r$a. 't is
essentiall" an immense ,ile o$ roc+s guarded b" men !ith machine
guns. ;ith o$$icials# ' drive along its mile5long to,. ;hat loo+ed li+e
,ebbles $rom a distance gro! into car5siCe ,ieces o$ roc+# each ,laced
2/ according to siCe# li+e a mosaic# b" a machine !ith a monstrous ami.
The blue5green Eu,hrates thunders belo! the dam !ith ,o!er that
seems closer to electricit" than !ater.
;hen nations share the same river# the u,stream nation is under no
legall" binding obligation to ,rovide !ater do!nstream. 9ut the
24 do!nstream nation can claim historical rights o$ use and ,ress $or $air
treatment. 'n ()*)# 3resident Turgut YCal alarmed S"ria and 'ra@ b"
announcing that Tur+e" !ould hold bac+ the $lo! o$ the Eu,hrates $or a
month to start $illing the 'AtatKr+'. To o$$set the loss# Tur+e" increased
the $lo! $or t!o months be$ore the cutbac+# but even this
4/ did not ,revent an outburst o$ criticism.
'$ seen as a commodit"# !ater can be ,ac+aged# bought and sold# and
ma" soon move bet!een nations li+e !heat. 9ut ,olitical mistrust
ham,ers man" ,romising schemes. 'n ()*%# Tur+e" ,ro,osed a E,eace
,i,elineE o$ !ater $rom t!o Tur+ish rivers 5 the Ce"han and the
44 Se"han 5 that $lo! south into the Mediterranean. The dual ,i,elines
!ould deliver ,otable !ater to millions in S"ria# Fordan# Saudi Arabia#
and other Arab 1ul$ states. :evertheless# $e! nations !ere rece,tive#
and the conce,t sits in limbo.
E'n this region#E Tur+ish oreign Ministr" o$$icial 9urhan Ant told
&/ me in An+ara# Einterde,endence is understood as the o,,osite o$
inde,endence. Ever" countr" here see+s a +ind o$ sel$5su$$icienc" in
ever" $ield because the" don't trust the others.E
A. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. Fo+em*er is the month when the rainfall starts in the Middle 0ast.
. The soil in the southeast is ri)h due to the snows of the Turkish mountains.
2. 8ea)hes' (e)ans' ne)tarines' (ome"ranates and "ra(es are "rown *y the
lo)al farmers in >oruklu.
.. There is no international law whi)h states that a )ountry whi)h shares the
same ri+er with others has to (ro+ide water for them.
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine 1' 'they' refers to .
a) (eo(le *) mountains )) snows d) (lains
. =ine .$' 'thisB refers to Turkey's .
a) holdin" *a)k the water flow of the 0u(hrates
*) in)reasin" the flow for two months *efore the )ut*a)k
)) announ)in" that there would *e a hold4*a)k of water flow
d) fillin" the AtatQrk 3am for future use
!!
&+
THE 9E<M6DA T<'A:1LE A(B
Around ()%4# a number o$ boo+s !ere !ritten about strange things
!hich occurred in the 9ermuda Triangle# a ,art o$ the Atlantic Ocean
o$$ the southeast coast o$ the 6.S. The" told the stories o$ ,lanes and
shi,s that disa,,eared $or no understandable reason and !ere never
4 $ound again. The" told about shi,s !hich !ere $ound undamaged but !ith
no one on them. According to these boo+s# more than (#/// ,eo,le
disa,,eared in the Triangle $rom ()24 to ()%4.
According to some !riters# there !ere no natural e>,lanations $or
man" o$ the disa,,earances# so the" suggested other e>,lanations. or
(/ e>am,le# according to one !riter# some strange and terrible ,o!er e>ists
in the Triangle. According to another !riter# ,eo,le $rom s,ace are
living at the bottom o$ the Atlantic# and sometimes the" need human
sailors and airmen $or their research. These ideas !ere not scienti$ic#
but the" !ere good advertisements# !hich made the boo+s
(4 about the 9ermuda Triangle immediate successes.
Ho!ever# the boo+s give little evidence to su,,ort their unusual
ideas. 'n addition# these boo+s ignore at least three im,ortant $acts that
suggest natural reasons $or man" o$ the occurrences. irst# messages
$rom some o$ the shi,s and aircra$t !hich later disa,,eared give us
./ evidence o$ ,roblems !ith navigational instruments. Similar stories are
told b" o$$icers !ho !ere on dut" on ,lanes and shi,s !hich $inall"
managed to come through the Triangle !ithout disaster. Second# the
!eather in this ,art o$ the Atlantic Ocean is ver" un,redictable.
Dangerous storms that can cause ,roblems even $or
.4 e>,erienced ,ilots and sailors can begin suddenl" and !ithout !arning.
inall"# the 9ermuda Triangle is ver" large# and man" ,eo,le# both
e>,erienced and ine>,erienced# sail and $l" through it. 3erha,s the
$igure o$ (#/// deaths in thirt" "ears shoc+s some ,eo,le# but# in $act#
the $igure is not unusual $or an area o$ ocean that is so
8/ large and that is crossed b" so man" shi,s.
The evidence !hich e>ists# there$ore# su,,orts one conclusion about
the 9ermuda Triangle? !e do not need stories about ,eo,le $rom s,ace
or strange unnatural ,o!ers to e>,lain the disa,,earances.
!
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'them' (line &)7
. 'they' (line $)7
2. 'they' (line 1)7
.. 'if (line 5)7
/. Find words in the te:t whi)h mean the same as the followin".
1.took (la)e ((ara"ra(h 1)7
.somethin" that su((orts a *elief ((ara"ra(h 2)7
C. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. All the *ooks a*out the /ermuda Trian"le "i+e natural e:(lanations for the
thin"s that ha((en there.
. The *ooks a*out the /ermuda Trian"le sold +ery well.
2. The writer of this (assa"e is sho)ked *y the lar"e num*er of deaths in the
/ermuda Trian"le *etween 1$.6 and 1$56.
.. Fone of the (lanes or shi(s whi)h disa((eared re(orted any (ro*lems
*efore their disa((earan)e.
&;
THE 9E<M6DA T<'A:1LE A.B
The 9ermuda Triangle# !hich is sometimes called 'The 1rave"ard
o$ the Atlantic'# is one o$ the greatest m"steries o$ the !orld. This is an
area o$ the !estern Atlantic bet!een 9ermuda and lorida# almost
triangular in sha,e# !here at least a hundred shi,s and ,lanes and over
4 a thousand ,eo,le have disa,,eared since ()24. :o !rec+age has ever
been discovered in the area0 that is# no bodies# li$e boats# or an" other
evidence o$ disaster have been $ound. 't is as i$ these ,lanes# shi,s and
,eo,le had never e>isted. 'n some cases# a normal radio message !as
sent $rom the air,lane re,orting that ever"thing !as $ine. Then# a $e!
(/ minutes later# the radio seemed to brea+ do!n. 'n others# a !ea+ S.O.S.
message !as received but the air,lane disa,,eared be$ore shi,s or
other air,lanes could be sent to hel,. Sometimes in ,er$ect !eather#
there !ere strange re$erences to $og and loss o$ direction. 'n the
e>traordinar" case o$ $ive 6.S. nav" ,lanes !hich disa,,eared on a
(4 regular $light $rom lorida# the rescue ,lane sent to $ind them also
disa,,eared. A strange !hite light is a characteristic o$ the sea in this
!2
area. 't is interesting to +no! that not onl" !as this light observed b"
the astronauts on their !a" to s,ace# but it !as also seen b" Columbus
over $our hundred "ears ago. 't is not "et +no!n i$ this light has an"
./ connection !ith the strange disa,,earances.
Man" theories have been suggested to e>,lain all these m"sterious
ha,,enings in the 9ermuda Triangle. Some ,eo,le belive that the" are
caused b" activit" $rom outer s,ace. Others thin+ that the" are caused
b" some undiscovered source o$ energ" or b" some dimension o$ time
.4 or s,ace !hich is not +no!n b" man. There is no ans!er "et# but
scientists are !or+ing hard to $ind one.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
='themJ (line 16)7
. 'if (line 1%)7
2. 'they' (line )7
.. ';thers' (line 2)7 ;ther
6. 'one' (line &)7
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. The /ermuda Trian"le is lo)ated .
a) in /ermuda )) *etween /ermuda and Florida
*) in a trian"le d) near the 9ra+eyard of the Atlanti)
. The stran"est fa)t a*out the ha((enin"s in the /ermuda Trian"le is .
a) that *odies ha+e *een found )) that shi(s and (lanes ha+e ne+er e:isted
*) the la)k of e+iden)e of disaster d) the a((earan)e of wre)ka"e in the area
2. /efore the air(lanes disa((eared' .
a) odd re(orts a*out the weather were sometimes re)ei+ed
*) a shi( was sent to look for them
)) ,.;.,. messa"es were ne+er sent
d) the (ilots always re(orted that there were no (ro*lems
.. The stran"e white li"ht in the area was .
a) the )ause of the disa((earan)es )) unknown four )enturies a"o
*) noti)ed *y the astronauts d) a theory su""ested *y s)ientists
6. The disa((earan)es .
a) are )aused *y (eo(le from outer s(a)e
*) take (la)e in the unknown time dimension
)) are due to a re)ently dis)o+ered ener"y sour)e
d) ha+en't *een e:(lained *y s)ientists yet
!.
&5
ATT'T6DES TO;A<DS MO:EY
Americans these da"s are ver" concerned !ith the econom". 't
seems more ,eo,le are having to learn to s,end less and to s,end
!isel" due to the hard times !e are e>,eriencing. Ho!ever# ,eo,le's
attitudes to!ards mone" di$$er.
4 The misers accumulate mone" in ban+s i$ their income is large# or
in the house stu$$ed in mattresses or under the living room rug i$ the"
are lo! income ,eo,le. The" seem almost obsessed !ith the idea o$
saving. The misers de,rive themselves o$ man" things and most live
miserabl" in order to hoard their !ealth. M" )/5"ear5old neighbor#
(/ having gained the s"m,ath" o$ the neighbors# o$ten collected groceries
and mone" $rom them. She dressed shabbil" and lived in a deteriorated
house. A$ter her death# it !as discovered that this old !oman had le$t
thousands o$ dollars to the church and other organiCations. She le$t
nothing to her $amil".
(4 The s,enders are ,eo,le !ho cannot seem to hold on to their
mone". The" have a tendenc" to s,end too much on too man"
unnecessar" things. The" are o$ten too generous# bu"ing elaborate gi$ts
$or $riends and $amil". Credit cards in some s,enders' hands are o$ten
dangerous !ea,ons. The" become addicted to using them onl"
./ to regret it later !hen the bills come in and the" are unable to ,a". Other
s,enders li+e to gamble and this can also be destructive i$ it turns into a
vice. Man" s,enders do not necessaril" thro! their mone" a!a" but
give it to charities $or good causes# sim,l" because the" enjo" giving.
M" 6ncle Mario is a big s,ender. He ma+es over
.4 H.4#/// a "ear# but he never has an" mone" in his savings account
because he s,ends his entire ,a"chec+ each !ee+ on necessities and
lu>uries. Last !ee+ he s,ent H4// on a ne! mo,ed# not because he
needed one# but because he thought it !ould be $un to o!n one. As a
result o$ his s,ending# ever" "ear in A,ril he has to borro! mone" to
8/ ,a" his ta>es because he has s,ent it all.
A. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. A 'deteriorated house' (line 1) .
a) )ontains many unne)essary thin"s
*) is de)orated *adly
)) is in a *ad )ondition
d) is a (la)e where old (eo(le li+e
./4
&6
O-E<5AM3L''CAT'O:
Hearing s,ecialists used to !orr" about loud noise as a cause o$
dea$ness onl" in industrial and militar" situations. The" +ne! that eight
hours o$ dail" e>,osure# "ear in and "ear out# to the noise o$ the
,roverbial boiler $actor" !ould eventuall" result in ,ermanent# or
4 irreversible# hearing loss. 3eo,le !ho used drills !ere ,articularl"
susce,tible. Then the" learned that the same thing ha,,ened to aviators.
And a$ter jets came into e>istence# the haCard a,,lied to ground cre!s
at air,orts and $light5dec+ ,ersonnel aboard aircra$t carriers 5 hence
came the introduction o$ insulated# noise5absorbing
(/ ,lastic earmu$$s.
'n discothe@ues and roc+ 'n' roll joints# the trouble is not so much in
the instruments themselves# or the small area. The blame goes to the
electronic am,li$iers. An old5$ashioned militar" band# ,la"ing a march
in Central 3ar+# generated as much sound. Ho!ever# the sound !as
(4 not am,li$ied# but !as dissi,ated in the o,en air. A trombonist sitting in
$ront o$ a tuba ,la"er might be a bit dea$ $or an hour or so a$ter a
concert0 then his hearing returned to normal. A micro,hone hoo+ed u,
to a ,ublic address s"stem intensi$ied the sound but did not a,,reciabl"
increase the hearing haCard. ;hat did !as multi,le mi+es
./ and s,ea+ers# and the installation o$ internal mi+es in such instruments as
guitars and bousou+is.
The man !ho had the ,roblem closest to home# and studied it there#
!as 1eorge T. Singleton# an ear# nose and throat man at the 6niversit"
o$ lorida. He noticed that# !hen he ,ic+ed u, his teenage
.4 daughter Marsha a$ter a dance# she couldn't hear !hat he said in the car on
the !a" home. Singleton recruited a research team and tested the
hearing o$ ten $ourteen5"ear5old ninth5graders an hour be$ore a dance.
Then# the investigators !ent to the dance hall# and $ound the average
sound intensit" to be ver" high in the middle o$ the dance
8/ $loor. Directl" in $ront o$ the band# it ,ea+ed to e>tremel" high levels. The
test cre! had to move $ort" $eet outside the building be$ore the level
dro,,ed to a sa$e# but still uncom$ortable# level.
A$ter the dance# the +ids' hearing !as tested again. Des,ite the
"outh$ul resilienc" o$ their inner ears# all had su$$ered at least
84 tem,orar" hearing im,airment. The greatest damage !as in the high5
$re@uenc" s,eech range# involving consonantal sounds# similar to the
loss $elt b" oldsters !ho com,lain that Eever"bod" mumbles
no!ada"sE.
;h" do the "oungsters immerse themselves in noise that is so
!5
2/ uncom$ortable to their elders= A lorida teenager e>,lained? EThe sounds
embalm "ou. The" numb "ou li+e tran@uiliCers. You don't !ant to hear
others tal+. You don't !ant to tal+. You don't +no! !hat to sa" to each
other# an"!a".E So# !h" listen= And# eventuall"# ho!=
A. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine &' They' refers to .
a) (eo(le who used drills )) workers in the *oiler fa)tory
*) (eo(le e:(osed to loud noise d) hearin" s(e)ialists
. To *e 'dissi(atedB (line 16) means to .
a) *e made inaudi*le )) *e tolerated
*) *e)ome less or disa((ear d) *e)ome safer
2. =ine !' 'internal mikes' means .
a) a "rou( of mi)ro(hones used to am(lify the sound
*) s(eakers to whi)h musi)al instruments are )onne)ted
)) the strin"s of instruments like "uitars and *ousoukis
d) mi)ro(hones inside musi)al instruments
.. #f somethin" 'num*s' (line .1) you' .
a) it makes you una*le to s(eak
*) you )an't de)ide how to *eha+e
)) you don't feel any (hysi)al sensation
d) it makes you una*le to hear
6. led to the introdu)tion of insulated' noise4a*sor*in" (lasti)
earmuffs.
a) The haAards of air(orts )) The introdu)tion of Det air(lanes
*) The noise of a+iators d) Air)raft )arriers
&. ;ld4fashioned military *ands were different from dis)othe<ues and ro)k 'n' roll
Doints in that .
a) they only (layed mar)hes in *i" (arks
*) the sound the instruments (rodu)ed was not am(lified
)) they had fewer instruments
d) they didn't "enerate a lot of sound
./*
&=
THE CYCLAMATE CO:T<O-E<SY
At the center o$ the c"clamate discussion is Dr. Fac@ueline -errett# a ood
and Drug Administration research scientist $or man" "ears !ho# since ()&&#
has been testing c"clamate on chic+en embr"os. O$ a total o$ 2#/// embr"os
injected# (4J have sho!n de$ormities? $eet attached directl" to the hi,# toes
$used together# '$li,,er' legs# mal$ormed s,ines and missing ,elvises. An
earlier DA test had sho!n chromosome brea+age in rats that !ere injected
!ith c"clohe>"lamine# a metabolic ,roduct o$ c"clamate. Concluded Dr.
-errett# E' don't recommend c"clamate $or chic+s# and ' don't recommend it
$or ,eo,le.E A$ter discussing the results o$ her !or+ on a television ,rogram#
she dre! an immediate rebuttal $rom the DA Commissioner Dr. Herbert
Le". EC"clamates are sa$e !ithin the ,resent state o$ +no!ledge and scienti$ic
o,inion available to me#E he said.
There have been other !arnings about the !idel" used s!eetener. Last
:ovember# the DA !as advised b" the :ational Academ" o$ Sciences#
:ational <esearch Council# that use o$ c"clamates should be restricted. As a
result# the agenc" last A,ril began considering ne! labeling re@uirements $or
arti$iciall" s!eetened $oods and beverages. The labels !ould indicate
c"clamate content in milligrams and !ould recommend a ma>imum dail"
inta+e o$ 8#4// mg $or adults and (#.// $or children. 9ut the DA has not "et
given an" indication about !hen# or i$# it !ill establish the re@uirements.
The ban on c"clamates# ordered b" the Health Education and ;el$are
Secretar" <obert inch last !ee+# might hit millions o$ !eight5!atchers in
the !aistline# but it is a real disa,,ointment to the rich diet5$ood industr". 'n
the ./ "ears since c"clamates !ere discovered# sales o$ ,roducts containing
the non5nutritive s!eeteners have risen to H( billion annuall".
;orst hit !ill be the ,rocessors o$ $oods containing the s!eetener. Most o$
the c"clamate su,,l" no! goes into diet drin+s# !hich have gained at least a
(4J share o$ the mar+et $or so$t drin+s. There is some @uestion !hether diet
drin+ers !ill s!itch bac+ to sugar5s!eetened drin+s or just give it all u, in
$avor o$ !ater. C"clamates are also used in ,uddings# gelatins# salad dressing#
jams and jellies# ice cream and ,racticall" all diet $oods. The ,roducers o$
'cured' bacon commonl" use c"clamates# !hich are chea,er than sugar.
C"clamates even go into the ma+ing o$ children's $lavored vitamins# ,ic+les
and dog $ood.
Diet drin+s containing c"clamates must be removed $rom shelves b"
Fanuar" (st. The announcement too+ some ,roducers una!ares. 'nstead o$
tr"ing to $ight the ban# Coca5Cola o$$icials sa" that the" are e>,erimenting
!ith other $ormulae $or their diet drin+s# and !ill ,robabl" s!itch to some
other lo!5calorie s!eetener. 3e,siCo# !hich !as obviousl" not caught
1!
na,,ing# immediatel" announced that it !ill begin mar+eting !ithin a $e!
!ee+s c"clamate5$ree Diet 3e,si5Cola '!ith a touch o$ real sugar'.
A.
1. What is )y)lamate1
. What do fli((er le"s or missin" (el+ises e:em(lify1
2. Why did the F3A *e"in to )onsider new la*elin" re<uirements for artifi)ially
sweetened foods and *e+era"es1
.. Who will the *an on )y)lamates affe)t most1
6. #n whi)h kind of food is the most )y)lamate used1
&. What may diet4drinkers do after the *an on )y)lamates is (ut into (ra)ti)e1
5. When is the *an on )y)lamates offi)ially startin"1
/. Mark the statements as True (T)' False (F) or Fo #nformation (Fl).
1. 3r. Her*ert =ey doesn't o*De)t to the use of )y)lamates.
. Children )an tolerate a lower amount of )y)lamates than adults.
2. Cy)lamate is not nutriti+e.
.. 8rodu)ers in+est mu)h more money in diet foods than in )on+entional
ones.
6. Cy)lamates )ost (rodu)ers more money than real su"ar.
&. There has *een a "rowin" interest in diet foods in the last twenty years.
5. Cy)lamates are also used in do" food.
%. There are la*els on )ontainers indi)atin" the )y)lamate )ontent of the
(rodu)t.
$. 8e(siCo tried to fi"ht the *an on )y)lamates *ut )ouldn't "et the authorities
to )han"e their minds.
11
&%
A 1OOD L'E
The ,eo,le o$ the Caucasus Mountains o$ southern <ussia have long
been $amous $or attaining e>tremel" old ages. Arab and 3ersian
chronicles $rom centuries ago noted the e>istence o$ these longevous
,eo,les. The latest Soviet census re,orts that %/ ,er cent o$ all ,eo,le
4 reaching ((/ "ears or more live in the Caucasus region. An anthro,ologist
described meeting a !oman o$ (8) "ears. This does not seem old at all#
ho!ever# com,ared to her $irst cousin# !ho reached (2& and her great5
grand$ather# !ho lived to be (&/. ;hen !e consider that most ,eo,le in
the 6nited States e>,ect to live onl" hal$ that long
(/ and that ,eo,le in some ,arts o$ the develo,ing !orld !ill live onl" one
third that long# !e cannot hel, !ondering !hat the causes o$ such long
li$e are. 's it e>ercise# diet# ,h"sical environment# cultural environment#
or !hat= Anthro,ologists have concluded that e>ercise and diet are not
as im,ortant as a stead" !a" o$ li$e !ith certain
(4 cultural e>,ectations and roles.
The ,eo,le in most o$ the region o$ the Caucasus Mountains have a
slo!# regular# rh"thmic li$e st"le. There is continuit" in all o$ the
,h"sical as,ects o$ their li$e. irst# most o$ the Caucasians live in
mountain villages in a ,astoral setting. The" !or+ as $armers# herders#
./ or gardeners. Their lives are regulated b" the rising o$ the sun# the stead"
rh"thm o$ the gro!ing c"cle# the harvest# and the setting sun. Most o$
the longevous ,eo,le have al!a"s held the same jobs. The" learned
their jobs "oung# and have continued in the same job until the" are !ell
,ast (//# some !or+ing until the" are (./ or (8/. The
.4 outdoor !or+ and the mountainous terrain ,rovide a good deal o$ e>ercise.
Anthro,ologists $eel that !hile e>ercise contributes to longevit"# the
rh"thmic li$est"le is more im,ortant. There is also continuit" in diet.
The ,eo,le o$ the Caucasus ver" much enjo" their traditional $ood and
have no inclination to change it. The" have eaten
8/ the same lean meat# grains# $ruits# and vegetables $rom childhood to old
age. Traditionall"# Caucasians are lean ,eo,le !ho do not overeat. Li+e
e>ercise# anthro,ologists conclude that it is not the diet itsel$ that is the
secret $or long li$e# although it does contribute. The real secret is the
continuit" in diet $rom birth to death. The consistent# unchanged
84 diet and regular dietar" rh"thm allo! the bod" and its digestive s"stem to
become entirel" adjusted. There$ore# ,h"siological stress on the
digestive s"stem is at a minimum. The overall evenness o$ ,ace in the
Caucasian !a" o$ li$e ma+es $or a $eeling o$ !ell5being and encourages
longevit".
.(.
2/ Another im,ortant cause o$ longevit" among the Caucasians is a
stable cultural environment !ith certain e>,ectations. irst# the goals
o$ the Caucasians do not overreach the ,ossibilities o$ attainment.
6nli+e man" Americans !ho !ant to be chairmen o$ the boards or
,residents o$ the com,anies# goals !hich the" can never attain# the
24 goals o$ the Caucasians tend to be realistic and attainable !ithin their
cultural milieu. Their goals are more ,eo,le5oriented. The"
concentrate on being hos,itable and generous to!ards others# goals
!hich are not onl" attainable# but also contribute to the overall !ell5
being o$ the social grou,. 9ecause the goals o$ the Caucasians
4/ are realistic and attainable# emotional tensions are reduced. This
contributes to long li$e. Second# the normal e>,ectation !ithin the
region is $or long li$e. 'ndividuals e>,ect to live $ar be"ond the age o$
(//. On the other hand# the cultural e>,ectation o$ ,eo,le in the 6nited
States is $or a ma>imum li$e s,an o$ about */ "ears. These
44 cultural e>,ectations become sel$5$ul$illing ,ro,hecies. urther# the
Caucasians do not e>,ect the old ,eo,le to sit idl" b"# but to ,artici,ate
activel" in all ,hases o$ li$e. A stable environment !ith realistic goals
and e>,ectations is a second cause $or longevit" among the
Caucasians.
&/ inall"# longevit" is also encouraged b" the role o$ old ,eo,le in
the $amil" and in the communit". The Caucasians have large e>tended
$amilies o$ ma"be 8// ,eo,le or more. This ,rovides a large net!or+
o$ ,eo,le !ith mutual rights and obligations. The aged are res,ected as
heads o$ the $amil". The" ma+e decisions about mone"# marriages#
&4 land sales# and other matters. The" are also e>,ected to be a$$ectionate
to!ard their grand5children. The old ,eo,le are also res,ected in the
communit". The" continue to vote# hold o$$ice and so ma+e decisions
!hich !ill a$$ect the $uture o$ the entire communit". 9ecause o$ their
im,ortant ,lace in the $amil" and in the communit"# the aged retain a
%/ $eeling o$ individual sel$5!orth and im,ortance. <etaining a ,ositive sel$
image reduces ,h"sical and mental ,roblems# thus encouraging a
longer li$e.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'these lon"e+ous (eo(les' (lines 24.)7
. ThisB (line 6!)7
2. This' (line &)7
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine $' 'in)lination' has the same meanin" as .
a) resistan)e *) determination )) am*ition d) wish
.(8
2. What is the role of the old in the Cau)asian family1
.. Why do old Cau)asians ha+e a (ositi+e self4ima"e1
&&
ETO SLEE3# 3E<CHA:CE TO D<EAM...E
Slee, is bro+en into $ive distinct ,arts 5 Stages ( through 2# ,lus <EM# an
acron"m $or ra,id e"e movement. <EM and non5<EM slee, are @uite
di$$erent# as di$$erent $rom each other as each is $rom being a!a+e. Much
remains un+no!n about each o$ the $ive slee, stages. Most dreaming occurs
during <EM slee,# a ,eriod !hen the e"eballs move ra,idl" beneath the
closed lids. And !hether the" remember or not# all adults dream# usuall" $our
to si> times a night.
Three t",es o$ mood are strongl" related to some s,eci$ic stage o$ slee,.
Our $riendl"# aggressive# and slee," $eelings all relate to Stage . slee,# !hich
accounts $or most o$ our total slee, hours. Our $riendl" and slee," $eelings#
but not our aggressive $eelings# are a$$ected as !ell b" Stages 8 and 2# and b"
ho! long it ta+es us to $all aslee,.
This means that i$ "ou get less slee, than normal 5 and ,eo,le var" a great
deal in ho! much slee, the" normall" re@uire 5 "ou a!a+e more $riendl"#
more aggressive# but less slee,". <esearchers +ne! $rom their earlier !or+
that slee, determines i$ ,eo,le $eel ha,,ier. Yet# !hen the" studied the
various slee, stages# the" $ound no correlation bet!een slee, ,h"siolog" and
the unha,," mood. The" !ere ,uCCled b" this. Clearl" slee, made a
di$$erence# but that di$$erence didn't relate to ho! much time one s,ent in
each o$ the various slee, stages.
The researchers decided the +e" to !hether !e $eel ha,," or unha,,"
a$ter slee, must lie in slee,'s ,s"chological com,onent 5 our dreams. So# the"
began stud"ing dream content 5 !hat dreamers dreamed and !ho a,,eared in
their dreams 5 to see ho! it a$$ected mood.
These $indings have emerged $rom eight "ears o$ slee, and dream research
at the -eterans Administration Hos,ital in Cincinnati# Ohio?
5 ;hile slee, a$$ects ho! slee,"# $riendl"# aggressive# and unha,," !e
$eel a$ter a!a+ening# $eelings o$ ha,,iness or unha,,iness de,end most
strongl" on our dreams.
5 Each o$ us has a s,ecial dream character# a t",e o$ ,erson !hose
a,,earance in our dreams ma+es us $eel ha,,ier !hen !e a!a+e.
1,
5 ;hat !e dream at night isn't as im,ortant to ho! !e $eel in the morning
as the number o$ ,eo,le !ho ,o,ulate our dreams. The more ,eo,le !e
see# the better !e $eel.
5 Our slee, in$luences our mood. Our mood# in turn# a$$ects our
,er$ormance. And throughout the da"# our levels o$ mood and
,er$ormance remain closel" lin+ed.
Mark the statements as True (T)' False (F) or Fo #nformation (Fl).
1. Ra(id eye mo+ements durin" slee( usually indi)ate that you are dreamin".
. The amount of slee( re<uired is the same for e+ery*ody.
2. 8eo(le ha+e diffi)ulty in remem*erin" their dreams if it has taken them a lon"
time to fall aslee(.
.. #f few (eo(le a((ear in your dream' you are likely to feel *ad when you
wake u(.
6. A (erson )an (erform well e+en if sEhe is not in a "ood mood.
&. More time is s(ent in ,ta"e slee( than in other sta"es.
5. 8eo(le wake u( after ,ta"e . slee(.
(//
ELEME:TS
There are over (// elements in nature. Each element is
com,osed o$ an innumerable grou, o$ atoms !hich are identical !ith
one another and di$$erent $rom the atoms that ma+e u, the other
elements. :ormall" the" are $ound in ,airs or in
4 combinations !ith other +inds o$ atoms. ;e call these arrangements
o$ atoms 'molecules'.
;h" do some atoms combine !hile others do not= ;hat
determines the manner in !hich atoms combine= The ans!ers have
to do !ith the electrons that circle the nucleus o$ the atom. As !e
(/ +no!# an atom is com,osed o$ three +inds o$ ,articles? ,rotons and
neutrons# !hich are $ound in a ver" small region at the center o$ the
atom# and electrons# !hich orbit the nucleus. The number o$ electrons
in an atom is the same as the number o$ ,rotons# and this number
determines the chemical ,ro,erties o$ the element. The
(4 number o$ neutrons in the atoms o$ a given element is not constant#
though it is usuall" slightl" greater than the number o$ ,rotons. The
orbits o$ the electrons about the nucleus are something li+e the
orbits o$ the ,lanets in our solar s"stem about the sun# e>ce,t that
.(&
each atomic orbital can contain onl" a certain ma>imum number o$
./ electrons. or e>am,le# the $irst atomic orbital# corres,onding to the
,lanet Mercur"# can contain as man" as t!o electrons# no more0 the
second atomic orbital# corres,onding to the ,lanet -enus# can contain
as man" as eight electrons# no more0 and so on. The inner orbitals o$
atoms are the $irst to ta+e electrons# and because o$ .4 certain $actors
that de,end u,on energ"# atoms li+e to have their last# outer orbital
$ull. The inert gases 5 Helium# :eon# Argon# 7r",ton# Wenon# and
<adon 5 are elements !hose atoms have $ull electron orbitals.
Conse@uentl"# these elements do not combine !ith other elements0
the" are chemicall" inactive# inert. The atoms
8/ o$ all other elements tend to combine !ith other atoms so as to $ill
u, their electron orbitals.
H"drogen atoms al!a"s have a single electron and a single
,roton# so their electron shell AorbitalB is one electron short o$ being
$ull. 'n the gaseous state# t!o h"drogen atoms are combined to
84 $orm a single molecule AH.B. Each electron circling about both nuclei
ma+es it a,,ear as i$ there !ere onl" one electronic orbital. O>"gen
atoms have eight electrons# t!o o$ !hich $ill the $irst orbital0 the
remaining si> are contained in the second orbital# leaving the second
orbital t!o short o$ the ,re$erred number eight.
2/ O$ten in nature !e $ind a molecule !here t!o h"drogen atoms have
given their electrons to a single o>"gen atom# !hich $ills the second
orbital o$ the o>"gen atom. This arrangement o$ o>"gen and
h"drogen is ver" stable. This molecule is called '!ater'.
The carbon atom has $our o$ its si> electrons in its outer orbital.
24 De,ending u,on ho! "ou loo+ at it# it has either $our too $e! or $our
too man" electrons in its outer orbital. 't is !illing either to borro! or
to lend $our electrons. ;hen carbon combines !ith 2 o>"gen# the
carbon atom gives t!o electrons to each o$ t!o o>"gen atoms0 the
result is the gas carbon dio>ide ACO.B# !hich is @uite
4/ common in nature.
Chemical reactions are sim,l" the arrangements and
rearrangements atoms and molecules go through to have $ull electron
orbitals. An" destruction or creation o$ molecules is a chemical
reaction.
1. -se your own words for e:(ressin" the "eneral idea of the first (ara"ra(h.
. -se your own words for e:(ressin" the "eneral idea of the se)ond (ara"ra(h.
.(%
BURGER TO GO - HOLD THE PLASTIC
3ol"st"rene $oam is one o$ the great success stories o$ modern
industr". Light# shoc+5resistant# insulating and chea, to ma+e# it sho!s
u, ever"!here? in dis,osable co$$ee cu,s# in bo>es that hold $ast5$ood
hamburgers# as ,ac+ing ',eanuts' $or sa$e shi,,ing. 9ut the
4 stu$$ has a serious do!nside as !ell. 3ol"st"rene is bul+"# ta+ing u,
s,ace in land$ills0 as a ,lastic# it ta+es decades to decom,ose0 its
manu$acture causes the release o$ haCardous chemicals0 and the mar+et
$or rec"cling it is ho,elessl" limited. Environmentalists have argued $or
"ears that the $oam should sim,l" be banned.
(/ The" no! have an unli+el" all"? McDonald's. America's largest
$ast5$ood chain and $re@uent target o$ environmental ,rotests
announced last !ee+ that it !ould begin ,hasing out $oam ,ac+aging
!ithin &/ da"s at its *#4// 6.S. restaurants. The move came as a
sur,rise. The com,an" has long said the containers !ere not
(4 necessaril" a ,roblem and had ,lanned a H(// million cam,aign to
rec"cle them. 9ut ecolog"5minded customers !ere increasingl"
unha,," !ith the ,ac+ages. As a result# McDonald's is ma+ing the
,haseout ,art o$ a broad ,ro5environment initiative that the com,an" is
develo,ing in ,artnershi, !ith the ;ashington5based Environmental
./ De$ense und.
McDonald's !ill ,robabl" re,lace its $oam hamburger bo>es !ith
material similar to the thin ,a,er used to !ra, its smallest sand!iches.
That is not a ,er$ect solution either. The ,a,er is not "et rec"clable# and
!hile it does brea+ do!n in land$ills# its ,roduction re@uires
.4 cutting do!n trees. 9ut it ta+es u, )/J less s,ace than $oam !hen
discarded# and McDonald's is testing a ,a,er5rec"cling techni@ue in
some o$ its Cali$ornia stores. '$ it can $ind alternatives# the chain ma"
also re,lace its ,ol"st"rene ,lates and co$$ee cu,s.
One ,ossible substitute $or some uses o$ ,ol"st"rene comes straight
8/ $rom nature. To re,lace the ,lastic5$oam ,ellets that are used to ,rotect
delicate merchandise during shi,,ing# at least t!o com,anies in
Cali$ornia are tr"ing to mar+et a biodegradable# in $act# edible#
alternative? ,o,corn. The dra!bac+s are that it is more e>,ensive to
,roduce than ,ol"st"rene ,ellets and tends to attract rodents and
84 insects. :onetheless# a hand$ul o$ mail5order com,anies and other
shi,,ers in the 6.S.# Canada and Euro,e have begun ,ac+ing !ith
,o,corn Abutter and salt not includedB. Such small innovations# along
!ith dramatic shi$ts b" com,anies li+e McDonald's# ma" someda"
eliminate a major insult to the environment.
.()
(/.
A:T'N6ES <E3A'<S
Some time ago# ' discovered that one o$ the chairs in m" $ront hall
had a bro+en leg. ' didn't $oresee an" great di$$icult" in getting it
mended# as there are a !hole lot o$ anti@ue sho,s in 3imlico <oad#
!hich is three minutes' !al+ $rom m" $lat. So# ' set $orth one morning
4 carr"ing the chair !ith me. ' !ent into the $irst sho, con$identl" e>,ecting
a $riendl" rece,tion# !ith a +indl" man sa"ing? E;hat a charming
chair. Yes# that's @uite a sim,le job. ;hen !ould "ou !ant it bac+=E
' !as @uite !rong. The man ' a,,roached !ouldn't even loo+ at it. '
(/ !asn't too concerned0 a$ter all# it !as onl" the $irst tr" and there are man"
more sho,s on both sides o$ the road.
The reaction at the second sho,# though slightl" ,oliter# !as just the
same# and at the third and the $ourth# so ' decided that m" a,,roach
must be !rong.
(4 ' entered the $i$th sho, !ith some con$idence because ( had
concocted a ,lan. ' ,laced the chair gentl" on the $loor so as not to
disturb the damaged leg and said E;ould "ou li+e to bu" a chair=E The
rather $ierce ,ro,rietor loo+ed it over care$ull" and said# EYes# not a
bad little chair. Ho! much do "ou !ant $or it=E EG./#E ' said. EO7#E
./ he said# E''ll give "ou G./.E E't's got a slightl" bro+en leg#E ' said. EYes# '
sa! that0 it's nothing. Don't !orr" about it.E
Ever"thing !as going to ,lan and ' !as getting e>cited. E;hat !ill
"ou do !ith it=E ' as+ed. EOh# it !ill be ver" saleable once the re,air is
done. ' li+e the bit o$ old green velvet on the to,. ' shall leave that 5
.4 "es# ver" saleable.E E''ll bu" it#E ' said. E;hat d'"e mean= You've just sold
it to me#E he said. EYes ' +no!# but ''ve changed m" mind. As a matter
o$ $act# it is just !hat ''m loo+ing $or 5 ''ve got its ,air at home. ''ll give
"ou .% @uid $or it.E EYou must be craC"#E he said. Then suddenl" the
,enn" dro,,ed and he smiled and said# E' +no! !hat "ou
8/ !ant. You !ant me to mend "our chair# don't "ou=E EYou're ,lumb right#E
' said.
EAnd !hat !ould "ou have done i$ ' had !al+ed in and said#
';ould "ou mend this chair $or me=' ;ould "ou have re,aired it=E
E:o# ' !ouldn't have done it#E he said. E;e don't do re,airs 5 not
84 enough mone" in it and too much o$ a nuisance. Ho!ever# ''ll mend this
chair $or "ou 5 shall !e sa" a $iver=E He !as a ver" nice man and
thought the !hole e,isode rather $unn".

(/8
ALEWA:DE< THE 1<EAT
'n 882 9.C.# !ith an arm" o$ 84#/// men# Ale>ander crossed into Asia
Minor. 'n addition to soldiers# the $ormer student o$ Aristotle brought along
scientists to stud" ,lant and animal li$e and to chart the terrain. A$ter
ca,turing the coast o$ Asia Minor# Ale>ander marched into S"ria and de$eated
the 3ersian arm" at the battle o$ 'ssus. <ather than ,ursuing the $leeing
3ersian +ing# Darius '''# Ale>ander sta"ed !ith his master ,lan# !hich
included the ca,ture o$ coastal ,orts in order to crush the 3ersian nav". He
ca,tured T"re# thought to be an im,regnable cit"# and advanced into Eg",t.
1rate$ul to Ale>ander $or having liberated them $rom 3ersian rule# the
Eg",tians made him ,haraoh. Ale>ander a,,ointed o$$icials to administer the
countr" and $ounded a ne! cit"# Ale>andria.
Having destro"ed or ca,tured the 3ersian $leet# Ale>ander moved into
Meso,otamia in ,ursuit o$ Darius in 88( 9.C. The Macedonians de$eated the
numericall" su,erior 3ersians at 1augamela# just east o$ the Tigris <iver# but
Darius esca,ed. A$ter sto,overs at 9ab"lon and at 3erse,olis# !hich he
burned in revenge $or Wer>es' destruction o$ Athens more than (4/ "ears
earlier# Ale>ander resumed the chase. ;hen he $inall" caught u, !ith Darius#
the 3ersian +ing !as alread" dead# +illed b" 3ersian cons,irators.
Ale>ander relentlessl" ,ushed dee,er into Asia# crossing $rom A$ghanistan
into north 'ndia# !here he de$eated the +ing o$ 3ontus in a costl" battle. ;hen
Ale>ander announced ,lans to ,ush dee,er into 'ndia# his troo,s# e>hausted
and $ar $rom home in a strange land# resisted. Yielding to their !ishes#
Ale>ander returned to 9ab"lon in 8.2 9.C. 'n these cam,aigns# Ale>ander
,roved himsel$ to be a su,erb strategist and leader o$ men. ;inning ever"
battle# Ale>ander's arm" had carved an em,ire that stretched $rom 1reece to
'ndia. uture con@uerors# including Caesar and :a,oleon# !ould read o$
Ale>ander's career !ith $ascination and longing.
C. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. Ale:ander *rou"ht Aristotle to Asia Minor.
. Ale:ander's master (lan was to destroy the 8ersian army first.
2. The 8ersians had in+aded 0"y(t *efore Ale:ander did.
.. Ale:andria's name was )han"ed *y Ale:ander.
6. The 8ersian army had more soldiers than Ale:ander's army.
&. Ale:ander didn't for"i+e e+en the oldest enemies of his )ountry.
.
5. The Ma)edonians finally )a(tured 3arius and killed him.
%. The whole of #ndia was in+aded *y Ale:ander's army.
$. #t took only ten years for Ale:ander to e:(and his em(ire from 9ree)e to
#ndia.
1!. Caesar and Fa(oleon admired Ale:ander's a)hie+ements.
(/2
THE M'DDLE A1ES ': E6<O3E
'n the late Middle Ages# Latin Christendom !as a$$licted !ith severe
economic ,roblems. The earlier increases in agricultural ,roduction did not
continue. Limited use o$ $ertiliCers and limited +no!ledge o$ conservation
e>hausted the to,soil. As more graCing lands !ere converted to the
cultivation o$ cereals# animal husbandr" decreased# causing a serious
shortage o$ manure needed $or arable land. 'ntermittent bouts o$ ,rolonged
heav" rains and $rost also ham,ered agriculture. rom (8/( to (8(2# there
!as a general shortage o$ $ood# and $rom (8(4 to (8(%# $amine struc+
Euro,e. Throughout the centur"# starvation and malnutrition !ere
!ides,read.
Other economic ,roblems abounded. A silver shortage# caused b"
technical ,roblems in sin+ing dee,er sha$ts in the mines# led to the
debasement o$ coins and s,iraling in$lation# !hich hurt the $eudal nobilit" in
,articular. 3rices $or manu$actured lu>ur" goods# !hich the nobilit" craved#
rose ra,idl". At the same time# the dues that the nobilit" collected $rom
,easants diminished. To re,lace their revenues# lords and +nights turned to
,lunder and !ar$are.
Com,ounding the economic crisis !as the 9lac+ Death# or bubonic
,lague. This disease !as carried b" the $leas on bro!n rats# and ,robabl"
$irst struc+ Mongolia in (88(58.. rom there it crossed into <ussia. Carried
bac+ $rom 9lac+ Sea ,orts# the ,lague reached Sicil" in (82%. S,reading
s!i$tl" throughout much o$ Euro,e# the ,lague attac+ed an alread" declining
and undernourished ,o,ulation. The $irst crisis lasted until (84(# and other
serious outbrea+s occurred in later decades. The cro!ded cities and to!ns
had the highest mortalities. 3erha,s t!ent" million ,eo,le 5 about one5@uarter
to one5third o$ the Euro,ean ,o,ulation 5 ,erished in the !orst human
disaster in recorded histor".
De,rived o$ man" o$ their intellectual and s,iritual leaders# the ,anic5
stric+en masses dri$ted into immoralit" and h"steria. renCied $orms o$
religious li$e and su,erstitious ,ractices became ,o,ular. lagellants
marched $rom region to region beating each other !ith stic+s and !hi,s in a
6
des,erate e$$ort to ,lease 1od# !ho the" believed had cursed them !ith the
,lague. 'n addition to $lagellation and su,erstition# blac+ magic# !itchcra$t#
and se>ual immoralit" $ound eager su,,orters. Dress became increasingl"
ostentatious and biCarre. Art $orms concentrated on morbid scenes o$
deca"ing $lesh# dances o$ death# and the torments o$ Hell. Sometimes this
h"steria !as directed against the Fe!s# !ho !ere accused o$ causing the
,lague b" ,oisoning the !ells. Terrible massacres o$ Fe!s occurred des,ite
the ,leas o$ the ,a,ac".
A. Write what the dates *elow indi)ate.
1. 1301-1314:
2 . 1315-1317:
3.1331-1332:
4.1347:
5.1351:
/. Find the followin" information.
1.What 'fla"ellants' are7
. The num*er of (eo(le who died due to the (la"ue7
2. Four e:am(les of (ra)ti)es to illustrate the hysteria that o))urred after the
(la"ue7
a)
7<
cB d) C.
1. Why was the (o(ulation in 0uro(e 'already de)linin" and undernourished' when
the (la"ue stru)k them1 (9i+e two reasons.)
a)
*)
. Why did the )ities and towns ha+e the hi"hest mortality rates from the (la"ue1
2. Why did the (ani) stri)ken masses drift into immorality and hysteria1
. Why do you think dress and art forms *e)ame in)reasin"ly e:a""erated and
mor*id1
6. Were.the Cews really res(onsi*le for the (la"ue1 0:(lain.
..&
(/4
3A<E:TAL A6THO<'TY
Disillusionment !ith one's ,arents# ho!ever good and ade@uate
the" ma" be both as ,arents and as individuals# is to some degree
inevitable. Most children have a ver" high ideal o$ their ,arents that
can hardl" stand u, to realistic evaluation unless the ,arents
4 themselves have been unsatis$actor". 3arents !ould be greatl"
sur,rised and dee,l" touched i$ the" realised ho! much belie$ their
children usuall" have in their character and in$allibilit"# and ho! much
this $aith means to a child. '$ ,arents !ere ,re,ared $or this adolescent
reaction# and realised that it !as a sign that the child !as gro!ing u,
(/ and develo,ing valuable ,o!ers o$ observation and inde,endent
judgement# the" !ould not be ver" hurt# so the" !ould not drive the
child into o,,osition b" resenting and resisting it.
The adolescent# !ith his ,assion $or sincerit"# al!a"s res,ects a
,arent !ho admits that he is !rong# or ignorant# or even that he has
(4 been un$air or unjust. ;hat the child cannot $orgive is the ,arents'
re$usal to admit these charges i$ the child +no!s them to be true.
-ictorian ,arents believed that the" +e,t their dignit" b" retreating
behind an unreasoning authoritarian attitude0 in $act# the" did nothing
o$ the +ind# but children !ere then too co!ed to let them +no! ho!
./ the" reall" $elt. Toda"# !e tend to go to the other e>treme# but# on the
!hole# this is a healthier attitude both $or the child and the ,arent. 't is
al!a"s !iser and sa$er to $ace u, to realit"# ho!ever ,ain$ul it ma" be
at the moment.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'their' (line &)7
. 'this faith' (line %)7
2. 'it' (line 1)7
.. 'these )har"es' (line 1&)7
6. 'the other e:treme' (line !)7 /.
1. What would *e the two results if (arents were (re(ared for the adoles)ent
rea)tion of their )hildren1
aB
7<
5
. What kind of a (arent does the adoles)ent res(e)t1
2. Why did @i)torian (arents *elie+e that they )ould kee( their di"nity *y retreatin"
*ehind authority1
(/&
T;O -'E;S O D'-O<CE
The increasing divorce rate can be seen as a ',roduct o$ con$lict
bet!een the changing economic s"stem and its social and
ideological su,erstructure Anotabl" the $amil"B'. 'n advanced
ca,italist industrial societies# there is an increasing demand $or
chea, $emale !age labour. ;ives are encouraged to ta+e u, ,aid
em,lo"ment not onl" because there is a demand $or their services#
but also because the ca,italist controlled media has raised 'material
as,irations' !hich regulate the demand $or desirable goods. These
material as,irations can onl" be satis$ied b" both s,ouses !or+ing as
!age earners. Ho!ever# con$lict results $rom the contradiction
bet!een $emale !age labour and the normative e>,ectations !hich
surround married li$e. ';or+ing !ives' are still e>,ected to be
,rimaril" res,onsible $or house!or+ and raising children. 'n
addition# the" are still e>,ected# to some degree# to ,la" a
subservient role to the male head o$ the household. These normative
e>,ectations contradict the !i$e's role as a !age earner since she is
no! sharing the economic burden !ith her husband. Con$lict
bet!een the s,ouses can result $rom this contradiction# and con$lict
can lead to marital brea+do!n.
;hile la!s and ,rocedures regulating divorce !ere altered# the
divorce rate tended to increase @uic+l" and since each ne! ,iece o$
legislation made divorce more readil" available# the rate rose ra,idl"
$or a time be$ore leveling o$$. Toda" there is one divorce in 9ritain
$or ever" three marriages. A'n the 6SA the rate is one in t!o.B Man"
,eo,le have suggested that the higher divorce rates re$lect an
underl"ing increase in marital instabilit"0 the ,roblem !ith this
argument is that !e have no !a" o$ +no!ing ho! man"
..*
'unstable' or 'unha,,"' marriages e>isted be$ore legislation made it
,ossible to dissolve them in a ,ublic Aand recordableB $orm. Some
commentators have gone $urther and argued that more ,ermissive
divorce la!s in themselves cause marital brea+do!n. 9ut !e can
certainl" be sce,tical o$ such a vie!# suggesting as it does that ha,,il"
married cou,les can suddenl" be ,ersuaded to abandon their
relationshi,# ,ro,elled b" the attraction o$ a ne! divorce la!. A
more ,lausible e>,lanation $or rises in the divorce rate a$ter the
,assage o$ a la! is that unha,,il" married cou,les !ere $or the $irst
time given access to a legal solution to ,re5e>istent marital
,roblems0 in other !ords# changes in divorce la!s are less li+el" to
cause marital brea+do!n than to ,rovide ne! t",es o$ solutions
!here brea+do!n has alread" occurred.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'their' (Te:t 1)7
. 'this ar"ument' (Te:t )7
2. 'them' (Te:t )7
.. 'su)h a +iew' (Te:t )7
1. What is the effe)t of the rise in 'material as(irations' on female em(loyment1
. 0:(lain the )ontradi)tion *etween the female wa"e la*our and the normati+e
e:(e)tations of married life.
2. 9i+e two of the o(inions on the rise in the di+or)e rate after the introdu)tion of
le"islation makin" di+or)e more readily a+aila*le.
a)
7<@
.. 0a)h te:t e:amines di+or)e from a different a((roa)h. Write down the
differen)e.
..)
(/%
S6CCESS
'n our culture# success in itsel$ im,lies no su,erior virtue. A boo+ is not
necessaril" a su,erior one because it ma+es the best seller lists. Most boo+s
that achieve this distinction a,,eal to the mass mar+et and are generall"
su,,orted b" e>tensive ,ublicit". ;hile success in the business !orld ma"
re@uire a high degree o$ business acumen# this @ualit" has never be$ore been
considered a ,ersonal virtue. Toda" it is the achievement that counts# not the
,ersonal @ualities o$ the individual. Sometimes success is achieved b"
@ualities that are an"thing but virtuous. 6ntil his do!n$all# Hitler !as
considered a success b" a great man" ,eo,le throughout the !orld. O$
course# success ma" attend the individual !ith su,erior abilities0 ho!ever#
!hat is ac+no!ledged is not the ,ersonal virtue o$ the individual but his
achievement.
The actual accom,lishment is o$ten relativel" unim,ortant. The author o$
si> good boo+s ma" be less o$ a success than the !riter o$ one best seller.
;hat does count is the recognition. ;ithout recognition one cannot be
considered a ,ublic success.
To achieve success means to rise above the cro!d# to stand out $rom the
mass o$ ,eo,le and be recogniCed as an individual. or the !riter# it means
that !hat he sa"s or !rites is no! regarded as im,ortant. EHe countsE is the
!a" one success$ul author !as described. 9e$ore his success# he didn't
'count' although !hat he !rote be$ore his success ma" have had greater value
than his subse@uent !or+. Through success he had become im,ortant. ;e
see this all the time. As soon as a ,erson becomes success$ul# he is listened
to !ith res,ect. Since he has 'made it#' his !ords ma" tell the rest o$ us !ho
are still struggling the secret o$ his good $ortune. The success$ul ,erson is
im,ortant to all !ho !ish to be success$ul.
1. What is the relationshi( *etween su(erior (ersonal <ualities and su))ess1
. How would you define a writer who ')ounts'1
2. Why is a su))essful (erson im(ortant to all who wish to *e su))essful1
2!
(/*
FA3A:ESE <EEDOM
To secure their ,olitical authorit" and to ,reserve ,eace# the To+uga!a
shoguns isolated Fa,an $rom the rest o$ the !orld in (&8). Christianit" !as
banned. E>ce,t $or some Chinese and a small Dutch contingent# !ho lived
closel" su,ervised lives in :agasa+i harbour# all $oreigners !ere e>,elled
$rom Fa,an. :ot onl" !ere Christian boo+s barred but also an" boo+# even a
Chinese translation# dealing !ith an" ;estern subject. The Fa,anese !ere
$orbidden on ,ain o$ death to leave their homeland. -essels !ere restricted in
siCe so that the" could be used onl" in coastal trade and not in overseas
commerce.
1. What was the reason for the Toku"awa sho"uns' isolation of Ca(an from the rest
of the world1
. Were all forei"ners really e:(elled from Ca(an1 0:(lain.
2. Why were Christianity and Christian *ooks *anned1
.. What ha((ened to the Ca(anese who tried to lea+e the )ountry1
6. Why were smaller shi(s made1
.8(
(/)
THE HEAL':1 3O;E< O 9EL'E
or the ,ast t!o "ears# ' have been stud"ing cancer survivors at 6CLA#
tr"ing to $ind out !h" it is that some ,eo,le res,ond much better to their
treatment than do others. At $irst# ' thought that some ,atients did !ell
because their illnesses !ere not as severe as the illnesses o$ others. On closer
scrutin"# ho!ever# ' discovered that severit" o$ the illness !as onl" one o$ a
number o$ $actors that accounted $or the di$$erence bet!een those !ho get
!ell and those !ho don't. The ,atients ' am tal+ing about here received#
u,on diagnosis# !hatever thera," 5 medication# radiation# surger" 5 their
individual cases demanded. Yet# the res,onse to such treatments !as hardl"
uni$orm. Some ,atients $ared much better in their thera,ies than others.
;hat !as it# then# that !as di$$erent= ;as there an" one thing that all
survivors had in common= Yes. ' have $ound that the major characteristics
o$ these survivors !ere ver" similar. Among the similarities are?
U The" all had a strong !ill to live.
U The" !ere not ,anic+" about their illness.
U The" had con$idence in their abilit" to ,ersevere.
./ U Des,ite all the $orecasts to the contrar"# the" believed the" could
ma+e it.
U The" !ere ca,able o$ jo"ous res,onse.
U The" !ere convinced that their treatment !ould !or+.
-he ;lacebo 4ffect
.4 The mind5bod" e$$ect should not be sur,rising in vie! o$ the
e>,erience over the "ears !ith ,lacebos. The term ',lacebo' is used to
describe a ',ill' that contains no medical ingredients but that o$ten
,roduces the same e$$ect as genuine medication. 3lacebos ,rovide
am,le ,roo$ that e>,ectations can have an e$$ect on bod" chemistr".
8/ According to a recent article on ,lacebos in Medical World ?ews,
studies conducted over the ,ast .4 "ears have sho!n that ,lacebos
satis$actoril" relieved s"m,toms in an average o$ 84 ,er cent o$
,atients tested. These s"m,toms include? $ever# severe ,ost5o,erative
,ain# anginal ,ain# headache# and an>iet"# among other com,laints.
84 The e>,lanation $or this strange ,henomenon is that the human mind
can create actual changes in bod" chemistr" as a result o$ !hat it
believes. '$# $or e>am,le# a ,erson believes that a certain medication
contains a substance that can accom,lish a s,eci$ic need# the bod"
2
tends to move in that direction.
2/ An increasing number o$ scientists no! contend that the bod"'s
healing s"stem and its belie$ s"stem are closel" related. That is !h"
ho,e# $aith# and the !ill to live can be vital $actors in the struggle
against disease. The belie$ s"stem converts ,ositive e>,ectations into
,lus $actors in an" contest against illness.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'su)h treatments' (line 1!)7
. 'this stran"e (henomenon' (line 26)7
/. Fill in the *lanks with the words from the (assa"e.
1. is +ery )areful study or o*ser+ation. (8ara"ra(h 1)
. #f you ' you kee( tryin" and do not "i+e u(. (8ara"ra(h )
2. ,omethin" that is is real and e:a)tly what it a((ears to *e'
and is not fake or imitation. (8ara"ra(h 2)
.. (A) of somethin" is e+iden)e or fa)ts showin" that it is true or
that it e:ists. (8ara"ra(h 2)
6. is the determination to do somethin". (8ara"ra(h .)
&. A is a stru""le to win (ower or )ontrol. (8ara"ra(h .)
C.
1. At the *e"innin" of his studies' how did the do)tor e:(lain the differen)e in the
res(onses of (atients1
. What is a (la)e*o1
2. Why is a (atient who takes a (la)e*o likely to "et well1
22
((/
MEMO<Y
Memor"# li+e s!eatshirts# comes in three siCes. There is a sensor" storage
s"stem !hich can hold in$ormation $or onl" a ver" brie$ time ,eriod. :e>t is a
short5term storage !hich can hold a small amount o$ in$ormation. inall"#
"ou have a long5term storage s"stem !hich holds vast amounts o$
in$ormation.
;hat ,s"chological ,rocesses are involved in remembering a stimulus
!hich is brie$l" ,erceived# such as the license number o$ a car=
3s"chologists have discovered that a stimulus is maintained in a sensor"
storage s"stem !hich holds in$ormation $or less than a second. The sensor"
storage s"stem is called iconic memor" i$ visual stimuli are involved or
echoic memor" i$ the stimulation is auditor".
Your sensor" storage s"stem a,,ears to o,erate in a $airl" automatic !a".
There seems to be no voluntar" action "ou can ta+e to ,rolong the li$e o$
in$ormation $rom sensor" storage !ithout using the ne>t stage o$ memor"#
called short5term memor" ASTMB# or ,rimar" memor". 'n$ormation can be
rec"cled in short5term memor" b" a ,rocess called rehearsal. ;hen rehearsal
is ,revented or disru,ted# in$ormation in short5term memor" is lost and so
cannot enter long5term memor" ALTMB. Ho!ever# once in$ormation has
entered long5term memor"# rehearsal is no longer necessar" to guarantee that
in$ormation is not $orgotten. ;hile ,reventing items $rom being $orgotten is
the major di$$icult" in short5term memor"# long5term memor" su$$ers $rom
the o,,osite ,roblem. There is so much in$ormation contained in long5term
memor" that locating and retrieving this in$ormation can be @uite di$$icult.
'ndeed# ,s"chologists distinguish bet!een in$ormation !hich is available in
long5term memor" and that !hich is accessible. All in$ormation in long5term
memor" is considered available0 that is# it can be remembered under the
,ro,er circumstances. 9ut onl" that in$ormation !hich actuall" is
remembered is accessible. Thus# accessible in$ormation is al!a"s available#
but available in$ormation cannot al!a"s be accessible. The ,rocess o$
obtaining memor" in$ormation $rom !herever it is stored is called retrieval.
'n order $or in$ormation to be accessible# it must $irst be retrieved. <etrieval
o$ in$ormation $rom long5term memor" is a di$$icult ,rocess and is not
al!a"s success$ul. <etrieval $rom short5term memor" is considerabl" easier#
and man" models o$ short5term memor" assume that i$ an item is available in
short5term memor"# it is automaticall" .accessible.
;hile in$ormation in short5term memor" is coded ,rimaril" b" acoustic
$eatures Aho! the !ords sound !hen s,o+enB# in$ormation in long5term
memor" is organiCed ,rimaril" according to !hat the !ords mean. ;hile
2.
inter$erence in short5term memor" is based u,on acoustic relationshi,s#
inter$erence in long5term memor" occurs among semanticall" related !ords.
The most dramatic distinction bet!een short and long5term memor" s"stems
lies in their res,ective ca,acities 5 the number o$ items each s"stem can store.
Short5term memor" has a ver" limited ca,acit" com,ared to the almost
unlimited storage ca,acit" o$ long5term memor".
1. Where do the sounds we hear first "o1
. What is ne)essary for a (ie)e of information to *e transmitted to =TM1
2. What (ro*lem does =TM suffer from1 Why1
.. What does 'the information is a+aila*le in =TM' mean1
6. How do ,TM and =TM differ in terms of a+aila*le and a))essi*le information1
&. #n whi)h memory system would the words 'seat' and ')hair' *e )onfused1 Why1
5. What is the main differen)e *etween ,TM and =TM1
26
'll
ED6CAT'O: ': 9<'TA':
Education in 9ritain is ,rimaril" the res,onsibilit" o$ local
educational authorities although the central government la"s do!n
guidelines and ,rovides or !ithholds mone". rom the end o$ the
Second ;orld ;ar until the ()&/Xs# education under state control
4 de,ended on the '((5,lus' e>amination# ta+en b" all ,u,ils bet!een the
ages o$ eleven and t!elve. The most success$ul !ent to grammar
schools or direct5grant schools# !hile the rest !ent to secondar"
modern schools. Since the ()&/'s# almost all local authorities have
introduced com,rehensive schools# !here all ,u,ils attend the same
(/ school# even though there is usuall" an attem,t to se,arate them
according to abilit" once the" are there. Local authorities !here the
Labour 3art" is usuall" in control tend# b" no!# to be almost
com,letel" com,rehensive0 those !here the Conservatives hold ,o!er
have been more resistant to the change.
(4 Throughout this ,eriod# the ,ublic schools# !hich are ,rivate in all
e>ce,t name# have continued to e>ist# inde,endent o$ the state s"stem.
Some became direct5grant schools# acce,ting students !ho had ,assed
the ((5,lus e>amination and !ere ,aid $or b" local authorities# but this
s"stem came to an end in man" cases !hen a Labour5controlled local
./ authorit" re$used to go on ,a"ing the grants because o$ its commitment
to com,rehensive education.
The ,ublic debate in England and ;ales bet!een the su,,orters o$
com,rehensive schools and those !ho !ant to retain or revive
grammar schools continues unabated. Ever" "ear statistics are
.4 ,roduced to demonstrate that com,rehensive schools ,rovide better
education than grammar schools Aand in some cases# better than the
,restigious ,rivate sectorB. These statistics are immediatel"
contradicted b" others ,roving the o,,osite. The local authorities have#
on the !hole# been converted to the com,rehensive s"stem# in
8/ some cases !ith enthusiasm# in others !ith mar+ed reluctance. Yet# the
real com,lication o$ the debate stems $rom the $act that although
arguments are usuall" stated in educational terms# almost all o$ them
are based on ,olitical o,inions.
't is clear that those local authorities that have abolished grammar
84 schools com,letel" !ere determined that their e>,eriment should
succeed because o$ their belie$ that it is just as !rong to se,arate
children b" intelligence as b" social class. Such authorities tend to
associate grammar schools !ith the ,rivate sector the" !ould also li+e
to abolish i$ the" had the o,,ortunit". 'n their vie!# an" s"stem that
.8&
2/ di$$erentiates bet!een children strengthens class barriers# and the $act
that more u,,er5class children tend to go to universit" is not evidence
that com,rehensive schools are in$erior0 it is merel" $urther evidence o$
the discrimination that alread" e>ists in societ".
The de$enders o$ grammar schools use e>amination results to sho!
24 that children reach their ma>imum ,otential !hen ,laced !ith others o$
similar intelligence and ,oint out that even in com,rehensive schools
the" are ,ut in di$$erent classes according to abilit". 't is di$$icult to
believe# ho!ever# that this de$ence is ins,ired ,urel" b" a desire $or
academic e>cellence.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'them' (line 1!)7 .'those'(line
12)7
2.'the o((osite' (line %)7
..'if (line .)7
/.
1. Whi)h students were sent to modern se)ondary s)hools until the 1$&!'s1
. What is the usual (ro)edure followed in )om(rehensi+e s)hools for new
students1
2. Whi)h ty(e of s)hool is fa+oured *y the Conser+ati+es1
.. How do '(u*li) s)hools' )ontradi)t their name1
6. What is the real *asis of ar"ument for and a"ainst )om(rehensi+e s)hools1
&. What is the reason for lo)al authorities' a*olishin" "rammar s)hools1
5. Why are some authorities a"ainst the (ri+ate se)tor1
%. A))ordin" to the defenders of "rammar s)hools' what is ne)essary for students to
*e su))essful1
25
((.
;HAT 'S YO6< 9EST T'ME O DAY=
Organisms e>hibit biological rh"thms. Some are short and can be
measured in minutes or hours. Others last da"s or months. The idea that
our bodies are in constant $lu> is $airl" ne! and goes against traditional
( medical training. 'n the ,ast# man" doctors !ere taught to believe the
bod" has a relativel" stable# or homeostatic# internal environment. An"
$luctuations !ere considered random and not meaning$ul enough to be
studied.
As earl" as the ()2/'s# ho!ever# some scientists @uestioned the
homeostatic vie! o$ the bod". ranC Halberg# a "oung Euro,ean scientist
!or+ing in the 6nited States# conducted a series o$ e>,eriments on mice
and noticed that the number o$ !hite blood cells in these animals !as
dramaticall" higher and lo!er at di$$erent times o$ the da". 1raduall"#
. such research s,read to the stud" o$ biological rh"thms in human beings#
and the $indings !ere sometimes startling. or e>am,le# the time o$ da"
!hen a ,erson receives W5ra" or drug treatment $or cancer can a$$ect
treatment bene$its and ultimatel" mean the di$$erence bet!een li$e and
death.
This ne! science# the stud" o$ biological rh"thms in human beings# is
called chronobiolog"# and the evidence su,,orting it has become
increasingl" ,ersuasive. Along the !a"# the scienti$ic and medical
8 communities are beginning to rethin+ their ideas about ho! the human
bod" !or+s# and graduall" !hat had been considered a minor science just
a $e! "ears ago is being studied in major universities and medical centers
around the !orld.
;ith their ne! $indings# the" are teaching us things that can literall"
change our lives 5 b" hel,ing us organiCe ourselves so !e can !or+ !ith
2 our natural rh"thms rather than against them. This can enhance our
outloo+ on li$e as !ell as our ,er$ormance at !or+.
9ecause the" are eas" to detect and measure# more is +no!n o$ dail" 5
or circadian ALatin $or 'about a da"'B 5 rh"thms than other t",es. The most
obvious dail" rh"thm is the slee, T !a+e c"cle. 9ut there are other dail"
c"cles as !ell? tem,erature# blood ,ressure# hormone levels. Amid these
U and the bod"'s other changing rh"thms# "ou are sim,l" a di$$erent ,erson
4 at ) a.m. than "ou are at 8 ,.m. Ho! "ou $eel# ho! !ell "ou !or+# "our
level o$ alertness# "our sensitivit" to taste and smell# the degree !ith
!hich "ou enjo" $ood or ta+e ,leasure in music 5 all are changing
throughout the da". Most o$ us seem to reach our ,ea+ o$ alertness
around noon. Soon a$ter that# alertness declines# and slee,iness ma" set
in b" mid5a$ternoon.
.8*
Your short5term memor" is best during the morning 5 in $act# about (4
,er cent more e$$icient than at an" other time o$ da". So# students# ta+e
& heed? !hen $aced !ith a morning e>am# it reall" does ,a" to revie! "our
notes right be$ore the test is given.
Long5term memor" is di$$erent. A$ternoon is the best time $or
learning material that "ou !ant to recall da"s# !ee+s or months later.
3oliticians# business e>ecutives or others !ho must learn s,eeches !ould
be smart to do their memoriCing during that time o$ da". '$ "ou are a
student# it !ould be better $or "ou to schedule "our more di$$icult classes
% in the a$ternoon# rather than in the morning. You should also tr" to do
most o$ "our stud"ing in the a$ternoon# rather than late at night. Man"
students believe the" memoriCe better !hile burning the mid5night oil
because their short5term recall is better during the !ee hours o$ the
morning than in the a$ternoon. 9ut short5term memor" !on't hel, them
much several da"s later# !hen the" $ace the e>am.
A. Fill in the *lanks with words from the (assa"e.
1. ,omethin" that is in a state of is )hara)teriAed *y )ontinuous
)han"es. (8ara"ra(h 1)
. ,omethin" that is ha((ens or is )hosen without a definite
(lan' (attern or (ur(ose. (8ara"ra(h 1)
2. means finally' after a lon" and often )om(li)ated series of
e+ents. (8ara"ra(h )
.. To somethin" means to im(ro+e its +alue' <uality' or
attra)ti+eness. (8ara"ra(h .)
/.
1. What led to the study of *iolo"i)al rhythms in human *ein"s1
. How )an we )han"e our li+es (ositi+ely1
2. What are the daily )y)les mentioned in the (assa"e1
.. When are the maDority of (eo(le most alert1
6. Why is it *etter to study in the afternoon1
.8)
((8
A :E; 'CE A1E A(B
Over the ,ast several "ears# researchers have dug dee, into Atlantic sea5
$loor sediments and 1reenland glaciers to stud" the chemistr" o$ ancient mud
and ice# and the" are increasingl" convinced that climate change is an"thing
but smooth. EThe transition $rom !arm to $rigid can come in a decade or t!o 5
a geological sna, o$ the $ingersE# sa"s 1erard 9ond# a geo,h"sicist at
Columbia 6niversit"'s Lamont5Dohert" Observator"? EThe data have been
coming out o$ 1reenland $or ma"be t!o or three decades. 9ut the $irst results
!ere reall" so su,rising that ,eo,le !eren't read" to believe them.E
There is a gro!ing understanding as !ell that ice ages are not uni$orml"
ic"# nor interglacial ,eriods# i.e.# ,eriods bet!een ice ages# unchangingl"
!arm. About 2/#/// "ears ago# $or e>am,le# right in the middle o$ the last ice
age# the !orld !armed brie$l"# $orcing glaciers to retreat. And !hile the
current interglacial ,eriod has been stabl" tem,erate# the ,revious one#
according to at least one stud"# !as evidentl" interru,ted b" $rigid s,ells
lasting hundreds o$ "ears. '$ that ,eriod !as more t",ical than the ,resent one#
humanit"'s invention o$ agriculture# and thus civiliCation# ma" have been
,ossible onl" because o$ a highl" unusual ,eriod o$ stable tem,erature 5 a
$lu+e.
Fust (4/ "ears ago# the notion that much o$ the :orthern Hemis,here had
once been covered b" thic+ sheets o$ ice !as both ne! and highl"
controversial. ;ithin a $e! decades# though# most scientists !ere convinced
and began loo+ing $or e>,lanations. Several suggested that astronomical
c"cles !ere involved# and b" the ()8/'s the Yugoslav astronomer Milium
Milan+ovitch had constructed a coherent theor". The ice ages# he argued# !ere
triggered b" changes in the sha,e o$ the earth's slightl" oval orbit around the
sun and in the ,lanet's a>is o$ rotation. Studies o$ the chemical com,osition o$
ocean5$loor sediments# !hich de,end on climatic conditions !hen the material
!as laid do!n# more or less su,,orted Milan+ovitch's ,redicted schedule o$
global glaciation.
According to Milan+ovitch's c"cles# an ice age could start sometime !ithin
the ne>t (#/// or .#/// "ears. 9ut geo,h"sicists have realiCed $or "ears that
!hile the c"cles are real and in$luence climate# the" alone cannot e>,lain ice
ages. or one thing# Milan+ovitch's timing o$ glaciation ma" be broadl"
correct# but major glacial e,isodes ha,,en !hen his c"cles call $or minor
ones# and vice versa.
.!
((2
A :E; 'CE A1E A.B
Fust as last !ee+'s tremors !ere destro"ing high!a"s# buildings and lives
in Southern Cali$ornia# an even deadlier natural disaster !as advancing
slo!l" but ine>orabl" south $rom Canada into the 6.S. 9" mid!ee+ a huge
mass o$ $rigid arctic air had ,racticall" ,aral"Ced much o$ the Mid!est and
East. Tem,eratures in doCens o$ 6.S. cities dro,,ed to all5time lo!s? 58/SC
in 3ittsburgh0 58.SC in A+ron# Ohio# and Clar+sburg0 588SC in 'ndiana,olis.
Chicago schools closed because o$ cold !eather $or the $irst time in histor"#
ederal 1overnment o$$ices shut do!n in ;ashington# and East Coast cities
narro!l" esca,ed !ides,read ,o!er cuts due to the overuse o$ electric
utilities to +ee, homes heated. Hundreds o$ motorists in :e! Ferse" had to
be rescued b" sno!mobile $rom an im,assabl" ic" high!a"# and thousands
o$ homeless crammed into :e! Yor+ Cit"'s shelters to avoid $reeCing. 9"
!ee+'s end# the un,recedented cold !ave had +illed more than (8/ ,eo,le.
;hatever ha,,ened to global !arming= Scientists have issued
a,ocal",tic !arnings $or "ears# claiming that gases $rom cars# ,o!er ,lants
and $actories are creating a greenhouse e$$ect that !ill boost the tem,erature
dangerousl" over the ne>t %4 "ears or so. 9ut i$ last !ee+ is an" indication
o$ !inters to come# it might be more to the ,oint to start !orr"ing about the
ne>t 'ce Age instead. A$ter all# human5induced !arming is still largel"
theoretical# !hile ice ages are an established ,art o$ the ,lanet's histor". The
last one ended about (/#/// "ears ago0 the ne>t one 5 $or there !ill be a ne>t
one 5 could start tens o$ thousands o$ "ears $rom no!. Or tens o$ "ears. Or it
ma" have alread" started.
A. Find the words whi)h mean the same as the followin".
1.a((roa)hin" ((ara"ra(h 1)7
.almost' not )om(letely ((ara"ra(h 1)7
2.not done or known *efore ((ara"ra(h 1)7
..)ause somethin" to in)rease ((ara"ra(h )7
6.si"n ((ara"ra(h )7
/.
1. Whi)h -.,. )ity had the lowest tem(erature1
.
((4
3<OO A1A':ST HEA<T ATTAC7S
Does a drin+ a da" +ee, heart attac+s a!a"= Over the ,ast ./ "ears#
numerous studies have $ound that moderate alcohol consum,tion 5sa"#
one or t!o beers# glasses o$ !ine or coc+tails dail" 5 hel,s to ,revent
coronar" heart disease. Last !ee+ a re,ort in the ?ew 4ngland
4 @ournal of Medicine added strong ne! evidence in su,,ort o$ that
theor". More im,ortantl"# the !or+ ,rovided the $irst solid indication o$
ho! alcohol !or+s to ,rotect the heart.
'n the stud"# researchers $rom 9oston's 9righam and ;omen's
Hos,itals and Harvard Medical School com,ared the drin+ing habits
(/ o$ 82/ men and !omen !ho had su$$ered recent heart attac+s !ith those
o$ health" ,eo,le o$ the same age and se>. The scientists $ound that
,eo,le !ho si, one to three drin+s a da" are about hal$ as li+el" to
su$$er heart attac+s as nondrin+ers are. The a,,arent source o$ the
,rotection? those !ho dran+ alcohol had higher blood levels o$
(4 high5densit" li,o,roteins# or HDL's# the so5called good cholesterol#
!hich is +no!n to !ard o$$ heart disease.
As evidence has mounted# some doctors have begun recommending a
dail" drin+ $or cardiac ,atients. 9ut most ,h"sicians are not read" to
recommend a ritual ha,," hour $or ever"one. The ris+s o$ teetotaling
./ are nothing com,ared !ith the dangers o$ too much alcohol# including
high blood ,ressure# stro+es and cirrhosis o$ the liver 5 not to mention
violent behaviour and tra$$ic accidents. Moreover# some studies suggest
that even moderate drin+ing ma" increase the incidence o$ breast and
colon cancer. 6ntil there is evidence that the bene$its o$ a
.4 dail" dose o$ alcohol out!eigh the ris+s# most ,eo,le !on't be able to
ta+e a doctor's ,rescri,tion to the neighbourhood bar or li@uor store.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1.'that theory' (lines 64&)7
.'those' (line 11)7
/. Find words in the te:t whi)h mean the same as the followin".
1.many ((ara"ra(h 1)7
.de(enda*le' (ositi+e ((ara"ra(h 1)7
2.to drink' takin" only a small amount ((ara"ra(h )7
..to (re+ent somethin" *ad ((ara"ra(h )7
..
((&
FRO* THE OTHER SI.E
OF THE GENERATION GA4
Contrar" to the im,ression that grandmothers are delighted to hel,
their gro!n daughters and care $or their grandchildren# a stud" o$
multi5generational $amilies indicates that man" older !omen resent
the $re@uent im,ositions o$ the "ounger generations on their time and
4 energ".
EYoung !omen !ith children are under a lot o$ ,ressure these da"s#
and the" e>,ect their mothers to hel, them ,ic+ u, the ,ieces#E noted
Dr. 9ertram F. Cohler# a behavioral scientist at the 6niversit" o$
Chicago. EThis is o$ten the strongest source o$ resentment on the ,art
(/ o$ 1randmother# !ho has $inished !ith child5caring and no! has her
o!n li$e to live. 1randmothers li+e to see their children and
grandchildren# but in their o!n time.E
Dr. Cohler is the director o$ a stud"# su,,orted b" the :ational
'nstitute o$ Aging# o$ (4/ !or+ing5class $amilies that live in a
(4 Mid!estern suburb. He and a collaborator# Dr. Henr" 6. 1runebaum
o$ Harvard Medical School# have alread" com,leted an intensive
investigation o$ $our such $amilies in :e! England# summariCing their
$indings in a boo+# Mothers, $rand&others and Daughters, ,ublished
recentl" b" ;ile"5'nterscience $or ,ro$essional audiences.
./ Dr. Cohler tells o$ a middle5aged 9oston !oman !ho !or+s as a
seamstress all !ee+ and $or her church on Sunda"s. Ever" Saturda"
Aher onl" da" o$$B her daughter and $amil" visit# e>,ecting Mother to
ma+e lunch# sho, and visit. EThat's not ho! she !ants to gro! old#E
said Dr. Cohler# !ho !as told b" the older !oman? EM" daughter
.4 !ould never s,ea+ to me i$ she +ne! ho! mad ' get.E
'n all the $our :e! England $amilies studied# the older !omen
resented the numerous ,hone calls and visits $rom their gro!n
daughters# !ho o$ten turned to their mothers $or advice# ,h"sical
resources# a$$ection and com,anionshi, as !ell as bab"5sitting
8/ services. EAmerican societ" +ee,s ,iling on the burdens $or older
,eo,le# ,articularl" those in their 4/'s and &/'s#E Dr. Cohler said in an
intervie! here. EThe" are still !or+ing and ta+ing care o$ their gro!n
children and ma"be also their aged ,arents. Sometimes li$e gets to be
too much. That's one reason man" o$ them move $ar a!a"# to lorida
84 or Sun Cit" AAriConaB. Older ,eo,le need more s,ace and time to
attend to their o!n a$$airs and $riends. Young ,eo,le don't understand
this# and that's ,art o$ !hat creates tension bet!een generations.E He
has $ound that# contrar" to !hat the "ounger generations ma"
.2&
thin+# older ,eo,le have an enormous amount to do. EMore than hal$ 2/ o$
!or+ing5class grandmothers still !or+# and i$ the"'re retired the" have
activities in the communit" that +ee, them occu,ied#E he said. EEach
generation has got to a,,reciate the uni@ue needs o$ the other#E Dr. Cohler
!ent on. EThe "ounger generation has to realiCe that grand,arents have bus"#
active lives and that the" need ,rivac" and 24 more s,ace $or themselves.
Moreover# the older generation has to realiCe that continuing to be ,art o$ the
$amil" is im,ortant to the "ounger generation and that the" need hel, and
su,,ort.E
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1.'whoB (line %)7
.'They' (line 2)7
2.'this
1
(line 25)7
..'that' (line .1)7
6.'the other' (line .)7 the other
&.'theyB (line .5)7
/. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. Noun" women want their mothers to hel( them sol+e their (ro*lems.
. 9randmothers want their )hildren and "rand)hildren to +isit them as often as
(ossi*le.
2. ,ome "rand(arents mo+e far away to ha+e more time for themsel+es.
.. ;ne of the women 3r. Cohler s(oke to )om(lained a*out her dau"hter.
C.
1. Who finan)es 3r. Cohler's study1
. What kind of families did 3r. Cohler in+esti"ate1
2. What do youn"er (eo(le ha+e to realiAe1
.5
((%
LEA<:':1 'T AT HOME
Learning a language at home via a home stud" course is o$ten the most
convenient# though not necessaril" the most e$$icient. You can go at "our
o!n ,ace and needn't adjust "our schedule to accommodate a regular
class. Sets o$ recorded lessons are available at boo+ and record stores or
b" mail order. The" usuall" cover onl" the more common languages# and
most do not go be"ond the needs o$ the casual tourist. The ta,es and
records consist o$ grou,s o$ ,hrases and conversations "ou learn b"
re,etition. A set o$ $our to si> ta,es and accom,an"ing !or+boo+ might
cost about H(.4.
Ta,ed lessons used b" the oreign Service 'nstitute's School o$
Language Studies to train di,lomats are more com,lete and cover a !ider
range o$ languages. The State De,artment does not mar+et these ta,es
directl"# but the" are available b" !riting to Order Section# :ational
Audio5-isual Center# 1eneral Services Administration# ;ashington# D.C.
./2/). The ,rice $or a basic course o$ about ./ cassette ta,es and a te>t is
H(// or so0 the more cassettes# the higher the ,rice. Deliver" generall"
ta+es $our to si> !ee+s a$ter recei,t o$ "our order.
'$ "ou !ant to earn credits to!ard a degree or ,re,are "oursel$ to read
$oreign literature# consider a universit" corres,ondence course. A one
semester course generall" costs about H(84 $or beginners# ,ostage not
included. An" audio materials used ma" involve e>tra cost. Course @ualit"
is com,arable to on5cam,us o$$erings. All assignments are revie!ed b" a
,ro$essor or instructor and then returned# usuall" !ithin a !ee+.
Language courses are included among the (.#/// courses listed in -he
$uide to Cnde'endent Stud" -hrough 6orres'ondence Cnstruction,
,re,ared b" the :ational 6niversit" Continuing Education Association. 't
is available in libraries or $rom 3eterson's 1uides# 3.O. 9o> .(.8#
3rinceton# :.F. /*42/# $or H2.4/ ,lus H(..4 $or ,ostage and handling.
One caveat about universit" corres,ondence courses? i$ "our object is to
achieve minimal conversational s+ills# either $or business or ,leasure# "ou
ma" not be !illing to e>,end the e$$ort re@uired $or these courses# according
to Dr. <obert 9atchellor# associated !ith the :6CEA guide. Sel$5
instruction re@uires a commitment o$ at least ten hours ,er !ee+.
The :ational Association o$ Sel$5'nstructional Language 3rograms
A:AS'L3B assists schools in designing and o,erating sel$5instruction
,rograms based on ta,e learning su,,lemented b" te>t and tutorials and
eligible $or college credit. :AS'L3 +ee,s u, !ith all o$ the o,tions#
.2*
G including commercial ,rograms# and !ill hel, "ou $ind a course to $it
"our s,eci$ications# !hether or not it is a :AS'L3 ,roduct.
A. Mat)h ea)h word with one of the meanin"s. There are more letters than
num*ers.
1. s)hedule ((ara"ra(hI)
a
)
t

!

s
8
end
or use ener"y' time' money' et).
*) somethin" whi)h takes u( your time
. )a+eat ((ara"ra(h 6)
*

e

)

a

u

s

e

of

the
res(onsi*ilities you ha+e
)) desi"ned for (rofessional use
G . . . . G. d) aim or (ur(ose
2. o*De)t (
r
(ara
2
"ra(h 6 ' . . . . ., .. .
' e) "i+in" detailed information a*out a
s(e)ifi) su*De)t
.. e:(end ((ara"ra(h 6) f) somethin" suita*le for or )onne)ted with
somethin" else
6. )ommitment ((ara"ra(h 6) ") a warnin" that you ha+e to take
somethin" into a))ount *efore you a)t
&. eli"i*le ((ara"ra(h &)
n
R
a
8
'an

t

h

a

t
$
i

+

e

s

a

list

of

e

+

e

n

t
s. Do*s' et).
to"ether with the times ea)h thin" should
*e done
/. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. Most home study )ourses are (re(ared for (eo(le studyin" forei"n
literature.
. Ta(es of home study )ourses for di(lomats are not found on the market.
2. The e:a)t (ri)e of a set of home study )ourse is S16.
.. -ni+ersity )orres(onden)e )ourses are not nearly as "ood as those
offered at uni+ersities.
6. 8eo(le takin" a uni+ersity )orres(onden)e )ourse are "i+en assi"nments
re"ularly.
&. A))ordin" to 3r. /at)hellor' uni+ersity )orres(onden)e )ourses are not
suita*le for those who aim to a)hie+e only )on+ersational skills.
C.
1. What are the ad+anta"es of home study )ourses1
. How )an you "et the ta(es of home study )ourses1
.2)
2. How does a (erson takin" a home study )ourse learn the (hrases1
.. How mu)h does a one4semester uni+ersity )orres(onden)e )ourse usually )ost1
6. W h o ( r e ( a r e s The Guide to Independent Study Through Correspondene
Instrution!
&. How mu)h do you ha+e to (ay only for the deli+ery of the "uide1
((*
ANI*AL 4RE.ATORS
:o doubt the greatest single lea, in human ,rehistor" !as the one !e made
$rom being hel,less ,re" to becoming $ormidable ,redators Aanimals !hich hunt
and eat othersB o$ other living creatures# including# eventuall"# the ones !ith
cla!s and $angs. This is the theme that is acted out over and over# obsessivel"# in
the initiation rites o$ tribal cultures. 'n the drama o$ initiation# the "oung Ausuall"
menB are $irst humiliated and sometimes tortured# onl" to be 'reborn' as hunters
and !arriors. -er" o$ten the initial torment includes the threat o$ being eaten b"
costumed humans or actual beasts. Oro+aiva children in 3a,ua :e! 1uinea are
told the" !ill be devoured li+e ,igs0 among 'ndians o$ the 3aci$ic :orth!est# the
initiates !ere +idna,,ed or menaced b" !olves0 "oung :or!egian men# at least
in the sagas# had to tac+le bears single5handedl".
As a s,ecies# !e've been $abulousl" success$ul at ,redation. ;e have enslaved
the !ild ungulates# turning them into our cattle and shee,# ,ushing them into ever
narro!er habitats. ;e have tamed some o$ the !olves and big cats# trivialiCing
them as household ,ets. ;e can dine on shar+ or alligator $illets i$ !e !ant# and
the onl" bears !e're li+el" to +no! are the ones !hose name is tedd". 'n $act#
horror movies !ouldn't be much $un i$ real monsters lur+ed outside our cinemas.
;e can enjo" screaming at the alien or the monster or the blob because !e +no!#
historicall" s,ea+ing# it !as our side that !on.
9ut the de$eat o$ the animal ,redators !as not a clear5cut victor" $or us. ;ith
the big land carnivores out o$ the !a"# humans decided that the onl" !orth!hile
enemies !ere others li+e themselves 5 'enem"' individuals or tribes or nations or
ethnic grou,s. The criminal stal+ing his victim# the
6!
soldiers roaring into battle# are enacting an archaic drama in !hich the other
,la"er !as originall" non5human# something either to eat or be eaten b". or
millenniums no!# the earth's scariest ,redator has been ourselves.
'n our arrogance# !e have tended to $orget that our o!n most $ormidable
enemies ma" still be o$ the non5human +ind. 'nstead o$ hungr" tigers or
$resh5cloned dinosaurs# !e $ace e@uall" deadl" microsco,ic li$e $orms. 't !ill
ta+e a !hole ne! set o$ s+ills and attitudes to de$eat H'- or the T9
bacterium 5 not the raging charge on the $ield o$ battle# but the cunning
ambush o$ the lab.
A. Mat)h ea)h word with one of the meanin"s.
1. initiation rite a) family of animals with hoofs and )laws
. de+our *) fi"ht
2. ta)kle )) trainH make useful and safe
.. un"ulates d) a lar"e fri"htenin" o*De)t ha+in" no distin)t sha(e
6. tame e) the )eremony of introdu)in" someone to a s(e)ial "rou(
&. *lo* f) eat u( <ui)kly and hun"rily
5. ar)hai) ") a (eriod of thousand years
%. millennium h) *elon"in" to the distant (ast
/. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. Human *ein"s ha+e always fallen hel(less +i)tims to other (redators.
. The initiation rites in tri*al )ultures aimed to (re(are the youn" for a life as
fearless' *old warriors.
2. Wild animals no lon"er e:ist as dan"erous enemies to human kind.
.. We s)ream at horror mo+ies *e)ause the monsters we see on the s)reen
may any time a((ear in our real li+es.
6. ;n)e they took )ontrol of animals' human *ein"s started to a)t in a
non4human way.
&. 3eadly mi)ros)o(i) life forms will )ause less trou*le for human *ein"s than
*i" wars in the future.
.4(
(()
SA-E THE F6:1LE 5 SA-E THE ;O<LD
The so5called 'jungle' o$ ,o,ular imagination# the tro,ical rain $orest belt
stretching around our ,lanet at the E@uator# has ta+en some &/ million "ears
to evolve to its ,resent state. 't is# @uite sim,l"# the most com,le># most
im,ortant ecos"stem on Earth.
Homo aber# Man the 9uilder# has tragicall" al!a"s seen the jungle as
something alien# an environment to be van@uished# re,laced !ith his o!n
constructions. 'n the ,ast t!ent" "ears# the rate o$ ,illage has increased
alarmingl" and huge tracts o$ verdant# beauti$ul $orest 5 an irre,laceable
treasure house o$ living things 5 has o$ten given !a" to !asteland. The
evidence is that Man !ill redouble his destructive e$$orts until the $orest
's"stem' is smashed# and the jungle !ill $unction no more.
Man" e>,erts gloomil" ,redict that the tro,ical rain $orests !ill $inall"
vanish around the end o$ our centur". ;ell done# ./th centur"I
;hat are the burning reasons that drive men to destro" our monumental
inheritance=
Man seldom does an"thing $or entirel" rational reasons0 usuall"# the less
rational his 'reasons'# the more he de$ends them !ith short5term economic
arguments. That is one o$ the modern lessons in ecolog".
E;e need the land $or ,eo,le#E runs the argument. ;ell# man" ,eo,le
alread" inhabit the tro,ical $orest belt. There# native tribes have their o!n
'lo!5im,act' li$e st"le# hunting# tra,,ing# ,ractising a little cultivation.
3erha,s not id"llic# it is# nevertheless# a li$e st"le that does not endanger the
$orest ecos"stem.
;e stress a little cultivation because# ,arado>icall"# the $orest soil is o$ten
in$ertile0 trees and green ,lants thrive on the com,ost o$ their $allen $oliage#
!hich is ra,idl" bro+en do!n and rec"cled as nutrients. So# !hen the jungle
is cleared to ,lant cro,s# there is no means o$ ,utting $ertilit" bac+ into the
soil. Man" governments s,end much time 'resettling' ,eo,le in de$orested
areas as ,art o$ so5called $or!ard5loo+ing develo,ment ,rojects# but the cro,
"ield is meagre# and brie$? the soil soon ma+es its ,oint. Erosion and $looding
also tend to $ollo! de$orestation.
E;e need the timber#E continues the argument. ;ell# the $orests have
al!a"s been generous !ith their riches 5 so $ar as the" are able. The" are not
limitless. The" are being e>hausted at ever increasing s,eed. orest ecolog"#
!isdom in ,lanning and less greed could +ee, Man and the delicate rain $orest
relationshi, in balance inde$initel". This is our last great store house# our last
!onderland.
62
(./
TIGHTEN 0OUR BELT
The $act is that the energ" crisis has been !ith us $or a long time
no!# and !ill be !ith us $or an even longer time. ;hether Arab oil
$lo!s $reel" or not# it is clear to ever"one that !orld industr" ( cannot
be allo!ed to de,end on so $ragile a base. The su,,l" o$ oil
4 can be shut o$$ at !him at an" time# and in an" case# the oil !ells !ill
all run dr" in thirt" "ears or so at the ,resent rate o$ use.
:e! sources o$ energ" must be $ound# and this !ill ta+e time# but
it is not li+el" to result in an" situation that !ill ever restore that sense
o$ chea, and co,ious energ" !e have had in times ,ast. .
(/ ;e !ill never again dare indulge in indiscriminate gro!th. or an
inde$inite ,eriod $rom here on in# man+ind is going to advance
cautiousl"# and consider itsel$ luc+" that it can advance at all.
To ma+e the situation !orse# there is as "et no sign that an"
slo!ing o$ the !orld's ,o,ulation is in sight. Although the birthrate
(4 has dro,,ed in some nations# including the 6nited States# the
,o,ulation o$ the !orld seems sure to ,ass si> billion and ,erha,s 8
even seven billion as the t!ent"5$irst centur" o,ens. The $ood su,,l"
!ill not increase nearl" enough to match this# !hich means that !e are
heading into a crisis in the matter o$ ,roducing and
./ mar+eting $ood.
Ta+ing all this into account# !hat might !e reasonabl" estimate
su,ermar+ets to be li+e in the "ear .//(= To begin !ith# the !orld
$ood su,,l" is going to become steadil" tighter over the ne>t thirt"
"ears 5 even here in the 6nited States. 9" .//(# the ,o,ulation o$
.4 the 6nited States !ill be at least t!o hundred and $i$t" million and 2
,ossibl" t!o hundred and sevent" million# and the nation !ill be hard
,ut to e>,and $ood ,roduction to $ill the additional mouths. This !ill
be ,articularl" true since the energ" ,inch !ill ma+e it di$$icult to
continue using the high5energ" method o$ agriculture
8/ that ma+es it ,ossible to combine $e! $armers !ith high "ields.
't seems almost certain that b" .//( the 6nited States !ill no
longer be a great $ood5e>,orting nation and that# i$ necessit" $orces 4
the e>,orting o$ $ood# it !ill be at the ,rice o$ belt5tightening at home.
84 This means# $or one thing# that !e can loo+ $or!ard to an end to
the 'natural $ood' trend. 't is not a !ave o$ the $uture. All the 'unnatural'
things !e do to $ood are re@uired to ,roduce more o$ the & $ood in the
$irst ,lace# and to ma+e it last longer a$ter!ard. 't is $or that reason that
!e need and use chemical $ertiliCers and ,esticides
.44
2/ !hile the $ood is gro!ing# and add ,reservatives a$ter!ard.
'n $act# as $ood items !ill tend to decline in @ualit" and decrease
in variet"# there is ver" li+el" to be increasing use o$ $lavouring
additives. 6ntil such time as man+ind has the sense to lo!er its
,o,ulation to the ,oint !here the ,lanet can ,rovide a com$ortable
su,,ort $or all# ,eo,le !ill have to acce,t more arti$icialit".
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1.'this' (line 5)7
.'this' (line 1%)7
2.'that' (line 2!)7
..'if (line 22)7
/. Mat)h ea)h word E (hrase with one of the meanin"s. There are more letters
than num*ers.
1. fra"ile ((ara"ra(h 1)
a
R e:traordinarily
*) shorta"e
. at whim ((ara"ra(h 1)
))

w

D

t

h

)

a

r

e
2. restore ((ara"ra(h ) d) deli)ate E not stron"
.. )o(ious ((ara"ra(h ) e) *rin" *a)k
6. )autiously ((ara"ra(h )
f
R ad+an)e E im(ro+e
. ") (lentiful E a*undant
&. (in)h ((ara"ra(h .)
. The author says the -, will no lon"er *e a "reat food4e:(ortin" nation *y !!1
What is the reason for this1
2. Why is it ne)essary to use )hemi)al fertiliAers' (esti)ides and (reser+ati+es1
.. What does man ha+e to do if he wants to maintain his 'natural food' trend1
.4&
h) w D m o u t a(y s t f on" rea,Pn or ( u r ( o s e
C.
1. How lon" are oil su((lies likely to last1
(.(
1ALD'7AS A:D O<A:16TA:S
9irute 1aldi+as remembers the scene ver" !ell. She !as in a cluttered
London $lat# an>ious and a!estruc+# !ith her t!o heroes? Dian osse"# the
strong5!illed American stud"ing the mountain gorillas in A$rica# and the
elegant 9riton Fane 1oodall# $amous $or her discoveries about chim,anCees'
humanli+e abilities. 3residing !as their common mentor# the
,aleoanthro,ologist Louis Lea+e". He !as ,re,aring 1aldi+as# then a
boo+ish "oung graduate student at the 6niversit" o$ Cali$ornia# $or the !ilds
o$ 9orneo and li$e among the great a,es. As Lea+e" jotted do!n cam,$ire
reci,es# 1aldi+as turned to 1oodall and as+ed# E;hat !ill ' do !hen ' get
there=E <e,lied 1oodall? EYou'll go out and $ind orangutans.E
More than ./ "ears later# 1aldi+as# no! 2&# is still $ollo!ing that advice.
'n a remote ,eat s!am, $orest o$ 7alimantan# the 'ndonesian ,art o$ the
island o$ 9orneo# she is conducting the longest stud" o$ !ild orangutans
ever underta+en. The "oungest o$ Lea+e"'s so5called trimates# the trio o$
!omen he ,ic+ed to hel, ,lumb the origins o$ humanit"'s s,ecial nature#
1aldi+as has shed ne! light on the social ,atterns o$ the orangutan# literall"
'man o$ the $orest' in Mala"# one o$ our closest relatives.
'n the ,rocess# she has endured malaria# t",hoid# dengue $ever and s+in
burns $rom to>ic tree sa,. Li+e osse"# !ho !as murdered in ()*4# 1aldi+as
has been led# through her scienti$ic !or+# to cam,aign $or the ,rotection o$
the endangered a,es and their d!indling rain5$orest habitat. Onl" 8/#/// to
4/#/// orangutans remain in 9orneo and Sumatra. 1aldi+as' advocac" ,ut
her at odds !ith 'ndonesian authorities# !ho at one ,oint threatened to end
her !or+.
Long5lived and highl" intelligent# orangutans d!ell and travel high in the
rain5$orest cano,"# revealing themselves onl" to the dedicated. As a result o$
her "ears in a 2/5s@5+m stud" area in the Tanjung 3uting :ational 3ar+#
1aldi+as has been able to $ollo! individuals $rom in$anc". She has learned
that the orangutans there have their $irst o$$s,ring at the age o$ (&.
Subse@uent births# al!a"s a single in$ant# come ever" eight "ears# the
longest birth interval o$ an" +no!n !ild s,ecies. Loo orangutans re,roduce
much $aster. '$ her $indings are true $or all !ild ,o,ulations# she sa"s#
Eorangutans are much more vulnerable to e>tinction than an"one thought.E
E>,erts believed that big male orangutans $ight !ith one another# but no
modem scientist had seen a battle until 1aldi+as# !ho !aited months $or
such a con$rontation. EAt the end there !as blood and tu$ts o$ hair all over
the $orest $loor#E she sa"s. 9ut the battle !as bro+en o$$ !ell short o$
,ermanent injur" or death. A solitar" creature# the orangutan does not live in
grou,s or $amilies li+e other great a,es. 9ut she has $ound indications o$ a
.4%
subtle social s"stem? at times adolescent males and $emales travel together
!ithout mating# almost as $riends# evidence that one o$ our closest relatives is
not com,letel" asocial.
A. Com(lete the followin" ta*le a*out /orneo oran"utans.
harateristis 1.
.
habitat rain4forest )ano(y
reprodution 1. at +ery lon" inter+als' i.e.
. always at a time
2. ha+e the first
soial beha"iour 1.
. ' *ut not )om(letely
aso)ial 'e.<.
/.
1. What do the three women mentioned in the (assa"e ha+e in )ommon1
. What is the si"nifi)an)e of 9aldikas' study1
2. Why has she )am(ai"ned for the oran"utans and their ha*itat1
.4*
(..
THE LONG HABIT
Fust li+e our remotest ancestors# !e re$rain $rom tal+ing about death#
des,ite the great distance !e have come in understanding some o$ the
,ro$ound as,ects o$ biolog". ;e have as much distaste $or tal+ing about
,ersonal death as $or thin+ing about it0 it is an indelicac". Death on a grand
scale does not bother us in the same s,ecial !a"? !e can sit around a dinner
table and discuss !ar# involving &/ million volatiliCed human deaths# as
though !e !ere tal+ing about bad !eather0 !e can !atch abru,t blood"
death ever" da"# in colour# on $ilms and television# !ithout blin+ing bac+ a
tear. 't is !hen the numbers o$ dead are ver" small and ver" close that !e
begin to thin+ in scurr"ing circles. At the ver" center o$ the ,roblem is the
na+ed cold deadness o$ one's o!n sel$# the onl" realit" in nature o$ !hich !e
can have absolute certaint"# and it is unmentionable# unthin+able. ;e ma"
be even less !illing to $ace the issue at $irst hand than our ,redecessors
because o$ a secret ne! ho,e that ma"be it !ill go a!a". ;e li+e to thin+#
hiding the thought# that !ith all the marvelous !a"s in !hich !e seem no!
to lead nature around b" the nose# ,erha,s !e can avoid the central ,roblem
i$ !e just become 5 ne>t "ear# sa" 5 a bit smarter.
EThe long habit o$ living#E said Thomas 9ro!ne# Eindis,oseth us to
d"ing.E These da"s# the habit has become an addiction? !e are hoo+ed on
living0 the tenacit" o$ its gri, on us# and ours on it# gro!s in intensit". ;e
cannot thin+ o$ giving it u,# even !hen living loses its Cest 5 even !hen !e
have lost the Cest $or Cest.
;e have come a long !a" in our technological ca,acit" to ,ut death o$$#
and it is imaginable that !e might learn to stall it $or even longer ,eriods#
,erha,s matching the li$e s,ans o$ the Ab+hasians# !ho are said to go on $or
a centur" and a hal$. '$ !e can rid ourselves o$ some o$ our chronic#
degenerative diseases# cancer# stro+es# and coronaries# !e might go on and
on. 't sounds attractive and reasonable# but it is no certaint".
;e long $or longevit"# even in the $ace o$ ,lain evidence that long# long
lives are not necessaril" ,leasurable in the +ind o$ societ" !e have arranged
thus $ar. ;e !ill be luc+" i$ !e can ,ost,one the search $or ne!
technologies $or a !hile# until !e have discovered some satis$actor" things
to do !ith the e>tra time. Something !ill surel" have to be $ound to ta+e the
,lace o$ sitting on the ,orch re5e>amining one's !atch.
.4)
(.8
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
--- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - i----------------------------#---------# ---- # - - - ## ----- * A---------#-----------------
1'O-A::A AMAT'? O:E AST ;OMA:
What &aes a gla&orous "oung wo&an want to ris life and li&b on
the tracE
EMotor racing is a ,assion. or me it's so dee, ' can't live !ithout it#E
( sa"s s,eed5loving 1iovanna Amati# a .%5"ear5old 'talian !ho is !idel"
ac+no!ledged to be one o$ the $astest !omen drivers around.
As a member# last "ear# o$ the 9ritish5based team 1A Motor5s,orts#
she com,eted in ormula 8/// races in a car t!ice as ,o!er$ul as a
Faguar WFS. She raced at (*/ m,h in a class that has !on a re,utation $or
aggressive com,etitiveness# !ith man" drivers ta+ing dramatic ris+s to
ma+e their mar+. This "ear# ho!ever# she is !ithout the mone" necessar"
to race in 8///# a grou, that is just one ste, belo! ormula (# so she is
. com,eting as a guest driver at circuits around the !orld !hile loo+ing $or
the right s,onsorshi, ,ac+age. E' don't !ant to be decoration at the trac+E
she sa"s. E' !ant to !in.E Determination shines through this beauti$ul
!oman's ever" move and ever" !ord. ;hen she !as (4# she used to ride
a 84/cc motorc"cle around her native cit" o$ <ome# hiding it $rom her
,arents. A "ear later# she bought a 4//cc machine and she still +ee,s a
motorc"cle at home toda".
Des,ite o,,osition $rom her $ather# a <oman industrialist# 1iovanna
8 ,ursued her driving ambition# joining a racing school !here she !on the
graduates race in ()*/. rom there she has !or+ed her !a" u,
successive $ormulas.
Motor racing is a s,ort still heavil" dominated b" men. Some men#
2 ,articularl" $ello! 'talians# $ind their ego dented !hen the"'re beaten b"
her# sa"s 1iovanna.
She s,ends as much time !or+ing !ith the mechanics as she does on
4 the trac+. E' love ever"thing about the cars. You have to enjo" the
mechanical side and be able to e>,lain e>actl" !h" "ou thin+ the car is
not ,er$orming correctl".E
-ital $actors in achieving racing success are ,h"sical $itness and
mental attitude. EYou can't a$$ord to get tired. You're o$ten racing $or one
& and a hal$ hours in tem,eratures o$ around 8/ degrees. 'n tennis# i$ "ou
miss a ball# "ou lose a ,oint. 'n motor racing a mista+e can cost "ou "our
li$e.E
;hen she's in <ome# 1iovanna !or+s out ever" da" !ith her coach at
% the s,orts clinic she attends. E' do a lot o$ s+i,,ing to build u, stamina#
!eight training $or strength and man" reaction e>ercises.E Her diet and
health are monitored b" a nutritionist !ho anal"ses her blood and adjusts
.&(
% her eating ,lans accordingl".
The ris+s in racing are huge and drivers have to rise above them. EYou
don't thin+ about accidents#E sa"s 1iovanna. EYou $eel sorr"# o$ course# i$
* someone is injured but "ou can't let "oursel$ d!ell on it 5 that !ould
ma+e "ou slo! do!n.E
Motor racing also demands sacri$ices. EYou ris+ ever"thing 5 as !ell
as "our li$e# "ou ris+ losing "our $riends and "our securit". ' do miss not
) having a man but ' have to be number one !hen ''m !ith a man0 he must
be there to care $or me !hen ' am at home 5 and that's ver" di$$icult to
$ind.E
U The glamorous# big mone" image o$ racing holds little a,,eal. EThere
are ,eo,le !ho race $or the mone"#E sa"s 1iovanna# Ebut ' don't. And
(/ "ou don't go to ,arties 5 "ou have to slee,# to rela> . '$ ' !anted to go to
,arties# ''d be at home in <ome.E
A. Find words or (hrases in the te:t whi)h mean the same as the followin".
1. stron"' dee( and un)ontrolla*le feelin" ((ara"ra(h 1)7
. strikin" ((ara"ra(h )7
2. followed ((ara"ra(h 2)7
.. "radually *e)ame *etter in ((ara"ra(h 2)7
6. dama"ed or hurt ((ara"ra(h .)7
&. ne)essary ((ara"ra(h &)7
5. )arefully o*ser+ed ((ara"ra(h 5)7
%. think a*out ((ara"ra(h %)7
/. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
The main idea of the si:th (ara"ra(h is that .
a) ra)in" at hi"h tem(eratures makes the dri+er lose his (hysi)al *alan)e
*) tiredness is the )ause of fatal ra)in" a))idents
)) a ra)e dri+er should *e *oth (hysi)ally and mentally fit
d) motor ra)in" is more diffi)ult than (layin" tennis
C. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. Com(etitors enterin" Formula 2!!! ra)es ha+e to s(end money out of their
own (o)kets or ha+e s(onsors.
. Amati doesn't enDoy ridin" motor)y)les.
2. Male dri+ers ha+e readily a))e(ted Amati as a )om(etitor.
.. The me)hani)al side of ra)in" is as im(ortant as the skill shown on the ra)e4
tra)k.
6. Amati does three main kinds of e:er)ise at the s(orts )lini).
.&.
3.
1. What is one of the "reatest risks in motor ra)in"1
. How does 9io+anna rise a*o+e the risks1
2. #s she o(timisti) or (essimisti) a*out a))e(tin" men into her (ri+ate life1 Why1
(.2
THE '<ES O CH<'STMAS
E"es loo+ed s+"!ard $or rain# but the onl" clouds !ere o$
smo+e. Heat and !ind around S"dne" last !ee+ dried a ,ath $or
more than (4/ $ires to blaCe in the !orst natural disaster to hit the
countr" in the .// "ears since 9ritish settlers arrived. 9" !ee+'s
4 end more than 2//#/// hectares !ere alight. At least $our ,eo,le
had died0 scores o$ homes had been destro"ed and thousands o$ (
,eo,le had been evacuated. ;ith high!a"s and rail lines closed to the
north# access to Australia's largest cit" !as limited. The shells o$ the
S"dne" O,era House# the cit"'s landmar+# are normall" a
(/ bright and shin" !hite in the sunshine# but last !ee+ the" !ere a dull
orange.
The $irst $ires began in the northern ,art o$ the state o$ :e! South
;ales a $e! da"s a$ter Christmas. 9" earl" last !ee+ there !as a @uilt
o$ 2/ blaCes. 9" ;ednesda" there !ere */# Thursda" .
(4 )/# rida" (4/. A @uarter o$ the state !as under threat# $rom the
Nueensland border to the :e! South ;ales southern coast. S"dne"
;as brac+eted b" $ires to the north# south and !est.
Hundreds o$ ,eo,le made dramatic esca,es# ta+en o$$ threatened
shores b" sur$5boats or li$ted b" helico,ters as $lames neared
./ remote cam,ing s,ots. An old !oman# carried $rom her home# clutched
a $ramed ,icture to her heart. 'n ,laces li+e :e!castle and La+e
Mac@uarie# s+ies !ere blac+ and the Sun orange. E't's li+e 8 being on
another ,lanet#E said Fill Allen# !ho !or+s near La+e Mac@uarie. E't
loo+s.li+e a storm coming. ;e !ish it !as.E
.4 9eaches !ere covered !ith ash and charred leaves. 'n 3itt!ater# a
,ictures@ue inlet just north o$ S"dne"# a $lotilla o$ "achts# dinghies
and $erries evacuated several hundred ,eo,le $rom the densel"
.&8
!ooded shores. 8
Com,ounding the traged" !as the $act that nature's ,ersistence
8/ had been abetted. Authorities said ,erha,s hal$ the blaCes !ere the !or+
o$ arsonists. A H(//#/// re!ard !as o$$ered a$ter ne!s that some $ires
had been deliberatel" lit. 3olice soon received an estimated *4/
,hone calls $rom ,eo,le claiming to have seen 2 arsonists. Authorities
have arrested (( ,eo,le# including at least
84 t!o teenagers. A (85"ear5old bo" is to a,,ear in the Children's Court in
S"dne" in connection !ith one blaCe. There !as ,ublic outrage that
a S"dne" hotel had threatened to dismiss an em,lo"ee !ho is a
volunteer $ire $ighter unless he returned to !or+.
The disaster# ho!ever# also brought out the best in some ,eo,le.
2/ <esidents ris+ed their o!n homes to hel, save those o$ their neighbours0
general stores o,ened their shelves to ,eo,le battling blaCes. At the
$ront line# the thousands o$ $ire $ighters !ere tenacious# but the battle
!as une@ual# even !ith the hel, o$ troo,s and $ire $ighters brought in
$rom other states. 9ecause o$ the $ires' 4
24 s,read and $erocit"# authorities could onl" ho,e to ,rotect lives and
minimiCe ,ro,ert" damage. 9e"ond that# other allies !ere needed. 'n
one meeting# Fohn ahe"# the ,remier o$ :e! South ;ales# called
$or hel, $rom Ethe !eather and 1od above to $ight the intense $ires.E
:either seemed to be coo,erating. Meteorologists said no rain !as
li+el" $or the ne>t $e! da"s.
A. What do the followin" refer to1
1. 'they' (line 1!)7
. 'those' (line .!)7
/. Find words in the te:t whi)h mean the same as the followin".
1. sent or )arried to a (la)e of safety ((ara"ra(h 1)7
. held ti"htly in the hand ((ara"ra(h 2)7
2. a "rou(' used es(e)ially to refer to a "rou( of small shi(s ((ara"ra(h 2)7
.. (eo(le who set fire to a (la)e on (ur(ose ((ara"ra(h .)7
6. a +ery stron" feelin" of an"er and sho)k ((ara"ra(h .)7
&. *ein" determined' not "i+in" u( easily ((ara"ra(h 6)7
5. the <uality of *ein" +iolent' or a""ressi+e and intense ((ara"ra(h 6)7
.&2
(.4
1E:ET'C 1EO1<A3HY
Ct's far fro& 'erfect, but researchers un8eil the first co&'lete &a' of all
2= 'airs of hu&an chro&oso&es.
The $irst ma,s o$ the ne! !orld# dra!n bac+ in the age o$ Columbus and
Magellan# !ere ,iti$ull" ,rimitive. The earl" Euro,ean e>,lorers and
cartogra,hers thought that America !as just a narro! stri, o$ land and that
the 3aci$ic Ocean !as small enough $or a galleon to cross in a cou,le o$
!ee+s. 9ut des,ite all their shortcomings# those $irst stabs at ma,ma+ing
ca,tured the imaginations o$ adventurers and s,urred more vo"ages o$
discover".
'n much the same !a"# toda"'s e>,lorers o$ the genetic $rontier have
doggedl" navigated the .8 ,airs o$ human chromosomes in their search $or
various genes 5 not al!a"s sure !hich landmar+s to trust# or ho! $ar a!a"
the goal !as. The hunt !ill no! be easier# than+s to last !ee+'s
announcement that an international team o$ scientists# led b" Dr. Daniel
Cohen at the Center $or the Stud" o$ Human 3ol"mor,hism in 3aris# has
,roduced the $irst $ull"5$ledged 5 i$ still rough 5 ma, o$ the human genome.
EThis is a major ste, $or!ard#E sa"s David ;ard# a Yale geneticist !ho has
been anal"Cing the ma, $or errors. E't's a $irst ,ass# and it !ill have its !arts.
9ut it's still signi$icant.E
Com,osed o$ long chains o$ D:A containing ,erha,s (//#/// genes# the
human genome is $ar too vast to anal"Ce all at once. So scientists use s,ecial
enC"mes to cho, the chromosomes into small manageable ,ieces and ,ic+
out small identi$iable stretches 5 called mar+ers 5 on each segment. ;hen
researchers are searching $or a disease gene# the" loo+ $or a mar+er that is
common to all ,eo,le !ho su$$er $rom that ailment. '$ one is $ound# then the
de$ective gene is ,robabl" located some!here near that mar+er. The
,roblem is that although the gene hunters +no! !here the mar+er is located
on the chromosome# the" don't necessaril" +no! ho! close it lies to the
sus,ect gene.
That's !h" Cohen's ne! ma, !ill come in hand". To ,roduce it# his
grou, sliced man" sets o$ chromosomes into thousands o$ segments and ,ut
each ,iece into a "east cell. The cells then made thousands o$ co,ies o$
ever" ,iece o$ the human D:A. 9" stud"ing di$$erent ,ossible
arrangements# Cohen's com,uteriCed machines !ere able to $igure out the
,ositions o$ a !hole list o$ common mar+ers as !ell as the ,ro,er order o$
the ,ieces.
Cohen's laborator" no! has in storage multi,le co,ies# or clones# o$
about 88#/// chromosome segments. So i$ gene hunters !ant to search the
.&&
area around a ,articular mar+er# the" can re@uest co,ies o$ the relevant D:A
segments. Sa"s Cohen? EYou can call and sa"# '' need this and this clone#' and
"ou'll get it in t!o da"s.E
An"one !anting a descri,tion o$ the entire ma, should be able to obtain it
through a com,uter? Cohen has ,romised to $eed the in$ormation into the
'nternet# the global communications net!or+ most heavil" used b" scientists.
E't should be e@uall" available to the entire !orld#E he sa"s.
The ultimate goal $or biologists is to determine the e>act se@uence o$ all
the chemical com,onents o$ all (//#/// genes. That !ill give scientists the
$ull# detailed genetic instructions $or a human being. 9ut since that ma, !ill
contain 8.4 billion se,arate ,oints# it ,robabl" !on't be com,leted until a$ter
the turn o$ the centur".
A. The followin" (oints are not in order. Arran"e them in the order in whi)h they
are mentioned.
a)the (ro)edures followed in the sear)h of a disease "ene
*)the len"th of time needed for the )om(letion of the ma( of the human
"enome
))the network of )ommuni)ations s)ientists )ommonly use
d)where 3r. Cohen )ondu)ts his studies
e)how the ma( of the human "enome was (rodu)ed
f) what the human "enome )onsists of
")who has analyAed the ma( of the human "enome
/.
1. What were the short)omin"s of the first "eo"ra(hi)al ma(s1
. How do s)ientists )ut )hromosomes into small (ie)es1
2. What are )lones1
.. Why is it im(ortant to determine the e:a)t se<uen)e of the )hemi)al
)om(onents of "enes1
.&%
(.&
1E:ET'C MA:'36LAT'O:
Ever since man the hunter and gatherer gave u, his nomadic !a" o$ li$e
and began to tend stoc+ and gro! cro,s# he has been involved !ith genetic
mani,ulation. irstl"# in ignorance# sim,l" b" choosing to rear ,articular
animals or ,lants !hich !ere in some !a" advantageous to his develo,ing
li$est"le# and then much later# since the science o$ genetics began to develo,#
man has been engaged in breeding ,rogrammes designed to ,roduce varieties
o$ ,lants and animals e>hibiting the s,eci$ic characteristics !hich $it them to
his various needs.
As man's e>,loitation o$ natural resources has continued and industries
have develo,ed based on the s"nthetic abilit" o$ micro5organisms#
,articularl" the bacteria and $ungi# his need $or +no!ledge o$ the
$undamental ,rinci,les o$ the genetics o$ these organisms has increased and
the ne! science o$ molecular genetics has emerged. The disci,line see+s to
understand the molecular base o$ inheritance and the !a" in !hich the
in$ormation encoded b" deo>"5ribonucleic acid AD:AB is utiliCed b" the
living cell.
Advances in the $ield o$ recombinant D:A research over the ,ast decade
have given the geneticist the techni@ues re@uired to mobiliCe individual
genes# that is# s,eci$ic se@uences o$ D:A !hich code the amino acid
structure o$ single ,roteins# and then trans$er these genes $rom a donor to a
reci,ient organism# thus con$erring on the reci,ient the abilit" to s"nthesiCe
the gene ,roduct. This is the ,ractice o$ genetic mani,ulation as !e
understand the term toda" and !hich has become a cornerstone o$ the ne!
9iotechnolog". :o!# in addition to searching in nature $or !ild micro5
organisms ca,able o$ ,roducing s,eci$ic ,roducts# a ,rocess !hich is o$ten
long and tedious and sometimes unre!arding# microbial hosts can be tailored
$or s,eci$ic ,ur,oses b" introducing $oreign genes into them. The source o$
this $oreign D:A can be microbial# animal# or ,lant and thus microbial hosts
can be converted into bios"nthetic $actories ca,able o$ ma+ing a !ide
diversit" o$ materials needed in ever" as,ect o$ our lives $rom $ood and $uel
to agriculture and medicine.
Most recombinant D:A e>,eriments are designed to trans$er s,eci$ic
genetic in$ormation $rom a donor organism to a reci,ient cell so that the
ne!l" ac@uired gene !ill be e>,ressed and !ill result in the ,roduction o$ a
'$oreign' ,rotein. 'n order to do this# the D:A to be trans$erred must $irst be
isolated $rom the donor organism and inserted into a D:A carrier or vector
molecule !hich !ill be used to trans$er it into its ne! host.
The ease !ith !hich $ragments o$ D:A can be cut out o$ large D:A
molecules# ,resent in the chromosomes o$ ,lants and animals# and inserted
.&*
into vectors# has been assisted greatl" b" the discover" !ithin the last ./
"ears o$ a grou, o$ enC"mes +no!n as restricted endonucleuses. These
enC"mes recogniCe s,eci$ic base se@uences on D:A molecules and cut
them ,recisel" !ithin or near that se@uence. There are currentl" some
three hundred o$ these enC"mes +no!n and some $ort" or so are
commerciall" available in a highl"5,uri$ied $orm.
The enormous gro!th o$ interest and in,ut o$ ca,ital into researching
the a,,lications o$ recombinant D:A research over the ,ast decade is
evidence o$ the ,otential bene$it to man !hich these techni@ues can
,rovide. 'nde,endent o$ its use $or $undamental research in molecular
genetics# a $ield !hich has ,rovided and !ill continue to ,rovide
invaluable in$ormation to both academic and a,,lied geneticists#
recombinant D:A technolog" has alread" made im,ortant contributions
in several areas o$ a,,lied science.
A. The followin" list of (oints are not in order. Arran"e them in the order in whi)h
they are mentioned.
a) how 3FA transfer is )arried out
*) s(e)ifi) e:am(les of mi)ro4or"anisms
)) the s)o(e of mole)ular "eneti)s
d) man's in+ol+ement in "eneti) mani(ulation
e) the sour)es of forei"n 3FA
/. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. 0arly man's (referen)e to "row (arti)ular (lants is )onsidered to *e a kind
of "eneti) mani(ulation.
. The emer"en)e of mole)ular "eneti)s led to the onset of industries *ased
on the syntheti) a*ility of mi)ro4or"anisms.
2. 9eneti) mani(ulation now is mainly the (ra)ti)e of transferrin" indi+idual
"enes from one or"anism to another.
.. ;nly wild mi)ro4or"anisms )an a)t as hosts to forei"n 3FA.
6. 0nAymes are used to identify and isolate 3FA se<uen)es.
&. There are a*out forty enAymes in the "rou( known as restri)ted
endonu)leuses.
C.
1.What is a "ene1
.What ha((ens when s(e)ifi) "eneti) information is transferred to a re)i(ient )ell1
.&)
(.%
THE TREASURE OF )ING 4RIA* OF TRO0
or Heinrich Schliemann# a 1erman5born amateur archaeologist
digging in the heat and dust o$ !estern Tur+e" in (*%8# it !as the
discover" o$ a li$etime? the legendar" treasure o$ 7ing 3riam o$ Tro"#
( celebrated b" Homer in the 'liad. 3ainsta+ingl" and ,erilousl" e>cavated#
smuggled in ,ieces to Schliemann's residence in 1reece and revealed to
an astonished !orld a short time later# the $ind !as the biggest ne!s in
archaeolog" until 7ing Tut's tomb !as discovered in ()...
Last !ee+# nearl" a hal$5centur" a$ter it disa,,eared $rom a 9erlin
9un+er in the chaos at the end o$ ;orld ;ar ''# 7ing 3riam's treasure
sur$aced again. E' have held these dull gold vessels#E said Yevgeni
Sidorov# the <ussian Minister o$ Culture# in 7iteraturna"a $aBeta. EThe"
loo+ modest# but the $eeling o$ heat and energ" o$ man" millenniums
. ta+es "our breath a!a".E Sidorov con$irmed that 7ing 3riam's trove !as
ca,tured b" the <ed Arm" !hen it sac+ed 9erlin in ()24. That had long
been sus,ected. 'n a ())( article in the magaCine AR- ?ews, 7onstantin
A+insha and 1rigorii 7oClov# t!o Soviet !riters !ith access to secret
719 documents# $irst re,orted that the <ussians had s,irited the treasure
a!a".
The <ussians eventuall" ,lan to e>hibit the collection# !hich
originall" included a large silver vase containing about )#/// gold
objects# hal$ a doCen bracelets# a bottle and several gold cu,s. 9ut 'rina
Antonova# director o$ Mosco!'s 3ush+in Museum# could not sa" e>actl"
8 ho! much o$ 3riam's treasure !as actuall" in Mosco!. ESince these
items have been +e,t according to a regime o$ strict conservation# !here
onl" one ,erson had access to them#E she said# Eand since scholars !ere
able to see the treasures $or just a $e! da"s# it is di$$icult to sa" no! !hat
there is and in !hat @uantities.E
The original gatherer o$ the trove !as no u,right 'ndiana Fones sort but
a multilingual adventurer !ho never hesitated to in$late his o!n legend.
A$ter obtaining 6.S. citiCenshi,# ,erha,s b" $raud# Schliemann divorced
his <ussian !i$e and married a 1ree+ mail5order bride. He then travelled
to Tur+e"# !here# as an American# it !as eas" $or him to get a
2 ,ermit to dig $or histor". 6ncovering evidence o$ seven cities on the site
o$ Tro"# he determined $rom his reading o$ Homer# !hich he treated as
gos,el# that it !as the second# or Eburnt#E cit" to !hich the 'liad re$erred.
Modern scholars are increasingl" s+e,tical that Homer !as Schliemann's
muse# ,ointing to the $act that Schliemann's Tro" dates $rom around
.4//5..// 9.C.# $ar too old $or the saga# !hich ta+es ,lace around (.4/
9.C.
5!
Tur+e" as !ell as 1erman" and <ussia !ill ,robabl" la" claim to the
treasure. Schliemann's original right to the treasure !as contested b"
Tur+e" and decided in a Tur+ish court in (**/0 the !ealth" ,ros,ector
4 !as $ined a nominal sum# although the <o"al Museums o$ 9erlin chi,,ed
in 4/#/// gold $ran+s to ,lacate angr" Tur+ish authorities. 3A'D 'S
3A'DI screamed a headline in a 9erlin ne!s,a,er last !ee+.
3ossession# ho!ever# is nine5tenths o$ the la!# and the <ussians are
unli+el" to give the treasure u, grace$ull". 'n the meantime# the onl" sure
& thing is that la!"ers o$ several nations !ill engage in a battle that !ill
ma+e the Achilles5Hector struggle loo+ li+e a ,icnic be$ore the gates o$
Tro". ;herever it reall" !as.
A. Find words in the te:t whi)h mean the same as the followin".
1.taken out of "round ((ara"ra(h 1)7
.treasure ((ara"ra(h )7
2.means of rea)hin" ((ara"ra(h 2)7
..)ause to sto( feelin" an"ry ((ara"ra(h 6)7
6.in a (leasant way ((ara"ra(h &)7
/. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. >in" 8riam's treasure was trans(orted le"ally to 9ree)e *y ,)hliemann.
. The Russians se)retly )arried the treasure from /erlin to Russia at the end
of the ,e)ond World War.
2. The whole treasure was ori"inally ke(t in a lar"e sil+er +ase.
.. #t is not e:a)tly known whether the whole or (arts of the treasure are in
Russia.
6. The writers Akinsha and >oAlo+ were first told a*out the treasure *y #rina
Antono+a.
&. ,)hliemann married a 9reek (ro*a*ly to make matters )on)ernin" the
treasure easier for himself.
5. There are dou*ts a*out the treasure really datin" from the time of Homer's
sa"a.
%. Turkey took ,)hliemann to )ourt for stealin" the treasure.
$. The Royal Museums of /erlin tried to (re+ent ,)hliemann from (ayin" the
fine and "ettin" the treasure.
1!. Two nations will *e )laimin" the treasure in the future.
.%(
(.*
S':1A3O<E'S T<A'C 3OL'CY
Singa,ore ,ossesses all the ingredients $or tra$$ic disaster. The island cit"5
state has a large ,o,ulation A8 millionB# a limited land area A&.&.2 s@.+mB#
booming economic gro!th and one o$ the highest automobile densities in the
!orld A*( ,er +m o$ road!a"# vs. 28 in Fa,an and (% in the 6.S.B. 'n other
ra,idl" gro!ing Asian metro,olises# li+e 9ang+o+# Tai,ei and Seoul# such
conditions have !rea+ed bum,er5to5bum,er bedlam5 in the streets. Yet#
Singa,ore's tra$$ic moves smoothl". Much o$ the e>,lanation lies in sound
urban ,lanning and an e$$ective mass5transit s"stem. Tra$$ic5$lo!
engineering 5 li+e restricted Cones that bar automobiles !ithout a s,ecial
,ermit 5 also hel,s. 9ut the main thing that +ee,s gridloc+ at ba" is the
government's decree that the car ,o,ulation can gro! no $aster than the road
net!or+ 5 some .J to 8J a "ear. That ,olic"# though e$$ective at avoiding
road snarls# has led to the highest car ,rices in the !orld.
or starters# all cars are sla,,ed !ith a 24J im,ort tari$$. Then o!ners
must ,a" a one5time registration $ee o$ H&//# ,lus an additional charge e@ual
to (4/J o$ the car's mar+et value. ;hen even those regulations $ailed to
stem the natural demand# Singa,ore# in ())/# unveiled its toughest
re@uirement "et? the Certi$icate o$ Entitlement# a ,ermit available onl" in
limited numbers that ,ros,ective car bu"ers must obtain be$ore ma+ing their
,urchases. COEs are sold through a com,le> auction s"stem0 the ,rices var"
each month de,ending on the number o$ bidders.
The result is that bu"ing a car can be $ar costlier in some months than in
others. Fanuar"'s COE ,rices hit record highs? H(/#/&( $or a Honda Civic Au,
H.#./* since DecemberB# H((#.(. $or a Honda Accord Au, H.#.2.B. ;hen
added to the basic costs o$ the car# im,ort duties and registration $ees# it
means that a Civic !ould cost around H2/#%*/# an Accord !ould run some
H4&#&//.
Oh "es# and since the government !ants to cut do!n not onl" congestion
but also air ,ollution# all ne! cars sold a$ter ne>t Ful" !ill re@uire catal"tic
converters# adding about H(#.// to the ,rice. And all this merel" gets the car
to the drive!a". The o!ner must then ,a" annual road ta>es. These $ees var"
!ith the siCe o$ the vehicle# averaging H&)/ $or a Civic and H(#.// $or an
Accord. The cumulative result o$ these schemes? automobile sales $or ())(
!ere do!n (/J $rom the ,revious "ear# to .2#///.
An"one see+ing to avoid all these e>tra costs b" holding onto an old
clun+er runs into another !elter o$ regulations. An o!ner gets a substantial
credit to!ard the registration and ,ermit $or a re,lacement onl" i$ the
,revious car is scra,,ed be$ore it is (/ "ears old. Cars dating bac+ (/ "ears
or more are soc+ed !ith an annual road5ta> surcharge o$ (/J0 those (2
5
"ears or older ,a" a 4/J surcharge.
Singa,oreans are s"m,athetic to the government's goal o$ +ee,ing tra$$ic
moving# but the mood has soured as COEs have soared in ,rice# ,lacing the
o!nershi, o$ an automobile be"ond the reach o$ all but the ver" !ealth" 5or
the ver" des,erate.
A. 8ro+ide the followin" information.
1. ,in"a(ore's (o(ulation7 ?
. ,in"a(ore's land area7
2. ,in"a(ore's automo*ile density7 H
.. what C;0 stands for7
6. the total )ost after ta:es of a Honda Ci+i)7
&. the total )ost after ta:es of a Honda A))ord7
5. the )ost of )atalyti) )on+erters7
%. the num*er of )ars sold in 1$$17
$. the annual road4ta: sur)har"e for )ars whi)h are 1! years and older7
1!. the annual road4ta: sur)har"e for )ars whi)h are 1. years and older7
/. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. ,in"a(ore has a hi"her automo*ile density than Ca(an.
. /an"kok' Tai(ei and ,eoul ha+e serious traffi) (ro*lems.
2. All ,in"a(orean )itiAens fa)e two e:tra )har"es or ta:es when *uyin" a )ar.
.. C;0s are sold at a fi:ed (ri)e.
6. The ,in"a(orean "o+ernment doesn't )are a*out the air (ollution )aused
*y traffi).
&. 3es(ite all efforts' )ar sales in ,in"a(ore in)reased in 1$$1.
5. The "o+ernment dis)oura"es (eo(le from usin" )ars whi)h are o+er 1!
years old.
%. The traffi) mo+es smoothly in ,in"a(ore.
$. ,in"a(oreans disa((ro+e of the (ri)e of the C;0s.
1!. The "o+ernment )ontrol on )ars and traffi) is +ery weak in ,in"a(ore.
52
(.)
S3EED 7'LLS
Ever" !estern countr" save one believes that ma>im and has national
s,eed limits to ma+e the ,oint# reducing ,ollution in the bargain.
( 1erman"# !here some locals guard the entitlement to drive .//5,lus
+mTh as though it !ere a natural right and visitors ,riCe a $reedom denied
at home# remains the e>ce,tion? there is onl" one limit on most o$ the
su,erhigh!a"s# and that is the car's ,er$ormance.
9ut the da"s o$ !ar, drive on the autobahn ma" be numbered. As a
result o$ a recent court decision on liabilit" incurred b" su,er$ast drivers#
. ne! obstacles to high s,eed are rising. The ruling !on a,,lause $rom an
ever more vocal chorus o$ s,eed5limit advocates. De$enders o$ no5limit
driving are as determined as ever but loo+ li+e an increasingl" isolated
minorit".
A long5standing ,ro,osal b" the 1reen 3art" to lo!er su,erhigh!a"
s,eed to (// +mTh divided the ,ublic more or less evenl" in the late ()*/'s.
E9ut more recentl"#E sa"s ,ollster Fochen Hansen o$ the Allensbach
'nstitute# Ethere has been a greater inclination to see (8/ +mTh as a good
standard.E The latest surve"# commissioned b" the
8 Environment Ministr"# con$irms that %.J o$ 1ermans !ould li+e to see a
national s,eed limit# !ith most citing (./ +mTh# also advocated b" ,olice
organiCations# as a reasonable ,ossibilit". Environmentalists cite a litan"
o$ studies to sho! that higher s,eed means increased CO.#
oCone5damaging :.O Anitrogen o>ideB and ,articulate emissions as !ell
as increased $uel consum,tion.
Ho!ever broad such su,,ort# it has not been able to dent the ,olitical
in$luence o$ auto enthusiasts and carma+ers. The latter# !ho ma+e u, one
o$ 1erman"'s most ,o!er$ul industries and account $or ( in ever" % jobs#
2 argue that s,eed limits !ould de,rive the li+es o$ Mercedes59enC# 9M;
and 3orsche o$ a +e" com,etitive advantage? the right to sa" their cars
are engineered to the driving standard o$ the autobahn# +no!n the !orld
over $or unca,,ed s,eed.
;h" 1erman car bu$$s are so militant in their determination to drive $ast
remains a subject o$ much s,eculation. Some argue that the automobile is
the su,reme s"mbol o$ 1erman"'s ,ost!ar economic achievement and its
obsession !ith @ualit" ,roducts# others suggest that
4 the autobahn is the onl" ,lace !here individuals living in one o$ the
!orld's most regulated societies can vent aggression. :o5limit su,,orters
have the government's ear? Chancellor Helmut 7ohl has s!orn none !ill
be introduced on his !atch.
5.
(8/
THE RA0S ARE NOT 5OLOURE.
:e!ton $irst understood# more than .// "ears ago# that Ethe <a"s# to
s,ea+ ,ro,erl"# are not coloured#E and EColours in the Object are nothing but
a dis,osition to re$lect this or that sort o$ <a" more co,iousl" than the rest...E
Yet colour seems so com,ellingl" to be a ,ro,ert" o$ an object that $e!
among us doubt the obvious. 'ndeed# the insights o$ :e!ton# su,,orted b"
t!o centuries o$ scienti$ic elaboration# are not $ull" a,,reciated even b" the
,ractitioners o$ colour# such as the artist and the ,aint manu$acturer# let alone
the man in the street.
;.D.;right is a ,h"sicist and one o$ the $athers o$ the C'E ACommission
'nternational de l'EclairageB s"stem o$ colour s,eci$ication. Des,ite the
,roven use$ulness o$ this s"stem# ;right admits that it Edoes not give ,recise
in$ormation about the s,ectral com,osition o$ the light or an" e>act
in$ormation about the sensation...E Accordingl"# ;right's interests# re$lected
in this boo+# have e>tended !ell be"ond classical colourimetr" to the use o$
colour in art and television# the teaching o$ colour in schools# and the
,ractical and theoretical ,roblems ,resented b" colour5de$ective vision.
The di$$icult ,roblem raised b" the coloured a,,earance o$ objects
,rovides a recurring theme $or some o$ the nine essa"s o$ this slim volume. 's
it ,ossible that the man in the street is right to believe !hat he sees= ;right
struggles hard to $ind a ,ro,er basis $or restoring colour to the object. He
notes that the main tas+ o$ vision# $or !hich colour is not necessar"# is to
render objects visible. Although the initial basis $or colour vision does lie in
the s,ectral modi$ication o$ light b" the object 5 just as :e!ton discerned 5
such modi$ied light is $ar $rom the onl" basis $or colour ,erce,tion. Someho!#
;right sa"s# colour ,rojects light bac+ out to# is modi$ied b"# and becomes
an inherent ,ro,ert" o$ the object.
Most o$ the boo+ consists o$ the te>ts o$ invited lectures delivered $rom
()4( to ()&&. 't is eas" to see !h" ;right is so o$ten as+ed to s,ea+. His
remar+s are lucid and re$lect his enthusiasm $or a subject !ith !hich he has
had more than 2/ "ears o$ e>,erience. Most o$ the material !ill be readil"
understood b" the non5e>,ert. The lectures ,oint more to ,roblems than
solutions since the" do not attem,t to deal !ith a large ,ercentage o$ the
e>,erimental evidence bearing u,on the to,ics discussed.
.%&
(8(
THE SHAME AND PAIN OF SUDDEN RUIN
;alter Armanini# a cit" councilor# !as en route to his Milan o$$ice on Ma"
()# ()). !hen his car ,hone rang. EThere are ,eo,le !aiting $or "ou at the
o$$ice#E said a colleague. EThe" !on't give their names# and the" !on't go
a!a".E Armanini's $irst thought !as that the strangers might be +idna,,ers.
;hen the men introduced themselves as detectives# there to arrest him $or
soliciting H(.4#/// in +ic+bac+s# Armanini# 4&# +ne! his li$e !ould never be
the same. He !as ,ermitted to return home and ,ac+ a bag. One o$ the
arresting o$$icers advised him to change out o$ the dar+ suit he !as !earing?
EYou !on't need it !here "ou're headed.E
Armanini's destination !as Milan's San -ittore ,rison# !hich he had o$ten
,assed !ithout reall" loo+ing at it. E' never thought about !hat ha,,ened
inside#E he sa"s. E't !asn't a ,art o$ m" !orld. Sometimes# out o$ su,erstition#
''d ma+e a sign as ' !ent ,ast to !ard o$$ evil.E
He $ound himsel$ in evil's midst. He ,osed $or mug shots# holding a number
across his chest# and !as $inger,rinted. As he !al+ed to his cell# there !as a
roar $rom the inmates. EThe" +ne! ''d been arrested# and the" !ere laughing
and shouting at me to sto, stealing because there'd be nothing le$t $or them.E
Armanini !as among the $irst to be arrested in O,eration Clean Hands# a
corru,tion ,robe that has s!e,t u, more than .#4// members o$ 'tal"'s
business# ,olitical and government elite. The ,ro$ound des,air o$ $acing ruin
and im,risonment has led (. o$ them to commit suicide# a reaction Armanini
sa"s he understands. Although he endured the humiliation o$ a televised trial
and !as sentenced to $our "ears# the horror that sta"s !ith him most ,al,abl"
is the 2( da"s he s,ent at San -ittore. E' can still smell the urine in the halls#
hear the bar+ing o$ the guard dogs outside# see the $lash o$ the searchlight
overhead#E he sa"s. E' just can't get those things out o$ m" mind.E
He s,ent his $irst night in a .5m b" 85m cell !ith a sus,ected murderer. E' $elt
so alone# so scared# as i$ ' !ere alread" condemned to s,end m" li$e here#E he
recalls. E' !ouldn't let m"sel$ thin+ about m" !i$e or m" daughter. ' didn't
!ant even the thought o$ them to enter this ,lace.E5Trans$erred to the isolation
!ard a$ter three da"s# he !as alread" thin+ing li+e a ,risoner. E' noticed that
nothing the" gave us could be used as a !ea,on. The dishes and s,oons !ere
,lastic. The bed sheet !as to'o $lims" to hang "oursel$. ;hen !e too+
e>ercise# it !as in an area o,en to the !ind# but there !ere bars overhead. The
,lace !as $ull o$ e>crement $rom the dogs that bar+ed all night and +e,t me
a!a+e until 4.E
At his trial# Armanini admitted to sha+ing do!n businessmen on behal$
).%*
o$ the Socialist 3art". E' never thought o$ it as illegal#E he sa"s. :o! $ree#
,ending an a,,eal# he sa"s he is $re@uentl" accosted on the street and called a
thie$# E' just !ant bac+ the li$e ' had#E he sa"s. Tra,,ed in a nightmare he
cannot esca,e# he "eas $or a dream that cannot be.
Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. Armanini was arrested on May 1$' 1$$.
. #t )an *e inferred that kidna((in" is <uite )ommon in #taly.
2. Armanini was wearin" a dark sQit when he was arrested.
.. He e:(e)ted to *e (ut into ,an @ittore (rison.
6. He was treated kindly and with toleran)e in (rison.
&. More than '6!! (eo(le ha+e *een arrested in ;(eration Clean Hands.
5. Armanini thou"ht a*out es)a(in" from ,an @ittore after s(endin" .1 days
there.
%. He )onstantly thou"ht a*out his family while in (rison.
$. The thou"ht of )ommittin" sui)ide may ha+e )rossed his mind while in
(rison.
1!. Armanini su((orted the ,o)ialist 8arty.
.%)
(8.
4OLLUTION A1<
3ollution has alread" become an international ,roblem. Even
countries !ith little industr" have reason to be alarmed b" the a,,alling
situation. 'ndustries and individuals dum, !aste materials into rivers#
oceans# and even local !ater su,,lies. armers use
4 chemical insecticides to ,rotect their cro,s# but these chemicals# !hich
remain in the soil and !ater $or long ,eriods o$ time# also endanger man"
other living things. Alread"# man" s,ecies o$ ,lant and animal li$e $ace
com,lete destruction. Their disa,,earance !ill harm others# as the
natural $ood su,,l" is reduced. This chain o$ events ma" ultimatel"
(/ result in a serious imbalance in nature !hich could endanger all living
creatures# including man.
Thus# all nations should ma+e an attem,t to sto, ,ollution. At the
,resent time# it seems more li+el" that man's $uture !ill be determined b"
his success or $ailure in ,reserving a health" environment than b" a
(4 !orld!ide $amine# disease or !ar.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine %' Their disa((earan)e' refers to the disa((earan)e of .
a) )hemi)al inse)ti)ides )) natural food su((ly
*) soil and )lean water d) (lant and animal life
. Chemi)al inse)ti)ides used *y farmers .
a) are harmful for the )ro(s )) are dan"erous for many li+in" thin"s
*) remain in the soil for a short time d) (rote)t many s(e)ies of animal life
2. The *alan)e of nature will *e affe)ted ne"ati+ely *y .
a) the destru)tion of some (lants and animals
*) dan"erous li+in" thin"s
)) the )ro(s (rote)ted *y the en+ironment
d) many s(e)ies of (lant and animal life
.. Whi)h of the followin" is the least likely to determine mankind's future1
a) His su))ess in sol+in" the (ollution (ro*lem.
*) A worldwide disaster.
)) His a*ility to (reser+e a healthy en+ironment.
d) The attem(ts to sto( (ollution.
.*/
(88
RE505LING (ASTE
The amount o$ garbage ,roduced each da" is gro!ing at an alarming
rate. Man" big cities all over the !orld $ace a crisis because the" are
running out o$ s,ace to dum, !astes.
One o$ the solutions to this ,roblem is rec"cling# that is# reusing
materials. Years ago# mil+ bottles# beer bottles# and so$t drin+ bottles
!ere reused re,eatedl"0 and man" drin+ com,anies o$$ered de,osits $or
their bottles to encourage the ,ublic to return them. ;ith the increasing
use o$ ine>,ensive tin cans and ,lastic containers# ho!ever# glass
returnables became less and less ,o,ular des,ite the slight e$$ort
1! that !as re@uired to return them.
;hen !aste dis,osal became a ,roblem# interest in rec"cling !as
revived. Com,anies began to ,romote their returnable bottles A!hich
had never com,letel" disa,,eared $rom the mar+etB once again. 'n
addition# a ne! 'rec"cling industr"' s,rang u,# and the term 'rec"cling'
(4 too+ on a ne! meaning? it meant not onl" reusing a $inished ,roduct such
as a bottle but also brea+ing do!n glass bottles and ,a,er ,roducts
$rom the old. <ec"cling centers# !here ,eo,le can bring their em,t"
bottles and old ,a,ers# have been set u, in both small and large to!ns
in man" industialised countries.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine 1' 're+i+ed' means .
a) reDe)ted *) remo+ed )) renewed d) re(orted
. 9lass *ottles *e)ame less (o(ular .
a) due to the (ossi*ility of usin" them re(eatedly
*) when )om(anies offered to (ay de(osits for them
)) althou"h it was diffi)ult to return them
d) *e)ause )hea( tin )ans and (lasti) )ontainers took their (la)e
2. As a result of the re)ent interest in re)y)lin"' .
a) )om(anies in)reased the use of returna*le *ottles
*) returna*le *ottles disa((eared from the market
)) )om(anies introdu)ed reusa*le "lass *ottles into the market
d) it *e)ame diffi)ult to find a dis(osal (la)e for em(ty *ottles
.. Whi)h of the followin" is not in)luded in the new )on)e(t of re)y)lin"1
a) /reakin" down used (rodu)ts into their raw materials.
*) Manufa)turin" new (rodu)ts from the used ones.
)) 8rodu)in" waste materials to *e used in re)y)lin".
d) Reusin" an already finished (rodu)t.
.*(
(82
OCEA:S
:ations# as !ell as individuals# have al!a"s used the oceans 5 $or $ishing#
trade# and ,leasure 5 !ith little concern $or an"one else's rights. The oceans
used to be large enough $or ever"one. As the !orld has gro!n 'smaller'
through im,roved communications and trans,ortation and increased
,o,ulation gro!th# the oceans have become more cro!ded. 't is no! ,ossible
$or a nation to go $ar $rom its coasts to $ish and trade# and each "ear man" o$
the ne! nations develo, $ishing and trading $leets. 'nstead o$ the large em,t"
ocean that once e>isted# it is no! $illed !ith man" ,eo,le !ho are interested
in using its resources. This results in strong com,etition among nations. Since
each nation has di$$erent needs and aims# ,roblems eventuall" arise.
:ations are beginning to realiCe that la!s must be established to ,rotect the
resources in the oceans 5 its $ish and animals# its ,lant li$e# and its minerals.
Ho!ever# due to the long ,ractice o$ $ree use o$ the oceans# it is di$$icult $or
man to acce,t the need $or these la!s.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. The o)eans .
a) used to *e more )rowded than they are now
*) ha+e always *een used tor fishin" and trade
)) ha+e always )aused (ro*lems amon" nations
d) affe)ted the im(ro+ements in )ommuni)ations and trans(ortation
. The in)reasin" interest in the resour)es of the o)eans has led to .
a) an in)rease in the needs of nations
*) a rise in (o(ulation "rowth
)) the de+elo(ment of new nations
d) (ro*lems amon" nations '
2. Man has to esta*lish laws .
a) to use the o)eans' resour)es freely
*) not to harm the o)eans' resour)es
)) to start )om(etition amon" nations
d) not to ser+e the +aryin" needs of nations
.. Whi)h of the followin" is true1
a) The laws made to (rote)t o)eans' resour)es ha+e *een ineffe)ti+e.
*) Many nations de+elo( new fishin" and tradin" fleets *e)ause the world has
"rown smaller.
)) #t will *e diffi)ult for man to a))e(t the laws on the use of the o)eans'
resour)es.
d) Fations must realiAe that they )an use the o)eans' resour)es.
%
(84
S6<1E<Y
'n earl" "ears o$ this centur" there !as little s,ecialiCation in surger"# i.e.
cutting into a ,art o$ the bod". A good surgeon !as ca,able o$ ,er$orming
almost ever" o,eration that had been devised u, to that time. Toda"# the
situation is di$$erent. O,erations that !ere
4 not even dreamed o$ $i$t" "ears ago are no! being carried out. The heart can be
sa$el" o,ened and its valves re,aired. Clogged blood vessels can be cleaned
out# and bro+en ones mended or re,laced. A lung# the !hole stomach# or
even ,art o$ the brain can be removed and still allo! the ,atient to live a
com$ortable and satis$actor" li$e.
(/ Ho!ever# not ever" surgeon !ants to# or is @uali$ied to carr" out ever" t",e o$
modern o,eration.
The boundaries o$ surger" have !idened remar+abl" in this centur". 'ts
sa$et" has increased too. Deaths $rom most o,erations are about .8J o$
!hat the" !ere in ()(/ and surger" has e>tended in
(4 man" directions# $or e>am,le to certain t",es o$ birth de$ects in ne!born babies
and# at the other end o$ the scale# to li$e5saving o,erations $or old ,eo,le.
The hos,ital sta" a$ter surger" has been shortened to as little as a !ee+ $or
most major o,erations. Most ,atients are out o$ bed the da" a$ter an
o,eration and ma" be bac+ at
./ !or+ in t!o or three !ee+s.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine &' 'Clo""ed' means .
a) re(la)ed *) *roken )) remo+ed d) *lo)ked
. =ine 1.' 'they' refers to .
a) the *oundaries of sur"ery
*) deaths after o(erations
)) dire)tions in o(erations
d) most modern o(erations
2. ,ur"eons in the early years of this )entury
a) )ould (erform e+ery o(eration known today
*) were less s(e)ialiAed than the modern ones
)) had to s(e)ialiAe more than the modern ones
d) were a*le to )arry out heart o(erations
.*8
.. The se)ond (ara"ra(h is mainly a*out .
a) the im(ro+ements in modern sur"ery
*) the im(ortan)e of hos(ital stay after sur"ery
)) the (er)enta"e of o(erations in this )entury
d) the o(erations of the (ast and today
6. Whi)h of the followin" is true1
a) #n modern sur"ery all ty(es of o(erations )an *e )arried out *y any sur"eon.
*) ;(en heart sur"ery has *een (ossi*le sin)e the de)rease in deaths from
o(erations.
)) 0+en the remo+al of a maDor or"an doesn't (re+ent the (atient from leadin" a
healthy life today.
d) Today only one fourth of all (atients who ha+e o(erations re)o+er.
(8&
6LT<ASO:'CS
Some o$ the !orld's most interesting and use$ul sounds cannot be heard at
all. 6ltrasonics 5 the 'too5high5to5hear sounds' 5 can be used to drill# cut !eld#
clean# and ins,ect $or crac+s and $la!s. Li+e all sounds# the" travel in !aves
through the air or an" other medium# but the" have a $ar higher $re@uenc"
than the sounds !e hear.
Human ears can detect sound !aves that vibrate $rom ./ to ./#/// times
,er second. 9ats can hear u, to 4/#/// vibrations ,er second. 9ut !hen
scientists tal+ about ultrasonics the" can mean billions o$ vibrations ,er
second.
S,ecial vibrators ,roduce these high5$re@uenc" sounds. One# the
transducer# is made b" sand!iching a thin slice o$ @uartC cr"stal bet!een t!o
metal ,lates and ,assing an electric current through it. ;hen this ha,,ens# the
cr"stal e>,ands and contracts b" a tin" amount 5 but enough to generate the
,ressure !aves needed. Ordinar" sound !aves s,read in all directions# but
because o$ their high $re@uenc"# ultrasonics can be more easil" directed into a
beamand made to do use$ul !or+.
The" can be used to detect invisible crac+s in metal because the sound
!aves travel at a di$$erent s,eed through the crac+ than through the metal.
Dishes and clothes can be !ashed !ith them because o$ the ,ulsations the"
set u, in li@uid.
%.
(8%
.ESERT 4LANTS
Onl" s,ecialiCed ,lants can survive the climate o$ a desert because
deserts are regions !ith ver" little rain$all. The entire "earl" rain$all
occurs during a $e! da"s or !ee+s in s,ring. or the remaining ten or
eleven months o$ the "ear# desert ,lants must survive !ithout rain.
4 There are t!o t",es o$ desert ,lants? annuals and ,erennials. Desert
annuals# such as grasses and $lo!ers# survive $rom one "ear to the ne>t
b" e>isting through the long# hot# dr" season in the $orm o$ seeds. These
seeds remain inactive i$ the right amount o$ rain does not $all. '$ there
isn't enough rain# the" !ait until the $ollo!ing "ear or even the
(/ ne>t. Another $actor that hel,s these ,lants to survive is the $act that their
li$e c"cles are short. '$ the" get the right amount o$ rain$all# the seeds
gro! into ,lants !hich $lo!er# then $orm ne! seeds and $inall" die# all
in just a $e! da"s or !ee+s. 9" the time the !ater $rom the s,ring rains
disa,,ears 5 just a $e! !ee+s a$ter it $alls 5 the desert
(4 annuals don't need an".
Desert ,erennials also have s,ecial characteristics !hich enable them
to survive as ,lants $or several "ears. :earl" all ,erennials have a !ell5
develo,ed root s"stem belo! ground A!hich enables the ,lant to absorb
the ma>imum amount o$ !ater ,ossible in a short timeB and
./ a com,arativel" small shoot s"stem# that is# leaves and branches A!hich
limits !ater lossB.
Another characteristic o$ man" desert ,erennials is their deciduous
habit0 that is# a$ter the rain" season the" lose their leaves to ,re,are $or
the long# dr" season# just as trees in !etter climates lose theirs to
.4 ,re,are $or the !inter. This reduces their !ater loss during the dr" season
to a minimum. Then# in the ne>t rain" season the" come $ull" alive once
more# and gro! ne! branches# leaves and $lo!ers# just as the desert
annuals do.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine 16' 'any' refers to .
a) time *) seeds )) water d) (lants
l
. =ine .' 'theirs' refers to .
a) the trees in wetter )limates
*) the (erennials whi)h ha+e a de)iduous ha*it
)) the new *ran)hes' lea+es and flowers of annuals
d) the lea+es of trees in wetter )limates
%&
1+%
A*ARANTH
Amaranth is a +ind o$ high5,rotein grain. 't ma" easil" be gro!n in
man" areas !hich are unable to su,,ort other cro,s. Z
Agriculturalists thin+ it is a ,romising cro, !hich ma" hel, $eed a hungr"
,o,ulation in the $uture.
4 't is not a ne! idea to gro! amaranth as a $oodstu$$. 'n Me>ico
during the si>teenth centur"# the ACtecs cultivated it. The ,lant !as an
im,ortant ,art o$ their diet. 't has been sho!n that the ACtecs harvested close
to &#/// metric tons o$ the grain each "ear. .
Ho!ever# !hen Cortes and his S,anish arm" invaded Me>ico# the"
(/ destro"ed the cro, com,letel". Toda" onl" a $e! !ild and uncultivated
+inds o$ amaranth e>ist# and it is rarel" used as $ood in Me>ico.
't has been discovered that amaranth is a highl" nutritious $ood. The
,lant's seed is high in ,rotein# and it contains an im,ortant
(4 amino acid called l"sine. Amino acids are organic com,ounds that 8
are the building bloc+s o$ ,rotein. L"sine is an essential amino acid
that is missing in !heat# rice# and corn. The leaves o$ some varieties com,are
in taste and nutritional value !ith s,inach and other vegetable greens.
./ Amaranth can be ground into $lour and made into ba+ed $oods.
9read made $rom amaranth $lour is heav" and ver" com,act !hen 2
com,ared !ith the light and air" bread common in :orth America. The $lour
can also be used $or ca+es# coo+ies# and crac+ers# as !ell as high5,rotein
brea+$ast cereals and snac+ $oods.
.4 't is true that breeding a !ild ,lant into a major $ood cro, such
as !heat re@uires much research time. Agriculturalists +no! that it has ta+en
hundreds o$ "ears o$ breeding di$$erent varieties o$ corn to get the better
+inds !e have toda". The" have to go through the same time5consuming
stages to gro! amaranth as a cro,. 3resentl" 4
8/ there are several ,roblems. 9ecause it is a !ild ,lant# it is hard to ,redict
the date !hen the cro, !ill be read" to be harvested. 't is also im,ossible
to +no! the e>,ected height o$ the individual ,lants or ho! much a given
amount o$ seed can ,roduce. 't is im,ortant# $or economic reasons# to
breed a ,lant o$ standard height
84 and one that can be harvested at a s,eci$ic time each "ear.
%%
(8)
.REA*S
Dreams have al!a"s held a universal attraction. A lot has been said
and !ritten about them. Although most dreams ha,,en s,ontaneousl"#
dream activit" ma" be stimulated b" e>ternal in$luences. 'Su$$ocation'
dreams are connected !ith the breathing
4 di$$iculties o$ a heav" cold# $or instance. 'nternal disorders such as
indigestion can cause vivid dreams# and dreams o$ racing $ire5engines
ma" be caused b" the ringing o$ an alarm bell.
E>,eriments have been carried out to investigate the connection
bet!een deliberatel" in$licted ,ain and dreaming. or e>am,le# a
(/ slee,er hurt slightl" !ith a ,in ,erha,s dreams o$ $ighting and receiving
a serious !ound. Although the dream is stimulated b" the ,h"sical
discom$ort# the actual events o$ the dream de,end on the associations o$
the discom$ort in the mind o$ the slee,er.
A dreamer's e"es o$ten move ra,idl" $rom side to side. Since
(4 ,eo,le born blind do not dream visuall" and do not sho! this e"e
activit"# it is thought that the dreamer ma" be scanning the scene in his
dream. A certain amount o$ dreaming seems to be a human re@uirement
5 i$ a slee,er is !o+en u, ever" time his e"es begin to move $ast#
e$$ectivel" de,riving him o$ his dreams# he !ill ma+e more
./ e"e movements the $ollo!ing night.
O$ the man" theories o$ dreams# reud's is ,robabl" the best +no!n.
According to reud# in our dreams# !e return to the modes o$ thought
characteristic o$ earl" childhood. Our thin+ing becomes ,ictorial and
non5logical and e>,resses ideas and !ishes hidden dee,
.4 in our minds.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine $' 'infli)ted' means .
a) )aused . )) satisfied E
*) noti)ed d) moti+ated
. The first (ara"ra(h is mainly a*out .
a) the (ro*a*le )auses of dreams
*) the effe)ts of dreams on the mind
)) some e:(eriments on dreamin"
d) the stran"eness of our dreams
.)/
2. #f a (erson is hurt sli"htly while slee(in"' . ?
a) he may ha+e s(ontaneous dreams
*) his dreams are sha(ed *y the effe)ts of the (ain on the mind
)) the (ain will immediately sto( the dream a)ti+ity
d) no )onne)tion )an *e o*ser+ed *etween the (ain and his dreams
.. 8eo(le who are a*le to see .
a) dream in e:a)tly the same way as *lind (eo(le
*) need dreams more than *lind (eo(le
)) ha+e eye mo+ements durin" dreamin"
d) re<uire different reasons for dreamin"
6. The fourth (ara"ra(h is mainly a*out .
a) the )onse<uen)es of our )hildhood dreams
*) Freud and the dreams we had in early )hildhood
)) different theories on dreamin"
d) the Freudian e:(lanation of dreams
&. Whi)h of the followin" statements is true1
a) ;ur hidden wishes (re+ent dream a)ti+ity.
*) Humans need a )ertain amount of dreamin".
)) 3reams )annot *e )aused *y (hysi)al dis)omfort.
d) The ideas of the slee(er ha+e no influen)e on his dreams.
(2/
4OLLUTION A6<
Ecolog" means the stud" o$ the inter5relationshi,s o$ ,lants#
animals# human beings and their environments. Environment is
ever"thing that a$$ects the @ualit" o$ "our li$e? the air "ou breathe# the
!ater "ou drin+ or s!im in# "our $lat or house# the number o$ ,eo,le#
6 the tra$$ic# the noise and streets# sho,s# ,ar+s# countr"side# seaside#
$actories# $arming# mining.
The di$$erent +inds o$ ,ollution are all connected. ;hat ha,,ens to
the air a$$ects the land. ;hat ha,,ens to the land a$$ects the !ater.
And !hat ha,,ens to the !ater a$$ects the air.
(/ Man has been ,olluting the earth $or a ver" long time. At $irst#
!hen the environment got dirt"# ,eo,le moved to a cleaner ,lace# but
the rise in ,o,ulation and the develo,ing industr" have changed that#
and !e can't do it an" more. There are ne! +inds o$ !aste# such as
,lastics# and ne! chemicals !hich are ver" hard to destro". So# the
.)(
(4 earth is becoming dirtier.
Ever" "ear about (4/#///#/// tons o$ dirt# s,ra"s and gases go into
the air over the 6SA. Air ,ollution damages ,aint and metal# ma+es our
clothes dirt"# sto,s the gro!th o$ ,lants and can also cause man"
diseases and death. There are t!o main causes o$ air ,ollution? $umes
./ $rom cars# truc+s and buses# and $umes $rom industr". 'n large cities# cars
alone are res,onsible $or about */ ,er cent o$ the air ,ollution. 1asoline
engines give o$$ a gas called carbon mono>ide# !hich has no colour or
smell. This gas !ill ma+e "ou slee,"# give "ou a headache and can
$inall" +ill "ou. Scientists sa" that breathing the air o$ :e!
.4 Yor+ is li+e smo+ing $ort" cigarettes a da".
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine 12' 'do it' refers to .
a) (ollute the earth )) mo+e to another (la)e whi)h is )leaner
*) de+elo( industry d) in)rease the (o(ulation
. =ine ' 'whi)h' refers to . a) "asoline *) )ar*on mono:ide
)) "asoline en"ine d) air (ollution
. 0)olo"y means the study of the relationshi( .
a) of animals to (lants
*) of (lants and animals to man
)) *etween all li+in" thin"s and their en+ironment
d) of (lants and animals to institutions
.. The (ro*lem with new kinds of waste and )hemi)als is that they .
a) are +ery hard to destroy )) affe)t industry
* ) a r e *e)omin" dirtier L D) ha+e de+elo(ed industry
6. %!T of the air (ollution in *i" )ities )omes from .
a) industry and )ars *) industry )) dirt' s(rays and "ases d) )ars
&. Whi)h of the followin" statements is true1
a) Fumes from )ars affe)t the weather.
*) 8eo(le i< Few Nork smoke a*out .! )i"arettes a day.
)) Car*on mono:ide )an kill (eo(le.
d) There is air (ollution only in lar"e towns.
.).
(2(
THE ELECT<'C EEL
There are a number o$ di$$erent +inds o$ electric $ish living in the
various rivers and oceans o$ the !orld. The" can generate electricit" u,
to several hundred volts. The most ,o!er$ul electric $ish are the
electric cat$ish and the electric eel.
4 The electric eel lives in South America. 'ts s,ecial organs can
generate a ver" ,o!er$ul electric current# !hich is enough to light
t!elve light bulbs. The eel uses this electric charge to +ill its ,re"
5mainl" $ish and $rogs 5 and to +ee, its enemies a!a".
The electric eel manu$actures the electric current in its tail# !here
(/ thousands o$ cells are lin+ed together and $orm a +ind o$ 'charging'
machine. The electric shoc+ $rom the eel lasts onl" a $raction o$ a
second.
Electric eels can sometimes be nearl" t!o meters long. As the"
move through the !ater# the" send out !ea+ electrical charges and
(4 these create an electric $ield around them. These charges hel, them to
locate their ,re" !hen some other sea animals enter the electrical $ield
and cause a change in the current im,ulses.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine 16' 'them' refers to .
a) weak ele)tri) )har"es
*)the electric eels
)) their (rey
d) other sea animals
. 0le)tri) eels use their ele)tri) )urrent to kill their (rey and also .
a) the ele)tri) sho)k from the eel lasts only a short time
*) to form a kind of ')har"in"' ma)hine
)) fish and fro"s
d) to warn or fri"hten their enemies
2. When some other sea animals enter the ele)tri) field of the eels' .
a) they send out weak ele)tri)al )har"es
*) they are killed
)) they "enerate ele)tri)ity
d) there is a )han"e in the )urrent im(ulses
.)8
(2.
S*O)ING
There is some disagreement on !hether Sir ;alter <aleigh# the (&th
centur" adventurer and e>,lorer# introduced tobacco into Euro,e# or
onl" ,o,ularised the habit o$ smo+ing. Either !a"# he !as not a!are o$
the harm he !as doing to $uture generations.
4 Smo+ing# o$ course# !as not al!a"s as ,o,ular as it is toda". 't !as
mostl" men !ho smo+ed# and it !as considered a slightl" dirt" and
un,leasant habit. A$ter dinner# the men !ould 'go' to the 'smo+ing room'
in their 'smo+ing jac+ets' be$ore lighting their cigars and ,i,es.
Cigarettes are relativel" recent and the" have become more available
(/ Aas !ith so man" other thingsB b" the arrival o$ mass ,roduction. 9" the
irst ;orld ;ar# smo+ing had le$t the 'smo+ing room' and had joined
the ,eo,le. This ,o,ularit" o$ the cigarette continued in the inter5!ar
"ears. 9" that time# the rela>ing @ualities o$ cigarettes had been +no!n
and to this Holl"!ood added another attraction. ;ith a
(4 cigarette dangling $rom "our li,s# "ou too could be li+e Hum,hre"
9ogart# or Fames Cagne"# or 9ett" 1rable 5 or 5 !hoever "our idea o$
the attractive $ilm star !as. 't is $unn" that the act o$ smo+ing dried
leaves could be considered to ma+e "ou loo+ better but so it !as. The
"oung ,eo,le in the ()8/'s and ()2/'s $irst too+ u, smo+ing as a mass
./ habit. This !as the ,eriod !hen the ,ressures o$ living $irst began to be
so great that ,eo,le needed the rela>ing @ualities o$ nicotine.
't !as not until much more recentl"# ho!ever# 5 !ithin the last ten or
t!ent" "ears 5 that !e have realised !hat has ha,,ened to us. ;e no
longer smo+e $or the ,ur,ose o$ rela>ation# or a$ter5dinner social
.4 enjo"ment0 toda"'s smo+er lights a cigarette over his brea+$ast co$$ee#
continues throughout the da"# and ,uts out his last cigarette just be$ore
he turns o$$ the light at night. He smo+es as i$ his li$e de,ends on it 5but
he +no!s that his li$e ma" de,end on his not smo+ing. The connections
bet!een lung cancer# ra,idl" becoming one o$ the largest
8/ +illers in modern societ"# and smo+ing have been demonstrated# but !e
still cannot give u,. 1overnments are beginning to ta+e action against
smo+ing 5 but !ithout too much interest# $or tobacco is one o$ the most
,ro$itable sources o$ ta>. The 9ritish 1overnment too+ the enormous
ste, o$ ordering the cigarette manu$acturers to ,rint a
84 !arning that ESmo+ing Can Damage Your HealthE on the side o$ all
cigarette ,ac+ets. The onl" e$$ect o$ this is that smo+ers need a $e!
e>tra cigarettes to $urther rela> their terri$ied nerves.
Do "ou smo+e= Can "ou run $or the bus !ithout being short o$
breath= Can "ou smell the $lo!ers in s,ring= 's "our house $ull o$
.)2
2/ $inished and hal$5$inished cigarettes= Do "ou s,end the $irst ten
minutes o$ ever" morning coughing=
Loo+# ''ve got an idea. Let's give u, smo+ing. ;ell# an"!a"... let's
give it u, tomorro!.
Oh# ;alter <aleighI ;hat have "ou done to us=
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. #n the (ast .
a) smokin" was less (o(ular *e)ause of Ralei"h
*) smokin" was more (o(ular than it is now
)) not many women smoked
d) only dirty men smoked
. Ci"arettes "ained (o(ularity *e)ause of .
a) mass (rodu)tion
*) their rela:in" <ualities
)) the attra)tion Hollywood added
d) all of the a*o+e
2. =ine 1%' 'so it was' refers to .
a) it was funny to )onsider smokin" to make you look *etter
*) the a)t of smokin" was funny *ut this was )onsidered to *e *etter
)) dried lea+es )ould *e smoked and this was funny
d) smokin" was )onsidered to make you look *etter
.. The youn" (eo(le of the 1$2!'s and 1$.!'s .
a) *e)ame smokers when they "rew u(
*) needed the rela:in" <ualities of ni)otine
)) *e)ame smokers to look like film stars
d) thou"ht the a)t of smokin" was funny
6. Fowadays' smokers .
a) donl realise how dan"erous smokin" is
*) smoke for so)ial enDoyment and rela:ation
)) ha+e realised the dan"ers of smokin" and are "i+in" it u(
d) know they mi"ht die if they )ontinue smokin"
.)4
&. The ste( taken *y the /ritish 9o+ernment .
a) made (eo(le smoke a little more
*) hel(ed de)rease the num*er of smokers
)) was not interestin" for )i"arette manufa)turers
d) )aused a de)rease in the ta: in)ome
5. This (assa"e has *een written .
a) as an attem(t to make (eo(le sto( smokin"
*) as an attem(t to e:(lain why smokin" is not really dan"erous
)) to "i+e a serious history of smokin"
d) to (oint out all the dan"ers of smokin"
(28
DDT
't is clear that some chemicals can damage the health o$ animals and
humans. Ho!ever# this is not the onl" ,roblem that can be caused b" the
careless use o$ chemicals. Chemicals can also disturb the ecological
balance o$ the environment. '$ the ecological balance is
4 disturbed# the conse@uences can be e>tremel" serious.
The histor" o$ DDT illustrates this ,roblem. DDT# a chemical !hich
+ills insects# at $irst seemed to be a ,er$ect ans!er to man" ,roblems. 't
!ould control insects that caused dangerous diseases# as !ell as insects
that caused billions o$ dollars o$ damage to cro,s ever"
(/ "ear. 1overnments ,ermitted and even encouraged the use o$ DDT.
armers in man" countries began to s,ra" it on their cro,s. The
immediate results !ere good? damage to cro,s !ent do!n# and ,ro$its
!ent u,. Ho!ever# the chemical had e$$ects !hich the scientists had not
,redicted. irst# it also +illed insects !hich !ere the natural
(4 enemies o$ the harm$ul insects and !hich !ere# there$ore# bene$icial to
$armers. Second# and ,erha,s !orse# DDT did not +ill ever" harm$ul
insect. A $e! insects# !hich had natural resistance to the chemical#
survived and multi,lied. 'n a $e! "ears# there !ere large numbers o$
insects !hich !ere not a$$ected b" DDT# and there !ere
./ $e!er insects !hich could act as natural controls on these n e ! Q 'su,er5
insects'. inall"# it became clear that DDT !as not solving the insect
,roblem. 'n $act# it !as ma+ing the ,roblem !orse. 't then became
necessar" to $ind a second cure $or the e$$ects o$ the $irstI
.)&
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine &' this (ro*lem' refers to .
a) )hemi)als dama"in" the health of animals and humans
*) the )areless use of )hemi)als
)) )hemi)als' distur*in" the e)olo"i)al *alan)e of the en+ironment
d) the e:tremely serious )onse<uen)es
. 33T was first +iewed fa+oura*ly *e)ause .
a) it hel(ed )ontrol )ertain diseases and )ro( dama"e
*) all its effe)ts were (redi)ta*le
)) its use was en)oura"ed *y "o+ernments
d) it did not harm humans or animals
2. ,)ientists )ouldn't realise that .
a) the use of 33T would in)rease the a"ri)ultural (rofits
*) 33T would also kill )ertain inse)ts whi)h were useful
)) the ty(e of inse)ts whi)h 33T destroyed would later "row a resistan)e
d) the immediate results of 33T usa"e would *e "ood
.. #f a farmer used 33T today' in fi+e years' time .
a) he would ha+e no (ro*lems with harmful inse)ts
*) his situation would not *e different
)) inse)ts mi"ht )reate an e+en "reater (ro*lem for him
d) his (rofits would e+entually rise to une:(e)ted le+els
1..
.R0 FOO.
ood contains ,roteins# carboh"drates# $ats and vitamins and these
are vital to li$e. ood must be $resh !hen !e eat it. '$ it is bad# it can
ma+e us ill. There are t!o main agents !hich turn $ood bad0 $ungi
Asuch as "east and various mouldsB and bacteria. These are
4 micro5organisms !hich cannot ma+e their o!n $ood. So the" live and
gro! on our $ood. Moulds# $or e>am,le# usuall" gro! on bread. Yeast
can s,oil $resh $ood but it also has some ver" use$ul ,ro,erties. or
hundreds o$ "ears ,eo,le have used it in the ma+ing o$ bread and !ine.
(/ 'n order to gro! and multi,l"# all these micro5organisms need $ood#
!ater# !armth and# in some cases# air. The methods !e use to ,reserve
our $ood ma+e conditions dr" and ver" cold0 unsuitable $or the gro!th
and multi,lication o$ micro5organisms.
.)%
(4 The great distances !hich o$ten se,arate the ,roducer o$ $ood $rom
the consumer in the ./th centur" ma+e e$$ective $ood ,reservation
vital. 9ut most ,reservation ,rocesses destro" man" im,ortant
vitamins and ,roteins. One o$ the tas+s o$ $ood technologists toda" is
to $ind !a"s o$ ,reserving $ood !ithout losing these im,ortant
./ substances.
'n hot countries ,eo,le dr" $ood sim,l" b" the heat o$ the sun. 'n
this !a"# it is ,ossible to reduce the moisture level in most $ruits to
bet!een 4J and (4J. This level is lo! enough to sto, the gro!th o$
micro5organisms. Some other +inds o$ $ood go through a ,rocess
.4 called deh"dration. 'n this ,rocess# hot and dr" air ,asses over the $ood
and absorbs as much moisture as ,ossible. This method is usuall" used
$or dr"ing tea and co$$ee. Another !a" o$ ,reserving $ood is ,utting it
into cans or bottles and heating it u, to a tem,erature o$ (//SC or
(./SC $or about ten minutes because high tem,eratures +ill
8/ micro5organisms in $ood.
There are several other !a"s o$ ,reserving $ood. One o$ them is
$reeCing the $ood to a tem,erature bet!een 58/SC and 52/SC. Some
,eo,le still use t!o ver" old methods? salting and smo+ing. Salt sto,s
the gro!th o$ micro5organisms and smo+ing removes some o$ the
84 moisture in the $ood.
Certain acids and chemicals are use$ul ,reservers because the" sto,
the action o$ micro5organisms. or e>am,le# !e can use vinegar# an
acidic li@uid# to ,reserve eggs# onions and some vegetables. One o$ the
ne!est methods is radiation. 't is ver" e$$ective because it +ills not
2/ onl" the micro5organisms but also their s,ores Asmall cells !hich $ungi
or other micro5organisms ,roduce in order to re,roduce the organismB.
'n this !a"# it sto,s their re,roduction.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1 .=ine %' 'it' refers to .
a) fresh food *) yeast )) *read d) mould
. =ines 1$4!' 'these im(ortant su*stan)es' refers to .
a) ways of (reser+in" food
*) one of the tasks of food te)hnolo"ists
)) +itamins and (roteins
d) most (reser+in" methods
2. =ine %' 'if refers to .
a) food *) tea )) )offee ' d) this method
.)*
BLUE-BEANS
't has been more than (8/ "ears since Levi Strauss invented blue5
jeans and the" are still ver" ,o,ular toda". armers and !or+ers !ear
them to !or+ in0 children !ear them to ,la" in. Others !ear them
because the" are com$ortable. 9e$ore the ()4/'s# blue5jeans !ere
4 ,o,ular onl" in the ;est and South!est. Toda"# almost ever"one !ears
them. Americans bu" about 4// million ,airs o$ jeans a "ear. That's
more than t!o ,airs ,er ,erson. O$ course# blue5jeans are also ,o,ular in
other ,arts o$ the !orld. 'n these areas# ,eo,le bu" about .// million
,airs o$ jeans.
(/ Levi Strauss and Com,an" ma+es about one5third o$ all the jeans in
the 6nited States and about one5seventh o$ those in other countries. 'n
$act# $or a long time# ,eo,le used the !ord Levi's
X
as a s"non"m $or
blue5jeans. That's because 'Levi's' !ere the $irst jeans. The inventor !as
a 1erman immigrant named Levi Strauss.
(4 Levi Strauss le$t 1erman" in (*2*# !hen he !as a "oung man. He
came to :e! Yor+ Cit" to be near his t!o brothers. or t!o "ears# he
!or+ed as a salesman. He !or+ed hard# but he didn't earn much mone".
Then# he decided to go to San rancisco. 1old !as discovered in
Cali$ornia in (*2*# so man" ,eo,le le$t their homes and jobs in the
./ east and the" moved to mining cam,s in Cali$ornia# ho,ing to $ind gold
and become rich. Some o$ them did# but man" did not.
;hen Levi !ent ;est# he brought some canvas Aa ver" strong clothB
!ith him. He !anted to sell it to the miners $or ma+ing tents. His canvas
!as the !rong +ind $or tents# so nobod" bought it# but
. Levi $ound another use $or it. A miner told Levi that he needed a good#
strong ,air o$ ,ants because digging $or gold !as hard !or+. ;hen Levi
heard that# he made a ,air o$ canvas ,ants $or the miner. The miner ,aid
Levi & dollars in gold dust and told the other miners about 'those ,ants
o$ Levi'sX. Levi @uic+l" sold a lot o$ ,ants# so he
8/ !rote to his brothers in :e! Yor+ and told them to send him more
canvas# but the" sent him some heav" cotton cloth called 'denim'# much
o$ !hich came $rom 1enes Athe rench name $or the cit" o$ 1enoa#
'tal"B. Levi changed the s,elling o$ 1enes to 'jeans'. He called his ne!
,ants blue5jeans.
84 'n (*48# Levi and his brothers o,ened a small clothing business in
San rancisco. Toda" the" ma+e and sell about .4/ million ,ieces o$
clothing a "ear 5 $rom !omen's clothes to men's suits# and o$ course#
blue5jeans.
2!!
(2&
THE REBIRTH OF THE FE*INIST *O3E*ENT
There is a ,o,ular belie$ that the $eminist movement# !hich became
ver" ,o,ular and ,o!er$ul in the earl" ()%/'s# caused !omen to be
dissatis$ied !ith their traditional roles as !ives# mothers# and
homema+ers. These !omen then began to $ind more satis$"ing !or+
4 outside the home. This# ho!ever# is not an accurate ,icture o$ the
connection bet!een !or+ing !omen and the $eminist movement.
Although $eminism# or !omen's liberation# has been an im,ortant $actor
in the changes !hich have occurred in the role o$ !omen since ()%/# it
did not begin these changes.
(/ There are t!o ,rimar" causes $or the increase in the number o$
American !omen !ho !or+ outside the home. irst# bet!een the end o$
;orld ;ar '' and the earl" ()&/'s# the ,o,ulation o$ the countr" !as
gro!ing ra,idl"# and this gro!th created a need $or more teachers# more
medical assistants and nurses# more social !or+ers#
(4 more secretaries# and more store assistants. There$ore# a large number
o$ jobs became available in service industries. These t",es o$
occu,ations had t!o im,ortant $eatures in common? A(B the" !ere jobs
!hich !ere alread" traditionall" held b" !omen# and A.B in com,arison
!ith jobs !hich !ere traditionall" held b" men# the" !ere
./ ,oorl" ,aid. The" !ere# there$ore# jobs that did not usuall" attract men.
The availabilit" o$ ne! jobs that men did not !ant# ho!ever# is not
b" itsel$ an ade@uate e>,lanation $or the rise in the number o$ !or+ing
!omen. 't does not ans!er the @uestion o$ !h" !omen !anted to
.4 !or+. The second cause o$ the increase in the number o$ !or+ing
!omen is the economic ,ressures !hich $orced married !omen#
es,eciall" "oung married !omen# to loo+ $or !or+ outside the home. 'n
the ()&/'s# ,eo,le in the 6.S. began to e>,ect a higher standard o$
living0 the" !anted the e>,ensive consumer goods that 6.S. industr"
8/ !as ,roducing. Ho!ever# o$ten the husband's earnings did not ,ermit
the $amil" to bu" the ne! +itchen a,,liances# the color television# the
ne! clothes# the $urniture# and the second automobile !hich seemed so
necessar". 't became necessar" $or !ives to increase the $amil"'s
income# and so !omen began to ta+e the service jobs that !ere
84 becoming available.
't is clear# there$ore# that the increase in the number o$ !or+ing
!omen began be$ore the $eminist movement !as reborn in the late
()&/'s. 'n $act# man" e>,erts argue that the increase created the modern
$eminist movement. ;or+ing !omen !ere the cause# not the
2!
2/ result# o$ !omen's liberation. According to these e>,erts# economic
conditions and the e>,eriences o$ these !or+ing !omen !ere the main
$actors in the develo,ment o$ the $eminist movement in the ()%/'s.
A. Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine $' 'it' refers to . .
a) an im(ortant fa)tor
*) the role of women
)) an a))urate (i)ture
d) feminism
. =ine .' '#t' refers to G
a) the a+aila*ility of Do*s in ser+i)e industries
*) the a+aila*ility of new Do*s that men did not want
)) the rise in the num*er of workin" women
d) an ade<uate e:(lanation .
Women wanted to work outside the home *e)ause .
a) housework did not satisfy them
*) they wanted a *etter standard of li+in"
)) the new household a((lian)es "a+e them a lot of free time
d) findin" a new Do* was +ery easy
What is the )onne)tion *etween the feminist mo+ement and the in)rease in the
num*er of workin" women in the1$&!'s1
a) These two de+elo(ments ha+e no )onne)tion.
*) The feminist mo+ement made women unha((y with their traditional roles as
wi+es and mothers. As a result' more women took em(loyment outside the
home.
)) There was a ra(id in)rease in the num*er of workin" women' and this
in)rease led to the rea((earan)e of feminism.
d) The risin" )ost of li+in" )aused many men to for)e their wi+es to think more
seriously a*out )areers.
2!2
(2%
5OO4ERATI3E E.U5ATION
'Coo,erative education' is a signi$icant innovation in universit"
education ,rograms and it has $ound increasing $avor in recent "ears.
Coo,erative education ma+es $ull5time !or+ in industr"# business# or
government a ,art o$ the ,rogram. Thus# b" alternating semesters o$
4 stud" !ith !or+ related to that stud"# 'co5o,' students receive valuable
job training !hile earning mone" $or tuition. The ,rogram ma+es
advanced schooling more meaning$ul and realistic.
6niversities li+e the idea o$ coo,erative education# not onl" $or its
educational value but also because such ,rograms aid them in
(/ e>,anding enrollments. ;ith a large number o$ students s,ending time
a!a" $rom school !or+ing# universities can acce,t more students
!ithout increasing the number o$ buildings and teaching sta$$. The
business communit" !elcomes the !ell5trained em,lo"ees into jobs
be$ore and a$ter graduation.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine ' @ refers to .
a) uni+ersity edu)ation )) a si"nifi)ant inno+ation
*) )oo(erati+e edu)ation d) edu)ation (ro"rams
. =ine $' 'them' refers to .
a) enrollments *) edu)ational +alues )) uni+ersities d) (ro"rams
2. Whi)h of the followin" states the main idea of the first (ara"ra(h1
a) Co* trainin" in industry' *usiness or "o+ernment has always *een a (art of a
uni+ersity edu)ation (ro"ram.
*) ,tudents )annot afford to "o to uni+ersity *e)ause tuition is too hi"h.
)) Coo(erati+e edu)ation (ro"rams at uni+ersities in+ol+e full4time work in
industry' *usiness and "o+ernment.
d) Many uni+ersities ha+e ado(ted a )oo(erati+e edu)ation (ro"ram *e)ause
students *enefit *oth finan)ially and (rofessionally from su)h a (ro"ram.
.. -ni+ersities that make )oo(erati+e edu)ation (art of their (ro"ram
a) in)rease the num*er of tea)hin" staff to "i+e *etter edu)ation
*) ha+e to in)rease the num*er of *uildin"s sin)e they a))e(t more students
a) )an (ro+ide edu)ation for more students than a uni+ersity without a ')o4o('
(ro"ram
)) a))e(t students that ha+e had trainin" in the *usiness )ommunity
2!.
(2*
THE E1Y3T'A: 3Y<AM'DS
The ancient Eg",tian civiliCation# $amous $or its might" ,"ramids#
lasted $or more than 8/// "ears. During this time Eg",t !as ruled b"
about at least 8/ d"nasties# ruling $amilies o$ +ings or @ueens. The
,"ramids !ere constructed as tombs# i.e.# as burial ,laces $or the
4 Eg",tian +ings and their $amilies. Originall"# during the irst and
Second D"nasties# !hich lasted until about .&&4 9.C.# +ings o$ Eg",t
constructed a t",e o$ tomb called 'the mastaba'. A mastaba loo+ed li+e
a lo!# rectangular shoebo>.
The $irst t",ical ,"ramid !as built in .&4/ 9.C. during the Third
(/ D"nast". This ,"ramid !as built $or 7ing Loser b" an architect named
'mhotc, as a series o$ giant ste,s or stairs. 't# along !ith the others o$
its t",e# is called the Ste, 3"ramid. 't !as reall" sim,l" a ,ile o$ ste,s
each higher and smaller than the one be$ore. The Ste, 3"ramid o$ 7ing
Loser !as di$$erent $rom the later ,"ramids because it !as never
(4 covered !ith stone to give it a smooth sur$ace.
Actuall"# it !as not until the ourth D"nast" that the most $amous
,"ramids !ere built. These are located near the to!n o$ 1iCa# on the
!est ban+ o$ the <iver :ile# just outside the ca,ital cit" o$ Eg",t#
Cairo. The largest o$ these ,"ramids is +no!n as the 1reat 3"ramid. 't
./ !as built $or 7ing 7hu$u# !ho !as called Cheo,s b" the 1ree+s# and
so the ,"ramid is sometimes called the 3"ramid o$ Cheo,s. 't has been
estimated that .#8//#/// bloc+s o$ limestone !ere used to build the
1reat 3"ramid. The bloc+s !eigh average .#4// +ilos each# the largest
stone bloc+ !eighing about (4#/// +ilos. The base o$ the ,"ramid
.4 covers 4.8 hectares 5 an area large enough to hold ten $ootball ields.
'n terms o$ height# the ,"ramid used to be (2% meters high# but toda"
the to, ten meters are missing# and the entire outer limestone covering
has been ta+en a!a".
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. >in" Ooser's (yramid was different from others *e)ause .
a) it was re)tan"ular' like a shoe *o:
*) it was *uilt durin" the Fourth 3ynasty
)) it didn't ha+e a smooth surfa)e )o+ered with stone
d) it didn't ha+e a series of hu"e ste(s or stairs
. =ineJI2' 'oneB refers to .
a) the (yramid *) the ste( )) the stone d) the ty(e
8/4
2. The 9reat (yramid .
a) has a *ase ten times as lar"e as a foot*all field
*) is made u( of '6!! stones wei"hin" 16'!!! kilos ea)h
)) is 1.5 meters hi"h
d) is still )o+ered with limestone
.. Whi)h of the followin" is )orre)t1
a) The most famous 0y"(tian (yramids are )alled masta*as.
*) A 9reek )alled Cheo(s *uilt the 9reat 8yramid for >in" >hufu.
)) All (yramids *uilt durin" the first four dynasties were similar in sha(e.
d) An ar)hite)t named #mhote( *uilt the first ste( (yramid.
(2)
1HOSTS
Herr Adam is a la!"er !or+ing in <osenheim# a small to!n in
9avaria# ;est 1erman". 'n the summer o$ ()&%# the tele,hones in his
o$$ice seemed to go !rong. He called in Siemens# !ho had installed the
,hones# but the" couldn't $ind a $ault. He then called in the 3ost
4 O$$ice. The" re,laced the Siemens ,hones !ith o$$icial 3ost O$$ice
ones and ,ut meters that sho!ed calls being made in the o$$ice.
On (/th October# $or e>am,le# $ort"5si> calls !ere made in $i$teen
minutes $rom %.2. to %.4% a.m.I The ,hones !ere re,laced b" ones
!hich had loc+s. There !as still no im,rovement? bet!een $ive and
(/ si> hundred calls !ere made in one !ee+. ;hen he sa! the bills# Mr.
Adam thought that someone at the 3ost O$$ice !as ,oc+eting his
mone"I A serious ro! develo,ed bet!een him and the 3ost O$$ice
Accounts De,artment.
Then# on ./th October ()&%# all the o$$ice $luorescent lights came
(4 out o$ their soc+ets and $used. The" !ere mended b" a local electrician#
but e>actl" the same thing ha,,ened again. The 1erman Electrict"
9oard too+ over the case. 3aul 9runner# Au>iliar" ;or+s Manager#
arrived on (4th :ovember ()&%. The ne>t da"# instruments !ere
installed to measure the electricit" coming into the o$$ice. At the
./ same time as light bulbs e>,loded and the ,hotoco,ier !ent !rong#
abnormal amounts o$ electricit" !ere recorded. These !ere so
e>treme that the instruments bro+e do!n. <eadings $rom the central
su,,l" and then $rom the generator nearb" !ere normal# ho!ever.
The electricit" !as coming $rom some!here else# but !here= 'n the
.4 same month# a girl !as cut b" $l"ing glass# lights began to s!ing and
,ictures on the !alls changed ,laces. 3aul 9runner realised that this
8/&
!as be"ond him and handed the matter over to t!o o$ 1erman"'s
leading ,h"sicists# Dr. 7arga and Dr. Licha. The" !ere $ascinated and
did their o!n research. The" could $ind no ans!er e>ce,t that there
8/ !as some e>ternal $orce that activated the electrics in the o$$ice and the
tele,hones. The"# in turn# handed the case over to ,ara,s"chologist
3ro$essor 9ender and the ,olice.
3ro$essor 9ender and the ,olice centred their attention on the ,eo,le
!or+ing in the o$$ice and noticed that one o$$ice cler+ in
84 ,articular# Anne5Marie Schneider# sho!ed signs o$ stress at the time o$
the ha,,enings although she !asn't a!are o$ it. 3ro$essor 9ender
noticed that the strange ha,,enings began at %.8/ a.m.# the time that
this girl began !or+# and sto,,ed com,letel" !hen she too+ a !ee+'s
holida". On her return# things !ent $rom bad to !orse. Des+ dra!ers
2/ +e,t $l"ing o,en and# on one occasion# a cash5bo> o,ened and the
mone" inside $ell onto the $loor. The o$$ice !as in chaos and ever"one#
including Anne5Marie# !as terri$ied. Mr. Adam decided to as+ her to
leave.
rom the da" she le$t# the o$$ice returned to normal and there has
24 been no other e>,lanation other than ghosts $or all these strange
ha,,enings.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. 8ro*lems with tele(hones o))urred .
a) at the 8ost ;ffi)e
*) in a lawyer's offi)e
)) in ,iemens
d) at the 0le)tri)ity /oard
. =ine 1' 'row' (ro*a*ly means . a) a"reement *)
ar"ument )) treatment d) (ayment
2. Mr. Adam *lamed the 8ost ;ffi)e for .
a) refusin" to re(la)e his (hones
*) installin" faulty (hones in his offi)e
)) lo)kin" all his offi)e (hones
d) sendin" him hi"h tele(hone *ills
.. 8aul /runner .
a) was hurt *y flyin" "lass and handed the )ase o+er to (hysi)ists
*) )ould not sol+e the (ro*lem and so "a+e u( his in+esti"ation
)) re)ei+ed hel( from 3r. >ar"a and 3r. Oi)ha to do his in+esti"ation
d) worked with the (oli)e until the end of the (ro*lem
2!5
/
(4/
T<A-ELLE<S' TALES
Ever" "ear# a magaCine called 49ecuti8e -ra8el organises a com,etition to
$ind the Airline o$ the Year. Travellers $rom all over the !orld are invited to
vote $or the most e$$icient# the most ,unctual# the sa$est and the $riendliest
airline. The !inner in ()*4 !as 9ritish 4 Air!a"s. The com,etition as+ed
travellers !hat the" e>,ected most $rom an airline# and the results !ere as
$ollo!s?
3unctual de,artures and arrivals 84J
Attentive cabin sta$$ 84J
Com$ort (*J
(/ Sa$et" )J
1ood $ood and !ine 8J
The com,etition also invited travellers to tell their most horri$ic
stories o$ international travel. <e,lies included si> hijac+s# $i$t"5three
cases o$ engine $ailure or troubles !ith landing# eleven lightning
(4 stri+es# t!ent"5three bomb scares# thirteen cases o$ $ood ,oisoning# eleven
near misses and t!o accidents !ith air,ort truc+s.
9ad $l"ing e>,eriences begin on the ground# naturall". One
American airline managed to double5boo+ an entire %2%# but this is
nothing com,ared to !hat ha,,ened on an internal $light on a certain
./ A$rican airline. The $light had been overboo+ed three times. The local
militar" solved the ,roblem b" insisting that all ,assengers should run
round the ,lane t!ice# the $astest getting the seats. An overboo+ed
$light that !as going $rom Heathro! to America gave one traveller a bit
o$ a shoc+. Dressed onl" in trousers# shirt and soc+s# he had been
.4 allo!ed b" the ste!ardess to leave the aircra$t to s,ea+ to a $riend. He
returned a $e! minutes later to $ind the %2% closed u, and about to start
moving 5 !ith his shoes# !allet# ,ass,ort and luggage inside. 9anging
$ranticall" on the door got him bac+ inside. A similar event !as
e>,erienced b" a businessman on a $light $rom 9angladesh.
8/ 3assengers !ere !aiting $or ta+e5o$$ !hen there !as a sudden h"sterical
banging on the door. At $irst# the cabin cre! ,aid no attention. The
banging continued. ;hen the door !as $inall" o,ened# the ,ilot got in.
One $re@uent $lier lost a certain amount o$ con$idence !hen the
84 cabin sta$$ as+ed him to sit in the lavator" during ta+e5o$$ so that the"
could occu," the seats nearest the emergenc" e>it on a $light bet!een
London and Manchester. or nervous $liers# a shoc+ing journe" !as one
bet!een 1at!ic+ and Mont,ellier# during !hich the" had to !atch
,ieces o$ the engine $alling o$$. Another ,assenger !as as+ed to
o no
2/ hold the aircra$t door closed at ta+e5o$$ and landing.
9aggage is a rich source o$ horror stories. There !as the unluc+"
businessman !ho le$t Chicago in minus5& !eather. He !as going to
an im,ortant meeting in Dallas# !here the tem,erature !as 8.5,lus.
6n$ortunatel"# his suitcase had gone to Los Angeles# !here it s,ent 24
the ne>t t!o da"s. The customers he !as tr"ing to im,ress !ere more
than a little sur,rised to see him going round in a thic+ suit# heav"
overcoat and $ur hat.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. The )om(etition mentioned in the te:t was or"anised *y .
a) the Airline of the year
b# $%euti"e Tra"el
)) /ritish Airways
d) tra+ellers all o+er the world
. Com(etition results showed that .
a) the maDority thou"ht )omfort was most im(ortant
*) two thirds were interested in "ood food and wine
)) less than ten (er )ent )onsidered safety im(ortant
d) none )ited (un)tuality as an im(ortant (oint
2. The stories told *y tra+ellers in)luded .
a) more hiDa)ks than )ases of en"ine failure
*) no (ro*lems with food ser+ed on the (lanes
)) only disasters whi)h took (la)e on the "round
d) a num*er of a))idents with air(ort tru)ks
.. =ine 1%' 'this' refers to .
a) one Ameri)an airline
*) dou*le4*ookin" the fli"ht
)) an e:(erien)e on the "round
d) mana"ement of an airline
6. ;n one o))asion in Afri)a' the (assen"ers had to run round the (lane .
a) to "et seats
*) *e)ause they were in trou*le with the lo)al military
)) to *uy ti)kets for an internal fli"ht
d) *e)ause they were late
8(/
(4(
BOB 5ENTRE LEAFLET
( <egistered $or !or+
Once "ou have registered $or !or+# !e !ill
consider "ou $or the available jobs. You must
also register $or !or+ at the Fob Centre in
order to claim unem,lo"ment ,a". 9ut "ou
actuall" a,,l" $or ,a" at the local
6nem,lo"ment O$$ice.
. 1etting a job
Fobs that come in are noted on cards and
dis,la"ed in the o$$ice !indo! as soon as
,ossible. You can call in at an" time to loo+
at the jobs dis,la"ed.
Hal$ the ,eo,le !ho $ind jobs through Fob
Centres or Em,lo"ment O$$ices $ind them in
this !a".
The rece,tionist is here to hel, "ou# so i$ "ou
see a job that loo+s right $or "ou# tell the
rece,tionist# giving the re$erence number on
the card.
8 '$ "ou !ant $urther hel, !ith
$inding a job
'$ "ou !ant more hel, or advice# don't $orget
that's !hat !e're here $or. Our Em,lo"ment
Advisers can hel, "ou !ith things li+e?
5 thin+ing about the di$$erent sorts o$ jobs
"ou could do 5 and !hich are best $or
"ou
5jobs available locall" or else!here
5 training $or a ne! job
5 "our suitabilit" $ora training course# during
!hich "ou get an allo!ance
5 loans to hel, "ou loo+ $or# and move to#
!or+ in other $ields
Even though "ou have a clear idea o$ the
sort o$ job and ,a" "ou !ant# "ou ma" $ind
that something di$$erent !ill suit "ou @uite
!ell. 7ee, this in mind !hen "ou're tal+ing
!ith the Em,lo"ment Adviser and don't stic+
to one job onl".
2 '$ "ou don't $ind a job on "our
$irst visit
Come into our o$$ice as o$ten as "ou can to
loo+ at the jobs on dis,la" here.
1ood vacancies are coming in all the time#
but the" do go @uic+l". Don't rel" on being
told about them just because "ou've been
registered $or em,lo"ment.
'$ "ou can't get to the o$$ice ever" da" ea5
sil"# come in !henever "ou can 5 and en5
@uire b" tele,hone as o$ten as "ou li+e.
't'll hel, "ou to $ind a job $aster i$ "ou
+ee, in touch.

8(4
-housands of #obs co&e into our @ob 6entres and 4&'lo"&ent
(ffices e8er" wee, but the" get sna''ed u' <uicl". So,
although we shall do all we can to hel' "ou, it's i&'ortant for
"ou to do all "ou can to hel' "ourself. -his leaflet tells "ou how.
(4.
LAN-AROTE
3eo,le usuall" regard the ,resence o$ even a single volcano in their
,articular geogra,hical region as a cause o$ great concern# but the inhabitants
o$ the 'sland o$ LanCarote live in the shado!s o$ over t!o hundred
volcanoes# most o$ !hich no! lie slee,ing. LanCarote# one o$ the Canar"
'slands belonging to S,ain# is located about eight" miles o$$ the !estern
coast o$ Morocco in A$rica.
The inhabitants o$ LanCarote are +no!n $or their courage and ada,tabilit".
Their island is an arid# treeless land# but its agricultural out,ut is im,ressive.
9ecause there is ver" little rain# $armers use volcanic cinder to ca,ture and
retain !etness in the earth. The" even dare to ,lant cro,s in the desert sand
that is a condition o$ their dail" e>istence. An unusual land# LanCarote ,roves
man's abilit" to overcome the obstacles in his natural environment.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. What is the (resent )ondition of +ol)anoes on =anAarote1
a) Most of the +ol)anoes (resent a threat to the inha*itants of the island.
*) A "reat many +ol)anoes are still eru(tin".
)) The (resen)e of +ol)anoes makes a"ri)ulture almost im(ossi*le on the
island.
d) The maDority of +ol)anoes are ina)ti+e.
. Whi)h of the followin" is not true for =anAarote or its inha*itants1
a) =anAarote's inha*itants are *ra+e and fle:i*le (eo(le.
*) =anAarote is a dry land without trees.
)) =anAarote is lo)ated off the southern )oast of Afri)a.
d) =anAarote's inha*itants "row )ro(s in the desert to sur+i+e.
8(2
(48
S3EED L'M'T
According to a recent surve"# a large majorit" o$ Americans are in
$avor o$ retaining the ,resent 445mile5an5hour s,eed limit.' This s,eed
limit !as im,osed in ()%8 !hen $uel shortages became crucial.
Sevent"5$ive ,er cent o$ the ,ersons surve"ed thin+ that the la! is a
4 good one. The" ,oint to the decrease in the high!a" death rate or to
the saving o$ $uel as reasons $or their o,inion. Easterners and older
,eo,le# rather than "oung adults# are more li+el" to argue $or retention
o$ the la!.
Onl" t!ent"5three ,er cent o$ the ,eo,le surve"ed $avor a higher
(/ s,eed limit $or truc+s. Their vie! is su,,orted b" the truc+ing
industr"# !hich contends that truc+ engines !or+ more e$$icientl" at
higher s,eeds# and that truc+s traveling at higher s,eeds reach mar+ets
more @uic+l"# thereb" saving consumers mone". Ho!ever# some o$ the
,ersons ,olled argue that truc+s on certain high!a"s are alread"
(4 involved in a dis,ro,ortionate number o$ $atal accidents.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. The ori"inal reason for the 664mile4(er4hour s(eed limit was that .
a) lar"e tru)ks were )ausin" many a))idents
*) a maDority of the (eo(le +oted for it
)) a fuel shorta"e was de+elo(in"
d) there was a sudden in)rease in hi"hway death rate
. do not seem to ar"ue for kee(in" the s(eed limit.
a) 2T of the (eo(le
)
D Noun" (eo(le
*) ;ld (eo(le d) 56 T of the (eo(le
2. Tru)kers want a hi"her s(eed limit for tru)ks .
a) althou"h few tru)ks are in+ol+ed in a))idents
*) as tru)ks )annot sa+e money *y usin" little fuel
)) only if they do not trans(ort )onsumer "oods
d) *e)ause tru)ks run *etter at hi"her s(eeds
.. To )ontend (line 11) means to .
a) *e satisfied *) )laim )) refuse d) *e dou*tful
8(4
(42
THE TORNA.O
One o$ the most $eared occurrences in nature is the tornado. The area most
$re@uentl" the target o$ this violent !indstorm is the 1reat 3lains# the region
e>tending $rom the <oc+ies to the Mississi,,i# and $rom Canada do!n
through Te>as. ;hen !arm# moist air meets !ith cooler# drier air at lo!
levels# a tornado o$ten occurs. 3rior to the $ormation o$ the $amiliar $unnel5
sha,ed cloud# the s+" is ver" clear. Then# a blac+ line suddenl" a,,ears. As
this blac+ area moves in# the $ast !ind becomes hot and moist and a dee,
stillness encircles the landsca,e. 9ecause the air ,ressure dro,s steadil" during
a tornado# breathing becomes di$$icult. 'nsects $all to the ground# unable to
balance themselves in $light. Suddenl"# a blac+ $unnel resembling a giant !hi,
di,s do!n out o$ the s+"# destro"ing !hatever it touches# and then retreats.
Although a tornado usuall" destro"s ,ro,ert" rather than lives# an average o$
(./ ,eo,le die "earl" as a result o$ these violent storms. 't is obvious !h" the
tornado is $eared throughout the 1reat 3lains.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. /efore a tornado o))urs .
a) there are funnel4sha(ed )louds in the sky
*) the sky is +ery dark
. 3urin" a tornado' inse)ts .
a) are una*le to fly
*) die immediately due to atmos(heri) (ressure
)) *reathe at an in)reasin" rate
d) are seldom affe)ted *y the heat and moisture
2. As a tornado o))urs .
a) hot' dry air en)ounters )old' dam( air
*) air (ressure "ets (ro"ressi+ely lower
)) the *la)k funnel in the sky disa((ears
d) *reathin" "ets easier
.. Whi)h of the followin" statements is true1
a) A *la)k line in the sky is a si"n that the tornado is o+er.
*) A tornado is most destru)ti+e *efore the funnel4sha(ed )loud is formed.
)) The wind is fast' hot and humid durin" a tornado.
d) Tornadoes are more dan"erous for (eo(le than for (ro(erty.
)) there are )old freeAin" winds
d) the sky is )loudless
8(&
(44
T<A-EL ':S6<A:CE
On their !a" to southern S,ain last summer# 1eorge and Fean 1lover
sto,,ed outside the cit" o$ Seville $or a lunch5time ,icnic. The" le$t
their car b" the road and !al+ed do!n to the cool !aters o$ a river $or a
ver" ,leasant meal. ;hen the" returned to their car# the"
4 !ere horri$ied to discover that the bac+ !indo! had been $orced and
smashed. 't too+ a !hile to sort out !hat had gone# mostl" small
things li+e their camera# ta,e ,la"er and ta,es# a $e! clothes l"ing on
the bac+ seat 5 $ortunatel"# the" hadn't bothered !ith the suitcases.
't suddenl" da!ned on Fean that she had le$t her handbag in the car#
(/ contaning their ,ass,orts# travellers' che@ues# cash# $err" tic+ets# car
+e"s and $ront5door +e"s. E't !as a,,alling. Ho! could ' have been so
stu,id= 'n London# ''d never have le$t m" handbag in the car#E recalls
Fean.
'nitiall"# the" both $elt li+e driving bac+ to the $err" and going
(4 home. 9ut the" +ne! the" had to re,ort the the$t to the ,olice. And the"
had to call their motor insurance com,an" to arrange $or a ne! bac+
!indo!. The travel insurance com,an"# !hich ran a .25hour emergenc"
assistance service# advised them to call a neighbour# !ho had a +e" $or
their house# to as+ her to get the loc+s changed. The"
./ !ere also advised to s,ea+ to the local Consular O$$ice to arrange
emergenc" ,ass,orts.
The travellers' che@ue com,an" arranged an immediate re,lacement
o$ their holida" mone".
9it b" bit# the" realised that all !as not lost# and the" managed to
.4 continue !ith !hat turned out to be a ver" enjo"able holida". E9ut i$ !e
hadn't had the hel, and advice available through our travel insurance
com,an"# !e'd have been totall" lost.E
'ncredibl"# there are man" ,eo,le li+e the 1lovers !ho run into
trouble abroad# "et have no travel insurance. That's !h" these da"s
8/ ,eo,le ta+ing a ,ac+age holida" are normall" obliged b" the tour
o,erators to have travel insurance0 i$ the" don't ta+e the ,olic" o$$ered
in the brochure# then the" have to sho! that the" have made alternative
arrangements. There is no such sa$et" net $or ,eo,le travelling
inde,endentl"# but# than+s largel" to ne!s,a,er horror
84 stories o$ uninsured tourists having to sell their houses in order to meet
G(//#/// bills $or medical treatment in the States# most travellers
abroad a,,reciate the need to ta+e out insurance.
8(%
*EETING THE 5A4TAIN
Fada'tedfro& G-he 6a'tain and -he 4ne&"G b" $raha& $reeneH
' am no! in m" t!ent"5second "ear and "et the onl" birthda"
!hich ' can clearl" distinguish among all the rest is m" t!el$th# $or it
!as on that dam, and mist" da" in Se,tember ' met the Ca,tain $or
4 the $irst time. ' can still remember the !etness o$ the ground under m"
g"m shoes and ho! the blo!n leaves made the court"ard sli,,er" as '
ran rec+lessl" to esca,e $rom m" enemies bet!een one class and the
ne>t. ' slithered and sto,,ed abru,tl" !hile m" ,ursuers !ent
!histling a!a"# because there# in the middle o$ the court"ard# stood
(/ our $ormidable headmaster tal+ing to a tall man in a bo!ler hat# a rare
sight alread" at that date# so that he loo+ed a little li+e an actor in
costume. He carried a !al+ing5stic+ over his shoulder at the slo,e#
li+e a soldier !ith a ri$le. ' had no idea !ho he might be# nor# o$
course# did ' +no! that he had !on me the ,revious night# in a
(4 bac+gammon game !ith m" $ather.
' slid so $ar that ' landed on m" +nees at the t!o men's $eet# and
!hen ' ,ic+ed m"sel$ u, the headmaster !as glaring at me $rom under
his heav" e"ebro!s. ' heard him sa"# E' thin+ this is the one "ou !ant
5 9a>ter Three. Are "ou 9a>ter Three=E
./ EYes# sir#E ' said.
The man# !hom ' !ould never come to +no! b" an" more
,ermanent name than the Ca,tain# said# E;hat does Three indicate=E
EHe is the "oungest o$ three 9a>ters#E the headmaster said# Ebut not
one o$ them is related b" blood.E
.4 EThat ,uts me in a bit o$ a @uandar".E the Ca,tain said. Eor !hich
o$ them is the 9a>ter ' !ant= The $irst name# unli+el" as it ma" sound#
is -ictor. -ictor 9a>ter 5 the names don't ,air ver" !ell.E
E;e have little occasion here $or $irst names. Are "ou called -ictor
9a>ter=E the headmaster in@uired o$ me shar,l".
8/ EYes# sir#E ' said a$ter some hesitation# $or ' !as un!illing to admit
to a name !hich ' had tried unsuccess$ull" to hide $rom m" $riends. '
+ne! ver" !ell that -ictor 5 $or some obscure reason 5 !as one o$ the
unacce,table names# li+e -incent or Marmadu+e.
E;ell then# ' su,,ose that this is the 9a>ter "ou !ant# sir. Your
84 $ace needs !ashing# bo".E
The stern moralit" o$ the school ,revented me $rom telling the
headmaster that it had been @uite clean until m" enemies had s,lashed
it !ith in+.
8()
(4%
SHO3L'T':1
'n the ,ast# most sho,li$ters agreed that the Fanuar" sales o$$ered
!onder$ul o,,ortunities $or the hard5!or+ing thie$. ;ith the sho,s so
cro!ded and the sta$$ so bus"# it did not re@uire an" e>traordinar" talent
to steal one or t!o little things and esca,e unnoticed. 't !as
4 +no!n# in the business# as 'hoisting'. 9ut the hoisting game is not !hat it
used to be. Even at the height o$ the sales# sho,li$ters toda" never +no!
i$ the" are being !atched b" one o$ those mechanical balls A!ith small
cameras hidden insideB hanging $rom the ceilings o$ so man"
de,artment stores# above the most desirable goods. As i$ that !as not
(/ trouble enough $or them# the" can no! be $ilmed at !or+ and obliged to
attend a sho!ing o$ their ,er$ormance in court.
Sel$ridges !as the $irst big London store to install videota,e
e@ui,ment to !atch its sales $loors. 'n October last "ear# the store !on
its $irst court case $or sho,li$ting using as evidence a videota,e clearl"
(4 sho!ing a cou,le stealing dresses. 't !as an im,ortant test case !hich
encouraged other stores to install similar e@ui,ment.
;hen the balls# called s,utni+s# $irst made an a,,earance in sho,s# it
!as !idel" believed that their onl" $unction !as to $righten sho,li$ters.
Their some!hat ridiculous a,,earance# the curious holes
./ and red lights going on and o$$# certainl" made the theor" believable. 't
did not ta+e long# ho!ever# $or serious sho,li$ters to start sho!ing
suitable res,ect. Soon a$ter the e@ui,ment !as in o,eration at
Sel$ridges# store detective 9rian Chad!ic+ !as sitting in the control
room# !atching a !oman secretl" ,utting bottles o$ ,er$ume into her
.4 bag.
EAs she turned to go#E Chad!ic+ recalled# Eshe suddenl" loo+ed u, at
the s,utni+ and sto,,ed. She could not ,ossibl" see that the camera !as
$ilming her because it is com,letel" hidden# but she ,robabl" had a
$eeling that ' !as loo+ing at her. or a moment she ,aused# then she
8/ returned to the counter and started ,utting ever"thing bac+. ;hen she
had $inished# she o,ened her bag to!ards the s,utni+ to sho! it !as
em,t" and hurried out o$ the store !ithout a sign o$ regret on her $ace.E
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine 6' 'hoistin"' (ro*a*ly means .
a) ha+in" sales *) es)a(in" )) stealin" d) ha+in" talent
21
(4*
'LLE1AL TA3ES
9ritish ,o, stars 3hil Collins and Duran Duran are to join an
international cam,aign in London this !ee+ to sto, the ,roduction o$
illegal ta,es o$ the Live Aid concert $or $amine relie$# held last Ful" in
London and 3hiladel,hia. Members o$ Duran Duran told -he Sunda"
4 -i&es, E3roducing illegal ta,es o$ something li+e Live Aid is criminal.
These ,eo,le are e>,loiting the means that should hel, $eed starving
A$ricans.E
The illegal ta,es# manu$actured b" several di$$erent com,anies in
'ndonesia# have become best5sellers in the ar and Middle East#
(/ ma+ing ,ro$its estimated at millions o$ dollars. :o! '3-3# the
'nternational ederation o$ 3honogram and -ideogram 3roducers#
!hich re,resents more than &// record com,anies !orld!ide# is
as+ing the 9ritish government to bring economic ,ressure on the
'ndonesian government to sto, the illicit trade. The ,ac+aging o$ the
(4 unla!$ul ta,es is ,roduced to a high ,ro$essional standard# bearing the
Live Aid logo# a guitar in the sha,e o$ A$rica# and the !ords Eor
A$rica $amine relie$.E
ETheir ,ac+aging ma+es ,eo,le believe that the mone" is going to
A$rica#E sa"s Dave Laing o$ '3-3. The $ederation received re,orts o$
./ at least 8/ illegal versions o$ the ta,es sold in man" countries such as
Singa,ore# Mala"sia and 3ortugal# !here "ou can# in $act# easil" get
the real ones. 'ndonesia has not signed international co,"right
conventions# and the $ederation sa"s no legal action can be ta+en
against the ,eo,le in that countr". E't's big business#E sa"s Laing. EThe
.4 ,eo,le !ho manu$acture these ta,es have large $actories and their o!n
relationshi,s !ith the authorities.E
A s,o+esman $or the 'ndonesian government in London last !ee+
denied an" +no!ledge o$ the ta,es' being manu$actured or sold in his
countr" although he ac+no!ledged that ,roduction o$ illegal ta,es in
8/ southeast Asia in general !as a major ,roblem. E't is shame$ul that
this is ha,,ening in our countr"#E he said. EAnd our government !ill
ta+e action once the $acts have been determined.E
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. 8hil Collins and 3uran 3uran .
a) want to make a new ta(e for the (eo(le of Afri)a
*) ha+e de)ided to or"anise an international federation
)) want to (re+ent the =i+e Aid ta(es *ein" sold ille"ally
d) ha+e de)ided to hold another =i+e Aid )on)ert in Culy
U$1
(4)
FO<-'7 5 THE LOST -'7':1 CA3'TAL
A thousand "ears5 ago# Yor+ !as one o$ the largest# richest and
most $amous cities in the !hole o$ 9ritain. 'n the (/th centur"# it !as
described as being ,ac+ed !ith a huge ,o,ulation# and traders $rom all
,arts# es,eciall" Danes. 3eo,le called it Forvi+# and +ne! it as the
4 ca,ital o$ the :orth o$ England# and one o$ Euro,e's greatest trading
,orts. 't o!ed its ,ros,erit" to the hard !or+ o$ -i+ing settlers $rom
Scandinavia# !ho had ca,tured it in *&&.
Most o$ the cit"'s buildings !ere made o$ !ood# and have long
since been demolished# or have burnt do!n or rotted a!a". 'n some
(/ ,arts o$ modern Yor+# ho!ever# near the rivers o$ Ouse and oss#
!hich run through the centre o$ the cit"# archaeologists have $ound that
remains o$ Forvi+ do still survive. The" are buried dee, belo! the
streets and buildings o$ the ./th centur" cit". Here the dam, soils have
,reserved the !ooden buildings. ;hole streets o$ houses# sho,s
(4 and !or+sho,s are $ound although not in ver" good condition. All the
rubbish le$t b" the ,eo,le o$ Forvi+ in and around their homes is still
there as !ell.
9et!een ()%& and ()*(# archaeologists $rom the Yor+
Archaeological Trust dug u, a ,art o$ this lost and $orgotten cit" and
./ $ound $our ro!s o$ buildings. Some o$ the remains !ere so !ell
,reserved 5 even do!n to boots and shoes# ,ins and needles# ,lants and
insects 5 that ever" as,ect o$ li$e at the time could be reconstructed.
The Yor+ Archaeological Trust decided to convert the ,lace into a
.4 museum and tr" to tell the stor" o$ Forvi+ as it !as a thousand "ears
ago. To do so# it built the Forvi+ -i+ing Centre in the huge hole created
b" the archaeologists. T!o o$ the ro!s o$ buildings !ere reconstructed
as !e thin+ the" !ere. A $urther t!o !ere ,reserved just as the
archaeological team discovered them# the ancient beams set out
8/ as the" !ere $ound in the late ()%/'s# dee, belo! the ne! sho,,ing
centre# !here the" have lain $or centuries.
'n the Forvi+ -i+ing Centre# ,eo,le $rom the ./th centur" journe"
bac+ in time to the (/th centur" in cars# !hich silentl" move through
the ,lace. Mean!hile# modem time travellers !atch the to!ns,eo,le
84 bu"ing and selling# !or+ing and ,la"ing# in an atmos,here $ull o$ the
sights# sounds and smells o$ (/th centur" Forvi+.
26
(&/
CH'LD<E: A:D LEA<:':1
A child learning to tal+ notices a thousand times a da" the di$$erence
bet!een the language he uses and the language those around him use. 9it b"
bit# he ma+es the necessar" changes to ma+e his language li+e other ,eo,le's.
'n the same !a"# children learn to do all the other things !ithout being taught
5 to !al+# run# climb# !histle# ride a bic"cle 5 b" com,aring their o!n
,er$ormances !ith those o$ more s+illed ,eo,le# and slo!l" ma+ing the
needed changes. Yet# at school !e never give a child a chance to $ind out his
mista+es $or himsel$# let alone correct them. ;e do it all $or him. ;e act as i$
!e thin+ that he !ill never notice a mista+e unless it is ,ointed out to him# or
correct it unless he is made to. Soon# he becomes de,endent on the teacher.
Let him !or+ out# !ith other children i$ he !ants# !hat this !ord means#
!hether this is a good !a" o$ sa"ing or doing this or not. 'n mathematics or
science# give him the ans!er boo+. Let him correct his o!n ,a,ers. Our job
should be to sho! onl" the !a" to get the right ans!er !hen the child tells us
he can't $ind a !a" himsel$. Let's end all this nonsense o$ grades# e>ams#
mar+s. Let us thro! them all out# and let the children learn !hat all educated
,ersons must some da" learn# ho! to measure their o!n understanding# ho!
to +no! !hat the" +no! or do not +no!. The idea that there is a bod" o$
+no!ledge to be learnt at school and used $or the rest o$ one's li$e is nonsense
in a !orld as com,licated and ra,idl" changing as ours. An>ious ,arents and
teachers sa"# E9ut su,,ose the" $ail to learn something essential# something
the" !ill need to get on in the !orld=E Don't !orr"I '$ it is essential# the" !ill
go out into the !orld and learn it.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. What does the writer think is the *est way for )hildren to learn thin"s1
a) ;*ser+in" what other (eo(le do.
*) Ha+in" their mistakes )orre)ted.
)) =istenin" to e:(lanations from skilled (eo(le.
d) Ha+in" +arious skills tau"ht.
. The (assa"e su""ests that learnin" to s(eak and learnin" to ride a *i)y)le .
a) re<uire more time than other skills to de+elo(
*) )an de+elo( more easily than adult skills
)) are <uite different from learnin" adult skills
d) are *asi)ally the same
25
2. The writer *elie+es that tea)hers should .
a) always tell )hildren the )orre)t answers
*) (oint out )hildren's mistakes to them
)) en)oura"e )hildren to "et hel( from one another
d) measure )hildren's understandin"
.. Children's (ro"ress at s)hool should only *e estimated *y .
a) edu)ated (ersons )) tea)hers and (arents
*) the )hildren themsel+es d) the )han"in" world
6. The author fears that )hildren will "row u( into adults who are
a) too inde(endent of others )) una*le to think for themsel+es
*) too )riti)al of themsel+es d) una*le to use essential information
(&(
*A)ING 0OUR (OR)4LA5E SAFER
;re8enting Accidents
Clearl" a major !a" to ,revent accidents be$ore the" occur is $or the trade
union sa$et" re,resentative to carr" out regular and e$$ective ins,ections o$
the !or+,lace. <ecognised sa$et" re,resentatives have the $ollo!ing legal
rights?
QTo carr" out a $ormal ins,ection ever" three months.
QTo carr" out an immediate additional ins,ection
5 !hen an accident has occurred#
5 !hen a disease has been contracted#
5 !hen there has been a change in !or+ing conditions#
5 !hen ne! in$ormation becomes available concerning haCards.
Q To investigate members' com,laints.
?ear Misses
All union members should be encouraged to re,ort 'near misses' that ha,,en
to themselves or others. :ear misses are events such as sli,,ing on !et
$loors# items $alling o$$ shelves and just missing ,eo,le# loose guards on
machiner"# and $ires that are @uic+l" ,ut out# that could have injured ,eo,le
but !hich# b" luc+# did not. <e,orting such events to the sa$et"
re,resentative ma" ,revent a serious accident in the $uture.
8.*
When An Accident Aa''ens
6nion sa$et" re,resentatives should have an agreement !ith management on
being in$ormed as soon as ,ossible o$ all accidents. Onl" under that
condition !ill it be ,ossible to reach the scene o$ the accident immediatel" to
$ollo! these ,rocedures?
QMa+e sure it is sa$e to a,,roach.
QMa+e sure an"one injured is receiving attention.
Q'nsist that nothing is removed or altered until in@uiries are com,lete.
QChec+ the accident is recorded in the accident boo+ and that the record is
not concerned !ith blaming the victim# but is an accurate descri,tion.
QTa+e statements $rom the injured ,ersonAsB# i$ ,ossible# and other
!itnesses. <emind !itnesses the" do not have to give statements to the
management b" la!.
QChec+ that the $actor" ins,ector has been in$ormed# i$ re@uired b" la!.
QS+etch accident area# ta+e ,hotogra,hs# i$ ,ossible# and sam,les o$
de$ective e@ui,ment or chemicals.
Onl" i$ these ,rocedures are carried out ,ro,erl" !ill it be ,ossible $or sa$et"
re,resentatives to $ind out the real cause o$ the accident.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. The te:t is mainly a*out '.
a) the ty(e of a))idents in a work(la)e
*) the (re)autions to *e taken *efore and after an a))ident o))urs in a
work(la)e
)) the des)ri(tion of a safe work(la)e
d) the (ro)edures to )hoose a safety re(resentati+e in a work(la)e
. #f an a))ident has o))urred' the safety re(resentati+e has the ri"ht to .
a) )arry out an ins(e)tion e+ery three months
*) )han"e workin" )onditions
)) )onsult mana"ement
d) )arry out an ins(e)tion immediately
2. #f you saw somethin" fall off a shelf and Dust miss another worker' you should
a) )all a meetin" to in+esti"ate it
*) re(ort it to the mana"ement immediately
)) re(ort it to the safety re(resentati+e
d) lea+e the worker to re(ort it himself
8.)
(&.
6T6<E O <A'L T<A:S3O<T
6n$ortunatel"# England's highest main5line rail!a" station hangs on to li$e
b" a thread. Deserted and unmanned since it !as o$$iciall" closed in ()%/#
Dent# situated high in the hills o$ Yor+shire# !a+es u, on si> summer
!ee+ends each "ear# !hen a s,ecial charter train unloads !al+ers# sightseers
and ,eo,le !ho sim,l" !ant to catch a train $rom the highest station# onto its
,lat$orms. Ho!ever# even this limited e>istence ma" soon be brought to an
end. Dent station# situated on the Carlisle rail!a" line# is said to be the most
scenic in the countr"# but no amount o$ scenic beaut" can save the line $rom
9ritish <ail's $inancial ,roblems. This "ear# $or the sa+e o$ econom"# the
e>,ress trains !hich used to ,ass through Dent station have been ,ut onto
another route. 't is no! an o,en secret that 9ritish <ail sees no $uture $or this
rail!a" line. Most o$ its trains disa,,eared some time ago. The stations on it#
besides its bridge# built on a grand scale a centur" ago# are $alling do!n. 't is
not alone. Hal$ a doCen rail!a" routes in the north o$ England are $acing a
similar threat. The ,roblem is a !orn out s"stem and an almost total lac+ o$
means to re,air it. 9ridges and tunnels are sho!ing their age# the !ooden
su,,orts $or the trac+s are rotting and engines and coaches are getting old.
On major lines bet!een large cities# there is no ,roblem. These lines still
ma+e a ,ro$it and mone" can be $ound to maintain them# but on the countr"
branch line the stor" is rather sad. As a trac+ !ears out# it is not re,laced.
'nstead# s,eed limits are introduced# ma+ing journe"s longer than necessar"
and discouraging customers !ho live in the countr" and !ho travel onl"
$rom time to time. '$ a bridge is dangerous# there is o$ten onl" one thing $or
9ritish <ail to do? go out and $ind mone" $rom another source. This is
e>actl" !hat it did a $e! months ago# !hen a bridge at 9ridlington station
!as threatening to $all do!n. <e,airs !ere estimated at G.//#/// and 9ritish
<ail !as delighted# and rather sur,rised# !hen the local authorities o$ t!o
nearb" to!ns o$$ered hal$ that amount bet!een them. This !as a good
solution# !hich the 9ritish <ail can al!a"s ma+e use o$.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. ,in)e 1$5!' 3ent station .
a) has *een used only for a (art of the year
*) has had no e:(ress trains (assin" throu"h
)) has *een +isited *y hill walkers only
d) has not *een used at all
88(
16+
1LO9AL ;A<M':1
According to scientists at the Meteorological O$$ice and the 6niversit" o$
East Anglia# !ho have recentl" com,leted their anal"sis o$ global
tem,eratures# the eighties !ere the earth's !armest decade since records
began. Their $indings sho! that si> o$ the ten !armest "ears so $ar have
occurred during the ()*/'s# !ith ()** the hottest o$ all.
Since ()//# average tem,eratures have risen b" about /.4SC# !hich $its in
!ell !ith ,redictions $rom climatologists about ho! human activities should
have !armed the ,lanet. The $actors that contribute to the !arming u, o$ the
atmos,here are mainl" carbon dio>ide gas# ,roduced b" the burning o$ $ossil
$uels and $orests# ,ollutants# such as chloro$luorocarbons# used in
re$rigerators# and methane.
Climatologists ,redict that b" mid!a" through the ne>t centur"#
tem,eratures ma" have risen b" as much as 2SC. Ha,,ening so @uic+l"# that
could catastro,hicall" reduce man+ind's abilit" to gro! $ood# destro" or
severel" damage !hat !ildli$e and !ildernesses remained and raise sea
levels# $looding coastal cities and $armland. 3hil Fones# senior researcher at
the 6niversit" o$ East Anglia# said? E'$ !e are changing the climate# !e
should do something no! rather than !ait until the !arming is more severe.E
Dr. 3aul Heaton and Dr. David 3ar+er o$ the Meteorological O$$ice
gathered together tem,erature records $rom about (/// di$$erent locations
s,read across ever" continent and com,ared them !ith the average $or those
,laces $rom ()4( to ())/. The research also included tem,eratures measured
on shi,s. The scientists $ound ()*) !as /..8SC above the ()4(5*/ average#
and ()** !as /.8( above. The" agree !ith American researchers that the
!armest "ears during this centur" !ere the eighties# and the tendenc" ma" be
$or the nineties to be even hotterI
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. Whi)h of the followin" is not "i+en as a )ause of "lo*al warmin"1
a) Chlorofluoro)ar*ons.
*) The *urnin" of fossil fuels.
)) 8ollutants from )ars.
d) Methane.
222
COMETS
fro& Cllustrated 7ondon ?ews, /)32
There can be $e! ,eo,le !ho have not heard o$ comets# but there are still
a great man" non5scientists !ho have no real idea o$ !hat a comet is. The
most ,o,ular mista+e is to assume that a comet strea+s
4 across the s+" and disa,,ears in a $e! seconds. 'n $act# all comets are ver"
distant 5 $ar be"ond the to, o$ the earth's atmos,here 5 and "ou cannot see
them moving. '$ "ou see an object moving visibl"# it certainl" cannot be a
comet. 't !ill be either an arti$icial satellite# thousands o$ !hich have been
launched since the S,ace Age o,ened
(/ !ith <ussia's S,utni+ ( in October# ()4%# or else a meteor. O$ course# it can
also be a !eather balloon or a high5$l"ing aircra$t.
Comets belong to the Sun's $amil"# or solar s"stem# but the" are @uite
unli+e ,lanets. The" are not solid and roc+"0 a comet consists o$ an ic"
central ,art Aor nucleusB# a head Aor comaB and a tail or tails
(4 made u, o$ tin" ,articles o$ 'dust' together !ith e>tremel" thin gas. Comets
ma" be enormous Athe head o$ the 1reat Comet o$ (*28 !as larger than the
SunB# but the" are ver" light since the nucleus# the onl" relativel" massive
,art o$ a comet# cannot be more than a $e! miles in diameter. '$ a comet $ell
to the earth# it !ould onl" cause local
./ damage.
Comets move around the Sun. 'n almost all cases their ,aths Aor orbitsB
are elli,tical# and e>ce,t $or Halle"'s Comet# all the reall" bright comets ta+e
thousands or even millions o$ "ears to com,lete one circuit. This means that
!e cannot ,redict them. During the last
.4 centur"# several !ere seen but in our o!n time the" have been e>tremel"
rare. The last reall" 'great' comet !as that o$ ()(/# though there have been
others !hich have become bright enough to be seen !ith the na+ed e"e.
Halle"'s Comet is uni@ue because it a,,ears ever" %& "ears# and it has been
seen regularl" since !ell be$ore the time o$
8/ Christ0 there is even a Chinese record o$ it dating bac+ to (/4) 9.C.
Ho!ever# it !as onl" recentl" that astronomers realised that there !as
something unusual about it.
226
(&4
EECTS O S:O;
't is interesting to observe the e$$ect that the arrival o$ sno! has on
,eo,le in di$$erent countries. There are those countries $or !hom the
arrival o$ the $irst sno! sho!ers is an e>,ected annual event. There are
those countries $or !hom the arrival o$ sno! at an" time o$ the
4 "ear !ould be almost unheard o$# and !ould be regarded as a major
climatic catastro,he# or even a miracle.
9ut there are countries bet!een these t!o 'e>tremes' that normall"
e>,ect sno! some time over the !inter months# but never receive it
regularl" or in the same @uantities ever" "ear. or them Aand 9ritain is
(/ a ,rime e>am,le o$ such a countr"B# the arrival o$ sno! @uite sim,l"
creates havoc. ;ithin hours o$ the $irst sno!$alls# ho!ever light# roads
Aincluding motor!a"sB are bloc+ed# train services are disru,ted and bus
services to suburbs and countr" districts are !ithdra!n. :ormal
communications @uic+l" begin to su$$er as !ell0 tele,hone
(4 calls become di$$icult and the ,ost immediatel" ta+es t!ice as long as
usual. And almost !ithin hours there are also certain shortages 5bread#
vegetables and other essentials 5 not because all these things can no
longer be ,roduced or even delivered# although deliveries are disru,ted#
but mainl" because ,eo,le ,anic and go out and stoc+ u,
./ !ith $ood and so on 5 'just in case'.
9ui !h" does sno! have this e$$ect= A$ter all# the S!iss# the
Austrians and the Canadians don't have such ,roblems. The ans!er is
@uite sim,l" a lac+ o$ ,lanning and ,re,aration 5 and !e can't blame
the !eather $orecasters $or that. ;e have to remember# ho!ever# that
.4 e@ui,ment needed $or dealing !ith sno! and ice costs mone". To +ee,
the roads clear# $or e>am,le# re@uires sno!,loughs and vehicles to
s,read grit or salt. The argument against investing in sno!,loughs in a
countr" li+e 9ritain is that the" are onl" used $or a $e! da"s in an" one
"ear# and that mone" could more use$ull" be ,ut into other
8/ things such as the hos,ital s"stem# social services# hel,ing the elderl"#
and so on.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine 5' 'e:tremes' refers to the ty(es of .
a) )limates *) snow showers )) )ountries d) annual e+ents
225
(&&
:6CLEA< TH<EAT
Man" o$ the scienti$ic achievements that !e ta+e $or granted toda"
have reached $ar be"ond the dreams o$ scientists and science $iction
!riters o$ just sevent"5$ive "ears ago. One o$ the most s,ectacular o$
these scienti$ic accom,lishments !as the s,litting o$ the atom. Li$e
4 has never been the same since that event. rom micro!ave ovens to
electrical ,o!er and nuclear medicine# to shi,s that can sail the seas
$or as long as t!elve "ears !ithout re$ueling# the atom ,rovides a
better li$e $or man" o$ the inhabitants o$ the earth. Yet# this same
,o!er that is used toda" to detect genetic disorders in unborn children
(/ or to destro" a malignant cancer cell !as the destructive $orce that
+illed over one hundred thousand ,eo,le in Hiroshima and :agasa+i at
the end o$ ;orld ;ar ''. The s,litting o$ the atom# the unleashing o$
its terri$ic ,o!er# ,oses the greatest single threat +no!n to humanit".
;e no! have the ,o!er to destro" in a matter o$ minutes a
(4 civilisation that has ta+en centuries to develo,. :ever be$ore has the
,o!er $or such ,otential good or such total destruction e>isted.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine .' 'a))om(lishments' has the same meanin" as .
a) dreams *) a)hie+ements )) studies d) in+esti"ations
. is not an e:am(le of the atom (ro+idin" a *etter life for humans.
a) 3ete)tin" "eneti) disorders in un*orn )hildren
*) 3estroyin" a mali"nant )an)er )ell
)) 3estroyin" a )i+ilisation
d) Fuelin" shi(s
2. Whi)h of the followin" is not mentioned in the te:t1
a) ,(littin" the atom was one of the "reatest dreams of s)ientists se+enty4fi+e
years a"o.
*) 0arlier s)ientists didn't e+en dream of s(littin" the atom.
)) The s(littin" of the atom is the *i""est dan"er to the human ra)e.
d) There is no (ower that )an )reate the same effe)ts as those (rodu)ed *y the
atom.
88)
(&%
AC'D <A':
Acid rain is rain# sno!# or $og that contains high amounts o$
sul,huric or nitric acid. To some e>tent# acidic rain occurs naturall" and
can have a bene$icial e$$ect 5 $or instance# serving as $ertiliCer. 9ut#
!hen the acidit" o$ the ,reci,itation is abnormall" high over a
4 ,rolonged ,eriod# it can over!helm the abilit" o$ !ater and !oods Aand
buildings# statues# car $inishes# $ish# game# and humansB to
accommodate it. ;hen this ha,,ens# la+es and trees ma" die# game
s,ecies ma" !ea+en# and human health ma" be endangered. Those !ho
have studied the current crisis believe it to be the result o$ high
(/ acid levels caused ,rimaril" b" sul,hur dio>ide emissions $rom coal5
$ired utilit" ,lants and nitrogen o>ide emissions $rom automobiles.
These ,ollutants are either trans$ormed to acid in the air or de,osited on
the ground in dr" $orm# combining !ith ground !ater to $orm sul,huric
or nitric acid.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine 1' These (ollutants' refers to .
a) )oal4fired utility (lants and automo*iles
*) emissions from +arious (lants
)) sul(hur dio:ide and nitro"en o:ide
d) hi"h le+els of a)id
. A)id rain is (arti)ularly dan"erous when it .
a) falls hea+ily for a lon" time )) is de(osited in dry form
*) )om*ines with "round water d) )auses lakes and trees to die
(&*
:'COT':E ADD'CT'O:
A large5scale cam,aign to alert smo+ers to the dangers o$ $illing the lungs
!ith carcinogenic smo+e has been underta+en in man" countries. Cigarette
,romotions have been banned on television in several major areas# and there
has been endless discussion o$ ho! to discourage children $rom ta+ing u, the
habit. 1ruesome $ilms are sho!n o$ ,athetic hos,ital ,atients in the advanced
stages o$ lung cancer. A $e! smo+ers have res,onded
2.!
intelligentl" and given u,# but man" others have become so alarmed that
instead the" have been $orced to light u, an e>tra cigarette to calm their
shattered nerves. 'n other !ords# although the ,roblem is at last being dealt
!ith# it is b" no means solved.
The great error o$ the anti5smo+ing cam,aigners is that the" rarel" sto,
and as+ the basic @uestion? !h" do ,eo,le !ant to smo+e in the $irst ,lace=
The" seem to thin+ it has something to do !ith drug addiction 5 !ith the
habit5$orming e$$ects o$ nicotine. There is an element o$ this certainl"# but it
is b" no means the most im,ortant $actor o,erating. Man" ,eo,le do not even
inhale their smo+e and can be absorbing onl" minute amounts o$ the drug# so
the causes o$ their addiction to cigarettes must be sought else!here. The
ans!er clearl" lies in the act o$ oral intimac" involved in holding the object
bet!een the li,s and this ans!er almost certainl" a,,lies as the basic
e>,lanation $or the $ull inhalers as !ell. 6ntil this as,ect o$ smo+ing is
,ro,erl" investigated# there !ill be little long5term ho,e o$ eliminating it
$rom our stressed# com$ort5see+ing cultures.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. The (ur(ose of the anti4smokin" )am(ai"n is to .
a) *an )i"arette ad+ertisements on tele+ision
*) dis)oura"e )hildren from startin" smokin"
)) show films of (atients sufferin" from lun" )an)er (
d) make smokers aware of the harmful effe)ts of smokin"
. As a result of the )am(ai"n' .
a) there has *een an in)rease in the num*er of smokers
*) some (eo(le e+en started to smoke more )i"arettes
)) the (ro*lem of smokin" has *een (artly sol+ed
d) )i"arette )onsum(tion has de)reased dramati)ally
2. A))ordin" to anti4smokin" )am(ai"ners' (eo(le "o on smokin" mainly *e)ause
of .
a) the feelin" of )omfort that )i"arettes "i+e them
*) their addi)tion to takin" dru"s
)) the ha*it4formin" effe)ts of ni)otine
d) the (sy)holo"i)al satisfa)tion of holdin" the )i"arette *etween the li(s
1.1
(&)
LOO7':1 O< A 3A<T:E<=
'n 'ndia# ,arents have traditionall" $ound husbands or !ives $or
their sons and daughters. Toda"# the ,arents are using a ne! techni@ue
in their search? advertisements in the Sunda" ne!s,a,ers. Ever"
Sunda" morning millions o$ 'ndians settle do!n !ith a cu, o$ tea and
4 the s,ecial !ee+end issues o$ their ne!s,a,ers# just as Americans do. 9ut
here# !ith the marriage season a,,roaching# man" o$ them turn @uic+l"
to a Sunda" $eature that is ,articularl" 'ndian 5 the columns o$ marriage
advertisements in !hich "oung ,eo,le see+ husbands and !ives.
(/ 'n addition to hel,ing "oung ,eo,le $ind suitable marriage ,artners#
these advertisements re$lect the changes that are occurring in 'ndian
societ". The thousands o$ advertisements ,ublished each !ee+
increasingl" re$lect social changes that are coming to this traditional
societ". or e>am,le# although !omen are still usuall" described in
(4 terms o$ a,,earance or s+ills in Ethe !i$el" artsE# in$ormation about
their earning ,o!er is entering more and more in the advertisements.
This ,ortra"s the arrival o$ the !or+ing !i$e in 'ndia.
Divorce# !hich used to be almost unheard o$ in 'ndia# is sometimes
no! mentioned in the advertisements as in the case o$ a'!oman !hose
./ advertisement e>,lained that she had been Ethe innocent ,art"E !hen her
marriage bro+e u,.
As a sign o$ the slight loosening o$ the rigid caste Asocial classB
s"stem# a number o$ advertisements ,romise Ecaste not im,ortantE# or
Egirl's abilities !ill be main considerationE. The majorit" o$ them#
.4 ho!ever# still re@uire not onl" caste but also a certain home region or
ethnic origin.
9ecause o$ high unem,lo"ment and a generall" ,oor standard o$
living here# one o$ the best attractions a marriage advertisement can
o$$er is a ,ermit to live abroad# es,eciall" in Canada or the 6nited
8/ States. A ,erson !ho has one can get !hat he !ants.
One recent Sunda" in Madras# $or e>am,le# a 3unjabi engineer
living in San rancisco advertised $or a Ebeauti$ul slim bride !ith
lovel" $eatures +no!ing music and danceE. And a man !hose
advertisement said that he had an American immigration ,ermit !as
84 able to sa"# EOnl" girls $rom rich# !ell5connected $amilies need a,,l"E.
2.
11. Whi)h of the followin" statements is true1
a) The )aste system has *e)ome totally unim(ortant for the #ndians.
*) Althou"h )aste isn't re<uired any lon"er' ethni) ori"in and home re"ions are
still im(ortant in marria"e.
)) A "irl's a*ilities are the maDor re<uirements for marria"e in #ndia nowadays.
d) Caste' home re"ion and ethni) ori"in are still im(ortant for most #ndians.
1. The last (ara"ra(h "i+es an e:am(le of .
a) the <ualities that a (erson with an immi"ration (ermit )an ask for and e:(e)t
to "et
*) the kind of ad+ertisement a 8unDa*i en"ineer would "i+e
)) a marria"e ad+ertisement from the Madras news(a(ers
d) the im(ortan)e #ndian men atta)h to ha+in" wi+es who know musi) and dan)e
(%/
SEW D'SC<'M':AT'O: ': THE ;O<73LACE
eminist organiCations sho!ed ,eo,le that discrimination e>isted
ever"!here. The" sho!ed that it !as di$$icult
I
$or !omen to=eriter
various ,ro$essions. 'n ()%.# $or e>am,le# onl" ).8J o$ doctors and
dentists !ere !omen# onl" 2J o$ all la!"ers and judges !ere $emale#
4 and onl" (8J o$ all medical students !ere !omen. 't !as also sho!n that
societ" ,re$erred to ,romote men to the ,ositions o$ highest
res,onsibilit" 5 even in traditionall" $emale ,ro$essions. or e>am,le#
although more than )/J o$ elementar" school teachers in ()%/ !ere
!omen# more than */J o$ the directors !ere men. 'n addition# in
(/ man" areas o$ em,lo"ment# !omen received lo!er !ages than men $or
the same !or+.
According to $eminists# this discrimination !as made ,ossible b"
the attitude o$ societ" to !omen. The 6.S. societ" traditionall"
,erceives !omen ,rimaril" as childraisers and home!or+ers. Men
(4 have traditionall" been the bread!inners# !ho su,,ort their $amilies !ith
their incomes. There$ore# !hen !omen began to !or+ outside the
home# their income did not seem to be as im,ortant as the income o$
their husbands. There !as a belie$ that a man's !ages needed to be
enough to su,,ort his $amil". This idea !as then used to justi$" higher
./ !ages $or men than $or !omen.
eminists argued that these attitudes !ere based onl" on tradition
and not on an" la! o$ nature. 't is true# o$ course# that a !oman's
2..
biological $unction re@uires her to remain at home $or some time
be$ore and a$ter a child is born. This is a $act o$ li$e. Onl" !omen can
.4 bear children. Ho!ever# this does not necessaril" mean that the !oman
has to raise the children and manage the house !hile the husband
!or+s outside the home. :o la! o$ nature $orces ,eo,le to acce,t these
roles. A !oman has the right to choose bet!een a career as a $ull5time
mother and house!i$e and a career outside the home. Or
8/ she can combine the t!o careers i$ her husband is ,re,ared to assist her.
Onl" tradition# not nature# ,revents this.
There$ore# $eminists argue# attitudes to!ard !omen and their roles
in societ" must change. '$ societ" needs !omen !or+ers# it must
,ermit them to have the same o,,ortunities as men. '$ men !ant the
84 economic bene$its o$ !or+ing !ives# the" !ill have to acce,t changes in
the traditional s"stem o$ male and $emale res,onsibilities. Since the
earl" ()%/'s# $eminist organiCations have ,rotested the lac+ o$ e@ualit"
$or !omen and have demanded an end to se> discrimination. The"
have tried to educate both men and !omen0 the" have attem,ted to
2/ sho! ,eo,le that attitudes to!ard the roles o$ men and !omen can be
more $le>ible. 't is ,ossible# the" argue# $or !omen and men to share
the res,onsibilities o$ su,,orting and raising a $amil".
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
i
t '
1. =ine 1' 'dis)rimination' means .
a) *ein" well4(aid ? ? ?? )) treatin" differentlyB
*) diffi)ulty in findin" Do*s d) *ein" (romoted
.=ine 1.' '(er)ei+es' means . a) (refers *)
sees )) ena*les d) )reates
2.=ine 6' '*ear' means .
a) *rin" u( *) su((ort )) stari)f d) "i+e *irth to
..=ine 2!' 'assist' means & . a) re(la)e *) hel(
)) a))om(any d) mana"e
6.=ine 2.' 'them' refers to .
a) feminists )) attitudes toward women
*) women workers d) women's roles
&. =ine 26' '*enefits' means .
a) ad+anta"es *) demands )) uses d) res(onsi*ilities
14S
(%(
THE A1O:Y COL6M:
There is one ,art o$ !omen's magaCines that ever" man reads. 't is
the section ,o,ularl" +no!n as the 'agon" column'# !here !omen# and
increasingl" men# !rite $or advice on !hat are sometimes re$erred to as
'a$$airs o$ the heart'. The ,erson !ho ans!ers these letters usuall"
4 has a ver" reassuring sort o$ name# !hich suggests a gentle middle5aged
lad" o$ great !isdom and e>,erience# but !ho at the same time is as
homel" and a,,roachable as "our $avourite aunt. At one time# it used to
be !idel" believed that the letters !ere# in $act# all made u, b" someone
on the editorial sta$$# and that the 'Aunt Mar"'
(/ !ho ,rovided the ans!ers !as# in $act# a $at man !ith a beard# !ho dran+
li+e a $ish# smo+ed li+e a chimne" and !as un$aith$ul to his !i$e.
Although this ma" be true in some cases# the majorit" o$ advice
columns toda" are com,letel" genuine# and the advisor" sta$$ are
highl"5@uali$ied ,eo,le !ith a dee, understanding o$ human
(4 ,roblems. At one time the letters# !hich !ere ,ublished and ans!ered in
$ull# dealt !ith ,roblems o$ a ver" general emotional nature. The
recurrent themes !ere loneliness# unha,,iness in marriages and
,roblems o$ adolescence. Occasionall"# onl" the ans!ers !ere
,ublished# not the letters themselves. Much o$ the $un in reading them
./ la" in tr"ing to !or+ out the ,roblem that led to such ,eculiar ans!ers.
Agon" columns have undergone great change. :o!ada"s#
ever"thing is much more e>,licit# and @uestions o$ the most intimate
+ind are $ull" dealt !ith. As the agon" columns have become more
,ro$essional and more $ran+# a lot o$ the $un has gone out o$ them.
.4 This is undoubtedl" a good thing because there is something sad about our
tendenc" to laugh at the mis$ortunes o$ our $ello! men. 'n addition#
agon" columns are no longer restricted to emotional ,roblems.
3roblems o$ various natures are no! dealt !ith. or e>am,le# the
advice columns get a lot o$ letters $rom ,eo,le !ho are
8/ distressed about !hat the" believe to be terrible ,h"sical de$ormities.
Others are terri$ied o$ meeting ,eo,le because the" su$$er $rom sh"ness#
or are convinced that the" are unattractive. '$ is not reall" $unn" to be
so sel$5conscious about "our a,,earance# or so lac+ing in sel$5
con$idence# that "ou sta" in "our room instead o$ going out and
84 meeting ,eo,le. '$ the" do nothing else# the agon" columns let "ou +no!
that "ou are not the onl" one !ho is su$$ering $rom that ,articular
,roblem.
The advisers seem to be on much more dangerous ground !hen the"
start to give advice on the most delicate and intimate as,ects o$
2.5
2/ human relationshi,s. ;e cannot doubt either their good intentions or their
understanding o$ human nature. 9ut it is ris+" business to advise a
married cou,le on ho! to save their marriage !hen !hat "ou +no!
about them is onl" !hat the" reveal to "ou in a short letter. :ot onl"
that# but the chances are that "ou onl" get one side o$ the stor"
24 because onl" one o$ the ,artners !ill !rite to tell "ou about the
shortcomings o$ the other. 't is di$$icult to +no! ho! "ou can use$ull"
ans!er such letters.
To their credit# the best advisers al!a"s ma+e the ,oint that !ithout
+no!ing more# the" must limit themselves to general advice# and in
4/ some cases !ill .even o$$er to enter into ,rivate corres,ondence in order to
get more in$ormation and conse@uentl" to give more use$ul advice.
;ithout doubt# the" are# in their !a"# ,er$orming a valuable social
service. '$ the" !ere not# the agon" columns !ould soon dr" u, $or lac+
o$ interest# and more im,ortantl" $or lac+ o$ con$idence.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine .' 'affairs of the heart' means .
a) heart diseases )) lo+e matters
*) (hysi)al illnesses d) family (ro*lems
. VGine 12' '"enuine' means . a) ima"inary *)
de(ressin" )) real d) (rofessional
2. =ine !' '(e)uliarB means . a) dan"erous *)
usual )) )ommon d) stran"e
.. =ine ' 'e:(li)it' means .
a) stri)tly (ersonal )) easily dis)ussed
*) )learly e:(ressed d) )om(letely different
6. #t used to *e thou"ht that readers' (ro*lems were dealt with *y a .
a) kind middle4a"ed lady )) team of <ualified ad+isers
s
*) man la)kin" "ood )hara)ter d) woman from the editorial staff
&. The (eo(le who deal with readers' (ro*lems nowadays are "enerally
a) <ualified (eo(le who understand su)h (ro*lems
*) women who ha+e a wide e:(erien)e of life
)) )hosen from amon"st homely and a((roa)ha*le aunts
d) (eo(le who ha+e e:(erien)ed similar (ro*lems
82*
(%.
BETTER REFRIGERATORS: THE COLD FACT
One5$i$th o$ the electricit" used in the average 6.S. home $eeds the
steel bo> that dominates the +itchen. America's ((/ million
re$rigerators ta> utilities and the" also release ,ollutants.
3o!er ,lants !ould ,roduce ((4 billion ,ounds o$ carbon dio>ide a
4 "ear running those a,,liances and the" !ould eat %% billion +ilo!att5
hours o$ electricit" 5 i$ all !ere ())8 models. Man" are older# so the
true $igures are higher. 'n addition# .%4 million ,ounds o$ oCone5
de,leting chloro$luorocarbons ACCsB used as a re$rigerant and in
insulation are time bombs in current models.
(/ Ho!ever# much more e$$icient re$rigerators !ill hit the mar+et
!ithin the ne>t "ear or t!o. To encourage im,rovements# .2
com,anies s,onsored a contest to build the best ne! ,rotot",e. The
t!o $inalists are rigidaire and ;hirl,ool# and the !inner# soon to be
announced# !ill collect 8/ million dollars. 7e" innovations !ill
(4 doubtless include a vacuum5sealed insulation s"stem# ,ol"mer door
gas+ets and com,ressors# and im,roved re$rigerating and de$rosting
c"cles.
E;e call the ne! technolog" 'the golden carrot' because o$ the
incentives#E sa"s Mi+e L'Ecu"er o$ the Environmental 3rotection
./ Agenc". '$ current models !ere that good# carbon dio>ide emissions
!ould dro, b" at least .* billion ,ounds. 3o!er consum,tion 5 and
consumers' bills 5 !ould dro, b" .4 ,ercent. And b" ())* all ne!
models must be CC $ree.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ines 1 4' 'the steel *o:' refers to the GGGGGGGGGG .
a) ele)tri)ity *) -.,. home )) kit)hen d) refri"erator
. What are 'time *om*s' (line $) in )urrent models1
a) 56 million (ounds of oAone.
C
) #nsulation systems.
*) Chlorofluoro)ar*ons. d) True fi"ures.
2. Whi)h of the followin" is not new for a refri"erator1
a) #t has a +a)uum4sealed insulation system.
*) CFCs are used as a refri"erant.
)) #t has an im(ro+ed defrostin" )y)le.
d) 3oor "askets and )om(ressors are made of (olymer.
26!
.. ;ne disad+anta"e of a refri"erator whi)h is not mentioned in the te:t is that it
a) releases (ollutants
*) uses u( too mu)h ele)tri)ity
)) is (ower )onsumin"
d) is too )old to kee( fresh fruit
(%8
H6MA: ':A:TS
One o$ the un$ortunate $eatures o$ the human condition is that the natural
e>,lorator" behaviour o$ human in$ants has to be restricted# es,eciall" in
conditions o$ civiliCation# !here the haCards o$ tra$$ic# electricit"# gas# stairs
and man" other com,le> dangers have been added to those !hich are $ound
in ,rimitive# rural circumstances. ;e are $orced to over,rotect our children
,s"chologicall"# because !e live in an arti$icial environment. ;e also tend
to guard them too care$ull" in situations !here this is not necessar"# because
small children are ill5e@ui,,ed to loo+ a$ter themselves !hen surrounded b"
the dangerous tra,,ings o$ civiliCation.
'n a recent e>,eriment# Eleanor 1ibson constructed a 'visual cli$$0 that is#
a $loor !hich a,,ears to end in a stee, dro,# but !hich is actuall" sa$e since
the $loor continues as a sheet o$ tough glass. 9abies cra!l to the a,,arent
edge# but !ill not ta+e the ris+ o$ cra!ling onto the glass even i$ encouraged
to do so# since the" are alread" a!are o$ the danger o$ the dro,. This is not to
sa" that it is sa$e to leave a bab" on the edge o$ a real cli$$# since the child
ma" turn round and $all o$$ bac+!ards.
The ,ioneer doctors !ho started the 3ec+ham Health Centre discovered
that @uite tin" children could be sa$el" le$t in the slo,ing shallo! end o$ a
s!imming bath. 3rovided no adult inter$ered !ith them# the" could teach
themselves to s!im# e>,loring the !ater graduall" and never going be"ond
the ,oint at !hich the" began to $eel unsa$e. Similarl"# children !ould teach
themselves to ride bic"cles and use g"mnasium e@ui,ment# and did so more
con$identl" and @uic+l" than i$ adults tried either to urge them on or !arn
them to be care$ul.
84(
15.
r
1A:DH' ':D'A: <ESTA6<A:T
Tel? *(()&&
A 6ni@ue E>,erience in 'ndian Cui s i ne
O,ening night at the 1andhi <estaurant
brought cries o$ ,raise and delight $rom
customers !hen the" tasted di$$erent sam,les
o$ the uni@ue cuisine on Monda" night.
O$$iciall" o,ened b" Count" Councillor#
Mr. Ton" 3easton# the Candhi o$$ers the
discerning diner authentic 'ndian dishes#
man" available $or the $irst time in Ham,5
shire.
The secret lies in the ,re,aration 5 onl"
authentic 'ndian herbs and s,ices are used to
individuall" ,re,are each s,ecial dish#
$ollo!ing ancient reci,es# man" handed do!n
through generations o$ 'ndian che$s.
High Standard
E''ve travelled e>tensivel" and dined at
man" 'ndian restaurants throughout the
countr"# but rarel" have ' tasted 'ndian $ood
o$ such a high standard#E e>tolled Councillor
3easton.
E;hilst 1andhi himsel$ !as a leader o$
men# the 1andhi <estaurant could be
considered the leader o$ a ne! breed o$ 'ndian
cuisine in Ham,shire#E he added.
E9" $ar the best curr" !e have had in the
3ortsmouth area#E !as the comment o$
Havant diners# Mr. and Mrs. Fim Cairns o$
Dcnvilles.
E;e enjo"ed the di$$erent menu and $ound
the advice o$ the sta$$# e>,laining ho! each
dish !as ,re,ared# ver" hel,$ul $or deciding
on our choice o$ menu#E the" said.
Such glo!ing comments re$lect the
e>clusive nature o$ the dishes available at the
1andhi <estaurant.
Original <eci,es
You can choose $rom a menu !hich o$$ers
curries and tandoories# +no!ing each one is
s,eciall" coo+ed $or "ou# !ith individual care
and attention# according to strict original
reci,es# b" a to, London che$# $ormerl" o$
Covent 1arden.
And a$ter "ou have sam,led the s,ic"
delights o$ "our main course# "ou can select
$rom a choice o$ original 'ndian s!eets to
tem,er "our ,alate.
<ela>ing in the com$ortable surroundings o$
the restaurant# "ou can have a hot to!el to
$reshen "oursel$ or clean "our $ingers bet!een
courses 5 another touch o$ 'ndian living.
The 1andhi <estaurant# situated at (8)
7ingston <oad# 3ortsmouth is $ull" licensed
and o,en seven da"s a !ee+.
You can ,o, in $or a traditional 'ndian lunch
bet!een (. and ..8/ ,m or enjo" a languid
evening meal# !hen the restaurant is o,en $rom
& ,m to midnight.
9ut ta+e care to boo+ in advance# as demand
$or this cuisine is e>,ected to be high# so avoid
disa,,ointment b" tele,honing 3ortsmouth
*(()&&.
As ,roo$ o$ con$idence in "our enjo"ment#
the 1andhi is o$$ering a (/ ,er cent discount on
the cost o$ "our meal# !hen "ou ,roduce this
advertisement !ithin three months o$ the
o,ening.
The sta$$ at the Candhi loo+ $or!ard to
serving "ou !ith "our $irst taste o$ trul"
authentic 'ndian cuisine in this area 5 and the"
+no! "ou !ill come bac+ again and again.
848
(%4
STONEHENGE
On a $ine midsummer morning# da!n brea+s slo!l" over Salisbur" 3lain.
or a $ull hour be$ore sunrise# Stonehenge# that ,rehistoric circle o$ standing
stones# stands out in eerie silence against the $irst "ello!5green light o$ da".
'n the shado! o$ the great stones# the modern5da" 'druids'# ,eo,le clothed in
the religious robes and hoods o$ the ancient Celtic ,riests# have begun their
annual ceremon" o$ $ire and !ater# celebrating the da!ning o$ the "ear's
longest da". Onl" a $e! luc+" ,eo,le are allo!ed to !atch the ritual inside
the stone circle itsel$. These are ,eo,le !ith o$$icial ,asses? journalists#
,hotogra,hers# television cameramen and the villagers o$ nearb" Amesbur".
Outside# a small cro!d has gathered be"ond the ,rotective barbed5!ire $ence
constructed to save the stones $rom the in@uisitive touch o$ countless tourists
!hose bus" $ingers have graduall" !orn a!a" the sur$ace o$ man" stones.
The sight the" have all come to see begins a $e! seconds a$ter 4 am# !hen
the $irst ra"s o$ the sun a,,ear over the edge o$ the horiCon. 't is the start o$
an event ,recisel" ,lanned b" the ,eo,le !ho built Stonehenge# a tem,le to
the Sun# almost 2#/// "ears ago.
And "et no one +no!s $or certain !ho erected the stone5circles or !h"
the" did so. The reason $or this is sim,le? the builders had no !riting. The
architects o$ Stonehenge could there$ore not leave behind them an"
documents or inscri,tions to e>,lain !h" the" chose to build this
e>traordinar" construction on Salisbur" 3lain0 !h" the" mi>ed local stones
!ith others cut more than .// miles a!a"0 !h" the" demolished and rebuilt it
several times in the course o$ a thousand "ears0 or !h" the" balanced huge
stones on to, o$ each other in a st"le more suited to building in !ood.
9ut Stonehenge is no isolated m"ster"# $or it is just one o$ a thousand
,rehistoric stone circles scattered throughout the 9ritish 'sles and northern
rance. The" have survived because the" !ere built in !hat are no! remote
and s,arsel" inhabited regions? ,erha,s thousands o$ others have not stood the
test o$ time and have been deliberatel" destro"ed or absorbed into the
landsca,e.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. The dawn )ele*rations at ,tonehen"e )ould *e des)ri*ed as .
a) a demonstration of Celti) (riests
*) reli"ious in style
)) a modern ritual
d) dan"erously (rimiti+e
4W
. What do lo)al (eo(le ha+e in )ommon with the media (eo(le1
a) ;ffi)ial )onne)tions with Ames*ury and ,alis*ury 8lain.
*) An interest in (hoto"ra(hy.
)) ,(e)ial +iewin" o((ortunities.
d) A *elief that the annual ritual *rin"s "ood lu)k.
2. The (ur(ose of the *ar*ed4wire fen)e is to .
a) (re+ent (eo(le di""in" u( the surfa)e of the "round
*) (rote)t the druids from the attentions of numerous tourists
)) make it im(ossi*le to steal the stones
d) (re+ent +isitors from dama"in" the stones
.. Certain features of ,tonehen"e are .
a) almost im(ossi*le to understand
*) the result of *ad workmanshi( and (oor ar)hite)tural taste
)) e:am(les of mi:ed reli"ious faiths
d) une:(lained des(ite the ins)ri(tions that they *ear
6. ,tonehen"e and other similar sites ha+e sur+i+ed *e)ause they were
a) )arefully tested *y their *uilders
*) *uilt far away in northern Fran)e
)) *uilt on (ri+ate land
d) situated in <uiet and isolated areas
(%&
H'STO<Y O A<M':1
7no!ledge o$ $arming !as brought into Central Euro,e b" immigrants
$rom the Middle East and a,,ears to have s,read !idel" and ra,idl" during
4/// 9.C. This s,read !as encouraged b" the ,resence o$ e>tensive areas o$
$ertile soils !hich could be !or+ed easil" and success$ull" b" the $airl"
sim,le techni@ues and e@ui,ment o$ the $irst $anners in Central Euro,e.
Access to this desirable soil !as made eas" b" the use o$ routes along natural
!ater!a"s# such as the Danube and the <hine. These $actors hel,ed the
,easant $arming econom" to adjust to the environment success$ull". ;ithout
this adjustment to the environment# there !ould have been little o,,ortunit"
$or $urther advance# either in technolog" or in social organisation.
The earliest $armers brought !ith them the +no!ledge o$ agriculture and
84&
o$ related cra$ts and s+ills !hich had been develo,ed in the Middle East.
These included such techni@ues as the ma+ing o$ ,otter" and stone tools# and
the building o$ houses and $arm buildings. The advance $rom a hunting to a
$arming econom" !as im,ortant not onl" in res,ect o$ $ood5!inning# but
also because the "earl" $arming c"cle ,rovided the $armers !ith a rest $rom
the continual search $or $ood. The hunting econom" normall" demanded $ull5
time hard !or+ to get $ood.
House construction# too# needed to ada,t. ;hereas# the $lat5roo$ed# sun5
dried mud5bric+ houses o$ the Middle East !ere ideall" suited to its !arm#
dr" climate# the moist Euro,ean climate re@uired something more suitable to
!ithstand strong !inds and +ee, o$$ rain.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. What )ontri*uted to the s(read of farmin" in Central 0uro(e1
a) The mildness of the )limate.
*) Ad+an)ed te)hnolo"y and natural waterways.
)) The lar"e num*ers of farmers.
d) Fa+oura*le )onditions for the )ulti+ation of land.
. What was the key to further su))ess in te)hnolo"y or in so)ial or"anisation1
a) The a*ility to ada(t.
*) 0asy a))ess to the farms.
)) 0ffi)ient so)ial or"anisation.
d) The use of ri+ers to trans(ort e<ui(ment.
2. When early farmers arri+ed in Central 0uro(e' they .
a) found out that Central 0uro(e was a hi"hly4de+elo(ed re"ion
*) had more knowled"e a*out a"ri)ulture than the farmers li+in" there
)) had diffi)ulty in ada(tin" to the en+ironment
d) had to shift to the huntin" e)onomy
.. A farmin" e)onomy was (refera*le to a huntin" e)onomy *e)ause .
a) it did not re<uire su)h a lar"e area of land
*) it was *etter suited to the needs of 0uro(eans
)) it (ro+ided a (lentiful su((ly of food
d) it redu)ed the time s(ent o*tainin" food
6. The Middle 0astern style of house )onstru)tion was .
a) ideally suited to Central 0uro(ean farmin" )onditions
*) *ased on the use of stone tools
)) a refle)tion of its )limate
d) ideal for kee(in" out wind and rain
265
(%%
ELT 'MA1E
;hen "ou close "our e"es and tr" to thin+ o$ the sha,e o$ "our o!n bod"#
!hat "ou imagine Aor# rather# !hat "ou $eelB is @uite di$$erent $rom !hat "ou
see !hen "ou o,en "our e"es and loo+ in the mirror. The image "ou $eel is
much vaguer than the one "ou see. And i$ "ou lie still# it is im,ossible to
imagine "oursel$ as having an" ,articular siCe or sha,e.
;hen "ou move# !hen "ou $eel the !eight o$ "our arms and legs and the
natural resistance o$ the objects around "ou# the '$elt' image o$ "oursel$
becomes clearer. 't is almost as i$ it !ere created b" "our o!n actions and the
sensations the" cause.
The image "ou create $or "oursel$ has rather strange ,ro,ortions? certain
,arts $eel much larger than the" loo+. '$ "ou ,o+e "our tongue into a hole in
one o$ "our teeth# it $eels enormous0 "ou are o$ten sur,rised b" ho! small it
loo+s !hen "ou ins,ect it in the mirror.
9ut although the '$elt' image ma" not have the sha,e "ou see in the mirror#
it is much more im,ortant. 't is the image through !hich "ou recognise "our
,h"sical e>istence in the !orld. 'n s,ite o$ its strange ,ro,ortions# it is all one
,iece# and since it has a consistent right and le$t and to, and bottom# it allo!s
"ou to locate ne! sensations !hen the" occur. 't allo!s "ou to $ind "our nose
in the dar+# scratch itches and ,oint to a ,ain.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. The 'felt' ima"e of oneself is )learer .
a) in an u(ri"ht (osition with eyes )losed
*) when you look in the mirror
)) in a lyin" (osition with eyes o(en
d) when you start to mo+e
. The 'feltB ima"e .
a) has a )ertain siAe and sha(e
*) has different (ro(ortions from the real ima"e
)) is )reated *y a)tions and the related sensations
d) makes you feel the natural resistan)e of the o*De)ts around you
2. Whi)h of the followin" is not )orre)t a*out the 'felt' ima"e1
a) #t is more im(ortant than what you see in the mirror.
*) #t makes you aware of your (hysi)al *ein".
)) #t allows you to lo)ate new sensations.
d) #t makes you feel that your *ody is lar"er than it really is.
26%
(%*
ALL O THE MED'TE<<A:EA:
A,art $rom the nine5mile5!ide Strait o$ 1ibraltar# the Mediterranean
is landloc+ed# virtuall" unable to cleanse itsel$. 't ta+es */ "ears $or the
!ater to be rene!ed# $ar too slo! a ,rocess to co,e !ith the
remorseless rush o$ ,ollution.
4 or centuries# the ,eo,le o$ the Mediterranean have used the sea $or
their !astes. ;ea+ coastal currents +ee, se!age and industrial !aste
close to the shore and gentl" s,in $loating oil and tar to!ards the
beaches. And the sea's $eeble currents can do little to hel, remove
them. -ast areas o$ the shallo!s o$ the Mediterranean 5 the beaches 5
(/ are a!ash !ith bacteria and it doesn't ta+e long $or these to reach ,eo,le.
An even greater danger is involved in the sea$ood dishes that add so
much ,leasure to holida" menus. Shell$ish are ,rime carriers o$ man"
o$ the most vicious diseases o$ the area. The" o$ten gro! amid
(4 ,ollution. And even i$ the" don't# the" are in$ected b" the ,o,ular ,ractice
o$ '$reshening them u,' 5 thro!ing $ilth" !ater over them in mar+ets.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. The Mediterranean )annot )leanse itself as .
a) there is only one strait linkin" it to the o)ean
*) it has *een used for waste dis(osal for )enturies
)) the ,trait of 9i*raltar is only nine miles wide
d) the land around it is densely (o(ulated
. Coastal )urrents in the Mediterranean .
a) are too weak to remo+e the wastes
*) )arry oil and tar away from the *ea)hes
)) flow too )lose to the shore
d) )ause the wastes to float offshore
2. =ine 1!' 'these' refers to . ? a) *a)teria *) the
*ea)hes )) +ast areas d) the shallows
.. ,hellfish that "row in un(olluted areas .
a) add (leasure to holiday menus
* )are mu)h safer than those'"rowin" in (olluted seas
)) may still )arry disease
d) ha+e to *e ke(t fresh *y throwin" filthy water o+er them
84)
(%)
YO6:1 C'TY 96'LDE<S
EM" children reall" understand solar ,o!er and geothermal energ"#E sa"s
a second grade teacher in Saugus# Cali$ornia. ESome o$ them are building
solar collectors and turbines $or their energ" course.E These "oung scientists
are ,art o$ the Cit" 9uilding Educational 3rogram# a uni@ue curriculum $or
+indergarten through t!el$th grade that uses the ,rocess o$ cit" ,lanning to
teach basic reading# !riting# and math s+ills.
The children don't just ,lan an" cit". The" ma, and anal"Ce the housing#
energ" and trans,ortation re@uirements o$ their o!n communit" and ,roject
its needs in (// "ears. ;ith the hel, o$ an architect consultant !ho visits the
classroom once a !ee+# the" invent ne! !a"s to meet these needs and build
st"ro$oam models o$ their creations. EDesigning buildings o$ the $uture gives
children a lot o$ $reedom#E sa"s Doreen :elson# the teacher !ho develo,ed
this ,rogram. EThe" are able to use their o!n s,ace5age $antasies and
inventions !ithout $ear o$ criticism# because there are no !rong ans!ers in a
$uture conte>t. 'n $act# as the class enters the $inal model5building ,hase o$
the ,rogram# an elected 'ma"or' and ',lanning commission' ma+e all the
design decisions $or the model cit"# and the
teacher ste,s bac+ and becomes an adviser.E
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. The City /uildin" 0du)ational 8ro"ram .
a) was desi"ned *y an ar)hite)t )onsultant
*) is a )urri)ulum de+elo(ed for kinder"arten )hildren only
)) was de+ised to tea)h )hildren some *asi) skills
d) aims to de+elo( an awareness of housin" and ener"y
. Whi)h of the followin" is not )orre)t a*out the (ro"ram1
a) The students are "i+en an o((ortunity to de+elo( the "eneral skill of
(ro*lem4sol+in".
*) The tea)her herself (i)ks some students for the (lannin" )ommission.
)) The students are allowed to use their ima"ination freely.
d) The tea)her is not a)ti+ely in+ol+ed in makin" de)isions for the desi"n of the
model )ity.
8&/
(*/
M'::'E
Dee, in the $ar !est o$ Corn!all# England# Minnie# a t",ical
Himala"an bear# is slee,ing ,eace$ull" through the !inter# una!are
that she ma" not survive to enjo" !a+ing in the s,ring. Her o!ner# Mr.
7en Trengoved# has been told that unless he ,a"s a G(48.&/
4 license $ee# the bear he has o!ned since she !as born ma" have to be
destro"ed. To Mr. Trengoved# ho!ever# the demand re,resents an
im,ossible amount# $or he has onl" an old5age ,ension on !hich to
live.
The local authorities have onl" recentl" $ound out about Minnie
(/ and have to demand a $ee according to the la!? the Dangerous ;ildli$e
Act# ()%&.
Mr. Trengoved# !ho lives in a caravan in the mountains# said? EThe
last thing in the !orld ' !ant to lose is Minnie# !ho has been m" $riend
$or ./ "ears. She is onl" hal$!a" through her li$e.E Minnie# !ho
(4 stands more than . metres tall and !eighs (*/ +g# is +e,t nearb" the
caravan# in a secure cage !ithin a !ired area !hich she shares !ith
dogs# cats# horses and rabbits. Mr. Trengoved said? E' love animals but
Minnie is s,ecial. Even i$ she !as ta+en a!a" to some!here else# '
don't thin+ she !ould live long# $or this is her home.E
./ Mr. 9ob <eason# the local health o$$icer# said? E;e have no o,tion
but to collect this license $ee. '$ Mr. Trengoved cannot $ind the mone"#
then ,erha,s a ne! home could be $ound $or Minnie in a Coo or circus.
The last thing !e !ould li+e to do is to destro" her.E He said the license
$ee !as high because to com,l" !ith the la!# the bear !ould
.4 have to be e>amined b" a veterinarian s,ecialiCing in !ild animals. Mr.
<eason said that since Minnie's stor" had become +no!n# some local
,eo,le had contacted the authorities o$$ering $inancial hel, to Mr.
Trengoved# so it is ,ossible that this stor" !ill have a ha,," outcome.
Our ho,es no doubt !ill be shared b" Minnie# !ho# dee, in
8/ hibernation# is ,robabl" dreaming o$ hone".
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. Whi)h of the followin" )ould *e an alternati+e title1
a) Cir)us /ear Released )) 3an"erous /ear 3estroyed
*) /ear in 3an"er d) Ministry For*ids /ear
. Minnie is
a) ! years old )) a *a*y *ear
*) li+es in the Himalayas d) li+es in a )a+e in Cornwall
8&(
(*(
HO; C<6C'AL 'S D<EAM':1=
or a long time# night dreaming !as thought to inter$ere !ith the
necessar" rest that slee, ,rovides. Ho!ever# e>,eriments have
indicated that dreams are not onl" a normal ,art o$ the slee, ,rocess
but also vital to ,s"chological health. Dr. ;illiam Dement o$ the
4 Slee, Center o$ Mount Sinai Hos,ital# !ho is conducting e>tensive
e>,eriments on the signi$icance o$ dreaming# re,orts that subjects
!hose dreams !ere interru,ted regularl" e>hibited emotional
disturbances such as h",ertension# an>iet"# irritabilit"# and
concentration di$$iculties. EOne o$ the subjects# E Dement re,orted#
(/ E@uit the stud" in ,anic and t!o insisted on sto,,ing# because the stress
!as too great.E 't !as also observed that in $ive subjects there !as
considerable increase in a,,etite# i.e. the" ate a lot# during the ,eriod o$
dream de,rivation. As soon as the subjects !ere allo!ed to dream
again# all ,s"chological disturbances vanished.
(4 More drastic e>,eriments in Edinburgh# Scotland# su,,orted these
$indings. -olunteers !ho !ere +e,t a!a+e $or ver" long ,eriods
dreamed considerabl" more than usual !hen $inall" ,ermitted to slee,.
't is as though a ,ressure to dream builds u,. That is# the more "our
dreaming is restricted# the more "ou are inclined to dream !hen
./ allo!ed to slee,. '$ dream su,,ression is carried on long enough# the
result is serious disorders in the ,ersonalit" and# there$ore# e>,eriments
conducted in this area should be monitored b" ,ro$essionals onl".
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine 1' J t o interfere with' means to .
a) im(ro+e
*) distur*
)) re)o+er from
d) e:tend
. =ine .' '+ital' means .
a) essential
*) unim(ortant
)) useless
d) effi)ient
8&8
(*.
6:DE<STA:D':1 TEE:A1E C6LTS
-his is a British news'a'er article which tries to e9'lain wh" teenagers
are attracted to certain teenage 'cults' 5 grou's whose beliefs and beha8iour
are considered strange, unnatural, or har&ful but which beco&e 8er"
'o'ular or fashionable for a short 'eriod of ti&e.
Ever since the earl" ()4/'s# there have been attem,ts to e>,lain !h" "outh
cults ha,,en. :one o$ them has been entirel" convincing.
The <eaction Theor"
Teenagers !ant to sho! ho! di$$erent the" are $rom their ,arents and#
,erha,s more im,ortantl"# their older brothers and sisters. '$ the last $ashion
had long hair and !ide trousers# then the ne>t one !ill have short hair and
narro! trousers. There seems to be a lot o$ tmth in this.
The 1lobal -illage Theor"
9ecause o$ $ilms# records# television and radio# teenagers are a!are o$ !hat
their contem,oraries are doing all around the English5s,ea+ing vTorld.
Almost as soon as there !ere hi,,ies in San rancisco# !e had them too. A
,roblem !ith this theor" is that the time has to be right $or a st"le to be
ado,ted. The main in$luence on teenagers remains their $riends.
The Teenage 'dol Theor"
Teenagers imitate the ,eo,le the" loo+ u, to# chie$l" $ilm stars and ,o,
,er$ormers. ;hen David 9o!ie used e"e shado!# so did man" o$ his male
$ans. Ho!ever# this onl" succeeds i$ the ,o, star is in tune !ith the vTa"
"outh culture is alread" going.
The Technolog" Theor"
Man" develo,ments in teenage culture !ere ,ossible onl" because o$ ne!
technolog". Electric guitars ,lus am,li$ication meant "ou could have ,o,
grou,s and ,o, $estivals. The transistor radio made ,o, music inevitable.
The Drug Culture Theor"
This theor" suggests that the nature o$ a "outh cult is determined b" the
drugs that it ta+es. S,eed Aam,hetamineB e@uals aggression and energ" 5thin+
o$ ,un+s and s+inheads. 3od AcannabisB e@uals rela>ation and m"sticism 5
thin+ o$ hi,,ies. Even 'ordinar"' societ" has its drugs# such as alcohol#
nicotine# co$$ee# etc. 9ut ma"be the st"le came be$ore the drug.
8&4
The 5a2ita!ist .o9ination Theor
Youth culture ha,,ened because commerce understood that teenagers had
mone" to s,end and !or+ed out !a"s o$ ma+ing them bu" more records#
clothes and concert tic+ets. This does not account $or cults that !ere anti5
consumerist li+e the ,un+s and hi,,ies.
The Class Theor
This is a so,histicated le$t5!ing theor". Youth cults assert the solidarit" o$
"oung ,eo,le !ho are victimiCed b" societ". S+inheads ta+e as,ects o$
!or+ing class culture to an e>treme. The" almost enjo" ,eo,le loo+ing do!n
on them.
There is no sim,le e>,lanation. M" o!n research ,oints to these general
observations. irstl"# cults don't arrive $ull"5$ormed# $lourish and then die.
The" are constantl" changing and their message evolving. Secondl"#
teenagers onl" join a cult i$ it $eels right# but most +ids !ant to be something
and cults give them something to be.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. #n "eneral' youn" (eo(le are most influen)ed *y . a) their so)ial
)lass *) their friends )) (o( stars d) their (arents
. Whi)h statement *est sums u( the 9lo*al @illa"e Theory1
a) Noun" (eo(le need to *e inde(endent.
*) 8eo(le of the same a"e unite.
)) 0ffi)ient )ommuni)ation leads to )o(yin".
d) /i" *usiness )auses )han"e.
2. The 3ru" Culture Theory su""ests .
a) youn" (eo(le are alienated
C
) ni)otine isn't a dru"
*) skinheads are rela:ed d) e+ery*ody takes dru"s
.. Whi)h of the followin" theories does the writer seem to a))e(t the most1
a) The Rea)tion Theory.
*) The 8o( #dol Theory.
)) The Class Theory.
d) The Ca(italist 3omination Theory.
6. The writer )on)ludes that )ults .
a) make kids Doin them
*) are e+il
)) (ro+ide an identity
d) stay the same
8&&
(*8
A LONEL0 4ARA.ISE
The :e! Lealand !ee+end tells "ou a great deal about this countr"
o$ three million ,eo,le and ninet" million shee,. The $irst car,enter to
land in :e! Lealand !ent on stri+e the moment his $eet touched the
beach in the (*2/'s. E''m on stri+e $or a $ort"5hour !ee+#E he said#
4 thin+ing o$ all those $ree !ee+ends. Li+e so man" o$ the settlers# he !as
determined not to bring the mista+es o$ the old !orld !ith him. A man
called Charles 3arnell then became the leader o$ a strong union
movement and negotiated agreements !ith em,lo"ers to carr" out
!ishes li+e these. 9" ()//# !or+ers had their $ree !ee+end# !omen
(/ had the right to vote and the $oundations o$ a !el$are state had been laid.
Man" o$ the settlers !ere Anglo5Sa>on Christians# mostl"
3rotestants# and $or them the !ee+end !as e@uall" im,ortant. The"
made sure that Sunda" !as a da" o$ rest. The +i!i !ee+end Athe +i!i
(4 bird is the national emblem o$ :e! LealandB has not changed much since.
The cities are silent# and ever"thing is closed.
Christians in$luenced :e! Lealand li$e in other !a"s too. The" $elt
strongl" that drin+ing alcohol !as sin$ul and# in the earl" da"s# the
countr" !as 'dr"' A!ithout alcoholB. 6ntil ()&*# ,ubs closed at & ,m
./ and# even no!# the" close at (/ ,m. ;hat is more# hotels are still onl"
allo!ed to sell alcohol !ith meals on Sunda"s. This is remar+able
!hen "ou thin+ ho! man" hard5living gold5hunters came to :e!
Lealand !hen gold !as $ound in Otago and on the !est coast o$ the
South 'sland in the (*&/'s# and then sta"ed on. The" brought a totall"
.4 di$$erent set o$ values !ith them# but it !as the original settlers# the
3rotestants and trade unionists# !ho laid the $oundations o$ ,resent5da"
:e! Lealand.
The ,arado>es# or con$licting side o$ :e! Lealand li$e remain#
ho!ever. The ,eo,le are ver" conservative0 and "et the socialist
8/ government in the earl" ()*/'s became $amous $or its e$$orts to create a
nuclear5$ree Cone. 't has a re,utation as a success$ul multi5racial
societ"# !here the island's original inhabitants# the Maoris# have al!a"s
mi>ed ,eace$ull" !ith the !hite ,o,ulation. The number o$ Maoris has#
ho!ever# gone do!n dramaticall". ;hen the" started
84 using Euro,ean arms# tribal !ars became a blood bath and# $or them#
Euro,ean illnesses such as measles and the common cold !ere +illers.
As the Maoris slo!l" too+ to Christianit"# their culture and communit"
li$e su$$ered too# and the" certainl" had no sa" in the setting u, o$ the
State. <ecentl"# though# things have im,roved and
i>fn
2/ ste,s are being ta+en to increase their birth rate and ,reserve their !a" o$
li$e.
The main attraction o$ :e! Lealand $or visitors# o$ course# is its
scener". 't varies as "ou move $rom a sub5tro,ical climate in :orth
Auc+land to the blea+ cold climate o$ Ste!ard 'sland o$$ the coast o$
24 the South 'sland. 'n the :orth 'sland# there are hot s,rings and a number
o$ active volcanoes. There have been earth@ua+es during !hich !hole
mountains move and shi,s suddenl" $ind themselves on dr" land. 'n
the south5!est o$ the South 'sland there is the iordland# !here &///5
$oot emerald5green mountains ,lunge verticall" do!n
4/ into the dee, blue o$ the sea. A landsca,e o$ this +ind ma+es men and
!omen seem ver" small and insigni$icant and also ma+es
communication and travel di$$icult. Even no!ada"s there is no regular
$err" service bet!een ;ellington in the :orth 'sland and Christchurch
in the South across the Coo+ Strait# as this is one o$ the most
44 dangerous stretches o$ !ater in the !orld. ;ellington# the ca,ital cit"# is
be$$eted b" almost continuous strong !inds as the !arm air $rom the
north o$ the countr" meets the cold air $rom the Coo+ Strait.
't is understandable that those !ho came $rom Euro,e settled there
!ith the intention o$ creating a mini5England in the South 3aci$ic.
&/ ;hite :e! Lealanders usuall" enjo" a li$e st"le similar to that o$ the
u,,er classes in England. 9ut no! the" are beginning to come to
terms !ith a 3ol"nesian culture and @uestion !hether the" are :e!
Lealanders or merel" a grou, o$ Euro,eans !ho loo+ on 9ritain as
their mother countr".
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. #n Few Oealand' .
a) (eo(le work at the weekend
*) there are often strikes
)) no inha*itants e:isted *efore the 1%.!'s
d) there are more shee( than (eo(le
. Thanks to the union mo+ement' in Few Oealand .
a) women are entitled to +ote
*) a welfare state is *ein" founded
)) a"reements with em(loyers are ne"otiated
d) workers ha+e to fi"ht for free weekends
2. 3ue to the attitude towards al)ohol in the )ountry' .
a) Christians influen)ed the lifestyle
*) hotels do not sell al)ohol e:)e(t on ,undays
)) drinkin" al)ohol is )onsidered sinful
d) /oth (*) and ()).
8&*
(*2
SHO4AHOLIS*
A$ter s,lashing out three hundred ,ounds on ten ,airs o$ shoes# a "oung
girl $ound that sho,,ing develo,ed into an obsession !hich le$t her !ith
debts totaling over $i$t" thousand ,ounds. This condition# +no!n as
'sho,aholism' is on the increase all over the countr". 't o$ten begins in @uite a
small !a" as it did !ith Diane. She used to go sho,,ing to cheer hersel$ u,
!henever she !as de,ressed. 't began !ith small items o$ under!ear or bath
,roducts and ma+e5u,# and develo,ed into bu"ing com,lete out$its# and
clothes she didn't need.
The current trend $or ma+ing credit easil" available and tem,ting "oung
,eo,le to get credit cards and store cards is largel" res,onsible# according to
the government# !ho are tr"ing to crac+ do!n on eas" credit $or under5(*s.
;ithdra!ing credit cards can hel,# but $or serious 'sho,aholics' the need to
bu" remains# and the habit can onl" be bro+en b" treating the s"m,toms in
the same !a" as a drug addict or an alcoholic.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. ,ho(aholism is .
a) ha+in" de*ts amountin" to "reat sums of money
*) "oin" sho((in" whene+er you feel de(ressed
)) not *ein" a*le to resist *uyin" the items you don't need
d) not )onsidered an o*session
. 3iane (ro*a*ly .
a) needs to *uy a lot of )lothin" )) has a lot of money to s(end
*) uses )redit )ards for sho((in" d) )an't stand *uyin" unne)essary thin"s
2. The "o+ernment .
a) are en)oura"in" (eo(le to "et )redit )ards and store )ards
*) are in the trend of makin" )redit )ards easily a+aila*le for under41%s
)) are intendin" to make store )ards as easily a+aila*le as )redit )ards
d) think easily a+aila*le )redit )ards lead to unne)essary sho((in"
.. ,erious sho(aholi)s .
a) should "et some kind of (sy)holo"i)al treatment
*) )an *e )onsidered dru" addi)ts or al)oholi)s
)) would sto( *uyin" if they didn't ha+e )redit )ards
d) ha+e a ha*it whi)h )an ne+er *e *roken
25!
(*4
FOO. AI.
ood aid is a li$esaver in man" situations# but in other cases it does
more harm than good. Onl" (/J o$ all $ood aid sent is used $or vital
emergenc" relie$. The remainder is distributed in a variet" o$ !a"s# but
rarel" gets out to the ,oor. 'ncreasingl"# countries come to rel" on
4 it and are less !illing to encourage their o!n $armers to gro! $ood. or
man" communities $ood aid means drasticall" altered diets and loss o$
livelihoods. Locall" gro!n $ood can't com,ete !ith $ood aid and
,rices $all. Lo! ,rices drive $armers out o$ business. The result?
communities become more de,endent on $ood $rom outside and less
(/ able to $eed themselves. As less $ood is ,roduced# less !or+ is available.
amilies leave their homes and dri$t to the to!ns in search o$ !or+.
There the" s!ell the ran+s o$ the unem,lo"ed.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. 9enerally. $!T of food aid .
a) is stored in +arious ways
*) is used in emer"en)ies
)) doesn't rea)h the (oor
d) is distri*uted to the (eo(le in need
. =ine 6' 'if refers to .
a) the remainder
*) food aid
)) food
d) emer"en)y relief
2. Food aid )auses .
a) a fall in the (ri)es of lo)ally "rown food
*) a healthier diet for the (oor
)) farmers to "row their own food
d) a )om(etition *etween "o+ernments and farmers
.. The main reason for farmers lea+in" their homes is .
a) the hi"h rate of unem(loyment in towns
*) that they *e)ome de(endent on food aid
)) the redu)ed food (rodu)tion in towns
d) that they are left without Do*s
8%(
(*&
.ISASTERS IN THE THIR. (ORL.
'n the Third ;orld# droughts and $loods are not the une>,ected disasters
!e al!a"s imagine. 'n the Sahel region o$ A$rica# drought is ,racticall" ,art
o$ the environmental c"cle# and in Asia ever"one +no!s that $loods !ill
occur regularl". 'n 9ritain# !e have a 'disaster' ever" "ear. 't gets so cold that
little gro!s $or months 5 !e call it !inter. Throughout that time# su,ermar+et
shelves bulge !ith $ood and most o$ us manage to +ee, !arm. The di$$erence
is that in the Third ;orld countries the ,oor just can't co,e. or the
,astoralist# drought +ills his cattle and his $uture. or the ,oor in Calcutta# the
recent $loods meant total destruction o$ homes and livelihoods. Yet# the rich
in those countries remain untouched. Their land is irrigated# their homes !ell
built# their credit is good.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. #n the Third World )ountries
a) e+eryone e:(e)ts a se+ere winter to )ause disasters
*) the ri)h (eo(le are not affe)ted *y disasters
)) disasters like floods and drou"hts are une:(e)ted
d) /oth (*) and ()).
Whi)h of the followin" statements is true1
a) A))ordin" to the author' winters in /ritain are a disaster.
*) Floods are natural in the ,ahel re"ion of Afri)a.
)) The /ritish (eo(le do not suffer a lot from winter.
d) /oth (a) and ()).
25
(*%
COMM6:'CAT'O: A:D LA:16A1E
': THE HOME5<A'SED CH'M3A:LEES
Although o$ten misunderstood# the scienti$ic rationale $or rearing a
chim,anCee in a human household is to $ind out just ho! $ar the a,e
can go in absorbing the civiliCing in$luences o$ the environment. To
!hat degree is it ca,able o$ res,onding li+e a child and to !hat degree
4 !ill genetic $actors limit its develo,ment= At least si> com,rehensive
studies b" @uali$ied investigators have been directed !holl" or ,artl"
to this ,roblem. All o$ these studies em,lo"ed "oung chim,anCees as
subjects and some also had in5house child controls !hose da"5to5da"
develo,ment could be com,ared directl" !ith that o$ the e>,erimental
(/ animal. 'n general# the results o$ this sort o$ research sho! that the
home5raised chim, ada,ts ra,idl" to the ,h"sical $eatures o$ the
household. 't does man" things as !ell as a human child and some o$
them better A$or e>am,le# those involving strength and climbingB.
9" $ar the greatest de$icienc" sho!n b" the a,e in the human
(4 environment is its lac+ o$ language abilit". This eliminates the verbal
communication !hich humans enjo"# and !ith it the vast amount o$
social intercourse and learning !hich are de,endent u,on language.
Even amid human surroundings# a chim, never ,rattles or babbles as a
"oung child does !hen beginning to tal+. Although it imitates the
./ behavior o$ others readil"# it seems to lac+ the abilit" $or vocal imitation.
The neural s,eech centers o$ the brain are no doubt de$icient in this
res,ect and it is ,ossible also that the lar"n> and s,eech organs are
inca,able o$ ,roducing the com,le> sound ,atterns o$ human
language. One long5time attem,t to teach a home5raised chim, to
.4 ,ronounce human !ords succeeded onl" in getting the animal to mouth
unvoiced !his,ers o$ the !ords 'mama'# ',a,a'# 'cu,'# and 'u,'.
At the same time# a chim,anCee in the home# as in the !ild state#
uses gestures or movements as communicating signals. This suggests
the ,ossibilit" o$ training a home5raised a,e to em,lo" a standardiCed
8/ s"stem o$ gestures as a means o$ t!o5!a" communication. Such an
investigation is no! under !a"# using a gesture language devised $or
the dea$. Considerable ,rogress has alread" been made in both the
receiving and sending o$ gesture signals b" this method. The techni@ue
seems to o$$er a much greater li+elihood o$ success than other methods
84 o$ intercommunication bet!een chim,anCees and humans.
252
(**
THE *OTHER OF *O.ERN .AN5E?
*ARTHA GRAHA*
The name Martha 1raham is ,racticall" a s"non"m $or the still "oung art
$orm +no!n as modern dance# !hich dates $rom her ,ioneering da"s in the
late ()./'s. O$ten seen as a rebellion against the 84/5"ear5old tradition o$
classical ballet# modem dance is the !orld's $irst lasting alternative to that
tradition. 1raham has been rightl" called a genius and one o$ the greatest
artists the 6nited States has ever ,roduced. Yet# as she is no! over )/ "ears
old# man" ,eo,le have !ondered !hether her legend !ill survive.
This @uestion is more to the ,oint because change has certainl" been a
major $actor in 1raham's career. 'n the earl" ()./'s# 1raham came to $eel
that the radical changes brought b" ;orld ;ar ' re@uired a ne! and
di$$erent st"le o$ dancing. A$ter attending a $amous dance school in
Cali$ornia called Denisha!n# she and t!o other dancers made a dramatic
brea+a!a" $rom the Denisha!n dance com,an". 'n ().%# a re,orter $or the
:e! Yor+ Times coined the term 'modern dance' to describe their ne! and
innovative st"le.
1raham's earl" dances o$ the ()8/'s !ere star+ and sim,le0 these contrast
!ith the ,oetic theater ,ieces o$ the ()2/'s and even more shar,l" !ith the
com,le> dance5dramas based on 1ree+ m"tholog" that characteriCed the
()4/'s and ()&/'s. 'n these# several ,er$ormers !ould each ,ortra" di$$erent
as,ects o$ the same character's ,ersonalit". O$ten# scenes $rom the ,ast#
,resent# and $uture !ould occur at the same time# ma+ing it im,ossible to
distinguish clearl" one ,eriod o$ time $rom another.
Even the dancers themselves don't loo+ the same as the" once did. The
$ull5bodied dancers o$ the ,ast# !hose !eight gave them a certain ,o!er#
have been re,laced b" thinner dancers !ith a lighter st"le. 'n 1raham's vie!#
these "ounger dancers are the ,roduct o$ diets and vitamins# but b" using
them# she has +e,t ,ace !ith the changing times. EThe absolute thing is
no!#E she sa"s# Echange is the onl" constant.E
:ot sur,risingl"# 1raham's changes o$ direction have caused controvers"#
and some o$ her most devoted admirers have been u,set b" her ne! !or+
that does not $it their memories o$ her ,ast. She ,rotested strongl" !hen# in
()*2# an a,,lication $or grant mone" !as re$used b" a $oundation that $elt the
artistic standards o$ her com,an" !ere not !hat the" used to be.
Yet# des,ite the changes and controvers"# one o$ 1raham's belie$s has
remained $i>ed over the "ears? that dance e>,resses emotion !e o$ten tr" to
hide and cannot e>,ress in !ords. E' don't !ant to be understandable#E she
declared. E' !ant to be $elt.E
8%&
1raham's dances are o,en to man" inter,retations# and li+e abstract
,ainters# she invites the vie!er to bring his or her emotions to the !or+# to
com,lete the ,icture. She remembers being in$luenced b" ;assil"
7andins+" !hen# as a "oung !oman# she ha,,ened to see a ,ainting o$ his 5a
slash o$ red against a $ield o$ blue 5 and decided# E' !ill dance li+e that.E
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. Modern dan)e is asso)iated with the name Martha 9raham .
a) *e)ause she was the first to dan)e in the modern style
*) as she is one of the *est artists in the -,A
)) due to her re*ellious (ersonality as a youn" woman
d) sin)e she is the (erson who de+ised the term
. Martha 9raham .
a) )han"ed her )areer followin" the so)ial transformations *rou"ht *y World War
#
*) (ersuaded other dan)ers to lea+e the 3enishawn dan)e )om(any
)) *elie+ed that a new style of dan)in" was ne)essary to "o with the )han"es
after the war
d) left the dan)e )om(any after she *e)ame famous enou"h to make )han"es in
the world of dan)e
2. 9raham's early dan)es .
a) were *ased on themes deri+ed from 9reek mytholo"y
*) were different from the dan)e4dramas as they a+oided )om(le:ity
)) were *ased on the different ty(es of human (ersonality
d) were influen)ed *y the style of (erformers of the 1$2!'s
.. #n the (lays and dan)e4dramas of the mid41$!!'s' .
a) the same artist (layed different as(e)ts of a )hara)ter's (ersonality
*) there was only one main )hara)ter
)) s)enes from different (eriods took (la)e at the same time
d) /oth (*) and ()).
6. #n the (ast' .
a) it was desira*le for dan)ers to *e well4*uilt
*) dan)ers were not as (owerful as they are now
)) dan)ers had a different style
d) /oth (a) and ()).
255
(*)
9E':1 A:
I
A6 3A'<'? SOME ACTS
The idea o$ !or+ing 'au ,air'# !ith $ull board and ,oc+et mone" in return
$or hel, in the home# has been !elcomed b" thousands o$ girls coming $rom
countries outside 9ritain. Man" o$ them !ant to ,ractise the English the"
have learned at school but cannot a$$ord to live a!a" $rom home !ithout
some +ind o$ !or+ to ,rovide them !ith at least the necessities o$ li$e.
The aim o$ ,ractising the language ma" be !ea+er in some girls than the
desire to enjo" the $reedom o$ being a!a" $rom home and the e>citement o$
living in a large cit" li+e London. The idea o$ !or+ing seriousl" $or their
living ma" be unattractive. 't is e>,eriences !ith the +ind o$ girl !ho returns
home at all hours o$ the night or not at all# is al!a"s com,laining !hen as+ed
to do an"thing# cannot be trusted to do the sim,lest thing ,ro,erl"# neglects
her studies and gets into various +inds o$ trouble# that ma+e man" em,lo"ers
hesitate about ta+ing a second 'au ,air' into their home.
9ut the $aults are not all on one side and man" 'au ,air' girls also have
good cause $or com,laint# some o$ them becoming de,ressed and unha,," as
a result. 6n$ortunatel" $ar too $e! girls !ho are attracted b" the idea o$
earning their living in another land are ,re,ared $or the various di$$iculties
that ma" a!ait them.
't is essential that an" girl !ho ta+es a ,ost o$ this +ind should be at least
eighteen "ears old# and be sensible# ,ractical and !ell able to loo+ a$ter
hersel$. ;herever ,ossible she should go to a $amil" she +no!s something
about ,ossibl" $rom a $riend !ho has alread" !or+ed !ith them. 'n an" case
she should ma+e sure she has a letter $rom her em,lo"er stating clearl" her
terms o$ em,lo"ment? e>actl" !hat she is e>,ected to do A!hether minding
children or hel,ing !ith light house!or+B# ho! long she !ill be e>,ected to
!or+ each !ee+ and her $ree da"s and hal$5da"s $or attending language
classes. She should be ,romised a single room o$ a satis$actor" standard and
she !ill !ant to eat !ith the $amil" to have the o,,ortunit" o$ ,ractising the
language !ith them. Her earnings !ill not be high# but her em,lo"er !ill
,robabl" ,a" her return travel e>,enses# i$ the girl is ,re,ared to sta" !ith the
same $amil" all the time.
T!o other ,ieces o$ advice are im,ortant. A girl should +ee, !ith her
travellers' che@ues o$ a su$$icient value to ,a" $or her journe" home in case it
becomes necessar" to return urgentl". 'n addition# she should +no! the
addresses o$ one or t!o organisations !hich can give hel, and advice i$ there
are ,roblems. Several o$ these organisations e>ist in London and other large
centres.
8%)
()/
THE ME:ACE O THE M'C<O
Hardl" a !ee+ goes b" !ithout some advance in technolog" that
!ould have seemed incredible 4/ "ears ago. Over the ,ast ./ "ears#
com,uters have com,letel" revolutioniCed our lives. Yet# !e can
e>,ect the rate o$ change to accelerate rather than slo! do!n !ithin
4 our li$etimes. The ne>t .4 "ears !ill see as man" changes as have been
!itnessed in the ,ast (4/.
These develo,ments in technolog" are bound to have a dramatic
e$$ect on the $uture o$ !or+. 9" ./(/# ne! technolog" !ill have
revolutioniCed communications. 3eo,le !ill be transmitting messages
(/ do!n tele,hone lines that ,reviousl" !ould have been sent b" ,ost. A
,ostal s"stem !hich has essentiall" been the same since the 3haraohs
!ill virtuall" disa,,ear overnight. Once these changes are introduced#
not onl" ,ostmen but also cler+s and secretaries !ill vanish in a ,a,er5
$ree societ". All the routine tas+s the" ,er$orm !ill be carried
(4 on a tin" silicon chi,. As soon as this technolog" is available# these ,eo,le
!ill be as obsolete as the horse and cart a$ter the invention o$ the
motor car. One change !ill ma+e thousands# i$ not millions# redundant.
Even ,eo,le in traditional ,ro$essions# !here e>,ert +no!ledge has
./ been the +e"# are unli+el" to esca,e the e$$ects o$ ne! technolog". 'nstead
o$ going to a solicitor# "ou might go to a com,uter !hich is
,rogrammed !ith all the most u,5to5date legal in$ormation. 'ndeed#
"ou might even come u, be$ore a com,uter judge !ho !ould# in all
,robabilit"# judge "our case more $airl" than a human counter,art.
.4 Doctors# too# !ill $ind that an electronic com,etitor !ill be able to carr"
out a much @uic+er and more accurate diagnosis and recommend more
e$$icient courses o$ treatment.
'n education# teachers !ill be re,laced b" teaching machines $ar
more +no!ledgeable than an" human being. ;hat's more# most
8/ learning !ill ta+e ,lace in the home via video con$erencing. Children !ill
still go to school though# until another ,lace is created !here the" can
ma+e $riends and develo, social s+ills through ,la".
;hat# "ou ma" as+# can !e do to avoid the threat o$ the doleQ
@ueue= 's there an" job that !ill be sa$e= irst o$ all# !e shouldn't hide
84 our heads in the sand. 6nions !ill tr" to sto, change# but the" !ill be
$ighting a losing battle. 3eo,le should get com,uter literate as this just
might save them $rom ,ro$essional e>tinction. A$ter all# there !ill be a
$e! jobs le$t in la!# education and medicine $or those $e! individuals
!ho are ca,able o$ !riting and ,rogramming the so$t!are o$ the
8*(
2/ $uture. Strangel" enough# there !ill still be jobs li+e rubbish collection and
cleaning as it is tough to ,rogramme tas+s !hich are largel"
un,redictable.
'$ !e acce,t that ,eo,le have the need to !or+# then an o,tion might
!ell be to introduce com,ulsor" job sharing and to limit the
24 length o$ the !or+ing !ee+. Other!ise# !e could $ind ourselves in an
e>,losive situation !here a technocratic elite is both su,,orting# and
threatened b"# vast numbers o$ unem,lo"ed. ;hether the $uture is one
o$ mass unem,lo"ment or greater $reedom and leisure !ill de,end on
ho! change is managed over this di$$icult ,eriod and ho! the
4/ relationshi, bet!een !or+ and re!ard is vie!ed.
Q dole? mone" given to the unem,lo"ed b" the government
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine 12' '+irtuallyB means . a) slowly
*) )om(letely )) unlikely d) (artly
. =ine 1&' 'o*solete' means . a) rewardin"
*)essential )) unne)essary d) effi)ient
2. =ine 2' ')ome u( *efore' means . a) fa)e *)
)o(e with )) (er)ei+e d) (ay attention to
.. =ine 25' 'e:tin)tion' means . a) )ontri*ution *) disa((earan)e
)) in+estment d) inde(enden)e
6. The writer thinks that )han"es .
a) o))ur daily in our )entury
*) will take (la)e faster in the near future
)) )ould slow down within our lifetimes
d) are less dramati) today than those in the (ast
&. /y !1!' .
a) (ostmen will ha+e lost their Do*s
*) there will no lon"er *e routine tasks to *e (erformed
)) (eo(le will no lon"er send messa"es
d) more (eo(le will *e workin" in the field of )ommuni)ations
2%
()(
.ATA EN5R04TATION
'n recent "ears# com,uter ,rogrammers have tried to ma+e it eas" $or
,eo,le to use com,uter s"stems. 6n$ortunatel"# in some situations the
s"stems are too eas" to use0 the" don't have enough restrictions to
sa$eguard secret in$ormation or to ,revent an unauthoriCed ,erson
4 $rom using that in$ormation. There$ore# several methods have been devised
to ,revent com,uter crime. One o$ them is data encr",tation. ;hen
secret ,ersonal and $inancial data is transmitted to and $rom remote
terminals# it must be encr",ted Atranslated into a secret codeB at one end
and decr",ted Atranslated bac+ into ,lain te>tB at the other.
(/ Since it is im,ractical to +ee, secret the algorithms that are used to encr",t
and decr",t data# these algorithms are designed so that their o,eration
de,ends on a certain data item called the +e". 't is the +e" that is +e,t
secret. Even i$ "ou +no! all the details o$ the encr",ting and decr",ting
algorithms# "ou cannot decr",t an" messages unless
(4 "ou +no! the +e" that !as used !hen the" !ere encr",ted. or instance#
the :ational 9ureau o$ Standards has ado,ted an algorithm $or
encr",ting and decr",ting the data ,rocessed b" $ederal agencies. The
details o$ the algorithm have been ,ublished in the ederal <egister.
3lans are under !a" to incor,orate the algorithm in s,ecial
./ ,ur,ose micro,rocessors# !hich an"one can ,urchase and install in his
com,uter. So the algorithm is available to an"one !ho bothers to bu"
one o$ the s,ecial ,ur,ose micro,rocessors. 9ut the o,eration o$ the
algorithm is governed b" a si>t"5$our5bit +e". Since there are about
(/#///#///#///#///#///#///#/// ,ossible si>t"5$our5bit +e"s# no one
.4 is li+el" to discover the correct one b" chance. And# !ithout the correct
+e"# +no!ing the algorithm is useless.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine .' 'an unauthoriAed (erson' means a (erson who .
a) has no offi)ial (ermission to do somethin"
*) has no ri"ht to restri)t or )ontrol others
)) doesn't know anythin" a*out the su*De)t
d) doesn't know how to write somethin"
. ;ne )an de)ry(t messa"es only if he knows .
a) all the details of the en)ry(tin" and de)ry(tin" al"orithms
*) the key used while the messa"es were en)ry(ted
)) that al"orithms are used to en)ry(t and de)ry(t data
d) that the key is ke(t se)ret for se)urity measures
2%.
2. The al"orithm ado(ted *y the Fational /ureau of ,tandards )an only *e used if
a (erson .
a) reads the details of the al"orithm in the Federal Re"ister
*) in)or(orates the al"orithm in s(e)ial (ur(ose mi)ro(ro)essors
)) knows the al"orithm
d) *uys a s(e)ial (ur(ose mi)ro(ro)essor
.. As the o(eration of the al"orithm is "o+erned *y any one of the
1!'!!!'!!!'!!!'!!!'!!!'!!!'!!! (ossi*le si:ty4four4*it keys .
a) one )an dis)o+er it only *y )han)e
*) dis)o+erin" it *y )han)e is not (ossi*le
)) one should know the al"orithm
d) no one )an "et the )orre)t key
().
3EST'C'DE CO:T<OL
One o$ the reasons the use o$ ,esticides in $arming should be severel"
restricted and controlled is that ,esticides +ill 'good' and 'bad' insects
indiscriminatel". You ma" thin+ the more dead insects the better# but some
insects are actuall" bene$icial to $armers. 9" s,ra"ing
4 their $ields !ith to>ic ,esticides# the" destro" the good !ith the bad. One
e>am,le o$ a use$ul insect is the hone"bee. 'n the 6nited States# nearl" (//
cro,s !ith a $amZ value o$ H( billion annuall" de,end on the hone"bee $or
,ollination# $ertiliCation !ith ,ollen. Ho!ever# hone"bees gather ,oison as
the" search $or ,ollen. As a result# the"
(/ are steadil" being e>terminated b" the ver" ,eo,le the" are hel,ing. Toda"#
there are ./J $e!er hone"bee colonies in the 6nited States than there !ere
ten "ears ago. armers agree that hone"bees are the most e$$icient !a" to
,ollinate their cro,s. Yet# !ith their use o$ ,esticides# the" are surel"
eliminating their best $riends.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. The use of (esti)ides should *e restri)ted *e)ause .
a) the more dead inse)ts the *etter
*) they destroy *oth *ad and "ood inse)ts
)) they are used all o+er the world
d) farmers s(ray their fields with to:i) (esti)ides
. =ine 1!' 'e:terminatedB means .
a) (olluted *) hel(ed )) fed d) killed
8*4
2. =ine 12' 'Net' means .
a) Therefore *) /e)ause )) Howe+er d) Moreo+er
()8
TOW'C CHEM'CAL LEA7S
Deadl" chemical lea+s are much more common in the 6nited States than
most ,eo,le realiCe. According to recent re,orts $rom the government# there
are at least $our serious lea+s each da" in the 6nited States. The direct e$$ects
o$ this esca,e o$ chemicals into the 4 environment are devastating. 'n the last
$ive "ears# because o$ to>ic chemical lea+s# at least (84 deaths have occurred#
an estimated 2#%// injuries have resulted# and nearl" .//#/// ,eo,le have
been $orced $rom their homes.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. A )hemi)al leak (line 1) is the .
a) es)a(e of )hemi)als into the en+ironment
*) (reser+ation of )hemi)als in the en+ironment
)) (rodu)tion of )hemi)als in the -nited ,tates
d) )onsum(tion of )hemi)als in homes
. #f somethin" is 'de+astatin"' (line 6) it . a)
es)a(es *) for)es )) destroys d) im(ro+es
2. Whi)h of the followin" is not mentioned as a result of to:i) )hemi)al leaks1
a) 8eo(le ha+e died.
*) 8eo(le ha+e *een inDured.
)) 8eo(le ha+e realiAed the dan"er.
d) 8eo(le ha+e left their homes.
UR&
()2
THE STO<Y O THE TELE3HO:E
EMr ;atson# come here ,lease0 ' !ant "ou.E
;ith these common,lace !ords a ne! era !as ushered in. That sentence
mar+ed the achievement o$ a man !ho changed the $ace o$ the !orld in his
li$etime. or the s,ea+er !as Ale>ander 1raham 9ell# and the sentence !as
the $irst to be s,o+en and received over the tele,hone.
Although telegrams had been in use $or some time and the e@ui,ment
!as in some !a"s similar# the morse5code being ta,,ed out on the same
telegra,h !ires# it !as not so,histicated enough to ,ic+ u, s,eech. :o other
invention has sur,assed the use$ulness o$ the tele,hone.
Ale>ander 9ell !as bom on March 8# (*2% in Edinburgh. His genius !as
inherited $rom his $ather# !ho !as a $amous teacher o$ elocution# and an
e>,ert on ,honetics. Even as a bo" his mind !as inventive# but in (*%/
9ell's health began to $ail and there !ere $ears o$ tuberculosis. So# he le$t his
native countr" !ith his $ather and !ent to Canada. T!o "ears later he !as in
9oston# !here he set u, a school $or training teachers o$ the dea$ and he also
gave instruction in the mechanics o$ s,eech. Here he started e>,erimenting
on a machine !hich he believed !ould ma+e the dea$ 'hear'. ;hile he !as
doing this# he accidentall" came across the clue $or the correct ,rinci,les o$
tele,hon". E'$#E he said# Ea current o$ electricit" could be made to var" in
intensit" ,recisel" as the air varies in densit"# during the ,roduction o$
sound# ' should be able to transmit s,eech telegra,hicall". E So# he turned to
stud"ing the !or+ings o$ a dea$ man's ear# and the movement o$ air !hile a
sound is ,roduced.
9" ebruar" (4# (*%&# 9ell had $iled an a,,lication $or a ,atent $or his
'im,rovement in telegra,h"' at the 6nited States 3atent O$$ice. Onl" t!o
hours later# Elisha 1ra" o$ Chicago $iled an a,,lication $or almost the same
inventionI The great Edison# A.E. Dolbear and Daniel Dra!braugh !ere all
!or+ing in the same $ield? all claimed the invention or ,art o$ the invention
o$ the tele,hone. The great tele,hone !ar !as onI There !as hardl" an"
time to s,are.
9ell and his assistant# ;atson# hid themselves in t!o rooms o$ a chea,
9oston boarding house# rigged u, a,,aratus and !or+ed da" and night
tr"ing to transmit and receive sentences s,o+en b" the human voice over the
tele,hone. On the a$ternoon o$ March (/# (*%&# ;atson !as in the basement
!ith the receiver to his ear. Suddenl" he started. ;ords 5 real distinguishable
!ords 5 had come through at last. Shar,l" and clearl" the sentence came
through# EMr ;atson# come here# ,lease0 ' !ant "ou.E
;atson $lung do!n the receiver# rushed u, the stairs li+e a schoolbo"#
clearing them t!o at a time# and burst into 9ell's room# shouting# E' heard
"ou0 ' could hear !hat "ou saidIE
That "ear 9ell e>hibited his tele,hone at the Centennial E>,osition at
3hiladel,hia. :obod" thought much o$ the invention at $irst# until Don
3edro# the Em,eror o$ 9raCil# ,ic+ed u, the receiver. 9ell at the other end o$
the !ire# recited the $amous solilo@u" $rom 'Hamlet'# ETo be or not to be....E.
EM" 1odIE cried the Em,eror# E't s,ea+sIE The tele,hone !as $rom that
moment given ,ride o$ ,lace in the e>hibition. 9ell soon !ithdre! $rom
active !or+ on the tele,hone and settled do!n in a $ine countr" home at
9addec+# :ova Scotia and devoted himsel$ to invention. He interested
himsel$ in d"namic $light# shee, breeding and a universal language based on
the ,honetics o$ the English language. He ,er$ected a h"dro,lane and
claimed he had invented a breathing a,,aratus $or e>,lorers and travellers
through the deserts. Although nothing has come o$ an" o$ these inventions#
!or+ is still being carried out on the tele,hone.
:o!ada"s# o$ course# the tele,hone has develo,ed in !a"s that 9ell
!ould never have imagined. <adio tele,hones# car tele,hones# international
lin+5u,s via satellite have all combined to allo! immediate# clear
communication bet!een an" t!o ,eo,le an"!here in the !orld. 9ut modern
technolog" has not reall" done an"thing but im,rove on 9ell's original
invention. 't !as 9ell !ho made it ,ossible $or t!o ,eo,le to tal+ to each
other !hen se,arated b" a great distance.
Years a$ter 9ell's invention# there is a stor" told o$ a !oman !hom he
met at a social gathering. ;hen she !as introduced to the great inventor# she
e>,ressed ,leasure in meeting him and then said smilingl"# E9ut o$ten ' !ish
"ou had never been born.E 9ell loo+ed startled and hurt and then he smiled
and said# E' s"m,athise. ' never use the beast.E
The most e>traordinar" thing is that 9ell hated the tele,hone and he
hardl" ever used it. He stu$$ed his tele,hone bell !ith ,a,er# to ,revent it
$rom interru,ting his !or+.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. The words JMr Watson' )ome here (leaseH # want you'J were im(ortant *e)ause
a) they were the words of the first tele(hone )all
*) /ell wanted to tell Watson a*out his new in+ention
)) they were s(oken *y Ale:ander 9raham /ell
d) they were the words of the first tele"ram
. Tele"rams were similar to the tele(hone in that
a) they had *een in use for some time
*) messa"es were sent *y the ta((in" of the morse4)ode
)) *oth systems used the same wires
d) they were not so(histi)ated enou"h to (i)k u( s(ee)h
8**
()4
TEE:A1E -A:DAL'SM
The image o$ the teenage vandal as an isolated# lonel"# anti5social $igure
has been shattered b" a school surve" !hich sho!s that most hooligans are
regular attenders at "outh clubs and enjo" going to an organised disco. The
,ro$ile o$ a t",ical vandal built u, b" teachers and ,olice in 9l"th#
:orthumberland# ,aints a ,icture o$ a sociable "outh !ho is li+el" to be an
enthusiastic c"clist and a $ootball $an.
:earl" t!o5thirds o$ .#4// children !ho ans!ered a @uestionnaire in
:orthumberland secondar" schools admitted acts o$ vandalism. Most blamed
unem,lo"ment and also their ,arents $or not being strict enough. Man" said
the" !ould commit vandalism again.
'n a ,reliminar" anal"sis o$ (#&// anon"mous re,lies# :orthumbria ,olice
and the 7ee, 9ritain Tid" 1rou, 5 !ho commissioned the surve" 5$ound that
*2 ,er cent o$ the teenagers thought there !as little or nothing !rong !ith
dro,,ing litter. Almost t!o5thirds $elt the same about damaging garden
,lants# 2/ ,er cent sa! Elittle or nothing !rongE !ith torturing a ,et and & ,er
cent $elt that there !as little or nothing !rong !ith setting $ire to a building.
Most children said the ans!er to vandalism !as to give children more to
do# !hile some thought in$licting ,unishments o$ all +inds and having more
,olice on the streets could be the ans!er. About hal$ said the" !ere most
li+el" to listen to their ,arents# but onl" eight ,er cent said the" !ould listen
to a "outh club leader.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. Most (eo(le think that teena"e +andals .
a) are fond of )y)lin" and foot*all
*) attend youth )lu*s and "o to dis)os
)) are lonely and anti4so)ial (eo(le
d) )ause (ro*lems for the (oli)e and tea)hers
. The <uestionnaire shows that .
a) many of the )hildren re"ret )ommittin" +andalism
*) (arents should *e less stri)t towards their )hildren
)) most of the )hildren ha+e )ommitted +andalism
d) +andalism is not as serious a (ro*lem as (eo(le think
2. A))ordin" to the results of the sur+ey' whi)h of the followin" is the least
a))e(ta*le a)t of +andalism1
a) 3ro((in" litter. )) Torturin" a (et.
*) 3ama"in" "arden (lants' d) ,ettin" fire to a *uildin".
8)(
.. A))ordin" to most of the )hildren takin" (art in the sur+ey' .
a) a youth )lu* leader )an (ersuade teena"ers not to )ommit +andalism
*) a )han"e in (arental attitude would not sto( +andalism
)) +andalism )an only *e sto((ed *y infli)tin" stri)t (unishment
d) +andalism )an *e sto((ed *y "ettin" )hildren in+ol+ed in +arious a)ti+ities
()&
LA:16A1E LEA<:':1
Once "ou realise that no method o$ language teaching is going to give "ou
the abilit" to s,ea+ a $oreign tongue to business standards in a $e! !ee+s# the
selection o$ a s"stem o$ teaching becomes a sim,le calculation o$ time# mone"
and need.
There are three levels o$ language abilit" 5 tourist# social and $luent 5 and
the ga,s bet!een them are huge. Most o$ us are a!are that the schoolbo"
1erman that gets us into hotels and through su,ermar+ets is not su$$icient to
+ee, u, a ,leasant dinner ,art" conversation. Similarl"# the abilit" to join in
such a conversation# !hich is about as much as most o$ us could ho,e to
achieve# is a long !a" $rom a $ull intelligent gras, o$ the language and its
culture.
or a @uic+ introduction to the basics# ' ,re$er the cassetteTboo+ s"stem.
Language boo+s alone cannot o$$er the necessar" ,ronunciation s+ills# s+ills
!hich "ou are going to need in order to understand# $or e>am,le# the train
announcements on the Mosco! underground. Cassettes# ho!ever# have
,roved a great aid $or the language student.
The essential re@uirement !hen learning a language# even at that level#
remains e$$ort. The more !illingness the student brings to the tas+# the easier
the course !ill be. or Euro,ean languages that e$$ort comes a little easier.
The Londoner learning rench or the 3arisian learning English can readil"
$ind ne!s,a,ers# radio stations and restaurants !here the language is used and
can thus become $amiliar !ith that culture be$ore his visit. '$ the tongue is to
be Tamil or Serbo5Croat# the tas+ is a little more di$$icult. ;ith languages
such as rench and 1erman# it is also ,ossible to listen to# or record# the 99C
Schools ,rogrammes# !hich are al!a"s hel,$ul.
There is no @uestion# ho!ever# that the best teaching# and obviousl" the
most e>,ensive# is in the classroom# the ver" best being a one5to5one teaching
basis# that is# ,rivate tutoring. or this# "ou !ill be ,a"ing a $e! hundred
,ounds ,er !ee+ and it is im,ortant to chec+ care$ull" on the chosen ,lace o$
learning. Language teaching attracts some dishonest establishments. ;atch
out $or the school that ,romises an abilit" to 'reach the moon' a$ter a cou,le o$
hours in the language labI
8).
()%
-hese two letters a''eared in a radio and -V &agaBine.
Sir
L!"# S!#$r%!& I '!#()*% #)* T+ ,r-.r!//* -0 #)* 1!#*"#
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-0* -((!"i-0 r*7*rr*% #- 8& #)* r*,-r#*r 0-# 8& #)* 0!/*
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,r-%$(#.
Si0(* #)* 7--#8!11 #*!/ #)!# I "$,,-r# i" 0-# !11-'*% #-
'*!r ")ir#" !%3*r#i"i0. !0&#)i0. ')*0 #)*ir /!#()*" !r*
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L.H. Gr!&
Sir
<)!# ! ri%i($1-$" "i#$!#i-0 -$r #*1*3i"i-0 (-/,!0i*" 7i0%
#)*/"*13*" i0 'i#) r*.!r% #- ",-r#" !0% !%3*r#i"i0.=
I '!#()*% ! #*1*3i"*% 7--#8!11 /!#() i0 ')i() #)* ,1!&*r"
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#)*r* '!" !%3*r#i"i0. !11 !r-$0%. 4D- #)* T+ ,r-%$(*r"
#)i06 '* 3i*'*r" !r* 81i0% -r "-/*#)i0.:5 A0% ')*0 ! '*11-
60-'0 i0#*r0!#i-0!1 ,1!&*r '!" i0#*r3i*'*% !7#*r #)*
/!#() 8-#) )* !0% #)* i0#*r3i*'*r r*7*rr*% 8& 0!/* #- #)*
(-"/*#i(" 7ir/ #)!# 7i0!0(*" #)* #*!/= A0% !" i7 #)!# '*r*
0-# *0-$.) #)* ",-r#" i#*/ #)!# 7-11-'*% '!" #)* N!#i-0!1
B!06 G-17 T-$r0!/*0#.
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!%3*r#i"i0. I "!& !0% 1*# #)* #*1*3i"i-0 (-/,!0i*"
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1*!"# '* '-$1% !11 60-' ')*r* '* '*r*=
4Mr".5 R.P. L!i0. Bri"#-1
3>4
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =.H. 9ray would like to see .
a) ad+ertisin" *anned from tele+ised s(ort
*) smokin" made ille"al
)) more (ro"rams on motor ra)in"
d) less s(ort on T@
. Mrs. =ain" *elie+es that .
a) s(ortsmen on T@ should *e allowed to ha+e ad+ertisments on their )lothes
*) ad+ertisin" )i"arettes should *e *anned at foot*all mat)hes
)) ad+ertisin" on T@ should *e for*idden
d) "olf tournaments should not *e finan)ed *y *anks
2. Whi)h of the followin" do *oth =.H. 9ray and Mrs. =ain" a"ree on1
a) ,(ortsmen should *e allowed to ad+ertise on T@.
*) T@ s(orts should allow ad+ertisin" e:)e(t for drink and )i"arettes.
)) T@ )om(anies must "et rid of their 'dou*le' standards.
d) Re(orters should *e allowed to ad+ertise.
()*
(IN. 4O(ER
'n its search $or alternatives to $ossil5$uel energ" sources# science is
loo+ing bac+ in histor" at the !indmill. Small !indmills once !ere seen
ever"!here in rural America# but most !ere abandoned !ith the emergence
o$ rural electri$ication ,rograms in the ()8/'s. :o! energ" shortages and
rising ,etroleum ,rices have brought rene!ed interest in ,utting the !ind to
!or+. Some scientists estimate that !ith enough investment in research and
develo,ment# !indmills could su,,l" ./ ,er cent o$ 6.S. electrical needs b"
the "ear .///.
The Sandia Laboratories in :e! Me>ico are testing an altogether
di$$erent device that loo+s more li+e a giant eggbeater than a conventional
!indmill. 'ts ,rinci,al advantage is that its s"mmetrical sha,e catches !ind
$rom an" direction.
All designers o$ ne! !indmills $ace one ver" old ,roblem# ho!ever? !hat
to do !hen the !ind dies. One solution !ould be to use !indmills to ,um,
!ater u,hill into storage reservoirs. ;hen the !ind sto,s# the !ater !ould
be released to drive h"draulic turbines.
Mean!hile# 6.S. ranchers and $armers in the south!est are so eager to
8)4
utiliCe !ind ,o!er that :e! Me>ico State 6niversit" is o$$ering a s,ecial
course in the o,eration and maintenance o$ !indmills built a generation ago.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. ,)ientists are tryin" to make use of wind (ower *y means of windmills *e)ause
a) they were a*andoned a*out 6! years a"o
*) there is a need for alternati+es to fossil4fuel ener"y sour)es
)) they were all small and used *efore the 1$2!'s
d) they try to )at)h the wind from any dire)tion
. The (ro*lem fa)ed *y the desi"ners of new windmills .
a) is to (um( water into stora"e reser+oirs
*) has no satisfa)tory solution
)) is what to do when there is no wind
d) )an *e sol+ed *y hydrauli) tur*ines
2. Whi)h of the followin" statements is true1
a) The de+i)e whi)h is *ein" tested in Few Me:i)o is not a satisfa)tory one at all.
a) !T of the -.,. total ener"y need )an *e "enerated *y windmills.
*) 8eo(le who are interested in makin" use of the wind are "i+en a s(e)ial
)ourse in o(eratin" new windmills.
)) Althou"h there are (ro*lems to *e fa)ed' windmills )an *e useful after a
)ertain (eriod of resear)h and de+elo(ment.
())
HYD<O5ELECT<'C A:D T'DAL 3O;E<
'n addition to the established energ" sources such as gas# coal# oil and
nuclear# there are a number o$ other sources that !e ought to consider. T!o o$
these are h"dro5electric and tidal ,o!er.
These t!o sources are similar in that the" are both rene!able. Ho!ever#
h"dro5electric ,o!er is more !idel" used than tidal. 'n $act# a substantial
amount o$ electricit" is alread" ,roduced in HE3 stations !orld5!ide#
!hereas tidal stations are still in the ver" earl" stages o$ develo,ment.
As $ar as geogra,hical location is concerned# HE3 schemes are to be $ound
on la+es and rivers# !hile tidal schemes are constructed onl" in estuaries
!here tidal variation is great. 6n$ortunatel"# these are $e! in number. At
,resent HE3 stations are $ound mainl" in :or!a"# Canada# S!eden and
9raCil# !hereas tidal ,lants are in o,eration in rance# the C'S
8)&
and China.
As regards ca,ital outla"# both re@uire ver" high investment. On the other
hand# generating costs are @uite lo! in both cases. 'n $act# a large5scale HE3
,lant is ca,able o$ ,roducing ,o!er more chea,l" than conventional sources#
such as coal# oil and nuclear ,lants. Tidal ,o!er also com,ares $avourabl"
!ith nuclear and oil generated electricit"# in terms o$ ,roduction costs. Li+e
HE3 stations# tidal barrages have a long li$e5e>,ectanc". 't is estimated that
the" can o,erate $or over (// "ears. ;ith res,ect to continuit" o$ su,,l"#
tidal stations di$$er $rom HE3 schemes in that the" o$ten can onl" su,,l"
,o!er intermittentl". HE3 stations# ho!ever# ,rovide a constant su,,l" o$
electricit".
Turning no! to environmental im,act# tidal ,lants do not seem to create
too man" ,roblems. 'n contrast# HE3 stations o$ten involve the $looding o$
large amounts o$ agricultural land# the destruction o$ ecological habitats# and
ma" even cause a change in the climate o$ the area.
9oth tidal ,o!er and HE3 have one big disadvantage in that i$ the demand
$or ,o!er e>ists at an" distance $rom the generating ,lant# transmitting the
electricit" is e>,ensive.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. Hydro4ele)tri) (ower stations are used more widely than tidal4(ower stations
*e)ause they .
a) )ost less )) are "eo"ra(hi)ally less limited
*) are renewa*le d) are still in the early sta"es of de+elo(ment
. Whi)h of the followin" statements is true1
a) H08 stations )an (rodu)e )hea(er (ower than )on+entional (lants *ut tidal
(ower (lants )annot.
*) The )a(ital and "eneratin" )osts of hydro4ele)tri) and tidal (ower (lants are
*oth low.
)) H08 stations are not likely to o(erate for o+er a hundred years.
d) Tidal stations are not )a(a*le of su((lyin" a )ontinuous flow of ele)tri)itiy.
2. With the )onstru)tion of tidal (lants' .
a) the )limate of the area does not ne)essarily )han"e
*) the e)olo"i)al ha*itats are often destroyed
)) transmission )osts of ele)tri)ity are redu)ed
d) floodin" of a"ri)ultural lands )annot *e (re+ented
8)%
!!
GREGOR0 *EN.EL
An Augustinian mon+ named 1regor" Mendel !as the $irst ,erson to
ma+e ,recise observations about the biological mechanism o$ inheritance.
This ha,,ened over a hundred "ears ago in an Austrian monaster"# !here
Mendel s,ent his leisure hours ,er$orming e>,eriments !ith ,ea ,lants o$
di$$erent t",es. He crossed them care$ull" and too+ notes about the
a,,earance o$ various traits# or characteristics# in succeeding generations.
rom his observations# Mendel $ormed a set o$ rules# no! +no!n as the
'Mendelian La!s o$ 'nheritance'# !hich !ere $ound to a,,l" not onl" to
,lants but to animals and human beings as !ell. This !as the beginning o$
the modern science o$ genetics.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. When did Mendel (erform his e:(eriments1
a) #n an)ient times.
*) #n the 1%&!'s.
)) When the modern s)ien)e of "eneti)s was introdu)ed.
d) At the *e"innin" of this )entury.
. Mendel made o*ser+ations on (lants .
a) *e)ause his edu)ation was on this su*De)t
*) for he enDoyed doin" e:(eriments in his free time
)) so that he )ould earn money
d) /oth (a) and ()).
2. Whi)h of the followin" )an the 'Mendelian =aws of #nheritan)e' *e a((lied to1
a) 8lants.
*) Animals.
)) Human *ein"s.
d) All of the a*o+e.
"> A O
./(
A:T'5SMO7':1 CAM3A'1:S
Sto,,ing cigarette smo+ing has become a big ,roblem $or all
governments. 'n democratic countries# the economic strength o$ the
tobacco industr" is so great that measures ta+en b" governments to
,rotect the rights o$ nonsmo+ers cannot be a,,lied e$$ectivel". 'n
4 some undemocratic countries# on the other hand# governments cannot
be trusted and the" lac+ the motivation to deal !ith the ,roblem. And
under an" ,olitical s"stem# social conditioning and chemical
habituation ma+e banning tobacco a $ormidable tas+ and one that
!ould ta+e a long time. Yet# current in$ormation cam,aigns are $ailing
(/ as !orld!ide use increases $aster than the ,o,ulation.
Totall" banning cigarette smo+ing so $ar has been unsuccess$ul in
all countries. An alternative a,,roach includes either the ,rohibition o$
smo+ing in the !or+,lace and ,ublic buildings or the strict limitation
o$ smo+ing to s,eci$ied areas. This movement ma" be the
(4 greatest success o$ the in$ormation cam,aign against tobacco. 'ts
leaders insist that des,ite the continued sale# advertising# and use o$
tobacco# nonsmo+ers have ever" right not to be e>,osed to the
carcinogens# carbon mono>ide# and irritants in tobacco smo+e. Such a
cam,aign can have three im,ortant e$$ects.
./ irst# b" banning the use o$ tobacco $rom ,laces !here nonsmo+ers
!ould be e>,osed# thousands o$ lives ma" be saved. Second# $orcing
smo+ers to give u, their habit !hile in the ,resence o$ nonsmo+ers !ill
,rovide them !ith an added $orce to @uit. '$ smo+ers must get through
!or+ing da"s !ithout smo+ing# then the" are more li+el" to
.4 be able to @uit com,letel". And third# b" stigmatiCing tobacco use as
dangerous and antisocial# the cam,aign $or nonsmo+ers' rights can
accom,lish a goal o$ all anti5smo+ing in$ormation cam,aigns? to ma+e
smo+ing sociall" unattractive.
'nterestingl"# nonsmo+ers have im,ortant su,,orters in the
8/ !or+,lace? their em,lo"ers. Com,anies# at least in the 6nited States#
are ra,idl" realiCing that most o$ their em,lo"ees do not smo+e and do
not li+e to breathe the smo+e o$ others# and that smo+ers cost
em,lo"ers mone". Surve"s indicate that ine$$icienc" and ill5health
attributable to smo+ing !aste about %J o$ a smo+er's !or+ing time.
84 Smo+ers also add to insurance and cleanu, costs# and lo!er the morale
o$ nonsmo+ing em,lo"ees.
onn
!
LO:EL':ESS 3<E-A'LS
According to a surve" s,eciall" commissioned $or -he Sunda"
-i&es MagaBine, a,,ro>imatel" .4 ,er cent o$ the ,o,ulation are
lonel". Elderl" ,eo,le# ,articularl" those !ho move to a ne! area on
retirement# ma" be isolated $rom their $amilies and $riends. 'llness#
4 disabilit" and $ear o$ going out alone also combine to turn man"
,ensioners into ,risoners in their o!n homes. Teenagers also $ind it
di$$icult to ma+e $riends !ithin their age grou, because their natural
sh"ness and sel$5consciousness ma" ma+e them a!+!ard in the
com,an" o$ their ,eers and the o,,osite se>. Single ,arents $eel cut
(/ o$$ $rom a cou,le5orientated societ". Divorce can be shattering to the
sel$5res,ect. Divorced ,eo,le ma" miss the com,anionshi, o$ even the
most unsatis$actor" marriage as# o$ course# do the !ido!ed. ;ith so
man" social contacts being made through !or+# unem,lo"ment can
also lead to loneliness.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. ;ld (eo(le who may feel (arti)ularly lonely.
a) ha+e *een to (rison
*) ha+e to li+e on low in)omes
)) are not healthy enou"h to mo+e around easily
d) are in a (osition to start a new )areer
. =ine $' '(eers' means .
a) older (eo(le
*) other youn" (eo(le
)) )onfident (eo(le
d) e:(erien)ed (eo(le
2. The widowed .
a) may miss the )om(any of the dead (artner e+en if their marria"e was not
ha((y
*) won't feel as lonely as the di+or)ed in a )ou(le4orientated so)iety
)) (ro*a*ly had the most unsatisfa)tory marria"es and lost their self4res(e)t
d) are different from di+or)ed (eo(le in that they don't need )om(anionshi(
.!1
!2
THE O<DE< O ':-E:T'O:S
The order in !hich inventions are made is ver" im,ortant# much
more im,ortant than has ever been realised# because !e tend
automaticall" to thin+ that later inventions are better than earlier ones.
A moment's thought !ill sho! this is not so. '$# $or e>am,le# a solution
4 to toda"'s urban tra$$ic ,roblems !as ,ro,osed in the sha,e o$ a small
man5,o!ered t!o5!heeled vehicle !hich !ould ma+e the motor car
loo+ li+e a com,licated# ine$$icient and over5,o!ered device# !e
!ould greet it as a great technological brea+through. EThe bic"cle
ma+es the car obsoleteIE !e !ould cr". 6n$ortunatel"# the bi+e came
(/ $irst# so !e shall al!a"s unconsciousl" see it as a sim,ler version o$
the car.
Other things !hich ma" have been invented too earl" are the radio
and the rail!a" train. Consider also the Ci,. Li,s re,resent a
technological advance on buttons# being $aster and more com,lete.
(4 Ho!ever# the" are also more li+el" to come a,art# brea+# mal$unction#
stic+ and catch. 9uttons can onl" go !rong i$ the thread is $ault". Even
then# buttons can be mended b" the user. Li,s rarel" can.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine .' 'this is not soJ means that .
a) we should not think automati)ally
*) the order of in+entions is not im(ortant
)) we should not a))e(t in+entions easily
d) later in+entions are not always *etter than earlier ones
. #f the *i)y)le were in+ented now' .
a) (eo(le would not wel)ome it as they did in the (ast
*) (eo(le would still (refer )ars to *i)y)les
)) it would *e seen as an earlier +ersion of the )ar
d) the )ar would a((ear unsuita*le for -s (ur(ose
2. Althou"h *uttons were in+ented earlier than Ai(s' .
a) they are. still more relia*le
*) they are faster than Ai(s
)) they re(resent a te)hnolo"i)al ad+an)e
d) they malfun)tion easily
Ci no
!.
':TELL'1E:CE
;hen !e tal+ about intelligence# !e do not mean the abilit" to get a good
score on a certain +ind o$ test# or even the abilit" to do !ell in business0 these
are at best onl" indicators o$ something larger# dee,er# and $ar more im,ortant.
9" intelligence !e mean a st"le o$ li$e# a !a" o$ behaving in various
situations# and ,articularl" in ne!# strange# and ,uCCling situations. The true
test o$ intelligence is not ho! much !e +no! ho! to do# but ho! !e behave
!hen !e don't +no! !hat to do.
The intelligent ,erson# "oung or old# meeting a ne! situation or ,roblem#
o,ens himsel$ u, to it0 he tries to ,erceive ever"thing about it. 9esides# he
thin+s about it instead o$ about himsel$ or !hat it might cause to ha,,en to
him0 he gra,,les !ith it boldl"# imaginativel"# resource$ull"# and i$ not
con$identl"# at least ho,e$ull". '$ he $ails to master it# he loo+s !ithout shame
or $ear at his mista+es and learns !hat he can $rom them. This is intelligence.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. A))ordin" to the first (ara"ra(h' intelli"en)e .
a) )an *e des)ri*ed as a ri)h' new and sur(risin" life style
*) is *asi)ally the a*ility to )o(e with new or )onfusin" situations
)) is indi)ated *y su))ess in s)hool or *usiness
d) )an *e measured *y the amount of knowled"e we ha+e
. We are told that intelli"ent (eo(le .
a) )arefully )onsider what will ha((en to them in a diffi)ult situation
*) a+oid *ein" in+ol+ed in a new situation
)) su))essfully o+er)ome e+ery (ro*lem they are fa)ed with
d) learn from their mistakes e+en if they fail
Am.
!6
?OUR PERSONALIT? AND ?OUR HEART
Cardiologists divide us into t!o t",es according to ho! our ,ersonalit"
a$$ects our heart. T",e A individuals are highl" com,etitive# $ast acting# ra,id
tal+ing# and thus more e>,osed to stress !hilst 9 t",es dro!n in the mil+ o$
human +indness and are indi$$erent to the ,assage o$ time. 't is an
uncom$ortable $act that A t",es die t!ice as $re@uentl" $rom heart disease as 9
t",es# even !hen the ris+s o$ cigarettes# alcohol and cream ca+es are ta+en into
account.
3ersonalit" is geneticall" determined0 that is# A5t",e ,arents usuall" get A5
t",e children. 9ut the environment has a more im,ortant e$$ect. One ,lace
!here children soa+ u, A5t",e behaviour is school# !hich is# b" its ver"
nature# a highl" com,etitive institution. Too man" schools ado,t the '!in at all
costs' ,rinci,le and measure their success b" s,orting achievements. ;hat '
can't $orgive actuall" is not the current em,hasis on ma+ing children com,ete
against their $riends or against the cloc+# but the s"stem in !hich com,etitive
A t",es are ,rovided !ith more o,,ortunit" to succeed than their 95t",e
$ello!s.
9" $ar# the !orst $orm o$ com,etition in schools is the dis,ro,ortionate
em,hasis on e>amination. <ather than concentrating on those things the" do
!ell# ,u,ils are $orced to com,ete b" e>ams. or those !ho !ill inevitabl"
$ail# ho!ever# this +ind o$ com,etition is de$initel" harm$ul.
Obviousl"# it is neither ,ractical nor desirable that all A "oungsters change
into 9's. The !orld needs both t",es# and schools have an im,ortant dut" to tr"
to $it a child's ,ersonalit" to his ,ossible $uture em,lo"ment. '$ the
,reoccu,ation o$ schools !ith academic !or+ !as lessened# more time might
be s,ent teaching children better values. 3erha,s selection $or the caring
,ro$essions# such as medicine# should be made not onl" b" good grades but
also b" such considerations as sensitivit"# +indness and honest".
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. Ty(e / indi+iduals suffer less from heart disease .
a) *e)ause they are a""ressi+e and )om(etiti+e
*) althou"h they lead more stressful li+es
)) unless they smoke' drink or eat as mu)h as ty(e A's
d) e+en if they ha+e unhealthy eatin" and drinkin" ha*its
.!.
./&
THE LEA MA<7ET
On an" !ee+end at sunrise# !hile most o$ the countr" still slee,s# vans#
,ic+u, truc+s# cam,ers# and cars crammed !ith ever" conceivable item
gather in em,t" ,ar+ing lots and $airgrounds across the 6.S. 9" noon# the
scene over$lo!s !ith thousands o$ ,eo,le !ho have come to bargain and
loo+ around this mad carnival called the $lea mar+et.
3eo,le have traded and bartered $or centuries. ;hatever else the $lea
mar+et ma" a,,ear to be# its ,ur,ose is the sale and e>change o$ goods.
;hether the" are +no!ledgeable collectors or just ,lain bargain hunters#
,eo,le are dra!n to the $lea mar+et b" the enormous amount and variet" o$
merchandise o$$ered. The ,ossibilit" o$ $inding something trul" valuable
be$ore an"bod" else does ma+es sho,,ing at a $lea mar+et a treasure hunt.
or man" bu"ers# the ritual o$ bargaining at a $lea mar+et is more $un than
the bargain itsel$. 't's not the mone" the" save that gives them a $eeling o$
accom,lishment0 it's the satis$action o$ ,la"ing an ancient game. Satis$action
also comes $rom the nature o$ a $lea5mar+et e>change. A$ter "ou negotiate
"our ,rice# ta+ing "our time# it is 'cash and carr"' 5 the dealer ,oc+ets "our
mone"# "ou go home !ith "our ,urchase# and that's that. You got !hat "ou
!anted# and the dealer got !hat he or she !anted. 'n toda"'s !orld o$ credit
cards# the $lea mar+et ta+es "ou bac+ to a time !hen li$e !as sim,ler and
mone" had more meaning.
The ,eo,le !ho set u, stalls at the $lea mar+et# vendors# ma" have nothing
in common during their !ee+da" lives# but over the !ee+end their diversit"
becomes communit". A Chinese cou,le sells embroidered sli,,ers ne>t to a
,un+ teenager dis,la"ing cat's5e"e sunglasses across $rom another dealer's
,lastic ,otted ,lants. On the street# the" !ould ,robabl" never tal+ to each
other. Here the" do.
;hat do these '$leas' have in common here= 3erha,s it is a belie$ in
getting ahead# in becoming economicall" sel$5su$$icient# and in ta+ing control
o$ their o!n lives. -endors !illingl" give u, the securit" o$ a nine5to5$ive
job in e>change $or $reedom? $reedom $rom rigid !or+ing hours0 $reedom
$rom the !orld o$ in$lation and ta>ation0 $reedom to choose !hen# !here# and
!hat the" !ill sell0 $reedom to be !hat the" !ant to be.
A<\&
!5
SLEE3 LOSS
't !as civiliCation that created the dilemma o$ slee, loss. The sun
,resumabl" dictated the habits o$ ancient ,eo,le? !hen it !as u, the" !ere
a!a+e# and !hen it !ent do!n the" sle,t. The discover" o$ $ire ,robabl"
allo!ed the $irst change in that ,attern. As $lames lit the dar+# surel" some
adventurous souls dela"ed bedtime. 9ut s!ee,ing change came onl" a
centur" ago !ith the introduction o$ the light bulb. 6.S. inventor Thomas
Edison's glo!ing device ,ermitted chea,# sa$e and e$$icient illumination
throughout the dar+est nights. 9" the end o$ ;orld ;ar ''# Americans !ere
slee,ing about eight hours a night.
Toda" ne! cultural and economic $orces are combining to turn the 6.S.
into a .25hour societ". Man" T- stations# restaurants and su,ermar+ets
o,erate through the da" and night. 9usiness is increasingl" ,lugged into
international mar+ets that re@uire round5the5cloc+ monitoring and $re@uent
travel across time Cones.
9ut not all slee,lessness is caused b" hectic schedules. Clinical slee,
disorders are a major contributor to the national dro!siness. Man" Americans
su$$er $rom nocturnal m"oclonus# a condition in !hich their legs t!itch
throughout the night and brea+ u, their slee,. About 8 million adults# mostl"
over!eight men# are a$$licted !ith slee, a,nea. 'n this disorder# muscles in
the u,,er air!a" regularl" sag and $ail to +ee, the ,assage o,en. The struggle
to ta+e in air can result in snoring that rivals a jac+hammer# though su$$erers
are o$ten oblivious. EA ,erson !ith a,nea might not even be a!are that he
!o+e u, 4// to (#/// times last night because the arousals are so brie$#E sa"s
,s"chologist Thomas <oth# Chie$ o$ Henr" ord Hos,ital's Slee,5Disorder
Center in Detroit. 9oth a,nea and m"oclonus can be treated# once diagnosed.
9" $ar the most common com,laint resulting in lac+ o$ slee, is insomnia
0
About a third o$ all Americans have trouble $alling aslee, or sta"ing aslee,
5,roblems that result in listlessness and loss o$ alertness during the da". Most
o$ the time the distress is tem,orar"# brought on b" an>iet" about a ,roblem
at !or+ or a sudden $amil" crisis. 9ut sometimes slee, di$$iculties can e>tend
$or months and "ears. aced !ith a chronic situation# insomniacs $re@uentl"
medicate themselves !ith alcohol or drugs. Doctors !arn that in most cases
slee,ing ,ills should not be ta+en $or longer than t!o or three !ee+s. Such
drugs can lose their e$$ectiveness in time# and it ta+es larger and larger doses
to !or+. 3eo,le run the ris+ o$ becoming de,endent on the ,ills.
9ecause so $e! studies have been done# scientists cannot ma+e de$initive
com,arisons bet!een American slee, ,atterns and those o$ other countries.
9ut man" researchers believe that all industrialiCed nations are e>,eriencing
slee,5de,rivation ,roblems# though usuall" not as serious as those in the 6.S.
2/*
!%
DA:1E<O6S ;ASTE
Most industries ,roduce !aste ,roducts !hich can be di$$icult or
dangerous to dis,ose o$. Coal and oil $ired ,o!er stations ,roduce enormous
amounts o$ !aste. A large coal ,o!er station !ill send (% million tons o$ $lue
gas out o$ its chimne" each "ear. 't !ill also ma+e around . million tons o$
ash# a $ine !hite ,o!der !hich is di$$icult to dis,ose o$. :uclear ,o!er
stations also ,roduce !aste. The ,roblem is that this !aste is radioactive# and
is dangerous unless +e,t sa$el" a!a" $rom living creatures.
High5level !aste is the radioactive 'ash' $rom used nuclear $uel. This !aste
must be ,revented $rom mi>ing !ith the environment until the radioactivit"
has deca"ed to sa$e levels. <adioactivit"# unli+e other ,oisons !hich are !ith
us $orever# disa,,ears !ith time. So the highl" radioactive 'ash' begins to lose
its activit" as soon as it is ta+en out o$ the reactor. 't is normall" +e,t at the
bottom o$ a dee, tan+ o$ !ater at the ,o!er station $or several months. At the
end o$ a "ear )/ ,er cent o$ the radioactivit" is gone. At the end o$ (/ "ears ))
,er cent !ould have ceased to e>ist. 9ut !hat's le$t o$ this high5level !aste is
still ver" dangerous and !ill go on being so $or thousands o$ "ears. Ho!ever#
the volume is not great# !hich ma+es storage com,arativel" sim,le. The total
amount ,roduced $or the entire nuclear ,rogramme since ()4& !ould ta+e u,
about the s,ace o$ a ,air o$ semi5detached houses 5 less than (#4// cubic
metres.
'ntermediate5level !astes are $ar less radioactive. Currentl"# the" are
contained in solid concrete stores. The @uantities involved are larger 5 about
.#4// cubic metres each "ear. There are no technical or sa$et"5related
advantages in storing these !astes $or long ,eriods. 3lans are being develo,ed
to dis,ose o$ these !astes either dee, underground or dee, under the seabed.
'n the meantime# the" !ill be s,eciall" enca,sulated in cement to ma+e them
easier to store and handle.
Lo!5level !astes consist o$ gases and li@uids as !ell as solid laborator"
re$use 5 ,rotective clothing# gloves# used s"ringes and tissues. Much o$ the
radioactive !aste $rom hos,itals and industr" is lo!5level. The gases and
li@uids can# !ith government authorisation# be released directl" into the
environment# !here the" @uic+l" become diluted to a level that ,resents no
a,,reciable ris+. At ,resent# the lo!5level solid !astes are dis,osed o$ in a
shallo! dis,osal site at Drigg# Cumbria. 'n the longer term the" can be ,ut in
the same re,ositor" as the intermediate5level !astes 5 either dee, underground
or under the seabed. Our onl" 'vested interest' in nuclear !aste is to dis,ose o$
it !ithout harm to the ,ublic. Surel" the most balanced a,,roach "ou could
!ish $or.
2(/
./)
LET 0OUR *IN. (AN.ER
6ntil recentl" da"dreaming !as generall" considered either a !aste o$
time or a s"m,tom o$ neurotic tendencies# and man" ,s"chiatrists claimed
that habitual da"dreaming !as evidence o$ maladjustment or an esca,e $rom
li$e's realities and res,onsibilities. As !ith an"thing carried to e>cess#
da"dreaming can be harm$ul !hen '$antas" addicts' !ithdra! $rom ,eo,le
and can no longer co,e !ith realit". Then their mental health is im,aired.
9ut such e>tremes are relativel" rare# and there is a gro!ing bod" o$
evidence to su,,ort the $act that most ,eo,le su$$er $rom a lac+ o$
da"dreaming rather than an e>cess o$ it. ;e are no! beginning to learn ho!
valuable it reall" is and that !hen individuals are com,letel" ,revented $rom
da"dreaming# not onl" are the" less able to deal !ith the ,ressures o$ da"5to5
da" e>istence# but also their sel$5control and sel$5direction become
endangered.
Da"dreaming# science has discovered# is an e$$ective rela>ation techni@ue.
<esults o$ e>,eriments conducted b" ,s"chothera,ists indicate that
da"dreaming signi$icantl" contributes to intellectual gro!th# ,o!ers o$
concentration# attention s,an# and the abilit" to interact and communicate
!ith others.
Contrar" to ,o,ular belie$# incessant and conscious e$$ort at solving a
,roblem is# in realit"# one o$ the most ine$$icient !a"s o$ treating it. E$$ective
solutions to severe ,roblems $re@uentl" occur !hen conscious attem,ts to
solve them have been sus,ended. 'nabilit" to rela># to let go o$ a ,roblem#
o$ten ,revents its solution.
A li$e lived !ithout $antas" and da"dreaming is a seriousl" im,overished
one. Each o$ us should ,ut aside a $e! minutes dail"# ta+ing short (/5(4
minute vacations. Da"dreaming is highl" bene$icial to "our ,s"chological
and mental !ell5being and "ou'll $ind that this modest# ine>,ensive
investment in time !ill add u, to a more creative# more imaginative# more
satis$ied# and more sel$5$ul$illed "ou. 't o$$ers us a $uller sense o$ being
intensel" alive $rom moment to moment# and this# o$ course# contributes
greatl" to the e>citement o$ li$e.
Mar+ the best choice.
(. Toda" it is believed that .
a) daydreamin" is an es)a(e from life's realities and res(onsi*ilities
*) sym(toms of neuroti) tenden)iesB are due to o))asional daydreamin"
)) mental health won't *e im(aired unless daydreamin" *e)omes an addi)tion
d) anythin" )arried to e:)ess )an *e the )ause of ha*itual daydreamin"
/I 1 '
.(/
THE 9EA6TY O :6M9E<S
The beaut" o$ numbers is in their ,recision. The" e>,ress e>actl"
ho! much# neither more nor less. :umbers reveal relationshi,s more
clearl" and more accuratel" than an" other language. Once numbers
are correctl" established# the" eliminate all di$$erences o$ o,inion.
4 Eight $ingers are more than seven $ingers.
Su,,ose that !e are interested in contrasting em,lo"ment ,ractices
in economicall" develo,ed countries !ith those in underdevelo,ed
countries. The 6nited States o$ America and the 3eo,le's <e,ublic o$
China are good e>am,les. A stud" o$ these t!o countries reveals a
(/ startling set o$ numbers.
Distribution o$ $arm em,lo"ment is b" $ar the most sur,rising.
Sevent"5$ive ,er cent o$ all the ,eo,le gain$ull" em,lo"ed in China
!or+ on $arms0 onl" 2 ,er cent !or+ on $arms in the 6nited States.
This is a $undamental distinction# $or it tells us something o$ the e$$ort
(4 necessar" to sta" alive in these t!o countries.
arm em,lo"ment in China is so high that onl" (4 ,er cent o$ the
!or+ers are available to carr" on trade# commerce# manu$acturing# and
other s,ecial services. The same grou, o$ occu,ations in the 6nited
States is carried on b" *4 ,er cent o$ the !or+ $orce.
./ These $igures indicate that a !ell5develo,ed econom" ,laces great
em,hasis on manu$acturing# trade# commerce# and services. The ra!
materials on !hich these $unctions are based are obtained e$$icientl"
!ith a small man,o!er commitment. 6nderdevelo,ed countries
e>haust their man,o!er resources in the e$$ort to obtain enough $ood.
.4 The ,eo,le !ho ma+e li$e com$ortable $or the rest o$ us are the doctors#
la!"ers# ,reachers# teachers# artists# hairdressers# re,airmen# cobblers#
entertainers# civil servants# and militar" ,ersonnel. 'magine the ,rice
,aid b" the Chinese !ith onl" 2 ,er cent o$ their gain$ull" em,lo"ed
,o,ulation !or+ing in service jobsI The same categor"
8/ ma+es u, .2 ,er cent o$ the gain$ull" em,lo"ed ,o,ulation o$ the 6nited
States.
That is @uite a di$$erence. ;ithout manu$acturing# trade# and
commerce there can be little in the !a" o$ consumer goods available to
the ,eo,le. The 6nited States !as in this ,osition in the eighteenth
84 and earl" nineteenth centuries. At that time# the ,o,ulation !as centered
on the $arms and $orced to ma+e man" things $or themselves. This is
e>actl" !hat !e sa! in China as the ()%/s came to a close. Science#
aided b" a ne! technolog"# es,eciall" the availabilit" o$ abundant $arm
machiner"# !ill ,ut an end to the China !e once +ne!.
2(2
2/ The lesson here is not reall" one in economics. 't rests !ith an
understanding o$ numbers. Counting things gives reliable in$ormation
and ,ermits us to dra! reliable conclusions. There is a $ormal beaut"
and uncom,romising ,o!er in measurement.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine 1' '(re)ision' means . a) e:a)tness *) esta*lishment
)) differen)e d) elimination
. =ine 1.' 'for' means . a) howe+er *) moreo+er
)) *e)ause d) therefore
2. -nderde+elo(ed )ountries .
a) )an "et raw materials with little man(ower
*) em(hasiAe manufa)turin"' trade' )ommer)e and ser+i)es
)) em(loy only . (er )ent of their (o(ulation in ser+i)e industries
d) use a lot of man(ower to "et enou"h food
.. Whi)h of the followin" is true1
a) China has *een a*le to satisfy all its *asi) needs throu"h food (rodu)tion.
*) #n a few years' China will (rodu)e more farm (rodu)ts than the -nited
,tates.
)) ,)ien)e and new te)hnolo"y will )han"e the Do* distri*ution in China.
d) The year 1$5! was a turnin" (oint for the Chinese e)onomy.
6. Whi)h of the followin" is not true1
a) Corre)tly esta*lished num*ers eliminate all differen)es of o(inion.
*) #n the ei"hteenth )entury' most Ameri)ans li+ed on farms.
)) More )onsumer "oods are a+aila*le in well4de+elo(ed e)onomies.
d) Twenty4four (er )ent of Ameri)an workers work on farms.
&. The (ur(ose of this te:t is to show that .
a) the -.,. is in a *etter e)onomi) situation than China
*) the information (ro+ided *y num*ers is de(enda*le
)) many s)ien)es' su)h as e)onomi)s' are *ased on num*ers
d) the e)onomy of China is *ased on a"ri)ulture
2(4
.((
5RITI5AL THIN)ING IS (EL5O*E
An increasing number o$ teachers# $rom +indergarten through
college# have altered lesson ,lans to include the art o$ thin+ing. Man"
others are being trained so that the" can shi$t the classroom em,hasis
a!a" $rom just giving ,u,ils in$ormation and move to!ard ma+ing
4 them thin+ about the issues raised b" that in$ormation. Educators sa"
that students have become obsessed !ith getting the right ans!ers on
tests and so the" are !ea+ at anal"Cing !hat the" are learning and at
gras,ing im,lications. These !ea+nesses# the educators sa"# !ill a$$ect
the students' abilit" to ma+e $uture decisions about career and
(/ marriage# !hat candidates to vote $or and !hat ,roducts to bu". E't's not
just the abilit" to remember things and $eed them bac+ on tests that
determines ho! !ell "ou're going to do in li$e#E said Dr. Heidi Facobs# a
,ro$essor at Teachers College at Columbia 6niversit". E't's the abilit"
to solve ,roblems and re$lect and to# in $act# thin+
(4 criticall".E
6n$ortunatel"# about */ ,er cent o$ class @uestions# according to Dr.
Facobs# are designed sim,l" to have students recall in$ormation.
Moreover# the ,ressure to raise student ,er$ormance on standardiCed
tests created an e>aggerated stress on memoriCed in$ormation. 'n
./ reaction to this# more teachers have begun to su,,ort the movement to
teach critical thin+ing in schools. ;hile schools and teachers have
al!a"s assumed that thin+ing !as ,art o$ their mission# educators are
no! ma+ing the teaching o$ thin+ing s+ills a more $ormal ,art o$ their
,rograms. or e>am,le# there has been a dramatic ,ush in the last $e!
.4 "ears b" at least .* states and hundreds o$ schools to re5train teachers
and revise curriculums.
'n the earl" ()*/'s# re,orts b" several in$luential commissions
claimed that it !as vital to im,rove reasoning abilities $or a ,o,ulation
that !ould have to adjust to s!ee,ing changes in
8/ technolog" in a more com,etitive !orld. Since ()*4# the Cali$ornia
State 6niversit" s"stem has re@uired its one million students to ta+e a
course in critical thin+ing be$ore the" can graduate. :e! Yor+ Cit"'s
9oard o$ Education created a <easoning S+ills 6nit to ,re,are anal"tical
@uestions to be used b" the teachers o$ various subjects.
84 Such @uestions !ill encourage students to thin+ about !hat the" have
been taught and use the in$ormation in a more ,ractical !a". Students
are no! being taught anal"tical s+ills such as in$erring e>,lanations#
su,,orting an argument# judging the credibilit" o$ a source# veri$"ing an
observation# identi$"ing underl"ing assum,tions# and designing
2/ e>,eriments so that a ,articular variable can be controlled.
2(&
Articles on teaching the conce,t o$ 'critical thin+ing' have been
,ublished in educational journals since the late ()%/'s. Starting in the
()*/'s# su,,orters have set u, three ,ro$essional associations and
currentl" ,ublish si> journals. 'n $act# the critical5thin+ing movement
24 has become so strong that it no! has three $actions? teachers !ho sa"
thin+ing should be taught se,aratel"# those !ho argue that it should be
onl" integrated into the normal curriculum# and those !ho believe that
both these a,,roaches are e@uall" a,,licable.
Even in teaching mathematics# some su,,orters suggest that
4/ instructors move a!a" $rom the assum,tion that there is al!a"s one
correct ans!er. 'nstead# the" sa"# students should be encouraged to
e>,lain ho! the" arrived at a di$$erent ans!er. Mr. E!en# a math
teacher# said he could acce,t & as a ,lausible ans!er to E;hat is .)
divided b" 4=E i$ the student ,rovided a reasonable e>,lanation. A
44 student# he said# might calculate that .) chi,s divided into ,iles o$ 4
each !ill "ield & ,iles# even though one o$ the ,iles is shorter than the
others. EThe greatest discoveries#E he added# Ehave come $rom ,eo,le
!ho have loo+ed at a standard situation and seen it di$$erentl".E
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. -ntil re)ently' .
a) there was an attem(t to make (u(ils analyAe the information "i+en to them
*) lesson (lans were altered so as to in)lude the art of thinkin"
)) the Do* of a tea)her in+ol+ed tea)hin" the skills of thinkin"
d) edu)ation aimed mainly at "ettin" the (u(ils to "i+e )orre)t answers on tests
. To make healthy de)isions in the future' students should .
a) learn how to do well on tests
*) *e a*le to remem*er thin"s well
)) learn to analyAe what they learn
d) *e a*le to sol+e math (ro*lems easily
2. More tea)hers now su((ort the mo+ement to tea)h )riti)al thinkin" in s)hools
a) to in)rease student (erforman)e on standardiAed tests
*) as they )onsider thinkin" as an im(ortant (art of their Do*
)) althou"h su))ess in life does not de(end on how well you do on an e:am
d) to show their rea)tion to the unne)essary em(hasis on memoriAin"
.1 5
.(.
LEA<:':1 TO <EAD
A child ta+es great ,leasure in becoming able to read some !ords.
9ut the e>citement $ades !hen the te>ts the child must read $orce him
to reread the same !ord endlessl". ;ord recognition 5 'decoding' is the
term used b" educational theorists 5 deteriorates into em,t" rote
4 learning !hen it does not lead directl" into the reading o$ meaning$ul
content. The longer it ta+es the child to advance $rom decoding to
meaning$ul reading# the more li+el" it becomes that his ,leasure in
boo+s !ill eva,orate. A child's abilit" to read de,ends un@uestionabl"
on his learning ,ertinent s+ills# but he !ill not be interested in learning
(/ basic reading s+ills i$ he thin+s he is e>,ected to master them $or their
o!n sa+e. That is !h" so much de,ends on !hat the teacher# the
school# and the te>tboo+s em,hasiCe. rom the ver" beginning# the
child must be convinced that s+ills are onl" a means to achieve a goal#
and that the onl" goal o$ im,ortance is to become literate0 that is# he
(4 should start to enjo" literature and bene$it $rom !hat it has to o$$er.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine ' 'fades' (ro*a*ly means .
a) in)reases *) disa((ears )) rea)hes the to( d) starts
. =ine $' '(ertinent' (ro*a*ly means .
a) related *) se(arate )) interestin" d) *orin"
2. From the writer's (oint of +iew' we may )on)lude that a )hild who reads mainly
*y rote de)odin" .
a) will learn how to read intelli"ently
*) will ne+er learn how to read
)) will not "ain mu)h Doy and satisfa)tion from readin"
d) will )ome to enDoy literature later in life
.. We may )on)lude from this sele)tion that' as a skill' de)odin" is .
a) worthless
*) im(ortant only as a (art of a lar"er effort to enDoy literature
)) su((orted *y tea)hers' s)hools' and te:t*ooks as the most im(ortant readin"
skill
d) still *ein" e:(lored as a new area for tea)hin" readin"

.1$
6. #f the writer e:amined a )hildren's readin" te:t that read7 JRun' Cim' run. Run to
Tim. Tim and Cim run to TomJ' we )ould (redi)t that he would .
a) disa((ro+e <uite stron"ly
*) a((ro+e enthusiasti)ally
)) ha+e no real o(inions one way or the other
d) want tea)hers and (arents to read the te:t aloud to )hildren
.(8
<6MO6<
A rumour is a !ides,read re,ort that is un,roved in $act. 't o$ten serves to
,rovo+e# or to increase# antisocial collective behaviour. <umour must be
distinguished $rom lac+ o$ communication# $or the ra,id s,read o$ rumour ma"
ver" !ell be due to e$$ective communication. The term rumour re$ers not to a
method o$ its communication# but to its content. 6nder cro!d conditions# it
becomes di$$icult to chec+ the source and accurac" o$ the in$ormation one receives#
and thus to evaluate it# and so rumours are acted on as i$ the" !ere true
in$ormation. <umour o$ten arises because o$ a lac+ o$ in$ormation. 3eo,le !ant to
+no! !hat is ha,,ening# and so the rumour $ills that need. <umour ma" also be
created as a rationalisation o$ or justi$ication $or emotional e>cesses and collective
behaviour.
Mark the *asW )hol)o.
1. The meanin" of rumour lies in .
a) la)k of )ommuni)ation
*) effe)ti+e )ommuni)ation
)) its )ontent
d) so)ial *eha+iour
. The s(read of a rumour )an *e (re+ented *y .
a) findin" Dustifi)ations for emotional e:)esses
*) )ontrollin" )olle)ti+e *eha+iour
)) a)tin" on it as true information
d) )he)kin" its sour)e and a))ura)y.
.!
.(2
HOTEL ;O<7
;ithin a $e! da"s o$ starting !or+# ' had gras,ed the main ,rinci,les on
!hich the hotel !as run. The thing that !ould astonish an"one coming $or the
$irst time into the service @uarters o$ a hotel !ould be the $ear$ul noise and
disorder during the rush hours. 't is something so di$$erent $rom the stead"
!or+ in a sho, or a5$actor" that it loo+s at $irst sight li+e mere mad
management. 9ut it is reall" @uite unavoidable and ,art o$ the !hole. Hotel
!or+ is not ,articularl" hard# but b" its nature it comes in rushes and cannot be
economised. You cannot# $or instance# grill a stea+ t!o hours be$ore it is
!anted0 "ou have to !ait till the last moment# b" !hich time a mass o$ other
!or+ has accumulated# and then do it all together in $rantic haste. The result is
that at meal5times ever"one is doing t!o men's !or+# !hich is im,ossible
!ithout noise and @uarrelling. 'ndeed# the @uarrels are a necessar" ,art o$ the
,rocess# $or the ,ace !ould never be +e,t u, i$ ever"one did not accuse
ever"one else o$ idling. 't !as $or this reason that during the rush hours the
!hole sta$$ raged and cursed li+e demons. A girl in the ba+er"# aged si>teen#
used s!ear !ords that !ould have de$eated a ta>i driver. 9ut !e !ere not
losing our heads and !asting time0 !e !ere just stimulating one another $or
the e$$ort o$ ,ac+ing $our hours' !or+ into t!o hours.
;hat +ee,s a hotel going is the $act that the em,lo"ees ta+e a genuine ,ride
in their !or+# beastl" and sill" though it is.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. The ser+i)e <uarters of a hotel differs from a sho( or fa)tory in .
a) its disorderly orderliness
*) its orderliness
)) its *ad mana"ement
d) its (ea)eful atmos(here
. The (ersonnel in the ser+i)e <uarters of a hotel often <uarrel .
a) *e)ause they are really an"ry with ea)h other
*) for some workers are really laAy
)) as a result of wron" orders "i+en *y their su(eriors
d) in order to kee( the work tem(o fast
2. The author hotel work.
a) hates
*) is an outsider to
)) shows )onsidera*le sym(athy towards
d) thinks it is e:tremely diffi)ult to do
2.(
.(4
5AN (AR BE ABOLISHE.D
B" Bertrand Russell.
's it ,ossible to ,ersuade man+ind to live !ithout !ar= ;ar is an
ancient institution !hich has e>isted $or at least si> thousand "ears. 't
4 has al!a"s been cruel and usuall" $oolish# but in the ,ast the human
race managed to live !ith it. Modern ingenuit" has changed this.
Either Man !ill abolish !ar# or !ar !ill abolish Man. or the ,resent#
it is nuclear !ea,ons !hich ma"# be$ore long# o$$er an even greater
threat. '$ !e succeed in abolishing nuclear !ea,ons# our !or+ !ill not
(/ be done. 't !ill never be done until !e have succeeded in abolishing
!ar. To do this# !e need to ,ersuade man+ind to loo+ u,on
international @uestions in a ne! !a"# not as contests o$ $orce# in !hich
the victor" goes to the side !hich is most s+ill$ul in massacre# but b"
arbitration in accordance !ith agreed ,rinci,les o$ la!. 't is not eas"
(4 to change age5old mental habits# but this is !hat must be attem,ted.
There are those !ho sa" that the ado,tion o$ this or that ideolog"
!ould ,revent !ar. ' believe this to be a ,ro$ound error. All ideologies
are based u,on dogmatic assertions !hich are# at best# doubt$ul# and at
!orst# totall" $alse. Their adherents believe in them so $anaticall" that
./ the" are !illing to go to !ar in su,,ort o$ them.
The movement o$ !orld o,inion during the ,ast t!o "ears has been
ver" largel" such as !e can !elcome. 't has become a common,lace
that nuclear !ar must be avoided. O$ course# ver" di$$icult ,roblems
remain in the international s,here# but the s,irit in !hich the" are
.4 being a,,roached is a better one than it !as some "ears ago. 't has
begun to be thought# even b" the ,o!er$ul men !ho decide !hether
!e shall live or die# that negotiations should reach agreements even i$
both sides do not $ind these agreements !holl" satis$actor". 't has
begun to be understood that the im,ortant con$lict no!ada"s is not
bet!een East and ;est# but bet!een Man and the H5bomb.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. This (assa"e im(lies that war is now .
a) more )ruel than in the (ast
*) as )ruel as in the (ast
)) less )ruel than in the (ast
d) not )ruel at all
.
.(&
CHE<:O9YL
One o$ the most disturbing ,redictions $ollo!ing the near meltdo!n o$ the
Chernob"l nuclear ,o!er ,lant on A,ril .&# ()*&# !as that cancer cases
!ould eventuall" begin to rise in areas !here $allout $rom the accident
landed. ;hat no one sus,ected !as that it !ould ha,,en so soon# or that
man" o$ the $irst victims !ould be children. T!o re,orts in ?ature, one b"
the ;orld Health Organisation and one b" health o$$icials in 9elarus# the e>5
Soviet <e,ublic immediatel" do!n!ind $rom Chernob"l# indicate that
childhood th"roid cancer has jum,ed $rom an average o$ $our cases a "ear to
about 4/. 'n the 1omel region# hit $irst b" the radiation# the th"roid cancer
rate is no! about */ times the !orld average. EThe onl" reasonable
e>,lanation#E !rite the 9elarus o$$icials# Eis that it is a direct conse@uence o$
the accident at Chernob"l.E
'n retros,ect# the ,henomenon ma+es sense? the th"roid gland tends to
concentrate iodine ingested b" the bod"# and radioactive iodine !as released
in bul+ during the accident. Moreover# radiation is +no!n to cause th"roid
cancer# and children are es,eciall" susce,tible. 9ut ,revious studies o$
nuclear accidents in 9ritain and the 6.S. and studies o$ nuclear5!ea,ons
testing in Fa,an and the South 3aci$ic $ailed to ,rove a conclusive $allout5
cancer correlation. The ,robable di$$erence this time? the radiation !as more
highl" concentrated and hit a heavil" ,o,ulated area.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. Whi)h of the followin" statements is true1
a) #n /elarus' )hildhood thyroid )an)er )ases in)reased ten times after the
Cherno*yl a))ident.
a) #n 9omel' the thyroid )an)er rate now is %! times hi"her than it used to *e.
*) #t was known that the first )an)er )ases would a((ear in a*out si: years.
)) Fo*ody )ould (redi)t that the first )an)er )ases would *e )hildren.
. Whi)h of the followin" statements is not true1
a) The radioa)ti+e fallout from Cherno*yl )ontained iodine.
*) 8re+ious nu)lear studies *y the /ritish and the Ameri)ans (ro+ed that nu)lear
fallout )aused )an)er.
)) Thyroid "lands are res(onsi*le for a*sor*in" the iodine in the *ody.
d) The (resent hi"h rate of )an)er is due to the hi"hly )rowded areas *ein"
e:(osed to intense radiation.
..
.(%
THE :':ETEE:TH CE:T6<Y ': 3E<S3ECT'-E
The nineteenth centur" brought about the greatest e>,ansion o$ !ealth the
!orld had ever +no!n. 'ts sources la" in the industrialisation o$ Euro,e and
the techni@ues $or assuring the continuance o$ this gro!th !ere b" no means
e>hausted or com,romised in ()//. There had not onl" been a vast and
accelerating $lo! o$ commodities available onl" in Arelativel"B tin" @uantities
a centur" be$ore# but !hole ne! ranges o$ goods had come into e>istence. Oil
and electricit" had joined coal# !ood# !ind and !ater as sources o$ energ". A
chemical industr" e>isted !hich could not have been envisaged in (*//.
1ro!ing ,o!er and !ealth had been used to ta, seemingl" ine>haustible
natural resources# both agricultural and mineral. <ail!a"s# electric trams#
steamshi,s# motor cars and bic"cles gave millions o$ men a ne! control over
their environment0 the" accelerated travel $rom ,lace to ,lace and eased
trans,ort $or the $irst time since animals had been harnessed to cans thousands
o$ "ears be$ore. 'n terms o$ consum,tion# or o$ the services to !hich the" had
access# or in the enjo"ment o$ better health# even the mass o$ the ,o,ulation
in develo,ed countries !ere much better o$$ in ()// than their ,redecessors a
hundred "ears be$ore.
'n s,ite o$ this cheer$ul ,icture# doubts could brea+ in. Even i$ !hat might
ha,,en in the $uture !ere ignored# contem,lation o$ the cost o$ the ne!
!ealth and doubts about the social justice o$ its distribution !ere troubling.
Most ,eo,le !ere still terribl" ,oor# !hether or not the" lived in rich
countries# !here the illogicalit" o$ this !as ,articularl" more stri+ing than in
earlier times. Another change in the !a" men thought about their condition
arose over their ,o!er to get a livelihood at all. 't !as not ne! that men
should be !ithout !or+. ;hat !as ne! !as that situations could suddenl"
arise in !hich the o,eration o$ blind $orces o$ boom and slum, ,roduced
millions o$ men !ithout !or+ concentrated in great to!ns. This !as
'unem,lo"ment'# the ne! ,henomenon $or !hich a ne! !ord had been needed.
:or !ere the cities themselves "et rid o$ all the evils !hich had so struc+ the
$irst observers o$ industrial societ". 9" ()// the majorit" o$ !estern
Euro,eans !ere to!n5d!ellers and the" lived in more than (2/ cities o$ over
(//#/// inhabitants in ()(2. 'n some o$ them# millions o$ ,eo,le !ere living
in cram,ed# badl"5maintained housing# under5,rovided !ith schools and $resh
air# let alone amusement other than that o$ the street# and this o$ten in sight o$
the !ealth their societ" hel,ed to ,roduce. 'Slums' !as another !ord invented
b" the nineteenth centur".
.6
.(*
5HIL.-RAISING
Marianne Hard!ic+ !as timid and unadventurous# her vitalit"
consumed b" ,h"sical activit" and longing# her intelligence b"
indecisiveness# but this had less to do !ith the innate characteristics o$
the !ea+er se> Aas her $ather# Creighton Montgomer"# called itB than
4 !ith the en$eebling circumstances o$ her u,bringing. Creighton
Montgomer" had enough mone" to mould his daughters according to
his misconce,tions? girls !ere not meant to $end $or themselves# so he
,rotected them $rom li$e. This meant that Marianne Montgomer" gre!
u, !ithout ma+ing an" vital choices $or hersel$. 3revented $rom
(/ ac@uiring the habits o$ $reedom and strength o$ character !hich gro!
$rom decision5ma+ing# ver" rich girls !hose ,arents ,rotect them in
such a cri,,ling $ashion are the last re,resentatives o$ -ictorian
!omanhood. Though the" ma" have the boldest manners and most u,5
to5date ideas# the" share their great5grandmothers' humble
(4 de,endence.
Most ,arents these da"s have to rel" on their $orce o$ ,ersonalit" and
!hatever love and res,ect the" can ins,ire to e>ert an" in$luence over
their children at all# but there is still an a!$ul lot o$ ,arental authorit"
that big mone" can bu". Multi5millionaires have more o$
./ ever"thing than ordinar" mortals# including more ,arent ,o!er# and
their sons and daughters have about as much o,,ortunit" to develo,
according to their o!n inclinations as the" !ould have had in the age o$
absolute monarch".
The great divide bet!een the generations Aso much ta+en $or
.4 granted that no one remar+s on it an" longerB is the ,light o$ the lo!er
and middle classes# !hose children begin to dri$t a!a" as soon as the"
are old enough to go to school. The ,arents cannot control the school#
and have even less sa" as to !hat com,an" and ideas the child !ill be
e>,osed to0 nor can the" isolate him $rom the ,ublic mood# the s,irit
8/ o$ the age. 't is an o$ten5heard com,laint o$ the middle5class mother# $or
instance# that she must let her children !atch television $or hours on end
ever" da" i$ she is to steal an" time $or hersel$. The rich have no such
,roblems0 the" can +ee, their o$$s,ring bus" $rom morning to night
!ithout being near them $or a minute more than the" choose to
84 be# and can e>ercise almost total control over their environment. As $or
schooling# the" can hand5,ic+ tutors !ith sound vie!s to come to the
children# !ho ma" never leave the grounds their ,arents o!n# in to!n#
in the countr"# b" the sea# unless $or an e>ce,tionall" secure boarding
school or a !ell5cha,eroned tri, abroad. 't !ould have been
i
.5
2/ easier $or little Marianne Montgomer" to go to Cairo than to the
nearest ne!sstand.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. =ine 2&' 'sound +iews' refers to ideas whi)h are______________.
a) uni+ersally a))e(ta*le )) healthy
*) fa+oured *y the (arents d) loud
. Marianne was_____________.
a) unmarried *) (hysi)ally a)ti+e )) de)isi+e d) un(rote)ted
2. Crei"hton Mont"omery_____________.
a) was a*le to make the ri"ht Dud"ments for Marianne's life
*) had "reat admiration for the o((osite se:
)) li+ed +ery )lose to his dau"hter all her life
d) )ontrolled Marianne's life *y means of his money
.. Most women who li+ed in Pueen @i)toria's time______________.
a) had stron" will4(ower )) were de(endent on the men in their li+es
*) were +ery shy amon" (eo(le d) had u(4to4date ideas
6. The )hildren of lower and middle )lass (arents______________.
a) ha+e stri)tly )ontrolled edu)ation
*) are isolated from the s(irit of the a"e
)) *e)ome inde(endent at an early a"e
d) ha+e little to say a*out the )om(any and ideas they are e:(osed to
&. Whi)h of the followin" statements is true1
a) Money is as im(ortant a fa)tor as lo+e and res(e)t in all )hildren's a))e(tin"
(arental authority.
*) Multi4millionaires are unfortunate (eo(le *e)ause their )hildren don't res(e)t
them.
)) Ri)h fathers resem*le a*solute monar)hs.
d) The "eneration "a( is "reater *etween ri)h (arents and their )hildren.
5. Whi)h of the followin" statements *est sums u( the main idea of the (assa"e1
a) Crei"hton Mont"omery was es(e)ially de+oted to his dau"hter.
*) The ri)h )an )ontrol their )hildren's li+es without *ein" near them.
)) Marianne Mont"omery4Hardwi)k li+ed a +ery (rote)ted life.
d) 'er
(
ri)h "irls are usually @i)torian and old4fashioned.
.%
.()
HE<OES
Heroes are not ne!. Ever" age ,roduces its @uota o$ individuals !ho distinguish
themselves $rom other members o$ their communit" b" some su,erior achievement.
Their ,raise serves as an ins,iration $or others to $ollo! their e>am,le. The image
o$ the hero is that o$ an individual !ho embodies a virtue to the highest degree.
That virtue ma" be courage# !isdom# or $aith# but it is al!a"s a ,ersonal attribute
that is made evident b" the hero's achievements. The hero does not strive $or
recognition. The motivation $or his actions cannot be egotistical or he !ould not be
a true hero.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. The most im(ortant as(e)t of the definition of a hero is
a) a)hie+ement
*) wisdom
)) re)o"nition
d) e"otism
. A hero must )reate a desire in others to .
a) i"nore his +irtues
*) think he is a new kind of man
)) follow his e:am(le
d) re)o"nise him re"ardless of anythin" he does
Aia
!
THE O5EAN Es# THE BO.0
The ocean cannot be dissociated $rom an" o$ our ,roblems. Though not
al!a"s given ,ro,er credit# it is nonetheless a vital $actor in the ',roduction'
o$ climate# storms# agriculture# health# !ar and ,eace# trade# leisure# and
creative art. 't is not merel" a !eather5regulating s"stem and a source o$ $ood#
cattle $eed# $uel# and minerals. More generall"# it absorbs vast @uantities o$
the carbon dio>ide generated b" the combustion o$ $ossil $uels# it releases a
major ,art o$ the o>"gen !e breathe# and it acts as a ,o!er$ul bu$$er to slo!
do!n or to ,revent such calamities as @uic+ variations in the sea level. The
human bod" is made u, o$ much more !ater than all its com,onents
combined. A deh"drated human being !ould !eigh little more than 8/
,ounds. Our $lesh is com,osed o$ a variet" o$ cells# each one o$ !hich
contains a miniature ocean# less salt" than toda"'s ocean but com,rising all
the salts o$ the sea# ,robabl" the built5in heritage o$ our distant ancestr"#
!hen some mutating $ish turned into re,tiles and invaded the ne!l"5$ormed
land.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. We may infer that the author *elie+es that .
a) the o)ean does not always "et the attention it should as human *ein"s try to
sol+e their (ro*lems
*) the o)ean is (olluted
)) the o)ean is not a weather4re"ulatin" system
d) o)eans )ause a num*er of (ro*lems for humanity
. The writer *elie+es that *etween the (hysi)al makeu( of the o)ean
and the human *ody.
a) there is not mu)h of a relationshi(
*) there is no e+iden)e to su""est a relationshi(
)) we must study the (ossi*le relationshi(
d) there is mu)h )onfusion
2. A))ordin" to the author' whi)h of the followin" is not affe)ted *y the o)ean1
a) (aintin"s
*) tourism
)) hurri)anes
d) the ,un
4
A
0
..(
BRAINS
't is interesting to com,are the brain o$ a ver" large dinosaur !ith the brain
o$ an e@uall" large modern mammal li+e the !hale. The largest dinosaurs
!eighed as much as (// tons. ;hales also !eigh as much as (// tons and are#
as the dinosaurs !ere in their time# the largest animals alive toda". The brain
o$ a large !hale is a huge mass o$ gra" matter# nearl" a $oot and a hal$ across#
that !eighs about ./ ,ounds. The ,ossessor o$ this mammoth brain is an
intelligent animal. Some !hales have a remar+able memor"' ca,acit"0 the"
can memoriCe a com,le> !hale song that goes on $or hours# and re,eat it note
$or note a "ear later. The brains o$ the largest dinosaurs# on the other hand#
such as Su,ersaurus# !ere onl" the siCe o$ an orange# and !eighed about hal$
a ,ound. Yet# that small amount o$ gra" matter had to e>ercise control over
the same (//5ton bul+ that is commanded b" the ./5,ound brain o$ the largest
!hales.
Scientists !ho s,ecialiCe in the stud" o$ brains and intelligence have
,lotted charts o$ brain !eight against bod" !eight $or man" +inds o$ animals.
The" $ind that !hen the ratio o$ brain !eight to bod" !eight is as small as it
!as in the Su,ersaurus# the behavior o$ the animal is stereot",ed# automatic#
and unintelligent. The reason is clear? a large bod" has man" large muscles
and needs man" nerve $ibers $or its coordination. ;hen that large bod" is
controlled b" a small brain# ever" neuron in this brain must be used to move
the bod" through its basic survival routines? $ind $oodI $lee $rom the ,redatorI
and so on.
The Su,ersaurus !as not an unusuall" stu,id dinosaur# and dinosaurs !ere
not unusuall" stu,id re,tiles. 'n $act# dinosaurs had normal intelligence $or
re,tiles. O$ course# there !as a s,read in braininess among the dinosaurs. 9ut
the same is true among modem mammals0 ,lant5eaters li+e the co! are among
the least intelligent mammals# !hile alert carnivores li+e the !ol$ are among
the most intelligent. Ho!ever# the dinosaurs as a grou, !ere generall" less
intelligent than the earl" mammals as a grou,. This held then# and still holds
toda"# all the !a" u, and do!n the scale o$ siCes. A little liCard# $or e>am,le#
has a considerabl" smaller brain than a chi,mun+ o$ the same siCe and
dis,la"s a $ar less $le>ible re,ertoire.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. A ,u(ersaurus and a modern whale .
a) ha+e a*out the same li+e wei"ht
*) ha+e a*out e<ual intelli"en)e
)) ha+e *rains the siAe of oran"es
d) li+e underwater
Al\
_____________________________
HO; TO L'-E TO 9E A H6:D<ED
or adults !ho remain ,h"sicall" childli+e in old age# there has to be a
sustained enthusiasm $or some as,ect o$ li$e. 3eo,le !ho !ant a long li$e !ith an
alert old age should never retire. '$ the" are $orcibl" retired# the" should immerse
themselves in some ne!# absorbing activit".
Some ,eo,le are naturall" more ,h"sicall" active than others# and are at a
considerable advantage# ,roviding their activities are not the result o$ stress. Such
activities as !al+ing and gardening ,rolong li$e s,ectacularl" because the" are
'non5intensive' $orms o$ all5over bodil" movement. The more earnest ageing
e>ercisers dis,la" a conscious or unconscious an>iet" about their health. '$ the"
ta+e e>ercise too seriousl"# it !ill !or+ against them. Older individuals !ho ta+e
u, intensive athletic activit" are usuall" ,eo,le !ho $ear declining health. Yet# it is
crucial that ,h"sical e>ercise 5 as !e gro! ,ast the "oung s,ortsman stage 5
should be e>tensive rather than intensive and# above all# $un.
A calm tem,erament $avours longevit". Those !ho are shar,l" aggressive#
emotionall" e>,losive or naggingl" an>ious are at a grave disadvantage. 9ut it is
im,ortant to ma+e a distinction bet!een calml" rela>ed and ,assivel" laC".
<ela>ation does not contradict the idea o$ ,assionate interest. 'ndeed# Cest $or
living# eagerness to ,ursue chosen subjects is vital in long li$e.
Thin+ing about 'the good old da"s'# com,laining about ho! the !orld is
deteriorating# criticising the "ounger generations are sure signs o$ an earl" $uneral.
9eing success$ul is a great li$e5stretcher# and can even override such li$e5
shorteners as obesit" and $ondness $or drin+. 9ut# in gaining success# individuals
should not overstress5 themselves. And success must al!a"s be measured in
,ersonal terms. A hill5she,herd ma" $eel just as success$ul in his o!n !a" as a
:obel Laureate.
Long5lived individuals seem to be more concerned !ith !hat the" do than !ho
the" are. The" live outside themselves rather than d!elling on their o!n
,ersonalities.
'n ,ersonal habits# the long5lived are generall" moderate. E>tremes o$ diet are
not common. A mi>ed diet seems to $avour longevit". 3uritanical arguments about
smo+ing and drin+ing have little to su,,ort them. Man" long5lived individuals
enjo" nicotine and alcohol 5 in moderation.
Most long5lived ,eo,le have a sense o$ sel$5disci,line. That does not im,l" a
harsh militar"5st"le masochism# but the ordering o$ li$e and the im,osition o$ a
,attern on the events o$ the da". The man !ho lives long because he !al+s a mile
a da" does so because he does it ever" da"# as ,art
.22
o$ an organised e>istence.
Over and over# during m" researches# it emerged that long li$e goes !ith a
't!in+le in the e"e'. A sense o$ humour# im,ishness# a $eeling that li$e is $un#
are strong !ea,ons against ageing. The sour5$aced ,uritan and the solemn
bore soon begin to lose ground# leaving their more amused contem,oraries to
enjo" the last laugh.
Most im,ortant o$ all# !e should al!a"s +ee, in mind that nothing is to be
gained b" a head5in5the5sand avoidance o$ the $acts o$ li$e and death. The
healthiest solution is to acce,t that one's s,an on Earth is limited and then to
live ever" da"# in the ,resent# and to the $ull.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. Retirement is not re)ommended *e)ause .
a) it kee(s you alert in old a"e
*) it may take away the enthusiasm of life
)) other a)ti+ities )an ne+er re(la)e a real Do*
d) (eo(le who retire *e)ome (hysi)ally a)ti+e
. Fon4intensi+e forms of (hysi)al a)ti+ity .
a) dis(lay an un)ons)ious an:iety a*out one's health
*) *e)ome less (o(ular as (eo(le "et older
)) )ontri*ute to lon"e+ity to a "reat e:tent
d) work a"ainst the (eo(le who do them
2. 8eo(le with a )alm tem(erament .
a) are usually a""ressi+e and emotionally e:(losi+e
*) are usually laAy and don't ha+e many interests
)) may li+e lon"er than an:ious ones
d) ha+e a stron"er Aest for li+in"
.. may )ause an early death.
a) /ein" ha((y with one's (resent status
*) =a)k of interest in world affairs
)) 9ettin" on with youn" (eo(le
d) Thinkin" too mu)h a*out the (ast
6. A life4stret)her is .
a) anythin" that allows you to li+e lon"er
*) a kind of a)ti+ity that you are fond of
)) somethin" that )an ne+er *e measured
d) somethin" that )auses too mu)h stress
.2.
2
'M3O<TA:CE O EA<LY EW3E<'E:CES
;e are becoming increasingl" sel$5conscious about the im,ortance o$
harmonious ,arent5child relationshi,s as more and more evidence is collected
about the ill5e$$ects o$ $amil" disru,tions on the emotional develo,ment o$ the
"oung child. 3ro$. Clar+e# ho!ever# believes that the em,hasis in studies o$
the long5term e$$ects o$ earl" e>,erience is mis,laced. 'n his Maudsle"
lecture# last ' !ee+# to the <o"al Medico53s"chological Association# he
suggested that e>,eriences in the $irst $e! months o$ li$e Agenerall" believed
to be the critical ,eriod $or emotional develo,mentB !ill have no long5term
e$$ect unless the" are continuall" rein$orced# and this h",othesis# he said# is
su,,orted b" much ,ublished !or+ that at $irst sight seems to contradict it.
One o$ the most $amous studies on maternal de,rivation is the Harlo!s'
!or+ on motherless mon+e"s. 'n$ant rhesus mon+e"s reared in isolation !ere
unable to ma+e normal social contacts in adult li$e# and $e! succeeded in
re,roducing. The $emales !hich did ,roduce o$$s,ring !ere either indi$$erent
or hostile to!ards their "oung. De,rivation o$ maternal care certainl" had a
deleterious e$$ect on the develo,ment o$ the mon+e"s' behaviour# but an
im,ortant ,oint that has been overloo+ed# said 3ro$essor Clar+e# !as that the
$emales became better mothers in successive ,regnancies? their behaviour
could still be modi$ied b" e>,eriences in adult li$e.
'n human beings# too# the $ormative "ears ,robabl" last much longer than
!as ,reviousl" su,,osed. Studies o$ the association bet!een the death o$ a
close relative and subse@uent de,ressive illness in children# $or e>am,le#
sho!ed that those aged (/5(2 "ears !ere the most vulnerable. Some "ears
ago# t!o distressing cases in the 6SA gave ,s"chologists an o,,ortunit" to
stud" the e$$ects o$ isolation in children. T!o "oung children# in di$$erent
,arts o$ the countr"# !ere discovered to have been +e,t loc+ed u, $or several
"ears# almost since birth. De,rived o$ human contacts# neither had learned to
s,ea+# but !ithin a $e! "ears o$ their release# one o$ these children# !ho had
been given more encouragement and e>,ert teaching than the other# had
learned to s,ea+ and read# her '.N. !as normal# and she seemed to be
emotionall" stable. Severe sensor" de,rivation in earl" li$e had not so $ar
seriousl" a$$ected her later develo,ment. 'n America# 9urt carried out a sim,le
e>,eriment to test the e>tinction o$ memor" and the signi$icance o$
rein$orcement in learning. ;hen his son !as (4 months old# he began to read
to him a short ,assage in 1ree+ and he re,eated the ,assage at $re@uent and
regular intervals until he !as 8 "ears old. This material !as rein$orced at the
age o$ 4# *# and (2 "ears# at !hich time the
28&
bo"'s ,o!ers o$ recall !ere com,ared to ne!l" learned material. At 4 "ears#
he relearned the ,relearned ,assage considerabl" $aster than the ne! material#
but b" the age o$ (2 the e$$ect o$ ,relearning !as e>tinguished.
Our vie!s on the im,ortance o$ earl" e>,eriences have been in$luenced to
some e>tent b" animal studies. Some birds# $or e>am,le# become attached to
the mother at a ver" earl" age0 i$ the mother is not there# the "oung ma"
become attached to a human being# a bird o$ a di$$erent s,ecies# or an
inanimate object. 't is commonl" believed# 3ro$essor Clar+e added# that
human babies sho! a similar sensitive ,eriod o$ $airl" short duration but
ending less abru,tl" than in geese or duc+s. 9ut !hen !e come to thin+ o$ it#
it seems much more li+el" that behaviour in a slo!l" maturing s,ecies such as
ours should remain ,lastic $or a long time.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. #t is e+ident that .
a) (arent4)hild relationshi(s are harmonious
*) distur*an)e in the family affe)ts )hildren ne"ati+ely
)) (eo(le are "ettin" more self4)ons)ious
d) emotional de+elo(ment of )hildren is determinedB *y (arents
. A))ordin" to 8rofessor Clarke' e:(erien)es in the first few months of life
a) ha+e no lon"4term effe)t on emotional de+elo(ment
*) should *e )ontinually reinfor)ed
)) may affe)t emotional de+elo(ment
d) /oth (*) and ()).
2. There is a lot of (u*lished work whi)h 8rof. Clarke's hy(othesis.
a) )ontradi)ts
*) seems to su((ort
)) is *ased on
d) su((orts
.. 8eo(le had not noti)ed *efore that the Harlows' work (ro+ed .
a) the monkeys "ot worse and more hostile as they "ot older
*) the *eha+iour of female monkeys )ould *e )han"ed for the *etter
)) *ein" reared in isolation led to ina*ility to make normal so)ial )onta)ts
d) females reared in isolation were not lo+in" towards their youn"
.2%
..2
EMOT'O:AL ':TELL'1E:CE
The ,hrase emotional intelligence !as coined b" Yale ,s"chologist 3eter
Salove" and the 6niversit" o$ :e! Ham,shire's Fohn Ma"er $ive "ears ago to
describe @ualities such as understanding one's o!n $eelings# em,ath" $or the
$eelings o$ others and 'the regulation o$ emotion in a !a" that enhances living'.
Their notion is about to bound into American conversation# handil" shortened to
EN# than+s to a ne! boo+# 4&otional Cntelligence A9antamB b" Daniel 1oleman.
This ?ew 5or -i&es science !riter# !ho has a 3hD in ,s"cholog" $rom Harvard
and a gi$t $or ma+ing even the che!iest scienti$ic theories digestible to la" readers#
has brought together a decade's !orth o$ behavioral research into ho! the mind
,rocesses $eelings. His goal# he announces on the cover# is to rede$ine !hat it
means to be smart. His thesis? !hen it comes to ,redicting a ,erson's success#
brain ,o!er as measured b" 'N and standardiCed achievement tests ma" actuall"
matter less than the @ualities o$ mind once thought o$ as 'character'# be$ore the
!ord began to sound @uaint in the 6S.
1oleman is loo+ing $or antidotes to restore 'civilit" to our streets and caring to
our communal li$e'. He sees ,ractical a,,lications ever"!here in America $or ho!
com,anies should decide !hom to hire# ho! cou,les can increase the odds that
their marriage !ill last# ho! ,arents should raise their children and ho! schools
should teach them. ;hen street gangs become substitutes $or $amilies# !hen
school5"ard insults end in stabbings# !hen more than hal$ o$ marriages end in
divorce# !hen the majorit" o$ the children murdered in the 6.S. are +illed b"
,arents and ste,5,arents 5 man" o$ !hom sa" the" !ere tr"ing to disci,line the
child $or behaviour such as bloc+ing the T- or cr"ing too much 5 it suggests a
need $or remedial emotional education. ;hile children are still "oung# 1oleman
argues# there is a 'neurological !indo! o$ o,,ortunit"' since the brain's ,re$rontal
circuitr"# !hich regulates ho! !e act on !hat !e $eel# ,robabl" does not mature
until mid5adolescence.
EN is not the o,,osite o$ 'N. Some ,eo,le are blessed !ith a lot o$ both# some
!ith little o$ either. ;hat researchers have been tr"ing to understand is ho! the"
com,lement each other0 ho! one's abilit" to handle stress# $or instance a$$ects the
abilit" to concentrate and ,ut intelligence to use. Among the ingredients $or
success# researchers no! generall" agree that 'N counts $or onl" ./J0 the rest
de,ends on ever"thing $rom social class to luc+ to the neural ,ath!a"s that have
develo,ed in the brain over millions o$ "ears o$ human evolution.
Emotional li$e gro!s out o$ an area o$ the brain called the limbic s"stem#
s,eci$icall" the am"gdala# !here ,rimitive emotions such as $ear# anger#
28)
disgust and delight originate. Millions o$ "ears ago# the neocorte> !as added#
enabling humans to ,lan# learn and remember. Lust gro!s $rom the limbic
s"stem0 love# $rom the neocorte>. Animals such as re,tiles# !hich have no
neocorte># cannot e>,erience an"thing li+e maternal love. This is !h" bab"
sna+es have to hide to avoid being eaten b" their ,arents. Humans# !ith their
ca,acit" $or love# !ill ,rotect their o$$s,ring# allo!ing the brains o$ the "oung
time to develo,. The more connections there are bet!een the limbic s"stem
and the neocorte># the more emotional res,onses are ,ossible.
'$ emotional intelligence has a cornerstone on !hich most other emotional
s+ills de,end# it is a sense o$ sel$5a!areness# o$ being smart about !hat !e
$eel. A ,erson !hose da" starts badl" at home ma" be grouch" all da" at !or+
!ithout @uite +no!ing !h". Once an emotional res,onse comes into
a!areness 5 or# ,h"siologicall"# is ,rocessed through the neocorte> 5the
chances o$ handling it a,,ro,riatel" im,rove. Scientists re$er to 'metamood'#
the abilit" to ,ull bac+ and recogniCe that !hat ''m $eeling is anger 5 or
sorro!# or shame.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. #t )an *e inferred from the te:t that .
a) the term 'emotional intelli"en)e' was first used *y 3aniel 9oleman
*) 0P is the understandin" of one's own and others' feelin"s and the orderin" of
one's own emotions in order to lead a *etter life
)) 9oleman's *ook e:amines the *eha+ioral resear)h of the last )ou(le of years
on how the mind (ro)esses feelin"s
d) 9oleman's *ook is written in a hi"hly )om(le: lan"ua"e
. A))ordin" to 9oleman' a (erson's su))ess )an *e (redi)ted *est *y "i+in" the
(riority to .
a) )hara)ter *) l.P. )) a)hie+ement tests d) *rain (ower
2. #n his e:am(les of (ra)ti)al a((li)ations' 9oleman does not mention
a) marria"es *) street "an"s )) uni+ersities d) )om(anies
.. 9oleman thinks that the *rain's (refrontal )ir)uitry .
a) is res(onsi*le for )o4ordinatin" a)tin" and feelin"
*) *e)omes mature *efore the a"e of ten
)) fun)tions *etter in (arents than in ste(4(arents
d) is *etter de+elo(ed in married (eo(le
6. A (erson's su))ess de(ends least on his .
a) l.P. *) so)ial )lass )) lu)k d) neural (athways
A AC\
&. The neo)orte: .
a) ser+es as an area of (rimiti+e emotions
*) had de+elo(ed in the *rain *efore the lim*i) system
)) ena*les the humans to re"ulate their (rimiti+e emotions
d) doesnt ha+e as im(ortant a fun)tion as the amy"dala has
5. When a (erson is in a 'metamood'' he .
a) is an"ry )) a)ts in a shameful way
*) analyAes himself d) is unaware of himself
..4
ESCA3E O A 7'LLE< -'<6S
T!o "ears ago# on a remote island o$$ the coast o$ South Australia#
government scientists began testing a $orm o$ biological !ar$are. 6nder
su,,osedl" tight @uarantine restrictions# researchers on ;ardang 'sland
introduced the calicivirus into animal test grou,s. Death $rom this ,articular
in$ectious agent is s!i$t. As the blood o$ the victims begins to clot# restricting
the brain's o>"gen su,,l"# the" become lethargic0 !ithin 8/ hours the" are
dead $rom acute res,irator" and heart $ailure.
:o one ,aid much attention to these ,estilent e>,eriments until this "ear#
!hen the" suddenl" got out o$ hand. 9" October researchers realiCed that the
virus had esca,ed $rom the test sites and s,read throughout the 8/5s@5+m
island. As scientists tried in vain to contain the outbrea+# their !orst $ears
!ere soon realiCed? casualties began to a,,ear on the mainland. 9ut even as
the death count surged into the millions and the disease reached as $ar as the
linders <anges *// +m a!a"# Australians didn't ,anic. 'n $act# man"
cheered# since the victims o$ the ,lague !ere old enemies# the countr"'s
ve>atious rabbits.
or most Australians# the benign image o$ the rabbit conve"ed b" 3eter
<abbit sim,l" doesn't a,,l". Ever since a lando!ner im,orted and released (.
!ild rabbits in (*4)# the" have multi,lied into a ravenous horde that nibbles
a!a" at the nation's cro,s and agricultural ,ro$its. 3lanning $or s"stematic
e>termination ,rograms began in the ()2/'s# !hen an estimated ( billion
rabbits !ere devouring ,roduce# causing land erosion and destro"ing native
habitats. 1overnment scientists introduced m">omatosis# an anti5rabbit virus
$rom 9raCil# in ()4/. Though the cam,aign reduced the rabbit ,o,ulation to
(// million !ithin t!o "ears# the survivors later built u, immunit" and
restoc+ed their numbers.
22(
'n ()*2# a virus that began s!ee,ing through China's rabbit ,o,ulation
gave Australians ne! ho,e. Harmless to humans# rabbit calicivirus disease
A<CDB !as introduced to Euro,e in the '*/s# ,robabl" via smuggled rabbit
,roducts# and has hel,ed bring rabbit ,o,ulations do!n to tolerable levels.
'm,ressed b" the !ell5documented results# Australia's Common!ealth
Scienti$ic and 'ndustrial <esearch Organisation im,orted a batch o$ the virus
$rom the CCech <e,ublic in ())(. A$ter three "ears o$ sa$et" tests# the" set
u, the e>,erimental station on ;ardang 'sland $or $ield trials. Tests
convinced the CS'<O that the virus ,osed no threat to other Australian
animal s,ecies or to humans# so ,lans had been made to release <CD at
seven sites on the mainland in ebruar" ())*# $ollo!ing $urther research and
a ,eriod o$ ,ublic debate.
Then came the outbrea+. So $ar an estimated 4 million rabbits have died#
and the e,idemic continues to move north and east. e! ,eo,le !ould miss
the H4// million in damage the rabbits cause each "ear# but in the a$termath
o$ the Ebola scare in A$rica# the ease !ith !hich the calicivirus eluded its
human handlers has raised some troubling issues. Embarrassed CS'<O
scientists believe the disease !as s,read b" bush $lies that came into contact
!ith the in$ected rabbits and !ere then blo!n onto the mainland b" $rea+
!inds. The government has im,orted (//#/// doses o$ C"la, vaccine to
save ,et and laborator" rabbits# and the CS'<O is tr"ing to ,ersuade the
,ublic that no damage to the environment or human health !ill result $rom
the virus' ,remature release.
Environmentalists have also voiced concern that a sudden disa,,earance
o$ rabbits could have un$ortunate e$$ects on the !ildli$e $ood chain. One
,ossibilit" is that $o>es and $eral cats# !hich de,end on rabbits $or $ood#
could instead turn to small native $auna# some o$ !hich are endangered
s,ecies.
or the moment at least# $armers are overjo"ed about the +iller virus.
EThis is the most e>citing develo,ment $or the Australian environment in
"ears#E sa"s David Lord# a $ourth5generation $armer# !hose &&#///5hectare
s,read near 9ro+en Hill has some %4/#/// un!elcome guests.
Mark the *est )hoi)e.
1. The )ali)i+irus .
a) infe)ts the *lood of human *ein"s
*) was e:(erimented with on a 2! s<. mile site
)) s(read to the Australian mainland from Wardan" #sland
d) )aused "reat worry amon" the Australians farmers
. The Australians don't like ra**its *e)ause they .
a) eat the )ro(s )) )ause land erosion
*) )ause finan)ial loss d) All of the a*o+e.
..
)ar* the best hoie.
1. Most (eo(le are e:tremely fri"htened of tra+ellin" *y air(laneH
(refer to tra+el *y another means of trans(ort e+en if it takes lon"er. a)
(ro+ided that *) in that )ase )) therefore d) rather
. He wanted to learn 9erman so mu)h that he went to 9ermany to study the
lan"ua"e. ' when he )ame *a)k' he still )ouldn't )ommuni)ate.
a) #n )ontrast *) Howe+er )) ;n the )ontrary d) Althou"h
2. The a((lian)e de(artment )ouldn't sell their (rodu)ts at that (ri)e.
they de)ided to make a redu)tion.
a) Conse<uently *) #n addition )) /e)ause d) ;therwise
.. That )ountry im(orts more "oods than it e:(orts and there is also the (ro*lem of
inflation. ' it is "oin" throu"h a (eriod of e)onomi) de(ression.
6. a) #n *rief *) #n that )ase )) ,in)e d) For e:am(le
se+eral solutions to the (ro*lem ha+e *een (ro(osed' the most
a((ro(riate one hasn't *een )hosen yet. a)
0+en if *) 0+en thou"h )) ,in)e
Many (sy)holo"ists say that rou"h' a""ressi+e s(orts like *o:in" or so))er are a
way for *oth (layers and +iewers to release their an"er' (&) they hel( to
lessen feelin"s of +iolen)e. #n fa)t' many (eo(le see international "ames as a way
to *uild "oodwill and understandin" amon" nations. (5) ' there are other
(sy)holo"ists who ar"ue that takin" (art in a""ressi+e s(orts does not eliminate
feelin"s of +iolen)eH (%) ' it *uilds them u(. They also say that +iolent a)ts
that often o))ur on the (layin" field affe)t the fans as well. ($) ' +iolen)e
in s(orts )an )ause +iolen)e in (eo(le wat)hin" those s(orts.
&. a) (ro+ided that 5. a) Moreo+er %. a) on the )ontrary $. a) Whereas
*) and thus *) Conse<uently *) sin)e *) #n other words
)) althou"h )) -nless J )) su)h as )) #n s(ite of
d) of )ourse d) Howe+er d) althou"h d) Fortunately
they
d) #n s(ite of
AAA
This is a report +ritten by a hotel inspetor.
R08;RT ;F MN @#,#T T; H;T0= 3- =AC
For the most (art' # found thin"s to *e o(eratin" smoothly and effi)iently. The staff
seemed hard workin" and )ourteous. (1!) ' as soon as # )he)ked in' a
+ery (olite (orter was ri"ht there to take my lu""a"e and es)ort me to my room.
(11) ' the fa)ilities and ser+i)e were +ery "ood' es(e)ially those
)onne)ted with the front desk' the lo**y' and the dinin" room.
# must re(ort a few )on)erns' thou"h.
' the ele+ator ser+i)e was
slow. This is not sur(risin" when you )onsider that there are only two ele+ators
ser+in" a hotel of si:teen floors. Moreo+er' the air )onditionin" in my room was
diffi)ult to adDust to a )omforta*le le+el. (12) ' # had to ask for hel( from
one of the staff and he used tools to make the adDustment. (1.) ' the
)ar(etin" on the main stair)ase was faded and worn. For aestheti) reasons as well as
for reasons of safety' it should *e re(la)ed.
if the (ro*lems mentioned in this re(ort are )orre)ted' the hotel will
merit an e:)ellent <uality ratin"' in)ludin" its ser+i)e' staff and fa)ilities.
1!. a) As a result
*) #n short
)) For e:am(le
d) 0+en thou"h
11. a) Howe+er
*) #n addition
)) /e)ause
d) #n )ase
1. a) Furthermore
*) Therefore
)) Meanwhile
d) First
12. a) #f
*) #n short
)) #n fa)t
d) -nless
1.. a) Althou"h
*) As a result
)) Finally
d) ;f )ourse
16. a) #n )on)lusion
*) Net
)) A))ordin"ly
d) That is
There are many sour)es of dan"er related to the use of nu)lear rea)tions to su((ly
us with ener"y. First' the radioa)ti+e material must tra+el from its (la)e of
manufa)ture to the (ower station. (1&) the (ower stations themsel+es are
solidly *uilt' the )ontainers used for the trans(ort of the material are not. ( 1 5 ) '
there are only two methods of trans(ort a+aila*le' namely road or rail' and *oth of
these in+ol+e )lose )onta)t with the "eneral (u*li) (1%) the routes are
sure to (ass near' or e+en throu"h' hea+ily (o(ulated areas.
(1$)
' there is the (ro*lem of waste. All nu)lear (ower stations (rodu)e
wastes that in most )ases will remain radioa)ti+e for thousands of years. #t is
im(ossi*le to make these wastes non4radioa)ti+e. (!) ' they must *e
stored in one of the se+eral ways that s)ientists ha+e de+elo(ed. (1) '
they may *e *uried under the "round or dro((ed into a*andoned mines' or sunk in
(1)
(16)
the sea. () ' the (ro*lem still remains as these methods do not
..6
eliminate the dan"erH they only (ro+ide a tem(orary solution. An earth<uake )ould
easily )ra)k the )ontainers o(en.
(2) ' there is the (ro*lem of a))idental e:(osure due to a leak or an
e:(losion at the (ower station. As with the other two (ossi*le dan"ers' this is not +ery
likely' so it does not (ro+ide a serious o*De)tion to the nu)lear (ro"ram. (.) '
it )an ha((en.
.(6). se(arately' these three ty(es of risks are not a "reat )ause for
)on)ern. Taken to"ether' howe+er' the (ro*a*ility of disaster is e:tremely hi"h.
1&. a) Althou"h 15. a) Conse<uently
*) That is *) -nfortunately
)) #n )ontrast )) 3es(ite this
d) /e)ause d) -nless
1%. a) if
*) sin)e
)) *ut
d) meanwhile
1$. a) As a result
*) For instan)e
)) ;n the )ontrary
d) ,e)ondly
!. a) Therefore
*) #n other words
)) Since
d) #n )ase
1. a) -nlike
*) ;n the other hand
)) For instan)e
d) /esides
. a) Moreo+er